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Sample records for attachment ii sample

  1. [Infants' attachment security in a vulnerable French sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, S; Guedeney, N; Dugravier, R; Greacen, T; Saïas, T; Tubach, F; Ulgen, S; Matos, I; Guédeney, A

    2017-04-01

    Attachment is a long lasting emotional link established between infants and their caregivers. The quality of early relationships allows infants to safely explore their environment and contribute to the establishment of a broad range of social skills. Several intervention programs targeting infant attachment have been implemented in different contexts, showing diverse degrees of efficacy. The present paper describes, for the first time, children's attachment quality distributions in a French multi-risk population, with a preventive intervention, usual or reinforced. In the CAPEDP study (Parenting and Attachment in Early Childhood: reducing mental health disorder risks and promoting resilience), a sub-sample of 117 women was recruited to assess the effects of this home-visiting program on children's attachment security. With that intent, the Strange Situation Paradigm was used when infants were between 12 and 16 months of age. In the intervention group, 63% (n=41) of the infants were coded as secure, while 15% (n=10) of them were coded as insecure-avoidant and 22% (n=14) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. 56% (n=29) of control group infants (usual care) were coded as secure, while 27% (n=14) were coded as insecure-avoidant and 17% (n=9) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. Even if the percentage of children with a secure attachment in the reinforced intervention group was higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach the threshold of significance [Chi 2 (2)=2.40, P=0.30]. Intervention group distributions were closer to normative samples, and these distributions show the clinical impact of our program. In general, preventive interventions focused on attachment quality have moderate effects but, in our case, several factors might have contributed to lower the statistical impact of the program. Firstly, the control group cannot be considered has having received zero intervention for two reasons: (a) the French usual perinatal health system (Maternal

  2. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site's high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified

  3. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  4. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-12-30

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM). The findings revealed that fluctuations in attachment insecurity were significantly higher in the clinical group, that elevated stress predicted a subsequent increase in attachment insecurity, and that elevated attachment insecurity predicted a subsequent increase in paranoia; this effect was not observed in auditory hallucinations once co-occurring symptoms were controlled for. Finally, although previous ESM studies have shown that low self-esteem precedes the occurrence of paranoia, attachment insecurity continued to predict paranoia even when self-esteem was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment security may be associated with a lower risk of paranoia, and that psychological interventions should address attachment beliefs and work towards establishing a sense of attachment security. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. The attached algal community near Pickering GS: (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental parameters correlated with attached algal standing crop are investigated in this report. Three groups were recognized on the basis of standing crop levels and seasonal standing crop patterns. Factors which appeared to influence the separation among the three groups were substrate size and water temperature. Standing crop levels among the discharge transects, intake and areas outside the station were found to be correlated with a combination of parameters. Standing crop levels outside the station were inversely correlated with wind speed but positively correlated with substrate particle size and depth. Algal standing crop at the intake also was inversely correlated with wind speed. Differences in standing crop levels between the intake and areas outside the station may have been attributed to substrate particle size. Low standing crop level among the discharge transects may have been attributed to higher current velocities and periodically to high water temperature

  6. Visualization of intermittent blobby plasma transport in attached and detached plasmas of the NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Furuta, Katsuhiro; Takamura, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the intermittent convective plasma transport in a attached and/or detached plasma condition of the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. Images taken by a fast-imaging camera clearly show that in attached plasmas, blobs are peeled off the bulk plasma, and propagate outward with an azimuthal motion. In detached plasmas, plasma turbulence observed near the plasma recombining region drives strong intermittent radial plasma transport, which could broaden the radial density profile. (author)

  7. Associations among Adult Attachment Presentations, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant-Mother Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary J.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    1995-01-01

    Associations among adolescent attachment organization, maternal sensitivity, and infant attachment organization were examined prospectively in 72 teenaged mother-infant dyads. Pregnant teenagers' attachment organizations predicted both sensitivity and infant-mother attachments. Associations between maternal sensitivity and infant attachment were…

  8. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  9. Very extensive nonmaternal care predicts mother-infant attachment disorganization: Convergent evidence from two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Nancy L; Allen, Sydnye D; Christopher, Caroline Heaton; Umemura, Tomotaka; Jacobvitz, Deborah B

    2015-08-01

    We examined whether a maximum threshold of time spent in nonmaternal care exists, beyond which infants have an increased risk of forming a disorganized infant-mother attachment. The hours per week infants spent in nonmaternal care at 7-8 months were examined as a continuous measure and as a dichotomous threshold (over 40, 50 and 60 hr/week) to predict infant disorganization at 12-15 months. Two different samples (Austin and NICHD) were used to replicate findings and control for critical covariates: mothers' unresolved status and frightening behavior (assessed in the Austin sample, N = 125), quality of nonmaternal caregiving (assessed in the NICHD sample, N = 1,135), and family income and infant temperament (assessed in both samples). Only very extensive hours of nonmaternal care (over 60 hr/week) and mothers' frightening behavior independently predicted attachment disorganization. A polynomial logistic regression performed on the larger NICHD sample indicated that the risk of disorganized attachment exponentially increased after exceeding 60 hr/week. In addition, very extensive hours of nonmaternal care only predicted attachment disorganization after age 6 months (not prior). Findings suggest that during a sensitive period of attachment formation, infants who spend more than 60 hr/week in nonmaternal care may be at an increased risk of forming a disorganized attachment.

  10. Merotelic kinetochore attachment in oocyte meiosis II causes sister chromatids segregation errors in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Tang, Ji-Xin; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Tie-Cheng; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2017-08-03

    Mammalian oocyte chromosomes undergo 2 meiotic divisions to generate haploid gametes. The frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I increase with age. However, little attention has been paid to the question of how aging affects sister chromatid segregation during oocyte meiosis II. More importantly, how aneuploid metaphase II (MII) oocytes from aged mice evade the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism to complete later meiosis II to form aneuploid embryos remains unknown. Here, we report that MII oocytes from naturally aged mice exhibited substantial errors in chromosome arrangement and configuration compared with young MII oocytes. Interestingly, these errors in aged oocytes had no impact on anaphase II onset and completion as well as 2-cell formation after parthenogenetic activation. Further study found that merotelic kinetochore attachment occurred more frequently and could stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction to ensure SAC inactivation and anaphase II onset in aged MII oocytes. This orientation could persist largely during anaphase II in aged oocytes, leading to severe chromosome lagging and trailing as well as delay of anaphase II completion. Therefore, merotelic kinetochore attachment in oocyte meiosis II exacerbates age-related genetic instability and is a key source of age-dependent embryo aneuploidy and dysplasia.

  11. Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Matt; Ellison, Christopher G; Marcum, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Drawing broadly on insights from attachment theory, the present study outlines a series of theoretical arguments linking styles of attachment to God, perceptions of the nature of God (i.e., God imagery), and stressful life events with psychological distress. Main effects and potential stress-moderator effects are then evaluated using data from a nationwide sample of elders and rank-and-file members of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Key findings indicate that secure attachment to God is inversely associated with distress, whereas both anxious attachment to God and stressful life events are positively related to distress. Once variations in patterns of attachment to God are controlled, there are no net effects of God imagery on levels of distress. There is only modest support for the hypothesis that God images moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychological distress, but no stress-moderator effects were found for attachment to God. Study limitations are identified, and findings are discussed in terms of their implications for religion-health research, as well as recent extensions of attachment theory.

  12. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, Robin

    2011-11-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adolescents (n = 225). Results of our integrated model (adjusted R-Square of .50) show that attachment variables (overall quality of attachment to the father and to the mother), social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior), age and sex are important in predicting depressive symptoms during adolescence. Moreover, the attachment to peers variables (quality of attachment to peers, secure and ambivalent style of attachment) and sex are mediated by the social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior).

  13. Focusing on the adult attachment style in schizophrenia in community mental health centres: validation of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) in a German-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvrgic, Sara; Beck, Eva-Marina; Cavelti, Marialuisa; Kossowsky, Joe; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Vauth, Roland

    2012-07-01

    Assessing attachment style in people with schizophrenia may be important to identify a risk factor in building a strong therapeutic relationship and so indirectly to understand the development of mal-compliance as one of the major obstacles in the treatment of schizophrenia. The present study analysed the psychometric properties of the German version of the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM), which assesses avoidant and anxious attachment style. A sample of 127 patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in this study. In testing discriminant validity, we assessed psychopathology, depression, therapeutic relationship and service engagement. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and factor structure were analysed. The German version of PAM exhibited acceptable to good internal and test-retest reliabilities and the two-factor structure of the English version could be replicated. Avoidant attachment style was related to higher levels of positive symptoms and to a poorer therapeutic relationship. In the context of external validation, a regression analysis revealed that a poor therapeutic relationship correlated with avoidant attachment style, independent of anxious attachment style and depressive symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with higher treatment adherence. Both insecure attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) were found to be correlated with higher levels of depression, but only attachment anxiety had an independent predictive value for self-reported depression in regression analysis. The German version of PAM displayed satisfactory psychometric properties and seems to be a reliable measure for assessing attachment style in individuals with schizophrenia. Validation of PAM led to the finding that only the avoidant attachment style might be a risk factor when building a strong therapeutic relationship in schizophrenia. In future studies, other factors influencing therapeutic relationship should be

  14. The Role of Attachment Style in Facebook Use and Social Capital: Evidence from University Students and a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious–ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25751049

  15. The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: evidence from university students and a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giovanardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.

  17. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts:An experience sampling study

    OpenAIRE

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paran...

  18. Maternal secure-base scripts and children's attachment security in an adopted sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Salvaterra, Fernanda

    2006-09-01

    Studies of families with adopted children are of special interest to attachment theorists because they afford opportunities to probe assumptions of attachment theory with regard to the developmental timing of interactions necessary to form primary attachments and also with regard to effects of shared genes on child attachment quality. In Bowlby's model, attachment-relevant behaviors and interactions are observable from the moment of birth, but for adoptive families, these interactions cannot begin until the child enters the family, sometimes several months or even years post-partum. Furthermore, because adoptive parents and adopted children do not usually share genes by common descent, any correspondence between attachment representations of the parent and secure base behavior of the child must arise as a consequence of dyadic interaction histories. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether the child's age at the time of adoption or at the time of attachment assessment predicted child attachment security in adoptive families and also whether the adoptive mother's internal attachment representation predicted the child's attachment security. The participants were 106 mother - child dyads selected from the 406 adoptions carried out through the Lisbon Department of Adoption Services over a period of 3 years. The Attachment Behavior Q-Set (AQS; Waters, 1995) was used to assess secure base behavior and an attachment script representation task was used to assess the maternal attachment representations. Neither child's age at the time of adoption, nor age of the child at assessment significantly predicted the AQS security score; however, scores reflecting the presence and quality of maternal secure base scripts did predict AQS security. These findings support the notion that the transmission of attachment security across generations involves mutual exchanges and learning by the child and that the exchanges leading to secure attachment need not begin at birth

  19. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N.A.; Mo, S.C.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 /s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm 3 . This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  20. Parental bonds and body dissatisfaction in a clinical sample: The mediating roles of attachment anxiety and media internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Renee; Tasca, Giorgio A; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Proulx, Genevieve; Bissada, Hany

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated an attachment theory model in which mother and father care were hypothesized to be indirectly related to body dissatisfaction mediated by attachment anxiety and media internalization. Participants were 232 women diagnosed with an eating disorder who completed a retrospective measure of parental bonds, and measures of attachment anxiety, media internalization, and body image. Mother care was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction, suggesting that recollection of mothers as less caring was directly related to poorer body image. Lower father care, was indirectly associated with greater body dissatisfaction mediated by higher attachment anxiety and higher media internalization. That is, women with an eating disorder who recollected fathers as less caring had higher attachment anxiety, which was related to greater internalizing of media-related thin ideals, that in turn was associated with poorer body image. Mothers and fathers may impact body dissatisfaction by differing mechanisms in clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dimensions of adult attachment are significantly associated with specific affective temperament constellations in a Hungarian university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andras; Papp, Barbara; Gonda, Xenia; Dome, Peter; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2016-02-01

    Related to emotion regulation and mental health, adult attachment and affective temperaments are relevant research topics of contemporary psychiatry and clinical psychology. However, to date, only one study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. Thus, we aimed to further reveal adult attachment's association with affective temperaments. Affective temperament and adult attachment dimensions of 1469 Hungarian university students were assessed with self-report measures (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego autoquestionnaire and Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, respectively). Age and measured variables were compared between genders with ANOVAs. Associations between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments were examined with Pearson's correlations and partial correlations; the moderation effect of age and gender on these relationships was tested with PROCESS macro. Using Fisher r-to-z transformation, we also compared our results with the findings of the previous study. Cohen's ds were used to report effect size and Cronbach's alphas were computed as indices of internal reliability. Significant correlations were found between attachment dimensions and affective temperaments. Correlations were especially robust between attachment anxiety and depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. Contrasted with the results of the previous study, hyperthymic temperament was negatively related to attachment avoidance and anxious temperament was significantly more strongly correlated with attachment anxiety in our study. We used a previous version of the adult attachment measure. Our sample differed from the target sample in several ways. Participants were not screened for mental disorders. Findings highlight that adult attachment dimensions are significantly associated with affective temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. IRAS bright galaxy sample. II. The sample and luminosity function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Sanders, D.B.; Neugebauer, G.; Madore, B.F.; Danielson, G.E.; David Dunlap Observatory, Richmond Hill, Canada; Palomar Observatory; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1987-01-01

    A statistically complete sample of 324 of the brightest infrared galaxies discovered at 60 microns in the IRAS all-sky survey is described. The results show that far-infrared emission is a significant luminosity component in the local universe, representing 25 percent of the luminosity emitted by stars in the same volume. Above 10 to the 11th solar luminosities, the infrared luminous galaxies are the dominant population of objects in the universe, being as numerous as the Seyfert galaxies and more numerous than quasars at higher luminosities. The infrared luminosity appears to be independent of the optical luminosity of galaxies. Most infrared bright galaxies appear to require much of the interstellar matter to be contributing to the observed infrared luminosity. Approximately 60-80 percent of the far-infrared luminosity of the local universe can be attributed, directly or indirectly, to recent or ongoing star formation. 67 references

  3. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part II: treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing debate about the role of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated children. Many professional organizations have issued statements against physically restraining children as some attachment therapists promote; however, often lost in these debates is the fundamental issue of what attachment theory and research proposes as the appropriate form of treatment. Given that these attachment therapies are often directed toward maltreated children, it becomes critical for clinicians working with abused and neglected children to understand these issues and recognize unethical and dangerous treatments. This article provides a summary of the theoretical and empirical bases for the use of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated school-age children, an examination of the ways questionable approaches to treatment have misinterpreted and misapplied attachment theory, and a conceptualization of attachment-based intervention grounded in current theory and research.

  4. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between Parental Attachment and Eating Disorders in an Inpatient and a College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Hart, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between parental attachment and eating disorder symptoms for 68 inpatient women with eating disorders and for 162 college women. College women described themselves as more securely attached to parents and reported lower levels of weight and dieting preoccupation, bulimic behavior, and feelings of ineffectiveness. (Author/NB)

  6. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Child Attachment in the Years Postpartum in a High-Risk Sample of Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Vanessa; Rousseau, Cécile

    2017-10-07

    Our goal was to examine maternal mental health and associated stresses in a sample of high-risk immigrant mothers, and its association with child insecure attachment in the years following childbirth. Mothers and their child (Mage = 37 months) were recruited through a Health and Social Service organization in the Parc-Extension neighborhood in Montreal, Quebec. Mothers completed the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MPSS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on premature delivery and birth weight. Attachment behaviors were coded out of a videotaped free play sequence using the Preschool and Early School-Age Attachment Rating Scales (PARS). Analysis revealed high levels of clinical anxiety and depression, low social support and low attachment security. Significant mean differences and associations were found between anxiety, depression, social support, preterm delivery and child attachment. These results underscore the importance of screening for anxiety and depression early in the postnatal years, in order to prevent associated consequences such as child insecure attachment. Results also highlight the importance of building positive social networks, especially with immigrant populations.

  8. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  9. Correlates of self-reported adult attachment styles in a Dutch sample of married men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M

    The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).

  10. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  11. ATTACHMENT AS A PREDICTOR OF RISK FOR EATING DISORDERS ON A REPRESENTATIVE HUNGARIAN ADULT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Tamás Dömötör; Czeglédi, Edit

    2015-11-30

    Many studies confirm the relationship between attachment disturbances and (the severity of) eating disorders, however among them only one Hungarian study can be found. The exact predisposing traits of attachment and the strength of relationship is still uncleared. Our aim was to explore these aspects. Study was based on a cross-sectional nationally representative survey, called "Hungarostudy 2013" (N = 2000, 46.9% males, mean age 46.9 years, SD = 18.24 years). Measures: Sociodemographic and self-reported anthropometric data (weight and height), short Hungarian version of Relationship Scale Questionnaire, SCOFF questionnaire and short Hungarian version of Beck Depression Inventory. The frequency of risk for eating disorders (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) was 3.9% (N = 76) among the respondents (N = 1860). Attachment anxiety was significantly higher in the risk for eating disorders group (t (1888) = -3.939, p eating disorders after adjusting for the potential background variables (OR = 1.09, p = 0.040). Detachment was not a significant predictor of risk for eating disorders (OR = 0.98, p = 0.515). Younger age (OR = 0.97, p cross-sectional predictors of risk for eating disorders. The explained variance of the model was 10.7%. The study supported, that higher attachment anxiety is associated with the increased risk of eating disorders, with a possible therapeutic relevance. Assessment of attachment's further aspects and creating multivariable models are required for more thorough understanding and optimising of intervention points.

  12. Adolescent Internet Abuse: A Study on the Role of Attachment to Parents and Peers in a Large Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarotto, Giulia; Volpi, Barbara; Marzilli, Eleonora; Tambelli, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their relationships with parents and more individual difficulties. However, limited research is available on the role played by adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, considering their psychological profiles. We evaluated in a large community sample of adolescents ( N = 1105) the Internet use/abuse, the adolescents' attachment to parents and peers, and their psychological profiles. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to verify the influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet use/abuse, considering the moderating effect of adolescents' psychopathological risk. Results showed that adolescents' attachment to parents had a significant effect on Internet use. Adolescents' psychopathological risk had a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment to mothers and Internet use. Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into account both individual and family variables.

  13. Adolescent Internet Abuse: A Study on the Role of Attachment to Parents and Peers in a Large Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ballarotto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their relationships with parents and more individual difficulties. However, limited research is available on the role played by adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers, considering their psychological profiles. We evaluated in a large community sample of adolescents (N=1105 the Internet use/abuse, the adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers, and their psychological profiles. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to verify the influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet use/abuse, considering the moderating effect of adolescents’ psychopathological risk. Results showed that adolescents’ attachment to parents had a significant effect on Internet use. Adolescents’ psychopathological risk had a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment to mothers and Internet use. Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into account both individual and family variables.

  14. Attachment Style and Obesity: Disordered Eating Behaviors as a Mediator in a Community Sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Danijela; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine A; Gick, Mary; Goldfield, Gary S

    Obesity and overweight are associated with many negative health outcomes. Attachment style has been implicated in the development of obesity in youth. The present study examined if disordered eating behaviors mediate the relationship between attachment style and body mass index (BMI) in a large community sample of Canadian youth. A total of 3,043 participants (1,254 males and 1,789 females, Mage = 14.20 years) completed self-report questionnaires including the Relationship Questionnaire and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and BMI was objectively measured. Disordered eating behaviors (restrained, emotional, and external) were examined as possible mediating mechanisms in the relationship between attachment style and BMI z-score, using a multiple mediation model using bootstrapping while controlling for socio-demographic covariates. Insecure attachment was significantly associated with higher BMI, and disordered eating mediated this relationship. Restrained eating was the strongest mediator of this pathway. Results suggest that it may be important to take attachment history and restrained eating into account when designing treatment and prevention strategies for obesity in youth.

  15. Attachment Representations in a Sample of Neglected Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venet, Michele; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Gosselin, Catherine; Capuano, France

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies (see Ethier, 1999) have shown that neglect has a deleterious impact on children's development. However, the effect of neglect on a child's internal representations of their family still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment patterns observed in a subsample of neglected children as…

  16. Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship

  17. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity : The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it

  18. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara

    2014-06-01

    In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  19. An interpersonal perspective on depression: the role of marital adjustment, conflict communication, attributions, and attachment within a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have focused on the difficulties in psychosocial functioning in depressed persons, underscoring the distress experienced by both spouses. We selected conflict communication, attribution, and attachment as important domains of depression in the context of marital adjustment, and we analyzed two hypotheses in one single study. First, we analyzed whether a clinical sample of couples with a depressed patient would differ significantly from a control group on these variables. Second, we explored to what degree these variables mediate/moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment. The perspectives of both spouses were taken into account, as well as gender differences. In total, 69 clinical and 69 control couples were recruited, and a series of multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted to test both hypotheses. Results indicated that both patients and their partners reported less marital adjustment associated with more negative perceptions on conflict communication, causal attributions, and insecure attachment. In addition, conflict communication and causal attributions were significant mediators of the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment for both depressed men and women, and causal attributions also moderated this link. Ambivalent attachment was a significant mediator only for the female identified patients. Several sex differences and clinical implications are discussed.

  20. A sample lesson plan for the course English Composition II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Cubillo, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present a lesson plan and a series of sample tasks to help the instructors from the course English Composition II, at the School of Modern Languages from the University of Costa Rica, to guide students write an essay integrating the four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These activities will be a source of comprehensible input for the learners that will hopefully result in a good writing piece. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un plan de lección y una serie de actividades que le ayudarán a los y las instructoras del curso Composición Inglesa II de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica a guiar a sus estudiantes a escribir un ensayo integrando las cuatro macro-destrezas, a saber comprensión auditiva, conversación, lectura y escritura. Mediante estas actividades se espera que los estudiantes elaboren un ensayo de calidad.

  1. Validation of KENOREST with LWR-PROTEUS phase II samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Kilger, R.; Pautz, A.; Zwermann, W. [GRS, Garching (Germany); Grimm, P.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    In order to broaden the validation basis of the reactivity and nuclide inventory code KENOREST two samples of the LWR-PROTEUS phase II program have been calculated and compared to the experimental results. In general most nuclides are reproduced very well and agree within about ten percent with the experiment. Some already known problems, the overprediction of metallic fission products and the underprediction of the higher curium isotopes, have been confirmed. One of the largest uncertainties in the calculation was the burnup of the samples due to differences between a core simulation of the fuel vendor and the burnup determined from the measured values of the burnup indicator Nd-148. Two different models taking into account the environment for a peripheral fuel rod have been studied. The more detailed model included the three direct neighbor fuel assemblies depleted along with the fuel rod of interest. The influence on the results has been found to be very small. Compared to the uncertainties from the burnup, this effect can be considered negligible. The reason for the low influence was basically that the spectrum did not get considerably harder with increasing burnup beyond about 20GWd/tHM. Since the sample reached burnups far beyond that value, an effect could not be seen. In the near future an update of the used libraries is planned and it will be very interesting to study the effect on the results, especially for Curium. (orig.)

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  3. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  4. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  5. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  6. Depression, patient characteristics, and attachment style: correlates and mediators of medication treatment adherence in a racially diverse primary care sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; Roter, Debra; Carson, Kathryn A; Mugoya, George; Cooper, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    The depth and breadth of problems related to depressive symptomatology and optimal treatment outcomes, including medication treatment adherence, have long been documented in the literature. Missing are clear explanations as to what factors and patient characteristics may account for lack of medication treatment adherence. The two objectives of the current study were to examine the predictive strength of depression, patient characteristics, and patient attachment style regarding medication treatment adherence and to consider the extent to which attachment styles mediate the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence. Participants in the present study were 237 racially diverse American primary care patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who were participants in a clinical trial. Depression, patient characteristics, attachment style, and medication treatment adherence were assessed. Partly consistent with our four hypotheses, the following results were found: (a) Black American, younger, never married, and poorer patients had lower medication treatment adherence (b) depression was significantly associated with lower self-reported medication adherence; (c) insecure-dismissing attachment style was related to lower medication adherence; and (d) insecure-dismissing attachment style mediates the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence by exacerbating the negative association. Physicians and other primary care providers should consider how depressive symptomatology, patient characteristics, and attachment style may inform the treatment plans they put forward and the extent to which patients may adhere to those treatment plans.

  7. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  8. Preliminary findings on the association between attachment patterns and levels of growth hormone in a sample of children with non-organic failure to thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojanesi, Marta; Gallo, Mariana; Spaziani, Matteo; Russo, Federica; Valentini, Martina; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Radicioni, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in absence of pituitary injuries is one of the causes of short stature and of the non organic failure to thrive (NOFTT) condition. Advances in developmental psychology have highlighted the role of emotions and caregiving behaviors in the organization of child’s personality and psychobiology, with the mother-son attachment bond being considered a fundamental developmental experience. The objective of the present preliminary study was to assess whether there are significant correlations between attachment patterns and GH levels in a sample of subjects with NOFTT. Overall, 27 children (mean age 9.49±2.63 years) with NOFTT were enrolled. Perceived attachment security was assessed through the Security Scale (SS) and its subscales focused on maternal and paternal security. Pearson partial correlation was used to test associations between GH levels and SS measures adjusting for confounding factors (i.e. age, gender and body mass index). Across all subjects, GH was significantly positively correlated with general security (r=0.425; p=0.038) and maternal security (r=0.451; p=0.027) and not significantly correlated with paternal security (r=0.237; p=0.264). These findings preliminarily suggest that the association between GH levels and perceived attachment security may play a role in the pathophysiology of NOFTT and add to the accumulating evidence that attachment patterns may be related with specific psychoendocrine underpinnings.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Giresun Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Sentuerk, Hasan Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuefekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  10. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  11. Attachment between Infants and Mothers in China: Strange Situation Procedure Findings to Date and a New Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Marc; Steele, Miriam; Lan, Jijun; Jin, Xiaochun; Herreros, Francisca; Steele, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The first distribution of Chinese infant-mother (n = 61) attachment classifications categorised by trained and reliability-tested coders is reported with statistical comparisons to US norms and previous Chinese distributions. Three-way distribution was 15% insecure-avoidant, 62% secure, 13% insecure-resistant, and 4-way distribution was 13%…

  12. Effects of maternal absence due to employment on the quality of infant-mother attachment in a low-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglow, P; Vaughn, B E; Molitor, N

    1987-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested that day-care experience initiated prior to 12 months of age is associated with increased proportions of infants whose attachment to mother is classified as "insecure-avoidant." However, reviewers have questioned the generality of these findings, noting that samples in which associations between early day-care experience and avoidant attachment patterns have been reported come from high-risk populations, and/or that the infants' day-care settings may not have been of high quality. In the present study, effects of maternal absences on infant-mother attachment quality were assessed in a low-risk, middle-class sample (N = 110). In all instances, substitute care had been initiated at least 4 months prior to the infant's first birthday and was provided in the infant's home by a person unrelated to the baby. Infants were assessed using the Ainsworth Strange Situation when they were 12-13 months of age. Analyses indicated that a significantly greater proportion of infants whose mothers worked outside the home (N = 54) were assigned to the category "insecure-avoidant" as compared to infants whose mothers remained in the home (N = 56) throughout the first year of life. Analyses of demographic and psychological data available for the sample indicated that this relation is dependent upon maternal parity (primi- vs. multiparous mother). The association between attachment quality and work status was significant only for firstborn children of full-time working mothers. The results are interpreted as evidence that the repeated daily separations experienced by infants whose mothers are working full-time constitute a "risk" factor for the development of "insecure-avoidant" infant-mother attachments.

  13. Bond-equilibrium theory of liquid Se-Te alloys. II. Effect of singly attached ring molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Melvin; Bez, Wolfgang G.

    1981-06-01

    A statistical-mechanical theory for bond equilibrium of chain polymers containing threefold (3F) and onefold (1F) bond defects is extended to include the effects of free ring molecules and ring molecules attached to chains by a single 3F atom. Positively charged singly attached rings are shown to play a key role in bond equilibrium in liquid Sex Te1-x by permitting the formation of ion pairs in which both constituents are effectively chain terminators, thus decreasing the average polymer size. The theory is applied to explain the behavior of the paramagnetic susceptibility, χp, and electronic transport as affected by the Fermi energy EF. It is found that the increase in χp with the concentration of Te is primarily the result of the smaller energy for breaking Te bonds. In addition, attached rings play an important role in determining the effect of temperature on χp. At x<~0.5, the concentrations of both free and attached rings becomes small at high T because of the high concentration of bond defects.

  14. Cable-to-post attachments for use in non-proprietary high-tension cable median barrier - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    The objective of this study was to reevaluate and improve the existing cable-to-post attachment hardware that is utilized : in the non-proprietary cable barrier being developed at MwRSF. The study focused on redesigning the bolted, tabbed : bracket (...

  15. Uniform Sampling Table Method and its Applications II--Evaluating the Uniform Sampling by Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new method of uniform sampling is evaluated in this paper. The items and indexes were adopted to evaluate the rationality of the uniform sampling. The evaluation items included convenience of operation, uniformity of sampling site distribution, and accuracy and precision of measured results. The evaluation indexes included operational complexity, occupation rate of sampling site in a row and column, relative accuracy of pill weight, and relative deviation of pill weight. They were obtained from three kinds of drugs with different shape and size by four kinds of sampling methods. Gray correlation analysis was adopted to make the comprehensive evaluation by comparing it with the standard method. The experimental results showed that the convenience of uniform sampling method was 1 (100%), odds ratio of occupation rate in a row and column was infinity, relative accuracy was 99.50-99.89%, reproducibility RSD was 0.45-0.89%, and weighted incidence degree exceeded the standard method. Hence, the uniform sampling method was easy to operate, and the selected samples were distributed uniformly. The experimental results demonstrated that the uniform sampling method has good accuracy and reproducibility, which can be put into use in drugs analysis.

  16. Penicillamine-modified sensor for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in natural samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A new penicillamine-GCE was developed based on the immobilization of d-penicillamine on aryl diazonium salt monolayers anchored to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and it was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by stripping voltammetric techniques. The detection and quantification limits at levels of µg L(-1) suggest that the penicillamine-GCE could be fully suitable for the determination of the considered ions in natural samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sampling for Air Chemical Emissions from the Life Sciences Laboratory II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Sampling for air chemical emissions from the Life Science Laboratory II (LSL-II) ventilation stack was performed in an effort to determine potential exposure of maintenance staff to laboratory exhaust on the building roof. The concern about worker exposure was raised in December 2015 and several activities were performed to assist in estimating exposure concentrations. Data quality objectives were developed to determine the need for and scope and parameters of a sampling campaign to measure chemical emissions from research and development activities to the outside air. The activities provided data on temporal variation of air chemical concentrations and a basis for evaluating calculated emissions. Sampling for air chemical emissions was performed in the LSL-II ventilation stack over the 6-week period from July 26 to September 1, 2016. A total of 12 sampling events were carried out using 16 sample media. Resulting analysis provided concentration data on 49 analytes. All results were below occupational exposure limits and most results were below detection limits. When compared to calculated emissions, only 5 of the 49 chemicals had measured concentrations greater than predicted. This sampling effort will inform other study components to develop a more complete picture of a worker’s potential exposure from LSL-II rooftop activities. Mixing studies were conducted to inform spatial variation in concentrations at other rooftop locations and can be used in conjunction with these results to provide temporal variations in concentrations for estimating the potential exposure to workers working in and around the LSL-II stack.

  18. Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators and neighborhood attachment: A confirmation study on a Chinese sample in Chongqing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanhui; Fornara, Ferdinando; Manca, Sara; Bonnes, Mirilia; Bonaiuto, Marino

    2015-09-01

    This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA). The PREQIs scales include items covering four macroevaluative domains of residential environment quality: architectural and urban planning aspects (three scales: Architectural and Town-planning Space, Organization of Accessibility and Roads, Green Areas), sociorelational aspects (one scale: People and Social Relations), functional aspects (four scales: Welfare Services, Recreational Services, Commercial Services, and Transport Services), and contextual aspects (three scales: Pace of Life, Environmental Health, Upkeep and Care). The PREQIs and NAS were included in a self-report questionnaire, which had been translated and back-translated from English to Chinese, and was then administered to 340 residents in six districts (differing along various features) of a highly urbanized context in China, the city of Chongqing. Results confirmed the factorial structure of the scales and demonstrated good internal consistency of the indicators, thus reaffirming the results of previous studies carried out in Western urban contexts. The indicators tapping the neighborhood's contextual aspects (i.e., pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep) emerged as most correlated to NA. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Minutes of the 28th Annual Plutonium Sample Exchange Meeting. Part II: metal sample exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents of this publication include the following list of participating laboratories; agenda; attendees; minutes of October 25 and 26 meeting; and handout materials supplied by speakers. The handout materials cover the following: statistics and reporting; plutonium - chemical assay 100% minus impurities; americium neptunium, uranium, carbon and iron data; emission spectroscopy data; plutonium metal sample exchange; the calorimetry sample exchange; chlorine determination in plutonium metal using phyrohydrolysis; spectrophotometric determination of 238-plutonium in oxide; plutonium measurement capabilities at the Savannah River Plant; and robotics in radiochemical laboratory

  20. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  1. The effects of parental sensitivity and involvement in caregiving on mother-infant and father-infant attachment in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Faria, Anabela; Beeghly, Marjorie; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    In the present longitudinal study, we investigated attachment quality in Portuguese mother-infant and in father-infant dyads, and evaluated whether attachment quality was related to parental sensitivity during parent-infant social interaction or to the amount of time each parent spent with the infant during play and in routine caregiving activities (e.g., feeding, bathing, play). The sample consisted of 82 healthy full-term infants (30 girls, 53 boys, 48 first born), and their mothers and fathers from mostly middle-class households. To assess parental sensitivity, mothers and fathers were independently observed during free play interactions with their infants when infants were 9 and 15 months old. The videotaped interactions were scored by masked coders using the Crittenden's CARE-Index. When infants were 12 and 18 months old, mother-infant and father-infant dyads were videotaped during an adaptation of Ainsworth's Strange Situation. Parents also described their level of involvement in infant caregiving activities using a Portuguese version of the McBride and Mills Parent Responsibility Scale. Mothers were rated as being more sensitive than fathers during parent-infant free play at both 9 and 15 months. There also was a higher prevalence of secure attachment in mother-infant versus father-infant dyads at both 12 and 18 months. Attachment security was predicted by the amount of time mothers and fathers were involved in caregiving and play with the infant, and with parents' behavior during parent-infant free play. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables

  3. Application of Carrier Element-Free Co-precipitation Method for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Ions Determination in Water Samples Using Chrysin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layth Imad Abd Ali; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Azli Sulaiman; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2015-01-01

    A co-precipitation method was developed to separate and pre-concentrate Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions using an organic co precipitant, chrysin without adding any carrier element termed as carrier element-free co-precipitation (CEFC). Analytes were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influence of analytical conditions, such as pH of the solution, quantity of co-precipitant, standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume, and interference of concomitant ions were investigated over the recovery yields of the trace metals. The limit of detection, the limit of quantification and linearity range obtained from the FAAS measurements were found to be in the range of 0.64 to 0.86 μg L -1 , 2.13 to 2.86 μg L -1 and 0.9972 to 0.9989 for Ni(II), Cu(III) and Zn(II) ions, respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained after analyzing a series of 10 replicates, was between 2.6 % to 3.9 % for the trace metal ions. The proposed procedure was applied and validated by analyzing river water reference material for trace metals (SLRS-5) and spiking trace metal ions in some water samples. The recoveries of the analyte metal ions were between 94.7-101.2 %. (author)

  4. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  5. Selective solid-phase extraction of Ni(II) by an ion-imprinted polymer from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Yousefi, Hamideh

    2009-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) material was synthesized by copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine as monomer, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and 2,2'-azobis-sobutyronitrile as initiator in the presence of Ni-dithizone complex. The IIP was used as sorbent in a solid-phase extraction column. The effects of sampling volume, elution conditions, sample pH and sample flow rate on the extraction of Ni ions form water samples were studied. The maximum adsorption capacity and the relative selectivity coefficients of imprinted polymer for Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were calculated. Compared with non-imprinted polymer particles, the IIP had higher selectivity for Ni(II). The relative selectivity factor (α r ) values of Ni(II)/Co(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Cd(II) were 21.6, 54.3, and 22.7, respectively, which are greater than 1. The relative standard deviation of the five replicate determinations of Ni(II) was 3.4%. The detection limit for 150 mL of sample was 1.6 μg L -1 using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace nickel in water samples with satisfactory results.

  6. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Austria and Sri Lanka. A new attachment module for secondary target excitation with sample changer and vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Smolek, S.; Streli, C.; Waduge, V.A.; Seneviratne, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new secondary target attachment vacuum chamber was developed, designed and constructed at the Atomic Institute of Vienna Technical University X ray Laboratory and installed at the Atomic Energy Authorities, Colombo, Sri Lanka. The prerequisites were that the new system had to fit physically next to the Wobistrax TXRF spectrometer and to use the same existing X ray tube and an existing uplooking LN2 cooled Si(Li) detector. This new spectrometer replaces a simple secondary target system previously installed. The new system offers a 10 position sample changer integrated in a vacuum chamber. The secondary targets are exchangeable, and Mo, Zr, Ti, Al, KBr and Teflon as Barkla polarizer are available. The system is designed for the emission-transmission method for quantification but can also be used for air filter samples where the thin film model for the quantification is applicable

  7. Electrochemically modified sulfisoxazole nanofilm on glassy carbon for determination of cadmium(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Solak, Ali Osman; Uzun, Lokman; Üstündağ, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfisoxazole was grafted onto glassy carbon electrode. • The electrode was characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. • It has been used for the determination of Cd(II) ions in real samples in very low concentrations. -- Abstract: Sulfisoxazole (SO) was grafted to glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrochemical oxidation of SO in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammoniumtetra-fluoroborate (TBATFB). The prepared electrode was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ellipsometric thickness of SO nanofilm at the glassy carbon surface was obtained as 14.48 ± 0.11 nm. The stability of the SO modified GCE was studied. The SO modified GCE was also utilized for the determination of Cd(II) ions in water samples in the presence of Pb(II) and Fe(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −10 to 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −11 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  8. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  9. On the Origins of Disorganized Attachment and Internal Working Models: Paper II. An Empirical Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen A.; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley; Jaffe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication predicted 12-month infant disorganized (vs. secure) attachment outcomes in an urban community sample. We documented a dyadic systems view of the roles of both partners, the roles of both self- and interactive contingency, and the importance of attention, orientation and touch, and as well as facial and vocal affect, in the co-construction of attachment disorganization. The analysis of different communication modalities identified striking intrapersonal and interpersonal intermodal discordance or conflict, in the context of intensely distressed infants, as the central feature of future disorganized dyads at 4 months. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants. This maternal withdrawal compromises infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. We characterize of the nature of emerging internal working models of future disorganized infants as follows: Future disorganized infants represent states of not being sensed and known by their mothers, particularly in moments of distress; they represent confusion about both their own and their mothers’ basic emotional organization, and about their mothers’ response to their distress. This internal working model sets a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The remarkable specificity of our findings has the potential to lead to more finely-focused clinical interventions. PMID:23066334

  10. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  11. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of which peptides will bind a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitutes an important step in identifying potential T-cell epitopes suitable as vaccine candidates. MHC class II binding peptides have a broad length distribution complicating such predictions. Thus......, identifying the correct alignment is a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. In this context, we wish to describe a novel Gibbs motif sampler method ideally suited for recognizing such weak sequence motifs. The method is based on the Gibbs sampling method, and it incorporates...

  12. Determination of radiocesium in environmental water samples using copper ferro(II)cyanide and sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, L.; Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for the radiochemical separation and radiochemical purification of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in bulk environmental water samples is proposed. Radiocesium was removed from the water by cation-exchange with copper ferro(II)cyanide and was purified by precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate. The influence of the concentration of potassium in the water sample on the chemical yield was investigated. The validation of the proposed method was carried out by analyzing reference materials. The application of the method was demonstrated with the determination of the concentration of radiocesium in water samples from rivers around NPP 'Kozloduy', Bulgaria, Danube and Ogosta. (author)

  13. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Ardeshir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Khodabakhsh [Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Ebrahim; Najibi, Asma [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL{sup -1} for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}, respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.

  14. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Niknam, Ebrahim; Najibi, Asma; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L -1 HNO 3 was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL -1 for Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + , respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.

  15. Comparison of the performance of different modified graphene oxide nanosheets for the extraction of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from natural samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayar, Omid; Mehrani, Kheirollah; Mehrani, Azadeh; Hoseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Graphene nanosheets were modified with amino groups and the resulting material was used as a sorbent for the extraction of cadmium and lead ions. The nanosheets were characterized by IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The effects of sample pH, eluent parameters (type, concentration and volume of eluent), flow rates (of both sample and eluent), and of a variety of other ions on the efficiency of the extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were optimized. Following solid phase extraction, the elements were determined by FAAS. The limits of detection are <0.9 μg L −1 for Pb(II) and <5 ng L −1 for Cd(II). The relative standard deviations are <2.2 %. The method was validated by analyzing several certified reference materials and was then used for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination in natural waters and vegetables. (author)

  16. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  17. A Draft Science Management Plan for Returned Samples from Mars: Recommendations from the International Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (iMARS) Phase II Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigin, T.; Lange, C.; Mugnuolo, R.; Smith, C.

    2018-04-01

    This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations of the International Mars Architecture for the Return of Samples (iMARS) Phase II Working Group, an international team comprising 38 members from 16 countries and agencies.

  18. Simultaneous preconcentration of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) from environmental samples on Amberlite XAD-2000 column and determination by FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri; Elci, Latif; Soylak, Mustafa; Tufekci, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    A new method for the preconcentration of some trace metals (Co, Ni, Cu, and Cd) as complexed with ammonium pyrrolidynedithiocarbamate (APDC) was developed using a mini-column filled with Amberlite XAD-2000 resin. Metal contents were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) after the metal complexes accumulated on the resin were eluted with 1 M HNO 3 in acetone. The effects of the analytical parameters such as sample pH, quantity of complexing agent, eluent type, resin quantity, sample volume, sample flow rate, and matrix ions were investigated on the recovery of the metals from aqueous solutions. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method was <6%. The validation of the method was confirmed using two certified reference materials (CRM TMDW-500 Drinking Water and CRM SA-C Sandy Soil C). The method was successfully applied to some stream waters and mushroom samples from Eastern Black Sea Region (Trabzon city) of Turkey

  19. Mechanical properties of mammalian single smooth muscle cells. II. Evaluation of a modified technique for attachment of cells to the measurement apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Glerum (Jacobus); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA method is described for attaching isolated single smooth muscle cells to an apparatus designed for measuring the longitudinal forces developed passively and actively by the cell upon straining, electrical or pharmacological stimulation. Primary attachment of the cell is based on its

  20. Separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) on EDTA immobilized activated carbon cloth prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in environmental samples

    OpenAIRE

    ALOTHMAN, ZEID ABDULLAH; YILMAZ, ERKAN; HABİLA, MOHAMED; SOYLAK, MUSTAFA

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid immobilized activated carbon cloth was performed in the present work. It was used for preconcentration-separation of lead(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) at trace levels as an adsorbent. Factors including pH, concentration and volume of eluent, sample and eluent flow rates, sample volume, and effect of coexisting ions on the solid phase extraction of analytes were examined. The preconcentration factor was 50. The detection ...

  1. Research on Quality of Attachment in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of quality of attachment of women with breast cancer within 1 year after initial diagnosing and subsequent treatment was performedin the article by means of the Measure of Attachment Qualities (MAQ scale (Carver, 1997. 41 women of Bulgarian origin at an average ageof 35.25 years (at least 18 and 69 at the most in stage I, II and III of the disease progress were studied. For the specific sample, the reliability of 4 scales (secure, avoidant, ambivalent-worried and ambivalent-merging attachment was presented. The quality of attachment was analysed by: 1 medical characteristics (partial or total surgery, surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them, 2 classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy administered or not and 3 application or not of alternative therapies herbal medicine, physical load, administration of massage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet.

  2. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  3. Chemically modified activated carbon with 1-acylthiosemicarbazide for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ru; Hu, Zheng; Chang, Xijun; He, Qun; Zhang, Lijun; Tu, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianping

    2009-12-15

    A new sorbent 1-acylthiosemicarbazide-modified activated carbon (AC-ATSC) was prepared as a solid-phase extractant and applied for removing of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effects of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition and the interfering ions. At pH 3, the maximum static adsorption capacity of Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) onto the AC-ATSC were 78.20, 67.80 and 48.56 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 3.0 mL of 2% CS(NH2)2 and 2.0 mol L(-1) HCl solution. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of IUPAC, the detection limits (3sigma) of this method for Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were 0.20, 0.12 and 0.45 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions is less than 4.0% (n=8). The prepared sorbent was applied for the preconcentration of trace Cu(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) in certified and water samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Activation of the attachment system and mentalization in depressive and healthy individuals: An experimental control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fizke Ella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From a developmental and clinical point of view attachment theory and mentalization are closely connected and have become increasingly important to understand the origins of psychopathological development. However, very little is known about how exactly different inner working models of attachment are related to diverse mentalizing abilities and this is particularly true for adult populations - healthy as well as clinical populations. In the present study we investigated this relation with a sample of inpatients diagnosed with depression and a sample of healthy individuals. In an experimental setting the attachment system was activated using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Mentalization was assessed during activation and in comparison to a control condition using a modified version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. We expected that an activation of the attachment system i diminishes the capacity to take another’s perspective in individuals with unresolved state of mind, ii has no impact in individuals with secure attachment representation and iii is dependent of clinical status in individuals with insecure (but organized working models of attachment. Overall, these hypotheses were confirmed. However, the impact of clinical status on mentalization in insecure attachment has to be further explored. We summarize that attachment state of mind has a mediating influence on mentalization basically in such situations where the attachment system is activated.

  6. Author Contribution to the Pu Handbook II: Chapter 37 LLNL Integrated Sample Preparation Glovebox (TEM) Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of our Integrated Actinide Sample Preparation Laboratory (IASPL) commenced in 1998 driven by the need to perform transmission electron microscopy studies on naturally aged plutonium and its alloys looking for the microstructural effects of the radiological decay process (1). Remodeling and construction of a laboratory within the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate facilities at LLNL was required to turn a standard radiological laboratory into a Radiological Materials Area (RMA) and Radiological Buffer Area (RBA) containing type I, II and III workplaces. Two inert atmosphere dry-train glove boxes with antechambers and entry/exit fumehoods (Figure 1), having a baseline atmosphere of 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm water vapor, a utility fumehood and a portable, and a third double-walled enclosure have been installed and commissioned. These capabilities, along with highly trained technical staff, facilitate the safe operation of sample preparation processes and instrumentation, and sample handling while minimizing oxidation or corrosion of the plutonium. In addition, we are currently developing the capability to safely transfer small metallographically prepared samples to a mini-SEM for microstructural imaging and chemical analysis. The gloveboxes continue to be the most crucial element of the laboratory allowing nearly oxide-free sample preparation for a wide variety of LLNL-based characterization experiments, which includes transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, ion implantation, X-ray diffraction and absorption, magnetometry, metrological surface measurements, high-pressure diamond anvil cell equation-of-state, phonon dispersion measurements, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The sample preparation and materials processing capabilities in the IASPL have also facilitated experimentation at world-class facilities such as the

  7. Author Contribution to the Pu Handbook II: Chapter 37 LLNL Integrated Sample Preparation Glovebox (TEM) Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Mark A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The development of our Integrated Actinide Sample Preparation Laboratory (IASPL) commenced in 1998 driven by the need to perform transmission electron microscopy studies on naturally aged plutonium and its alloys looking for the microstructural effects of the radiological decay process (1). Remodeling and construction of a laboratory within the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate facilities at LLNL was required to turn a standard radiological laboratory into a Radiological Materials Area (RMA) and Radiological Buffer Area (RBA) containing type I, II and III workplaces. Two inert atmosphere dry-train glove boxes with antechambers and entry/exit fumehoods (Figure 1), having a baseline atmosphere of 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm water vapor, a utility fumehood and a portable, and a third double-walled enclosure have been installed and commissioned. These capabilities, along with highly trained technical staff, facilitate the safe operation of sample preparation processes and instrumentation, and sample handling while minimizing oxidation or corrosion of the plutonium. In addition, we are currently developing the capability to safely transfer small metallographically prepared samples to a mini-SEM for microstructural imaging and chemical analysis. The gloveboxes continue to be the most crucial element of the laboratory allowing nearly oxide-free sample preparation for a wide variety of LLNL-based characterization experiments, which includes transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, ion implantation, X-ray diffraction and absorption, magnetometry, metrological surface measurements, high-pressure diamond anvil cell equation-of-state, phonon dispersion measurements, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The sample preparation and materials processing capabilities in the IASPL have also facilitated experimentation at world-class facilities such as the

  8. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Statistical inferences with jointly type-II censored samples from two Pareto distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zinadah, Hanaa H.

    2017-08-01

    In the several fields of industries the product comes from more than one production line, which is required to work the comparative life tests. This problem requires sampling of the different production lines, then the joint censoring scheme is appeared. In this article we consider the life time Pareto distribution with jointly type-II censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) and the corresponding approximate confidence intervals as well as the bootstrap confidence intervals of the model parameters are obtained. Also Bayesian point and credible intervals of the model parameters are presented. The life time data set is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Monte Carlo results from simulation studies are presented to assess the performance of our proposed method.

  10. The Impact of Social Support and Attachment Style on Quality of Life and Readiness to Change in a Sample of Individuals Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Fulmer, Barbara A; Stout, David

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle within the addictions treatment field is that social support is a vital ingredient in the recovery process. This study examines the nature of social support in a sample of opioid-dependent men and women who are currently being treated in a medication-assisted treatment program (methadone). This research examines the types of social support behaviors that the opioid-dependent individuals consider helpful and explores whether attachment style (i.e., secure, ambivalent, or anxious attachment) was a determining factor in whether social support was perceived as helpful. The dependent variables included readiness to change addictive behaviors and abstinence from other mood-altering drugs. Participants (N = 159) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Significant Others Scale, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment, the Readiness to Change Scale, and an Attachment Style Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included subjective ratings of self-improvement. Social support predicted perceived improvement in all of the areas examined (e.g., health, family/social relationships) and abstinence; however, attachment style did not predict improvement or with readiness to change. Social support is an important factor in one's recovery from substance use disorders. Yet attachment style (i.e., anxious, avoidant, or secure) did not predict abstinence or overall improvement in functioning.

  11. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  12. The relationships between problematic internet use, alexithymia levels and attachment characteristics in a sample of adolescents in a high school, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Yavuz, Mesut; Eliaçık, Kayı; Zorlu, Adil

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and <50 were considered as control group. There was a moderate positive relationship between TAS-20 and IAT scores (r = .441), and a moderate negative relationship between TAS-20 and s-IPPA scores (r = -.392), and a negative weak relationship between IAT and s-IPPA scores (r = -.208). S-IPPA scores were significantly lower in the PIU group compared to the controls (p < .001). TAS-20 scores of the PIU group were significantly higher compared to the controls (p < .05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that s-IPPA scores and TAS-20 significantly predict the PIU development (p < .05). The results indicate that alexithymia increases the risk of PIU and higher attachment quality is a protective factor for both alexithymia and PIU. These results suggest that it is important to focus on the insecure attachment patterns and alexithymic characteristics when studying adolescents with PIU.

  13. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  14. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng; Chen, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure was firstly developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions combining with ICP-OES. ► The developed d-CPE can significantly eliminate the surfactant of Triton X-114 and successfully extend to the determination of water samples with good performance. ► The designed method is simple, high efficient, low cost, and in accordance with the green chemistry concept. - Abstract: A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Cu 2+ ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH = 7.0, Triton X-114 = 0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ = 2.0 × 10 −4 mol L −1 , HNO 3 = 0.8 mol L −1 ), the detection limits for Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Cu 2+ ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 μg L −1 , respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 μg L −1 were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Cu 2+ ion in water samples.

  16. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure was firstly developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions combining with ICP-OES. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed d-CPE can significantly eliminate the surfactant of Triton X-114 and successfully extend to the determination of water samples with good performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designed method is simple, high efficient, low cost, and in accordance with the green chemistry concept. - Abstract: A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH = 7.0, Triton X-114 = 0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ = 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, HNO{sub 3} = 0.8 mol L{sup -1}), the detection limits for Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion in water samples.

  17. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng; Chen, Jianrong

    2012-11-15

    A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH=7.0, Triton X-114=0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ=2.0×10(-4) mol L(-1), HNO3=0.8 mol L(-1)), the detection limits for Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 μg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 μg L(-1) were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion in water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Norms for the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in a Large Dutch Community Sample.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, J.; van Breukelen, G.; de Graaf, L.E.; Beck, A.T.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) is a widely used instrument that provides information about the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Although the BDI-II is a psychometrically sound instrument, relatively little is known about norm scores. This study aimed to develop reliable norms

  19. [Maternal attachment patterns and personality in post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Franca; Baglioni, Valentina; Ciolli, Paola; De Bei, Francesco; Di Lorenzo, Flavia; Ferracuti, Stefano; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Motta, Paola; Roma, Paolo; Zaccagni, Michela; Williams, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of post partum depression (PPD) in a sample of Roman women, and the role of socio-demographic variables, personality structure and maternal attachment patterns, in order to identify primary and secondary prevention strategies. Data were collected in two phases. During the third trimester of pregnancy, a sample of 453 women completed a socio-demographic data sheet and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among the patients scoring 12 or more at EPDS, 15 entered the second phase of the study and completed SCID-II and Adult Attachment Interview. PPD diagnosis was confirmed by the SCID-I. The study group was compared with a control group. Among the 453 women who were evaluated, 92 (20.3%) scored ≥12 at EPDS, 39 has been enrolled and 15 entered the study. Presence of depressive symptoms was associated with: complications in pregnancy, previous psychiatric disorders, family and marital conflicts. 66.6% of depressed mothers showed more than one diagnosis on Axis II (particularly avoidant/dependent + borderline or histrionic + dependent). The AAI showed a prevalence of insecure (33.3%) and unresolved/disorganized (46.6%) attachment pattern in the clinical group. Our results suggest that psychological factors such as personality structure and attachment patterns are not only involved in post natal affective disorders, but have a key role in the onset and development of PPD.

  20. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  1. Alumina physically loaded by thiosemicarbazide for selective preconcentration of mercury(II) ion from natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.

    2008-01-01

    The multifunctional ligand, thiosemicarbazide, was physically loaded on neutral alumina. The produced alumina-modified solid phase (SP) extractor named, alumina-modified thiosemicarbazide (AM-TSC), experienced high thermal and medium stability. This new phase was identified based on surface coverage determination by thermal desorption method to be 0.437 ± 0.1 mmol g -1 . The selectivity of AM-TSC phase towards the uptake of different nine metal ions was checked using simple, fast and direct batch equilibration technique. AM-TSC was found to have the highest capacity in selective extraction of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions all over the range of pH used (1.0-7.0), compared to the other eight tested metal ions. So, Hg(II) uptake was 1.82 mmol g -1 (distribution coefficient log K d = 5.658) at pH 1.0 or 2.0 and 1.78, 1.73, 1.48, 1.28 and 1.28 mmol g -1 (log K d = 4.607, 4.265, 3.634, 3.372 and 3.372), at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0, respectively. On the other hand, the metal ions Ca(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) showed low uptake values in range 0.009-0.720 mmol g -1 (log K d < 3.0) at their optimum pH values. A mechanism was suggested to explain the unique uptake of Hg(II) ions based on their binding as neutral and chloroanionic species predominate at pH values ≤3.0 of a medium rich in chloride ions. Application of the new phase for the preconcentration of ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) ions spiked natural water samples: doubly distilled water (DDW), drinking tap water (DTW) and Nile river water (NRW) using cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) was studied. The high recovery values obtained using AM-TSC (98.5 ± 0.5, 98.0 ± 0.5 and 103.0 ± 1.0) for DDW, DTW and NRW samples, respectively based on excellent enrichment factor 1000, along with a good precision (R.S.D.% 0.51-0.97%, n 3) demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the new modified alumina sorbent for preconcentrating ultratrace amounts of Hg(II) with no

  2. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  3. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Uniformly Selected Sample of Low-mass Black Holes in Seyfert 1 Galaxies. II. The SDSS DR7 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Yang; Yuan, Weimin; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Hongyan; Liu, Wen-Juan

    2018-04-01

    A new sample of 204 low-mass black holes (LMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is presented with black hole masses in the range of (1–20) × 105 M ⊙. The AGNs are selected through a systematic search among galaxies in the Seventh Data Release (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and careful analyses of their optical spectra and precise measurement of spectral parameters. Combining them with our previous sample selected from SDSS DR4 makes it the largest LMBH sample so far, totaling over 500 objects. Some of the statistical properties of the combined LMBH AGN sample are briefly discussed in the context of exploring the low-mass end of the AGN population. Their X-ray luminosities follow the extension of the previously known correlation with the [O III] luminosity. The effective optical-to-X-ray spectral indices α OX, albeit with a large scatter, are broadly consistent with the extension of the relation with the near-UV luminosity L 2500 Å. Interestingly, a correlation of α OX with black hole mass is also found, with α OX being statistically flatter (stronger X-ray relative to optical) for lower black hole masses. Only 26 objects, mostly radio loud, were detected in radio at 20 cm in the FIRST survey, giving a radio-loud fraction of 4%. The host galaxies of LMBHs have stellar masses in the range of 108.8–1012.4 M ⊙ and optical colors typical of Sbc spirals. They are dominated by young stellar populations that seem to have undergone continuous star formation history.

  6. II. MORE THAN JUST CONVENIENT: THE SCIENTIFIC MERITS OF HOMOGENEOUS CONVENIENCE SAMPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-06-01

    Despite their disadvantaged generalizability relative to probability samples, nonprobability convenience samples are the standard within developmental science, and likely will remain so because probability samples are cost-prohibitive and most available probability samples are ill-suited to examine developmental questions. In lieu of focusing on how to eliminate or sharply reduce reliance on convenience samples within developmental science, here we propose how to augment their advantages when it comes to understanding population effects as well as subpopulation differences. Although all convenience samples have less clear generalizability than probability samples, we argue that homogeneous convenience samples have clearer generalizability relative to conventional convenience samples. Therefore, when researchers are limited to convenience samples, they should consider homogeneous convenience samples as a positive alternative to conventional (or heterogeneous) convenience samples. We discuss future directions as well as potential obstacles to expanding the use of homogeneous convenience samples in developmental science. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with a covalently attached copper(II) salen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxyl functionalized copper(II) Schiff-base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-ethylene-1,2-diaminecopper(II), [Cu((OH) 2-salen)], has been covalently anchored on modified MWCNTs. The new modified MWCNTs ([Cu((OH) 2-salen)]-MWCNTs) have been characterized by TEM, thermal analysis, XRD, XPS, UV-vis, DRS, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The modified copper(II) MWCNTs solid was used to affect the catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidant at 333 K. The system is truly heterogeneous (no leaching observed) and reusable (no decrease in activity) in three consecutive runs. Acetophenone was the major product though small amounts of o- and p-hydroxyacetophenones were also formed revealing that C-H bond activation takes place both at benzylic and aromatic ring carbon atoms. Ring hydroxylation was more over the "neat" complexes than over the encapsulated complexes.

  8. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  9. Defect-induced luminescence in sol-gel silica samples doped with Co(II) at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Sandoval, S. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Queretaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Queretaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Estevez, M. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Pacheco, S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Av. 100 metros (Mexico); Vargas, S. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico); Rodriguez, R. [Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, Queretaro, Qro. 76000 (Mexico)], E-mail: rogelior@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-12-20

    The defect-induced luminescence properties of silica samples prepared by the sol-gel method and doped with Co(II) are reported. Silica monoliths doped with different concentrations of Co(II) were laser irradiated (He-Ne 632.8 nm) producing fluorescence. However, this fluorescence is exponentially reduced with the irradiation time, to practically disappear. The rate the fluorescence decays can be well modeled with a double exponential function of the irradiation time, containing two different relaxation times; a baseline is also required to take into account some residual fluorescence. The characteristic times involved in this luminescence quenching process are in the range of seconds. This luminescence suppression can be associated to the local heating produced by the laser irradiation when focused in a small area (2 {mu}m in diameter) on the sample. This heating process reduces physical (grain boundaries, surface states) and chemical (oxygen vacancies produced by the dopant) defects in the sample.

  10. Final report on Phase II remedial action at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and associated properties. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Volume 2 presents the radiological measurement data taken after remedial action on properties surrounding the former Middlesex Sampling Plant during Phase II of the DOE Middlesex Remedial Action Program. Also included are analyses of the confirmatory radiological survey data for each parcel with respect to the remedial action criteria established by DOE for the Phase II cleanup and a discussion of the final status of each property. Engineering details of this project and a description of the associated health physics and environmental monitoring activities are presented in Volume 1

  11. Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part II. Study of particle size and its influence on mass reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, M; Csesztregi, T; Franc, A; Nagy, J; Dujourdy, L

    2014-01-01

    The basic goal in sampling for the quantitative analysis of illicit drugs is to maintain the average concentration of the drug in the material from its original seized state (the primary sample) all the way through to the analytical sample, where the effect of particle size is most critical. The size of the largest particles of different authentic illicit drug materials, in their original state and after homogenisation, using manual or mechanical procedures, was measured using a microscope with a camera attachment. The comminution methods employed included pestle and mortar (manual) and various ball and knife mills (mechanical). The drugs investigated were amphetamine, heroin, cocaine and herbal cannabis. It was shown that comminution of illicit drug materials using these techniques reduces the nominal particle size from approximately 600 μm down to between 200 and 300 μm. It was demonstrated that the choice of 1 g increments for the primary samples of powdered drugs and cannabis resin, which were used in the heterogeneity part of our study (Part I) was correct for the routine quantitative analysis of illicit seized drugs. For herbal cannabis we found that the appropriate increment size was larger. Based on the results of this study we can generally state that: An analytical sample weight of between 20 and 35 mg of an illicit powdered drug, with an assumed purity of 5% or higher, would be considered appropriate and would generate an RSDsampling in the same region as the RSDanalysis for a typical quantitative method of analysis for the most common, powdered, illicit drugs. For herbal cannabis, with an assumed purity of 1% THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or higher, an analytical sample weight of approximately 200 mg would be appropriate. In Part III we will pull together our homogeneity studies and particle size investigations and use them to devise sampling plans and sample preparations suitable for the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit

  12. Reaction path sampling of the reaction between iron(II) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, B.; Baerends, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we have studied the coordination and dissociation of hydrogen peroxide with iron(II) in aqueous solution by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics at room temperature. We presented a few illustrative reaction events, in which the ferryl ion ([Fe(IV)O

  13. The World War II Homefront: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Includes background information and teaching materials on topics such as popular music from 1941-1945, propaganda directed towards women, and learning about Japanese American internment. (CMK)

  14. Magnetic ion-imprinted and –SH functionalized polymer for selective removal of Pb(II) from aqueous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Bin; Deng, Fang [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhao, Yu [Technology Center of China Tobacco Hunan Industrial Corporation, Changsha 410007 (China); Luo, Xubiao, E-mail: luoxubiao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Au, Chaktong [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-02-15

    A magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP) functionalized with –SH groups for the selective removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous samples was synthesized by surface imprinting technique combined with a sol–gel process using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane as monomer, tetraethyl orthosilicate as cross-linking agent, and Pb(II) ion as template. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP showed higher capacity and selectivity than that of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-NIP. The effects of initial concentration of Pb(II) and pH of medium on adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP were studied. The experimental data fits well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum Pb(II)-sorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm is 32.58 mg/g and 16.50 mg/g for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-NIP, respectively. Kinetics studies show that the adsorption process obeys a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficient (R{sup 2} = 0.9982). The separation factor of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP for Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Zn(II), and Pb(II)/Co(II) are 50.54, 52.14, and 37.39, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were −4.98 kJ/mol, 3.27 kJ/mol and 28.84 J/mol/K, respectively. In addition, the spent Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP can be refreshed by simple washing with aqueous HCl solution, and there is no significant decrease in adsorption capacity after a test of up to five cycles, demonstrating that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}-IIP is stable and reusable.

  15. National personality characteristics: II. Adaption-innovation in Canadian, American, and British samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nicholas F; Hutchinson, Lynda; Lukenda, Andrea; Drake, Gillian; Boucher, Jocelyn

    2003-02-01

    On the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory 1,106 Canadians scored as more adaptive than American and British standardization samples. Means for Canadian females and males were congruent with those in national samples from six other countries.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use: The role of attachment and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Joanne D; McIntyre, Jason C; Bentall, Richard P; Corcoran, Rhiannon

    2018-05-25

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with many maladaptive outcomes. This study sought to examine the association between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use using a cross-sectional sample of young adults aged 17-25 years (n = 1029). Specifically, we studied whether the relationship is mediated through (i) attachment anxiety, (ii) attachment avoidance, or (iii) both attachment dimensions operating in series with depressive symptoms. Results revealed that a history of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with more problematic social media use. Both anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions independently mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic use of social media, but in opposing directions. Avoidant attachment was associated with less problematic social media use, whilst anxious attachment was associated with more problematic social media use. Avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms in series accounted for part of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. Anxious attachment and depressive symptoms in series fully mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic social media use. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment may influence social media use directly, but also indirectly. People experiencing depressive symptoms may overuse social media in an attempt to alleviate their distress. However, causality cannot be established with the current design. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Weighted Moments Estimators of the Parameters for the Extreme Value Distribution Based on the Multiply Type II Censored Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wuu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the weighted moments estimators (WMEs of the location and scale parameters for the extreme value distribution based on the multiply type II censored sample. Simulated mean squared errors (MSEs of best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE and exact MSEs of WMEs are compared to study the behavior of different estimation methods. The results show the best estimator among the WMEs and BLUE under different combinations of censoring schemes.

  18. Toward decentralized analysis of mercury (II) in real samples. A critical review on nanotechnology-based methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botasini, Santiago; Heijo, Gonzalo; Méndez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Several methods based on nanotechnology achieve limit of detections in the pM and nM ranges for mercury (II) analysis. •Most of these methods are validated in filtered water samples and/or spiked samples. •Thiols in real samples constitute an actual competence for any sensor based on the binding of mercury (II) ions. •Future research should include the study of matrix interferences including thiols and dissolved organic matter. -- Abstract: In recent years, it has increased the number of works focused on the development of novel nanoparticle-based sensors for mercury detection, mainly motivated by the need of low cost portable devices capable of giving fast and reliable analytical response, thus contributing to the analytical decentralization. Methodologies employing colorimetric, fluorometric, magnetic, and electrochemical output signals allowed reaching detection limits within the pM and nM ranges. Most of these developments proved their suitability in detecting and quantifying mercury (II) ions in synthetic solutions or spiked water samples. However, the state of art in these technologies is still behind the standard methods of mercury quantification, such as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma techniques, in terms of reliability and sensitivity. This is mainly because the response of nanoparticle-based sensors is highly affected by the sample matrix. The developed analytical nanosystems may fail in real samples because of the negative incidence of the ionic strength and the presence of exchangeable ligands. The aim of this review is to critically consider the recently published innovations in this area, and highlight the needs to include more realistic assays in future research in order to make these advances suitable for on-site analysis

  19. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan, E-mail: kimyager_erkan@hotmail.com; Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr

    2015-07-30

    A switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2} (Dry ice) via proton transfer reaction has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelate. Cd(II)-APDC chelate was extracted into the switchable polarity solvent drops by adding 2 mL 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical parameters affecting the complex formation and microextraction efficiency such as pH, amount of ligand, volume of switchable polarity solvent and NaOH, sample volume were optimized. The effects of foreign ions were found tolerably. Under optimum conditions, the detection limit was 0.16 μg L{sup −1} (3Sb/m, n = 7) and the relative standard deviation was 5.4% (n = 7). The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-51.3 fortified water, TMDA-53.3 fortified water and SPS-WW2 waste water, 1573a Tomato Leaves and Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5)) and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to determination of cadmium contents of water, vegetable, fruit and cigarette samples. - Highlights: • Switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2}. • The switchable polarity solvent has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II). • The important factors were optimized. • The method was applied to determination of cadmium in real samples.

  20. Continuity Between DSM-5 Section II and III Personality Disorders in a Dutch Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbons, Irene M J; Rossi, Gina; Verheul, Roel; Schoutrop, Mirjam J A; Derksen, Jan L L; Segal, Daniel L; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J

    2018-05-14

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the continuity across the Section II personality disorders (PDs) and the proposed Section III model of PDs in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2013a ). More specifically, we analyzed association between the DSM-5 Section III pathological trait facets and Section II PDs among 110 Dutch adults (M age = 35.8 years, range = 19-60 years) receiving mental health care. We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders to all participants. Participants also completed the self-report Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) as a measure of pathological trait facets. The distributions underlying the dependent variable were modeled as criterion counts, using negative binomial regression. The results provided some support for the validity of the PID-5 and the DSM-5 Section III Alternative Model, although analyses did not show a perfect match. Both at the trait level and the domain level, analyses showed mixed evidence of significant relationships between the PID-5 trait facets and domains with the traditional DSM-IV PDs.

  1. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  2. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  3. National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses II. Status of Nurses: November 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Barbara S.; And Others

    This report provides data describing the nursing population as determined by the second national sample survey of registered nurses. A brief introduction is followed by a chapter that presents an overview of the survey methodology, including details on the sampling design, the response rate, and the statistical reliability. Chapter 3 provides a…

  4. Reactivity Measurements On Burnt And Reference Fuel Samples In LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Luethi, A.; Van Geemert, R.; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    During the year 2002, the PROTEUS research reactor was used to make a series of reactivity measurements on Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) burnt fuel samples, and on a series of specially prepared standards. These investigations have been made in two different neutron spectra. In addition, the intrinsic neutron emissions of the burnt fuel samples have been determined. (author)

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-46, 119-F Stack Sampling French Drain. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 100-F-46 french drain consisted of a 1.5 to 3 m long, vertically buried, gravel-filled pipe that was approximately 1 m in diameter. Also included in this waste site was a 5 cm cast-iron pipeline that drained condensate from the 119-F Stack Sampling Building into the 100-F-46 french drain. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  6. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  7. Life Science Research Sample Transfer Technology for On Orbit Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With retirement of the space shuttle program, microgravity researchers can no longer count on bringing experiment samples back to earth for post-flight analysis....

  8. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  9. Protocols for the analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. II - Enzymatic and chemical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobaly, Balazs; D'Atri, Valentina; Goyon, Alexandre; Colas, Olivier; Beck, Alain; Fekete, Szabolcs; Guillarme, Davy

    2017-08-15

    The analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and related proteins usually incorporates various sample preparation methodologies. Indeed, quantitative and qualitative information can be enhanced by simplifying the sample, thanks to the removal of sources of heterogeneity (e.g. N-glycans) and/or by decreasing the molecular size of the tested protein by enzymatic or chemical fragmentation. These approaches make the sample more suitable for chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis. Structural elucidation and quality control (QC) analysis of biopharmaceutics are usually performed at intact, subunit and peptide levels. In this paper, general sample preparation approaches used to attain peptide, subunit and glycan level analysis are overviewed. Protocols are described to perform tryptic proteolysis, IdeS and papain digestion, reduction as well as deglycosylation by PNGase F and EndoS2 enzymes. Both historical and modern sample preparation methods were compared and evaluated using rituximab and trastuzumab, two reference therapeutic mAb products approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). The described protocols may help analysts to develop sample preparation methods in the field of therapeutic protein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Attachment and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M

    2018-04-16

    There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  13. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  14. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  15. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  16. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  17. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pInfants with insecure attachment collectively exhibited a significantly lower mental development index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of DSM-5 section II personality disorder constructs using the MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Pymont, Carly; Smid, Wineke; De Saeger, Hilde; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the associations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) scale scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Section II personality disorder (PD) criterion counts in inpatient and forensic psychiatric samples from The Netherlands using structured clinical interviews to operationalize PDs. The inpatient psychiatric sample included 190 male and female patients and the forensic sample included 162 male psychiatric patients. We conducted correlation and count regression analyses to evaluate the utility of relevant MMPI-2-RF scales in predicting PD criterion count scores. Generally, results from these analyses emerged as conceptually expected and provided evidence that MMPI-2-RF scales can be useful in assessing PDs. At the zero-order level, most hypothesized associations between Section II disorders and MMPI-2-RF scales were supported. Similarly, in the regression analyses, a unique set of predictors emerged for each PD that was generally in line with conceptual expectations. Additionally, the results provided general evidence that PDs can be captured by dimensional psychopathology constructs, which has implications for both DSM-5 Section III specifically and the personality psychopathology literature more broadly. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  20. Folates in Asian noodles: II. A comparison of commercial samples and the impact of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Lan T T; Small, Darryl M

    2007-06-01

    The folate contents of 26 commercial noodle samples were investigated. The impact of ingredients, pH, and cooking on folate content was studied for the 3 predominant styles of noodles: white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant. Some variability was found in the proportion of folate present in the free form and the noodles generally had low total folate contents. The pH values of the samples covered a wide range, varying from 3.7 to 10.3; however, the results did not provide strong evidence for a relationship between pH and folate content for any of the noodle styles studied. Higher folate levels were typically found in yellow alkaline samples compared to white salted and instant noodles. The storage of noodles in dry or moist forms did not appear to influence total folate contents, and subsequent losses during cooking depended upon the time of exposure to elevated temperatures. The enzymatic treatment of samples was particularly important for cooked noodles, indicating that folates were bound or entrapped during this process.

  1. The Bologna complete sample of nearby radio sources. II. Phase referenced observations of faint nuclear sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzo, E.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Taylor, G. B.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: To study statistical properties of different classes of sources, it is necessary to observe a sample that is free of selection effects. To do this, we initiated a project to observe a complete sample of radio galaxies selected from the B2 Catalogue of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalogue (3CR), with no selection constraint on the nuclear properties. We named this sample “the Bologna Complete Sample” (BCS). Methods: We present new VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6 GHz for 33 sources drawn from a sample not biased toward orientation. By combining these data with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scale morphology is available for a total of 76 of 94 radio sources with a range in radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. Results: The fraction of two-sided sources at milliarcsecond resolution is high (30%), compared to the fraction found in VLBI surveys selected at centimeter wavelengths, as expected from the predictions of unified models. The parsec-scale jets are generally found to be straight and to line up with the kiloparsec-scale jets. A few peculiar sources are discussed in detail. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. II. Sampling method affects ectoparasite studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite community * Fish sampling method * Methodology * Parasitological examination * Rutilus rutilus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  3. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  4. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  5. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  6. Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Zinc(II) from Environmental Water Samples Using Ion Imprinted Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniri, Elham; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Aghdam, Khaledeh; Sharif, Amir Abdollah Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A simple ion imprinted amino-functionalized sorbent was synthesized by coupling activated carbon with iminodiacetic acid, a functional compound for metal chelating, through cyanoric chloride spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis and evaluated for the preconcentration and determination of trace Zn(II) in environmental water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the metal ion was 6-7.5. The sorption capacity of the functionalized sorbent was 66.6 mg/g. The chelating sorbent can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 100% was obtained for the metal ion with 0.5 M nitric acid as the eluent. Compared with nonimprinted polymer particles, the prepared Zn-imprinted sorbent showed high adsorption capacity, significant selectivity, and good site accessibility for Zn(II). Scatchard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymer. The equilibrium sorption data of Zn(II) by modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models. Based on equilibrium adsorption data, the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin constants were determined as 0.139, 12.82, and 2.34, respectively, at 25°C.

  7. The Kinematics of the Permitted C ii λ 6578 Line in a Large Sample of Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G.; Suárez, Genaro; López, José Alberto; García Díaz, María Teresa, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: gsuarez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2017-03-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line for 83 lines of sight in 76 planetary nebulae at high spectral resolution, most of them obtained with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We study the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line with respect to other permitted and collisionally excited lines. Statistically, we find that the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 line are not those expected if this line arises from the recombination of C{sup 2+} ions or the fluorescence of C{sup +} ions in ionization equilibrium in a chemically homogeneous nebular plasma, but instead its kinematics are those appropriate for a volume more internal than expected. The planetary nebulae in this sample have well-defined morphology and are restricted to a limited range in H α line widths (no large values) compared to their counterparts in the Milky Way bulge; both these features could be interpreted as the result of young nebular shells, an inference that is also supported by nebular modeling. Concerning the long-standing discrepancy between chemical abundances inferred from permitted and collisionally excited emission lines in photoionized nebulae, our results imply that multiple plasma components occur commonly in planetary nebulae.

  8. Mg II ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ∼ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h ≤-20.5) galaxies in SDSS DR4 and DR6 with the LRIS-B spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The primary systematic criteria for the targeted galaxies are a redshift z ∼> 0.1 and the presence of an appropriate bright background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 0.3 A) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 1-2 A) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction f c ∼ -1 kpc (f c ∼ 0.25). The data are consistent with a possible dependence of covering fraction and/or absorption halo size on the environment or star-forming properties of the central galaxy.

  9. Adult attachment and long-term effects in survivors of incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P C; Anderson, C L; Brand, B; Schaeffer, C M; Grelling, B Z; Kretz, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors. Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed. Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression. The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.

  10. Parameter sampling capabilities of sequential and simultaneous data assimilation: II. Statistical analysis of numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond

    2014-01-01

    We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)

  11. Field Portable Low Temperature Porous Layer Open Tubular Cryoadsorption Headspace Sampling and Analysis Part II: Applications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3 s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. PMID:26726934

  12. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Electrochemical studies on stress corrosion cracking of incoloy-800 in caustic solution. Part II: Precracking samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Alice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a caustic medium may affect the secondary circuit tubing of a CANDU NPP cooled with river water, due to an accidental formation of a concentrated alkaline environment in the areas with restricted circulation, as a result of a leakage of cooling water from the condenser. To evaluate the susceptibility of Incoloy-800 (used to manufacture steam generator tubes for CANDU NPP to SCC, some accelerated corrosion tests were conducted in an alkaline solution (10% NaOH, pH = 13. These experiments were performed at ambient temperature and 85 °C. We used the potentiodynamic method and the potentiostatic method, simultaneously monitoring the variation of the open circuit potential during a time period (E corr/time curve. The C-ring method was used to stress the samples. In order to create stress concentrations, mechanical precracks with a depth of 100 or 250 μm were made on the outer side of the C-rings. Experimental results showed that the stressed samples were more susceptible to SCC than the unstressed samples whereas the increase in temperature and crack depth lead to an increase in SCC susceptibility. Incipient micro cracks of a depth of 30 μm were detected in the area of the highest peak of the mechanical precrack.

  14. Very preterm/very low birthweight infants' attachment: infant and maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Gutbrod, Tina

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether there are differences in attachment security and disorganisation between very preterm or very low birthweight (VP/VLBW) (infants (37-42 weeks gestation) and whether the pathways to disorganised attachment differ between VP/VLBW and full-term infants. The sample with complete longitudinal data consisted of 71 VP/VLBW and 105 full-term children and their mothers matched for twin status, maternal age, income and maternal education. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation Assessment at 18 months of age. Maternal sensitivity in the VP/VLBW and full-term samples was rated by neonatal nurses and community midwives in the neonatal period, respectively, and mother-infant interaction was observed at 3 months. Infant difficultness was assessed by maternal report at 3 months and infant's developmental status was assessed with the Bayley Scales (BSID-II). Most VP/VLBW (61%) and full-term (72%) children were found to be securely attached. However, more VP/VLBW (32%) than full-term children (17%) had disorganised attachment. Longitudinal path analysis found that maternal sensitivity was predictive of attachment disorganisation in full-term children. In contrast, infant's distressing cry and infant's developmental delay, but not maternal sensitivity, were predictive of disorganised attachment in VP/VLBW children. A third of VP/VLBW children showed disorganised attachment. Underlying neurodevelopmental problems associated with VP/VLBW birth appear to be a common pathway to a range of social relationship problems in this group. Clinicians should be aware that disorganised attachment and relationship problems in VP/VLBW infants are frequent despite sensitive parenting.

  15. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  16. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  17. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  18. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Greg J. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009-1231 (United States); Ness, Jan-Uwe [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESAC, Apartado 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Walter, Frederick M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Andrew Helton, L. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, 116 Church Street S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bode, Mike [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Starrfield, Sumner [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Drake, Jeremy J., E-mail: Greg.Schwarz@aas.org [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 3, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 A) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t{sub 2} or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  19. SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF CLASSICAL NOVAE. II. THE SUPER SOFT SOURCE SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Andrew Helton, L.; Woodward, Charles E.; Bode, Mike; Starrfield, Sumner; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst satellite is an excellent facility for studying novae. Its rapid response time and sensitive X-ray detector provides an unparalleled opportunity to investigate the previously poorly sampled evolution of novae in the X-ray regime. This paper presents Swift observations of 52 Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae. We included the X-Ray Telescope (0.3-10 keV) instrument count rates and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (1700-8000 Å) filter photometry. Also included in the analysis are the publicly available pointed observations of 10 additional novae the X-ray archives. This is the largest X-ray sample of Galactic/Magellanic Cloud novae yet assembled and consists of 26 novae with Super Soft X-ray emission, 19 from Swift observations. The data set shows that the faster novae have an early hard X-ray phase that is usually missing in slower novae. The Super Soft X-ray phase occurs earlier and does not last as long in fast novae compared to slower novae. All the Swift novae with sufficient observations show that novae are highly variable with rapid variability and different periodicities. In the majority of cases, nuclear burning ceases less than three years after the outburst begins. Previous relationships, such as the nuclear burning duration versus t 2 or the expansion velocity of the eject and nuclear burning duration versus the orbital period, are shown to be poorly correlated with the full sample indicating that additional factors beyond the white dwarf mass and binary separation play important roles in the evolution of a nova outburst. Finally, we confirm two optical phenomena that are correlated with strong, soft X-ray emission which can be used to further increase the efficiency of X-ray campaigns.

  20. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f esc Lyα of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  1. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: nmarcionni@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  2. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. I. H II region observations and chemical abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J.; Basurah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of observations of 17 H II regions in thirteen galaxies from the SIGRID sample of isolated gas-rich irregular dwarf galaxies. The spectra of all but one of the galaxies exhibit the auroral [O III] 4363 Å line, from which we calculate the electron temperature, T e , and gas-phase oxygen abundance. Five of the objects are blue compact dwarf galaxies, of which four have not previously been analyzed spectroscopically. We include one unusual galaxy which exhibits no evidence of the [N II] λλ 6548,6584 Å lines, suggesting a particularly low metallicity (< Z ☉ /30). We compare the electron temperature based abundances with those derived using eight of the new strong-line diagnostics presented by Dopita et al. Using a method derived from first principles for calculating total oxygen abundance, we show that the discrepancy between the T e -based and strong-line gas-phase abundances have now been reduced to within ∼0.07 dex. The chemical abundances are consistent with what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation. We derive estimates of the electron densities and find them to be between ∼5 and ∼100 cm –3 . We find no evidence for a nitrogen plateau for objects in this sample with metallicities 0.5 > Z ☉ > 0.15.

  3. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. I. H II region observations and chemical abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Basurah, Hassan, E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-05-10

    In this paper we present the results of observations of 17 H II regions in thirteen galaxies from the SIGRID sample of isolated gas-rich irregular dwarf galaxies. The spectra of all but one of the galaxies exhibit the auroral [O III] 4363 Å line, from which we calculate the electron temperature, T{sub e} , and gas-phase oxygen abundance. Five of the objects are blue compact dwarf galaxies, of which four have not previously been analyzed spectroscopically. We include one unusual galaxy which exhibits no evidence of the [N II] λλ 6548,6584 Å lines, suggesting a particularly low metallicity (< Z {sub ☉}/30). We compare the electron temperature based abundances with those derived using eight of the new strong-line diagnostics presented by Dopita et al. Using a method derived from first principles for calculating total oxygen abundance, we show that the discrepancy between the T{sub e} -based and strong-line gas-phase abundances have now been reduced to within ∼0.07 dex. The chemical abundances are consistent with what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation. We derive estimates of the electron densities and find them to be between ∼5 and ∼100 cm{sup –3}. We find no evidence for a nitrogen plateau for objects in this sample with metallicities 0.5 > Z {sub ☉} > 0.15.

  4. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, B. R. [BP Research, Cleveland, OH (United States); Nielsen, D. C.; Shock, C. C.

    1992-10-15

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  5. Infrared thermometry and the crop water stress index. II. Sampling procedures and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.R.; Nielsen, D.C.; Shock, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared thermometry can be a valuable research and production tool for detecting and quantifying water stress in plants, as shown by a large volume of published research. Users of infrared thermometers (IRT) should be aware of the many equipment, environmental, and plant factors influencing canopy temperature measured by an IRT. The purpose of this paper is to describe factors influencing measured plant temperature, outline sampling procedures that will produce reliable Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) values, and offer interpretations of CWSI and plant temperatures relative to crop production and other water stress parameters by reviewing previously conducted research. Factors that are considered are IRT condition, configuration, and position; psychrometer location; wind speed; solar radiation; time of day; leaf area and orientation; and appropriate non-water-stressed baseline equation. Standard sampling and CWSI calculation procedures are proposed. Use of CWSI with crops varying in type of response to water stress is described. Previously conducted research on plant temperatures or CWSI is tabulated by crop and water stress parameters measured. The paper provides valuable information to assist interested users of IRTs in making reliable water stress measurements. (author)

  6. Low-energy absorption and luminescence of higher plant photosystem II core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joseph L.; Smith, Paul J.; Pace, Ron J.; Krausz, Elmars

    2007-01-01

    The charge-separating state of PSII has been recently assigned as a homogeneously broadened band peaking at 705 nm. The possibility of observing emission due to luminescence from the charge-separating state was investigated. Emission from the charge-separating state is predicted to be both broad and substantially Stokes shifted. Our PSII cores show an easily observable and broad emission peaking near 735 nm when excited at 707 nm and beyond for temperatures below 100 K as well as the well-known F685 and F695 nm emission when excited at 633 nm. However, the 735 nm emission bears a close correspondence to that previously reported for the light harvesting pigment of photosystem I (PSI), LHCI-730, and we attribute our observed emission to a minor contamination of our sample with this protein. High sensitivity circular dichroism (CD) spectra establish that LHCI and/or PSI contamination of our samples does not contribute significantly to the absorption seen in the 700-730 nm region. Furthermore, systematic illumination-induced absorption changes seen in this region are shown to quantitatively track with charge separation and the subsequent secondary acceptor plastoquinone (Q A ) acceptor anion formation. These results confirm that absorption in the 700-730 nm region is associated with the reaction centre of active PSII

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  8. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration of relati...... at a fixed mass threshold, e.g., by a factor of 5.0 ± 1.2 at M 500 = 2.5 × 1014 h –1 M sun between z = 0 and 0.5. This evolution reflects the growth of density perturbations, and can be used for the cosmological constraints complementing those from the distance-redshift relation....

  9. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Ledden, J.E.; O'Dell, S.L.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the remainder of two- and three-epoch 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz. From analysis of this low-frequency variability survey, we find that steep-spectrum (α> or =0.5) sources do not appear to vary, but about 40% of all flat-spectrum (α<0.5) sources exhibit low-frequency variability exceeding 8% over approx.5 yr. Among the flat-spectrum sources, those with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations. We also find that the incidence of low-frequency variability is strongly correlated with the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models invoking relativistic beaming of radio and optical emission

  10. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  11. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B; Halpern, Aaron L; Williamson, Shannon J; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A; Heidelberg, Karla B; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T; Joachimiak, Marcin P; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael, Benjamin J; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E; Godzik, Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E; Taylor, Susan S; Strausberg, Robert L; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J Craig

    2007-03-01

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  12. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Yooseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  13. In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

  14. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search II. Rates in a galaxy sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticella, M. T.; Cappellaro, E.; Greggio, L.; Pignata, G.; Della Valle, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Baruffolo, A.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Capaccioli, M.; Cascone, E.; Covone, G.; De Cicco, D.; Falocco, S.; Haeussler, B.; Harutyunyan, V.; Jarvis, M.; Marchetti, L.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Pastorello, A.; Radovich, M.; Schipani, P.; Tomasella, L.; Turatto, M.; Vaccari, M.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This is the second paper of a series in which we present measurements of the supernova (SN) rates from the SUDARE survey. The aim of this survey is to constrain the core collapse (CC) and Type Ia SN progenitors by analysing the dependence of their explosion rate on the properties of the parent stellar population averaging over a population of galaxies with different ages in a cosmic volume and in a galaxy sample. In this paper, we study the trend of the SN rates with the intrinsic colours, the star formation activity and the masses of the parent galaxies. To constrain the SN progenitors we compare the observed rates with model predictions assuming four progenitor models for SNe Ia with different distribution functions of the time intervals between the formation of the progenitor and the explosion, and a mass range of 8-40 M⊙ for CC SN progenitors. Methods: We considered a galaxy sample of approximately 130 000 galaxies and a SN sample of approximately 50 events. The wealth of photometric information for our galaxy sample allows us to apply the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting technique to estimate the intrinsic rest frame colours, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR) for each galaxy in the sample. The galaxies have been separated into star-forming and quiescent galaxies, exploiting both the rest frame U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and the best fit values of the specific star formation rate (sSFR) from the SED fitting. Results: We found that the SN Ia rate per unit mass is higher by a factor of six in the star-forming galaxies with respect to the passive galaxies, identified as such both on the U-V vs. V-J colour-colour diagram and for their sSFR. The SN Ia rate per unit mass is also higher in the less massive galaxies that are also younger. These results suggest a distribution of the delay times (DTD) less populated at long delay times than at short delays. The CC SN rate per unit mass is proportional to both the sSFR and the galaxy

  15. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  16. Coloured solar collectors. Phase II : from laboratory samples to collector prototypes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A; Roecker, Ch; Chambrier, E de; Munari Probst, M

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the second phase of a project concerning the architectural integration of glazed solar collectors into the facades of buildings for heat production. The factors that limit the integration of photovoltaic panels in facades are discussed. The authors state that, for a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples and high quality levels are needed. The sol-gel deposition of the multi-layered coatings on A4-sized glass panes demonstrated in the laboratory by EPFL-LESO are discussed. The coatings produced exhibit a coloured reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure is discussed: This should result in the speeding up of the sol-gel process and thus save energy, thereby significantly reducing costs. Collaboration with industry is discussed in which full-scale glass panes are to be coated with novel multiple layers. The novel glazing is to be integrated into first prototype collectors. The manufacturing and test processes for the prototypes manufactured are discussed in detail.

  17. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  18. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  19. Toward decentralized analysis of mercury (II) in real samples. A critical review on nanotechnology-based methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botasini, Santiago; Heijo, Gonzalo; Méndez, Eduardo

    2013-10-24

    In recent years, it has increased the number of works focused on the development of novel nanoparticle-based sensors for mercury detection, mainly motivated by the need of low cost portable devices capable of giving fast and reliable analytical response, thus contributing to the analytical decentralization. Methodologies employing colorimetric, fluorometric, magnetic, and electrochemical output signals allowed reaching detection limits within the pM and nM ranges. Most of these developments proved their suitability in detecting and quantifying mercury (II) ions in synthetic solutions or spiked water samples. However, the state of art in these technologies is still behind the standard methods of mercury quantification, such as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma techniques, in terms of reliability and sensitivity. This is mainly because the response of nanoparticle-based sensors is highly affected by the sample matrix. The developed analytical nanosystems may fail in real samples because of the negative incidence of the ionic strength and the presence of exchangeable ligands. The aim of this review is to critically consider the recently published innovations in this area, and highlight the needs to include more realistic assays in future research in order to make these advances suitable for on-site analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of reactivity worths of highly-burnt PWR fuel samples measured in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Peter; Murphy, Michael F.; Jatuff, Fabian; Seiler, Rudolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The reactivity loss of PWR fuel with burnup has been determined experimentally by inserting fresh and highly-burnt fuel samples in a PWR test lattice in the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme. Seven UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR plant with burnups ranging from approx40 to approx120 MWd/kg and four MOX samples with burnups up to approx70 MWd/kg were oscillated in a test region constituted of actual PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rods in the centre of the PROTEUS zero-power experimental facility. The measurements were analyzed using the CASMO-4E fuel assembly code and a cross section library based on the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The results show close proximity between calculated and measured reactivity effects and no trend for a deterioration of the quality of the prediction at high burnup. The analysis thus demonstrates the high accuracy of the calculation of the reactivity of highly-burnt fuel. (authors)

  1. Assessment of DSM-5 Section II Personality Disorders With the MMPI-2-RF in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Smith, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 / 2011 ) is frequently used in clinical practice. However, there has been a dearth of literature on how well this instrument can assess symptoms associated with personality disorders (PDs). This investigation examined a range of hypothesized MMPI-2-RF scales in predicting PD symptoms. We evaluated these associations in a sample of 397 university students who had been administered the MMPI-2-RF and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997 ). Zero-order correlation analyses and negative binomial regression models indicated that a wide range of MMPI-2-RF scale hypotheses were supported; however, the least support was available for predicting schizoid and obsessive-compulsive PDs. Implications for MMPI-2-RF interpretation and PD diagnosis are discussed.

  2. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  3. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  4. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...

  5. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We...... argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment....... Such “cuts” in parent–infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as “maybe‐lives” by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for “maybe‐parents.”...

  6. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  7. Precursors and sequelae of attachment in foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver

  8. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  9. Development of disposable bulk-modified screen-printed electrode based on bismuth oxide for stripping chronopotentiometric analysis of lead (II) and cadmium (II) in soil and water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadara, Rashid O.; Tothill, Ibtisam E.

    2008-01-01

    A bulk-modified screen-printed carbon electrode characterised for metal ion detection is presented. Bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ) was mixed with graphite-carbon ink to obtain the modified electrode. The best composition was 2% Bi 2 O 3 (wt%) in the graphite-carbon ink. The modified electrode with onboard screen-printed carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrodes exhibited good performance in the electrochemical measurement of lead (II) and cadmium (II). The electrode displayed excellent linear behaviour in the concentration range examined (20-300 μg L -1 ) with limits of detection of 8 and 16 μg L -1 for both lead (II) and cadmium (II), respectively. The analytical utility of the modified electrode was illustrated by the stripping chronopotentiometric determinations of lead (II) in soil extracts and wastewater samples

  10. Development of disposable bulk-modified screen-printed electrode based on bismuth oxide for stripping chronopotentiometric analysis of lead (II) and cadmium (II) in soil and water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadara, Rashid O. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Campus, Nottinghamshire NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: kayusee2001@yahoo.co.uk; Tothill, Ibtisam E. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-08

    A bulk-modified screen-printed carbon electrode characterised for metal ion detection is presented. Bismuth oxide (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was mixed with graphite-carbon ink to obtain the modified electrode. The best composition was 2% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt%) in the graphite-carbon ink. The modified electrode with onboard screen-printed carbon counter and silver-silver chloride pseudo-reference electrodes exhibited good performance in the electrochemical measurement of lead (II) and cadmium (II). The electrode displayed excellent linear behaviour in the concentration range examined (20-300 {mu}g L{sup -1}) with limits of detection of 8 and 16 {mu}g L{sup -1} for both lead (II) and cadmium (II), respectively. The analytical utility of the modified electrode was illustrated by the stripping chronopotentiometric determinations of lead (II) in soil extracts and wastewater samples.

  11. Continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns across two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Steele, Ryan D; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Sroufe, L Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational continuities and changes in infant attachment patterns within a higher-risk longitudinal sample of 55 female participants born into poverty. Infant attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation when participants were 12 and 18 months as well as several decades later with participants' children. Paralleling earlier findings from this sample on the stability of attachment patterns from infancy to young adulthood, results provided evidence for intergenerational continuities in attachment disorganization but not security. Children of adults with histories of infant attachment disorganization were at an increased risk of forming disorganized attachments. Although changes in infant attachment patterns across the two generations were not correlated with individuals' caregiving experiences or interpersonal stresses and supports during childhood and adolescence, higher quality social support during adulthood was associated with intergenerational changes from insecure to secure infant-caregiver attachment relationships.

  12. Zn(II) coordination polymer of an in situ generated 4-pyridyl (4Py) attached bis(amido)phosphate ligand, [PO2(NH4Py)2]- showing preferential water uptake over aliphatic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind K; Nagarkar, Sanjog S; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2013-08-14

    Two polymorphic 2D-coordination polymers of composition [ZnL(HCO2)]∞ were synthesized from an in situ generated ligand [PO2(NH(4)Py)2](-) (L(-)). The ligand L(-) was generated by a facile metal-assisted P-N bond hydrolysis reaction from the corresponding phosphonium salt 1, [P(NH(4)Py)4]Cl, or from the neutral phosphoric triamide 2, [PO(NH(4)Py)3]. The de-solvated sample of the polymer [ZnL(HCO2)]∞ features polar micropores and shows a type I isotherm for CO2 sorption whereas a type II behaviour was observed for N2. The vapour sorption isotherm of the de-solvated sample of [ZnL(HCO2)]∞ shows preferential adsorption of water vapour over aliphatic alcohols.

  13. Heavy Metals (Mg, Mn, Ni and Sn contamination in Soil Samples of Ahvaz II Industrial Estate of Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil l Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the rapid industrial development in Khuzestan province of Iran during recent years, this study was performed to analyze the variation of metals concentrations (Mg, Mn, Ni, and Sn in soil samples of Ahvaz II Industrial estate during the spring season of 2013. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 27 topsoil samples were collected from nine stations. The intensity of the soil contamination was evaluated, using a contamination factor (Cf and geo-accumulation index (I-geo. Results:  The mean soil concentrations (in mg kg-1 (dry weight were in ranged within 870-1144 (Mg, 188-300 (Mn, 93-199 (Ni and 9-15 (Sn. The data indicated that the I-geo value for all metals falls in class ‘1’. Also the Cf value for Mg and Mn falls in class ‘0’, the Cf value for Sn falls in class ‘1’ and the Cf value for Ni falls in the classes of ‘1’ and ‘2’. The result of the Pearson correlation showed that there were significant positive associations between all metals. Conclusions: According to the results which were achieved by a cluster analysis, there were significant positive associations among all metals based on Pearson correlation coefficient, especially between Ni and Sn; also both of them with Mn. Because the Ni originates from oil sources it can be resulted that Mn and Sn originate from oil sources, too. Therefore, industrial activities and exploitation of oil reservoirs are the main cause of pollution in that area. Also, it can be concluded that, with increasing the distance from the source of pollution, the accumulation of contaminants in the soil samples decreased.

  14. Preparing to predict: The Second Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN-II) experiment in the Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramp, S. R.; Davis, R. E.; Leonard, N. E.; Shulman, I.; Chao, Y.; Robinson, A. R.; Marsden, J.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.; Fratantoni, D. M.; Paduan, J. D.; Chavez, F. P.; Bahr, F. L.; Liang, S.; Leslie, W.; Li, Z.

    2009-02-01

    The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network Phase Two (AOSN-II) experiment was conducted in and offshore from the Monterey Bay on the central California coast during July 23-September 6, 2003. The objective of the experiment was to learn how to apply new tools, technologies, and analysis techniques to adaptively sample the coastal ocean in a manner demonstrably superior to traditional methodologies, and to use the information gathered to improve predictive skill for quantities of interest to end-users. The scientific goal was to study the upwelling/relaxation cycle near an open coastal bay in an eastern boundary current region, particularly as it developed and spread from a coastal headland. The suite of observational tools used included a low-flying aircraft, a fleet of underwater gliders, including several under adaptive autonomous control, and propeller-driven AUVs in addition to moorings, ships, and other more traditional hardware. The data were delivered in real time and assimilated into the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS), the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (JPL/ROMS). Two upwelling events and one relaxation event were sampled during the experiment. The upwelling in both cases began when a pool of cold water less than 13 °C appeared near Cape Año Nuevo and subsequently spread offshore and southward across the bay as the equatorward wind stress continued. The primary difference between the events was that the first event spread offshore and southward, while the second event spread only southward and not offshore. The difference is attributed to the position and strength of meanders and eddies of the California Current System offshore, which blocked or steered the cold upwelled water. The space and time scales of the mesoscale variability were much shorter than have been previously observed in deep-water eddies offshore. Additional process studies are needed to elucidate

  15. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  16. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...

  17. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Ozdemir, Nalan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L(-)(1) and 8.8 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ca II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. I. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Claria, J. J.; Grocholski, A. J.; Geisler, D.; Sarajedini, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained near-infrared spectra covering the Ca II triplet lines for a large number of stars associated with 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters using the VLT + FORS2. These data compose the largest available sample of SMC clusters with spectroscopically derived abundances and velocities. Our clusters span a wide range of ages and provide good areal coverage of the galaxy. Cluster members are selected using a combination of their positions relative to the cluster center as well as their location in the color-magnitude diagram, abundances, and radial velocities (RVs). We determine mean cluster velocities to typically 2.7 km s -1 and metallicities to 0.05 dex (random errors), from an average of 6.4 members per cluster. By combining our clusters with previously published results, we compile a sample of 25 clusters on a homogeneous metallicity scale and with relatively small metallicity errors, and thereby investigate the metallicity distribution, metallicity gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of the SMC cluster system. For all 25 clusters in our expanded sample, the mean metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.96 with σ = 0.19. The metallicity distribution may possibly be bimodal, with peaks at ∼-0.9 dex and -1.15 dex. Similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the SMC cluster system gives no indication of a radial metallicity gradient. However, intermediate age SMC clusters are both significantly more metal-poor and have a larger metallicity spread than their LMC counterparts. Our AMR shows evidence for three phases: a very early (>11 Gyr) phase in which the metallicity reached ∼-1.2 dex, a long intermediate phase from ∼10 to 3 Gyr in which the metallicity only slightly increased, and a final phase from 3 to 1 Gyr ago in which the rate of enrichment was substantially faster. We find good overall agreement with the model of Pagel and Tautvaisiene, which assumes a burst of star formation at 4 Gyr. Finally, we find that the mean RV of the cluster system

  19. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.

  20. A dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury(II) ion in aqueous samples based on urease activity inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Qing; Jiang, Guibin

    2002-11-01

    A sensitive dip-and-read test strip for the determination of mercury in aqueous samples based on the inhibition of urease reaction by the ion has been developed. The strip has a circular sensing zone that containing two layers: the top layer is a cellulose acetate membrane where urease is immobilized on it; the bottom layer is a pH indicator wafer that is impregnated with urea. The principle of the measurement is based on the disappearance of a yellow spot on the pH indicator wafer. The elapsing time until the disappearance of the spot which depends on the concentration of mercury(II) ion is measured with a stopwatch. Under the experimental conditions, as low as 0.2 ng/ml mercury can be observed with the detection range from 0.2 to 200 ng/ml in water. Organomercury compounds give essentially the same response as inorganic mercury. Heavy-metal ions such as Ag(I), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) as well as other sample matrixes basically do not interfere with the mercury measurement.

  1. Simultaneous trace-levels determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions in various samples using a modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new synthesized Schiff base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bagheri, Hasan; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was constructed and used. ► A new Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotube was used as a modifier. ► The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were studied. ► The electrode was used to the simultaneous determination of Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ . - Abstract: A modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-thioxothiazolodin-4-one as a new synthesized Schiff base was constructed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent selectivity and stability for Hg(II) and Pb(II) determinations and for accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and the analytes. The electrochemical properties and applications of the modified electrode were studied. Operational parameters such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized for the purpose of determination of traces of metal ions at pH 3.0. Under optimal conditions the limits of detection, based on three times the background noise, were 9.0 × 10 −4 and 6.0 × 10 −4 μmol L −1 for Hg(II) and Pb(II) with a 90 s preconcentration, respectively. In addition, the modified electrode displayed a good reproducibility and selectivity, making it suitable for the simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) in real samples such as sea water, waste water, tobacco, marine and human teeth samples.

  2. Removal of copper(II) from some environmental samples by sorptive-flotation using powdered marble wastes as sorbents and oleic acid as surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, S E; Samra, S E; Mahdy, A F M; El-Morsy, S M

    2004-11-01

    A simple and economic experimental sorptive -flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) species from aqueous solutions. It is based on using powdered marble wastes (PMW), which are widespread and inexpensive and may represent an environmental problem, as the effective inorganic sorbent and oleic (HOL) as the surfactant. The main parameters (i.e. initial solution pH, sorbent, surfactant and copper concentrations, stirring times, ionic strength, temperature and the presence of foreign ions) influencing the flotation of PMW and /or Cu(II) were examined. Nearly, 100% of PMW and Cu(II) were removed from aqueous solutions at pH7 after stirring for 10 min and at room temperature, (approximately 25 degrees C). The procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu(II) spiked to some natural water samples. A mechanism for sorption and flotation is suggested.

  3. Tripodal chelating ligand-based sensor for selective determination of Zn(II) in biological and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Mehtab, Sameena; Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2007-08-15

    Potassium hydrotris(N-tert-butyl-2-thioimidazolyl)borate [KTt{sup t-Bu}] and potassium hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-l-pyrazolyl)borate [KTp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr}] have been synthesized and evaluated as ionophores for preparation of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensor for Zn(II) ions. The effect of different plasticizers, viz. benzyl acetate (BA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE), and the anion excluders sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB), and oleic acid (OA) were studied to improve the performance of the membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained from a sensor with a of [KTt{sup t-Bu}] membrane of composition (mg): [KTt{sup t-Bu}] (15), PVC (150), DBP (275), and NaTPB (4). This sensor had a Nernstian response (slope, 29.4 {+-} 0.2 mV decade of activity) for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide concentration range (1.4 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 9.5 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. It had a relatively fast response time (12 s) and could be used for 3 months without substantial change of the potential. The membrane sensor had very good selectivity for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide variety of other cations and could be used in a working pH range of 3.5-7.8. The sensor was also found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media and could be successfully used for estimation of zinc at trace levels in biological and environmental samples. (orig.)

  4. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  5. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  7. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  8. Selective separation, preconcentration and determination of Pd(II ions in environmental samples by coprecipitation with a 1,2,4-triazole derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ozdes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, facile and low cost methodology, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, was employed to evaluate the selective separation and preconcentration of Pd(II ions in environmental samples by using a triazole derivative as an organic coprecipitating agent without a carrier element. The developed method was systematically investigated in different set of experimental parameters that influence the quantitative recovery of Pd(II ions. The accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing certified reference material and spike tests. The developed coprecipitation procedure has been applied to road dust, anodic slime, industrial electronic waste materials and water samples to determine their Pd(II levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.1

  9. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  10. Attachment security, personality, and adjustment of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2013-01-01

    Children's development is assumed to be closely related to their attachment security and their personality. The authors' aim was to examine the joint contribution of attachment security and personality traits to children's adjustment by examining diverse children's outcomes (emotional symptoms, social functioning, and behavioral problems) and using various perspectives (children, parents, and teachers). The sample comprised 247 8-12-year-old children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Personality and attachment contribute to the different domains of adjustment. In cases of moderation, attachment security moderates the implications of personality traits on children's adjustment. The findings highlight the contribution of positive personality tendencies in playing down the difficulties of insecurely attached children.

  11. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale...... and reflective functioning will be described and implications for psychotherapy discussed. Keywords: Adult attachment, reflective functioning, refugee traumatisation....

  12. Cadmium (II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace cadmium from environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nan; Hu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ion imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace Cd(II). Highlights: ► Ion imprinted polymers were proposed as the coating for SBSE for the first time. ► Cd(II) imprinted MPTS-silica coating was prepared by a double-imprinting concept. ► A novel method of SBSE–ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Cd in waters. ► This method is rapid, selective, sensitive and applicable for determining trace Cd(II) in waters. - Abstract: Cd(II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS)-silica coated stir bar was prepared by sol–gel technique combining with a double-imprinting concept for the first time and was employed for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of trace Cd(II) from water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. A tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) coating was first in situ created on the glass bar surface. Afterward, a sol solution containing MPTS as the functional precursor, ethanol as the solvent and both Cd(II) and surfactant micelles (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as the template was again coated on the TMOS bar. The structures of the stir bar coating were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. Round-bottom vial was used for the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE to avoid abrasion of stir bar coatings. The factors affecting the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE such as pH, stirring rate and time, sample/elution volume and interfering ions have been investigated in detail, and the optimized experimental parameters were obtained. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacities of non-imprinted and imprinted coating stir bars were found to be 0.5 μg and 0.8 μg bar −1 . The detection limit (3σ) based on three times standard deviations of the method blanks by 7 replicates was 4.40 ng L −1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.38% (c = 1 μg L −1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied for the

  13. Cadmium (II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace cadmium from environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Nan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-04-20

    Graphical abstract: Ion imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace Cd(II). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ion imprinted polymers were proposed as the coating for SBSE for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd(II) imprinted MPTS-silica coating was prepared by a double-imprinting concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method of SBSE-ICP-MS was developed for the determination of Cd in waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method is rapid, selective, sensitive and applicable for determining trace Cd(II) in waters. - Abstract: Cd(II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS)-silica coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel technique combining with a double-imprinting concept for the first time and was employed for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of trace Cd(II) from water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. A tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) coating was first in situ created on the glass bar surface. Afterward, a sol solution containing MPTS as the functional precursor, ethanol as the solvent and both Cd(II) and surfactant micelles (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as the template was again coated on the TMOS bar. The structures of the stir bar coating were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. Round-bottom vial was used for the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE to avoid abrasion of stir bar coatings. The factors affecting the extraction of Cd(II) by SBSE such as pH, stirring rate and time, sample/elution volume and interfering ions have been investigated in detail, and the optimized experimental parameters were obtained. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacities of non-imprinted and imprinted coating stir bars were found to be 0.5 {mu}g and 0.8 {mu}g bar{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma}) based on three times standard deviations of the method blanks by 7 replicates was 4.40 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard

  14. Air-assisted Liquid Liquid Microextraction Combined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amount of Co(II and Ni(II Ions in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of cobalt (II and nickel (II ions in water samples by air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. In the proposed method, much less volume of an organic solvent was used as the extraction solvent in the absence of disperser solvent. Fine organic droplets were formed by sucking and injecting of the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent with a syringe for several times in a conical test tube. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analytes in the sedimented phase were determined by GFAAS. Several variables that could affect the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Calibration graphs were linear in the range of 6.5-100 ng L-1. Detection limits for Co and Ni were 2.3 ng L-1 and 3 ng L-1, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was checked by analyzing NRCC-SLRS4 Riverine water as a certified reference material. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of cobalt (II and nickel (II ions in tap, surface and river water samples.

  15. Speciation of Mn(II), Mn(VII) and total manganese in water and food samples by coprecipitation-atomic absorption spectrometry combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    A speciation procedure based on the coprecipitation of manganese(II) with zirconium(IV) hydroxide has been developed for the investigation of levels of manganese species. The determination of manganese levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Total manganese was determined after the reduction of Mn(VII) to Mn(II) by ascorbic acid. The analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc., were investigated for the quantitative recoveries of manganese(II). The effects of matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries for manganese(II) were in the range of 95-98%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 50. The detection limit for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n = 21) was 0.75 μg L -1 for Mn(II). The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 7%. The validation of the presented procedure was performed by analysis of certified reference material having different matrices, NIST SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and NIST SRM 1568a (Rice Flour). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples.

  16. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  17. Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  19. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  20. Influencias del apego a la madre en el vínculo con los pares en la adolescencia: Diferencias entre una muestra femenina clínica y no clínica Influences of mother attachment into peer relationship during adolescence: Difference between a clinical and non-clinical female sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica C. Vega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone indagar tipos de apego a madre y pares en 83 mujeres de 12 a 18 años (Media: 14,63 años, DS 1,20 con Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (n=30 y sin ellos (n=53 y analizar si el tipo de apego a madre se repite en pares. Se utilizó durante la fase clínica de un estudio bietápico (UBACyT 2008-2010, el Inventario de Apego a Padres y Pares (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987. Resultados: Los grupos clínico y control se diferencian significativamente en el apego a la madre (p The present study examines attachment types to mother and peer in eighty-three women of 12 -18 years old (Media:14,63 years, SD 1,20 with Eating Disorders (n=30 and without them (n=53. In order to research repeated tendencies in types of attachment to mother and peer, in 2009, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987 was self-reported during the clinical phase of a two phases study (UBACyT 2008-2010. Results: Clinical and control groups present significantly differences in mother scale (p < .001, but marginal ones in peer scale. At the same time, inluences of mother attachment into peers´ were found. Conclusions: Results conirm the ethio-pathogenic relationship between mother-daughter in eating disorders but even there are tendencies repeated in both attachment mother-daughter, statistical indings are not enough to assure that insecure attachment with mother replicates with peer. Same study in a bigger sample should be done to conirm so.

  1. Separation/preconcentration of silver(I) and lead(II) in environmental samples on cellulose nitrate membrane filter prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Cay, Rukiye Sungur

    2007-01-01

    An enrichment method for trace amounts of Ag(I) and Pb(II) has been established prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The preconcentration/separation procedure is based on chelate formation of Ag(I) and Pb(II) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and on retention of the chelates on cellulose nitrate membrane filter. The influences of some analytical parameters including pH and amounts of reagent, etc. on the recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of interferic ions on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were also examined. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 11) were 4.6 μg L -1 for silver(I) and 15.3 μg L -1 for lead(II). The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of the determinations for analyte ions were below 3%. The method was applied to environmental samples for the determination of analyte ions with satisfactory results (recoveries >95%)

  2. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  3. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  4. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  5. Love attitudes and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...

  6. Studies of zinc(II in pharmaceutical and biological samples by extractive spectrophotometry: using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone as chelating reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma L. Subramanyam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of zinc(II. PPT reacts with zinc(II in the pH range 5.0-6.0 to form a yellow colored complex, which was well extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of Zn(II-PPT complex was measured at different intervals of time at 430 nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. It was observed that the color development was instantaneous and stable for more than 48 h. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 6.0 µg mL-1 of zinc(II, with an excellent linearity in terms of correlation coefficient value of 0.999. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species is 1.6 X 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1 and 4.085 X 10-3 µg cm-2 at 430 nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.04 µg mL-1. To assess precision of the method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations; the relative standard deviation does not exceed 3.1%. The composition of the zinc(II complex with PPT was studied by the method of Job's continuous variation, molar ratio method, Asmus' method and slope ratio method. It has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of zinc(II, when present alone or in presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with zinc(II in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Various certified reference materials (NIST 1573, NBS 1572 and NIST SRM 8435 have been tested for the determination of zinc for evaluating the accuracy of the developed method. The results of the proposed method are in agreement with flame atomic absorption spectometry.

  7. Emulsification based dispersive liquid microextraction prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the sensitive determination of Cd(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Banan, Alireza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Nazari, Zakieh; Asghari, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We report on the application of emulsification-based dispersive liquid micro extraction (EB-DLME) to the preconcentration of Cd(II). This procedure not only possesses all the advantages of routine DLLME, but also results in a more stable cloudy state which is particularly useful when coupling it to FAAS. In EB-DLME, appropriate amounts of the extraction solvent (a solution of dithizone in chloroform) and an aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; acting as a disperser) are injected into the samples. A stable cloudy microemulsion is formed and Cd(II) ion is extracted by chelation. After phase separation, the sedimented phase is subjected to FAAS. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve for Cd(II) is linear in the range from 0.1 to 25 μg L −1 , the limit of detection (at S/N = 3) is 30 pg L −1 , the relative standard deviations for seven replicate analyses (at 0.56 μg L −1 of Cd(II)) is 4.6 %, and the enrichment factor is 151. EB-DLME in our opinion is a simple, efficient and rapid method for the preconcentration of Cd(II) (and most likely of many other ions) prior to FAAS determination. (author)

  8. Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; St-Laurent, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Examined longitudinally the association between attachment at age 6 and school-related cognitive functioning 2 years later in a French Canadian sample. Found that secure children had higher scores than insecure peers on communication, cognitive engagement, and mastery motivation. Controlling children were at greatest risk for school…

  9. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  10. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  11. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  12. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  13. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  15. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  16. Prediction of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Score Using Acoustic Measurements in a Sample of Iium Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri Zanil, Muhamad; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Azam, Huda

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatrist currently relies on questionnaires and interviews for psychological assessment. These conservative methods often miss true positives and might lead to death, especially in cases where a patient might be experiencing suicidal predisposition but was only diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD). With modern technology, an assessment tool might aid psychiatrist with a more accurate diagnosis and thus hope to reduce casualty. This project will explore on the relationship between speech features of spoken audio signal (reading) in Bahasa Malaysia with the Beck Depression Inventory scores. The speech features used in this project were Power Spectral Density (PSD), Mel-frequency Ceptral Coefficients (MFCC), Transition Parameter, formant and pitch. According to analysis, the optimum combination of speech features to predict BDI-II scores include PSD, MFCC and Transition Parameters. The linear regression approach with sequential forward/backward method was used to predict the BDI-II scores using reading speech. The result showed 0.4096 mean absolute error (MAE) for female reading speech. For male, the BDI-II scores successfully predicted 100% less than 1 scores difference with MAE of 0.098437. A prediction system called Depression Severity Evaluator (DSE) was developed. The DSE managed to predict one out of five subjects. Although the prediction rate was low, the system precisely predict the score within the maximum difference of 4.93 for each person. This demonstrates that the scores are not random numbers.

  17. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  18. Dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II from environmental water and vegetable samples with ionic liquid modified graphene oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollahpour Atefeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dispersive solid phase micro-extraction (dispersive-SPME method for separation and preconcentration of mercury(II using ionic liquid modified magnetic reduced graphene oxide (IL-MrGO nanoparticles, prior to the measurement by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS has been developed. The IL-MrGO composite was characterized by Brunauer– Emmett–Teller method (BET for adsorption-desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The method is based on the sorption of mercury( II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles due to electrostatic interaction and complex formation of ionic liquid part of IL-MrGO with mercury(II. The effect of experimental parameters for preconcentration of mercury(II, such as solution type, concentration and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, amount of the sorbent and coexisting ion concentration have been optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.08–10 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 0.01 ng mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 3.4 and 4.5 %, respectively. The dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully used for extraction and determination of mercury(II in water and vegetable samples.

  19. SPE coupled to AAS trace determination of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in food samples using amine functionalized GMA-MMA-EGDMA terpolymer: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Kumar, Suneel; Zaidi, Noushi; Ahmad, Hilal

    2016-12-15

    An ethylenediamine functionalized glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) based terpolymeric chelating resin was synthesized for the separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by SPE from bread, rice and fruit juice prior to FAAS determination. The resin was characterized by FT-IR, TGA/DTA, SEM, BET analysis and EDS. Synthesized resin shows a good capacity of 53.96mgg(-1) for Cd(II) and 24.19mgg(-1) for Zn(II) at pH 8.0. Five isotherm equilibrium models were studied to explain the sorption phenomenon out of which Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Scatchard and Temkin models were found to be the best fitted. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were observed to be 1.5 and 5.1μgL(-1) for Cd and 1.2 and 4.1μgL(-1) for Zn. The reliability of the method was investigated by the analysis of SRM and the recovery of analytes from various spiked food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study, and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that impact ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of media testing. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetlands. This plan will be implemented as part of the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Best Management Practices Plan and in conjunction with the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Health and Safety Plan and the BCV Phase II Treatability Study Waste Management Plan

  1. A two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation and subgroup analysis for phase II binary response trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Carlin, Bradley P

    2013-11-01

    Frequentist sample size determination for binary outcome data in a two-arm clinical trial requires initial guesses of the event probabilities for the two treatments. Misspecification of these event rates may lead to a poor estimate of the necessary sample size. In contrast, the Bayesian approach that considers the treatment effect to be random variable having some distribution may offer a better, more flexible approach. The Bayesian sample size proposed by (Whitehead et al., 2008) for exploratory studies on efficacy justifies the acceptable minimum sample size by a "conclusiveness" condition. In this work, we introduce a new two-stage Bayesian design with sample size reestimation at the interim stage. Our design inherits the properties of good interpretation and easy implementation from Whitehead et al. (2008), generalizes their method to a two-sample setting, and uses a fully Bayesian predictive approach to reduce an overly large initial sample size when necessary. Moreover, our design can be extended to allow patient level covariates via logistic regression, now adjusting sample size within each subgroup based on interim analyses. We illustrate the benefits of our approach with a design in non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a simple binary covariate (patient gender), offering an initial step toward within-trial personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  3. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture

  4. Voltammetric determination of sudan ii in food samples at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, X.; Chen, M.; Chao, M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Herein, a novel electrochemical method was de veloped for the determination of Sudan II based on the electrochemical catalytic activity of graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (GME) and the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In a pH 6.0 phosphate buffer solution, Sudan II exhibited a pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks at the GME in the presence of 5.0x10/sup -5/ mol L/sup 1/ SDS. The oxidation peak current of Sudan II was linearly proportional to its concentration in a range from 4.0x10/sup -8/ to 4.0x10/sup -6/ mol L/sup 1/, with a linear regression equation of ipa (A) = 3.35 c + 5.96 x 10/sup -6/, r = 0.9988 and a detection limit of 8.0x10/sup -9/ mol L/sup 1/. The recoveries from the standards fortified blank samples were in the range of 94.7% to 97.5% with RSD lower than 4.0%. The novel method has been successfully used to determine Sudan II in food products with satisfactory results. (author)

  5. Metal-poor dwarf galaxies in the SIGRID galaxy sample. II. The electron temperature-abundance calibration and the parameters that affect it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Jerjen, Helmut; Kewley, Lisa J., E-mail: David.Nicholls@anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd., Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-07-20

    In this paper, we use the Mappings photoionization code to explore the physical parameters that impact on the measurement of electron temperature and abundance in H II regions. In our previous paper, we presented observations and measurements of physical properties from the spectra of 17 H II regions in 14 isolated dwarf irregular galaxies from the SIGRID sample. Here, we analyze these observations further, together with three additional published data sets. We explore the effects of optical thickness, electron density, ionization parameter, ionization source, and non-equilibrium effects on the relation between electron temperature and metallicity. We present a standard model that fits the observed data remarkably well at metallicities between one-tenth and 1 solar. We investigate the effects of optically thin H II regions, and show that they can have a considerable effect on the measured electron temperature, and that there is evidence that some of the observed objects are optically thin. We look at the role of the ionization parameter and find that lower ionization parameter values give better fits at higher oxygen abundance. We show that higher pressures combined with low optical depth, and also κ electron energy distributions at low κ values, can generate the apparent high electron temperatures in low-metallicity H II regions, and that the former provides the better fit to observations. We examine the effects of these parameters on the strong line diagnostic methods. We extend this to three-dimensional diagnostic grids to confirm how well the observations are described by the grids.

  6. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  7. Ceramic blade attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  8. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  9. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  10. Parental Behaviors and Beliefs, Child Temperament, and Attachment Disorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Cox, Martha J.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Snyder, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This research examined alternative mechanisms in the etiology of attachment disorganization. The authors hypothesized that negative intrusive parenting would significantly predict children's attachment disorganization at age 12 months within a diverse community sample. Of more substantial interest, the authors tested moderational mechanisms in the…

  11. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored.

  12. Recoil Reactions in Neutron-Activation Analysis. The Szilard-Chalmers Effect Applied in the Analysis of Biological Samples; II. Transfer of Activities from Container Material to Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1965-01-15

    The present investigation consists of two parts. The one part concerns the application of the Szilard-Chalmers effect in the separation of activities from neutron-irradiated biological material. The nuclides As-76, Au-198, Br-82, Ca-47, Cd-115, Cl-38, Co-60, Cr-51, Cs-134, Cu-64, Fe-59, Mg-27, Mo-99, Na-24, P-32, Rb-86, Se-75 and Zn-65 were extracted from either liver tissue, whole blood or muscle tissue. The extractions were made in water, 0.1 N HCl, 1 N HCl or conc. HCl respectively. The nuclides belonging to the alkali metals together with Br and Cl, were found present in the water and hydrochloric extracts to 96 per cent or more. In the conc. HCl extracts, the greater part of the nuclides were recovered to 90 per cent or more. The enrichment of the different nuclides obtained in the Szilard-Chalmers process was investigated as follows. After extraction of the nuclides from the irradiated material the solution obtained was divided into two parts, one of which was reactivated. The specific activities of the nuclides in the two solutions were then compared, thus giving the enrichment factor In one case, the residue of organic material after extraction was reactivated and the activity compared to the initial one. The effect of dilution together with the application of short irradiation periods favouring higher yield was investigated in the separation of Fe-59 from whole blood samples irradiated in frozen conditions. The other part of the investigation concerns an estimation of the amounts of the activities originating from polyethylene and quartz containers transferred to container surface due to the recoil effect in the thermal neutron-capture process, thus causing contamination of the sample. The universal range-energy relationship given by Lindhard and Scharff has been applied in these calculations. As regards containers with impurities in the ppm region, the amounts of activities transferred owing to this effect were found to be quite negligible. However, when

  13. Heat transfer through the flat surface of Rutherford superconducting cable samples with novel pattern of electrical insulation immersed in He II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.

    2014-05-01

    Future accelerator magnets will be exposed to heat loads that exceed even by an order of magnitude presently observed heat fluxes transferred to superconducting magnet coils. To avoid the resistive transition of the superconducting cables, the efficiency of heat transfer between the magnet structure and the helium must be significantly increased. This can be achieved through the use of novel concepts of the cable’s electrical insulation wrapping, characterized by an enhanced permeability to helium while retaining sufficient electrical resistivity. This paper presents measurement results of the heat transfer through Rutherford NbTi cable samples immersed in a He II bath and subjected to the pressure loads simulating the counteracting of the Lorentz forces observed in powered magnets. The Rutherford cable samples that were tested used different electrical insulation wrapping schemes, including the scheme that is presently used and the proposed scheme for future LHC magnets. A new porous polyimide cable insulation with enhanced helium permeability was proposed in order to improve the evacuation of heat form the NbTi coil to He II bath. These tests were performed in a dedicated Claudet-type cryostat in pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 1 bar.

  14. SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST SAMPLE OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE AND CORRELATIONS WITH HOST-GALAXY SPECTRAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Rachel C.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Fischer, John A.; March, Marisa C.; Fischer, Johanna-Laina; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Smith, Mathew; Kessler, Rick; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Campbell, Heather; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Richmond, Michael; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Using the largest single-survey sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) to date, we study the relationship between properties of SNe Ia and those of their host galaxies, focusing primarily on correlations with Hubble residuals (HRs). Our sample consists of 345 photometrically classified or spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia discovered as part of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-SNS). This analysis utilizes host-galaxy spectroscopy obtained during the SDSS-I/II spectroscopic survey and from an ancillary program on the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey that obtained spectra for nearly all host galaxies of SDSS-II SN candidates. In addition, we use photometric host-galaxy properties from the SDSS-SNS data release such as host stellar mass and star formation rate. We confirm the well-known relation between HR and host-galaxy mass and find a 3.6 σ significance of a nonzero linear slope. We also recover correlations between HR and host-galaxy gas-phase metallicity and specific star formation rate as they are reported in the literature. With our large data set, we examine correlations between HR and multiple host-galaxy properties simultaneously and find no evidence of a significant correlation. We also independently analyze our spectroscopically confirmed and photometrically classified SNe Ia and comment on the significance of similar combined data sets for future surveys.

  15. A dispersive liquid--liquid microextraction methodology for copper (II) in environmental samples prior to determination using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II). 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) was used to form a hydrophobic complex of Cu(II) ions in the aqueous phase before extraction. To extract the Cu(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex from the aqueous phase to the organic phase, 2.0 mL of acetone as a disperser solvent and 200 microL of chloroform as an extraction solvent were used. The influences of important analytical parameters, such as the pH, types and volumes of the extraction and disperser solvents, amount of chelating agent, sample volume, and matrix effects, on the microextraction procedure were evaluated and optimized. Using the optimal conditions, the LOD, LOQ, preconcentration factor, and RSD were determined to be 1.4 microg/L, 4.7 microg/L, 120, and 6.5%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was investigated using standard addition/recovery tests. The analysis of certified reference materials produced satisfactory analytical results. The developed method was applied for the determination of Cu in real samples.

  16. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  17. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project. II. Radio observations of an intermediate redshift cluster sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Aviles, G.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Ferrari, C.; Venturi, T.; Democles, J.; Dallacasa, D.; Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Aghanim, N.; Brown, S.; Douspis, M.; Hurier, J.; Intema, H. T.; Langer, M.; Macario, G.; Pointecouteau, E.

    2018-04-01

    Aim. A fraction of galaxy clusters host diffuse radio sources whose origins are investigated through multi-wavelength studies of cluster samples. We investigate the presence of diffuse radio emission in a sample of seven galaxy clusters in the largely unexplored intermediate redshift range (0.3 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A94

  18. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  19. Application of a DNA-based luminescence switch-on method for the detection of mercury(II) ions in water samples from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Fu, Wai-Chung; Shiu-Hin Chan, Daniel; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that damages the endocrine and central nervous systems. In view of the contamination of Hong Kong territorial waters with anthropogenic pollutants such as trace heavy metals, we have investigated the application of our recently developed DNA-based luminescence methodology for the rapid and sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in real water samples. The assay was applied to water samples from Shing Mun River, Nam Sang Wai and Lamma Island sea water, representing natural river, wetland and sea water media, respectively. The results showed that the system could function effectively in real water samples under conditions of low turbidity and low metal ion concentrations. However, high turbidity and high metal ion concentrations increased the background signal and reduced the performance of this assay.

  20. An encounter between 4e cognition and attachment theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, Dean

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores a constructive revision of the conceptual underpinnings of Attachment Theory through an encounter with the diverse elements of 4e cognition. Attachment relationships involve the development of preference for one or a few carers and expectations about their availability and responsiveness as a haven of safety and a base from which to explore. In attachment theory, mental representations have been assigned a central organising role in explaining attachment phenomena. The 4e cognition approaches in cognitive science raise a number of questions about the development and interplay of attachment and cognition. These include: (1) the nature of what Bowlby called 'internal working models of attachment'; (2) the extent to which the infant-carer dyad functions as an extension of the infant's mind; and (3) whether Bowlby's attachment control system concept can be usefully re-framed in enactive terms where traditional cognitivist representations are: (3i) substituted for sensorimotor skill-focused mediating representations; (3ii) viewed as arising from autopoietic living organisms; and/or (3iii) mostly composed from the non-contentful mechanisms of basic minds? A theme that cross-cuts these research questions is how representations for capturing meaning, and structures for adaptive control, are both required to explain the full range of behaviour of interest to Attachment Theory researchers.

  1. Measurement of the cross section for prompt isolated diphoton production using the full CDF run II data sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; De Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Sorin, V; Song, H; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2013-03-08

    This Letter reports a measurement of the cross section for producing pairs of central prompt isolated photons in proton-antiproton collisions at a total energy sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV using data corresponding to 9.5 fb(-1) integrated luminosity collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measured differential cross section is compared to three calculations derived from the theory of strong interactions. These include a prediction based on a leading order matrix element calculation merged with a parton shower model, a next-to-leading order calculation, and a next-to-next-to-leading order calculation. The first and last calculations reproduce most aspects of the data, thus showing the importance of higher-order contributions for understanding the theory of strong interaction and improving measurements of the Higgs boson and searches for new phenomena in diphoton final states.

  2. [Real-time quantification to analyze historical Colombian samples detecting a short fragment of hypervariable region II of mitochondrial DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luz Adriana; Rodríguez, Freddy; Langebaek, Carl Henrik; Groot, Helena

    2016-09-01

    Unlike other molecular biology studies, the analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) requires special infrastructure and methodological conditions to guarantee the quality of the results. One of the main authenticity criteria is DNA quantification, where quantitative real-time PCR is often used given its sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, the implementation of these conditions and methodologies to fulfill authenticity criteria imply higher costs. Objective: To develop a simple and less costly method for mitochondrial DNA quantification suitable for highly degraded samples. Materials and methods: The proposed method is based on the use of mini-primers for the specific amplification of short fragments of mitochondrial DNA. The subsequent purification of these amplified fragments allows a standard curve to be constructed with concentrations in accordance to the state of degradation of the samples. Results: The proposed method successfully detected DNA from ancient samples including bone remains and mummified tissue. DNA inhibitory substances were also detected. Conclusion: The proposed method represents a simpler and cost-effective way to detect low amounts of aDNA, and a tool to differentiate DNA-free samples from samples with inhibitory substances.

  3. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  4. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Nagano, Takatoshi; Hu, Jan Cc; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Simmer, James P

    2011-02-03

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB) and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were tentatively assigned at Thr200, Thr216 and Thr

  5. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  6. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  7. Time-dependent importance sampling in semiclassical initial value representation calculations for time correlation functions. II. A simplified implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H

    2012-09-28

    An efficient time-dependent (TD) Monte Carlo (MC) importance sampling method has recently been developed [G. Tao and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 024104 (2011)] for the evaluation of time correlation functions using the semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) methodology. In this TD-SC-IVR method, the MC sampling uses information from both time-evolved phase points as well as their initial values, and only the "important" trajectories are sampled frequently. Even though the TD-SC-IVR was shown in some benchmark examples to be much more efficient than the traditional time-independent sampling method (which uses only initial conditions), the calculation of the SC prefactor-which is computationally expensive, especially for large systems-is still required for accepted trajectories. In the present work, we present an approximate implementation of the TD-SC-IVR method that is completely prefactor-free; it gives the time correlation function as a classical-like magnitude function multiplied by a phase function. Application of this approach to flux-flux correlation functions (which yield reaction rate constants) for the benchmark H + H(2) system shows very good agreement with exact quantum results. Limitations of the approximate approach are also discussed.

  8. Interferences in place attachment: implications for wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Sharpe; Alan W. Ewert

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on place attachment has tended to focus on attachment formation, with relatively little attention given to factors that disrupt or interfere with formed place attachments. Interferences to attachments are a worthy research area for two reasons: 1) The factors of place attachment are often more salient when being disrupted, and 2) place attachment...

  9. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  10. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  11. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  12. Estimated neutron-activation data for TFTR. Part II. Biological dose rate from sample-materials activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1982-06-01

    The neutron induced material activation dose rate data are summarized for the TFTR operation. This report marks the completion of the second phase of the systematic study of the activation problem on the TFTR. The estimations of the neutron induced activation dose rates were made for spherical and slab objects, based on a point kernel method, for a wide range of materials. The dose rates as a function of cooling time for standard samples are presented for a number of typical neutron spectrum expected during TFTR DD and DT operations. The factors which account for the variations of the pulsing history, the characteristic size of the object and the distance of observation relative to the standard samples are also presented

  13. Response to Skinner, et al. on "National personality characteristics: II. Adaption-innovation in Canadian, American, and British samples".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Iwan

    2005-08-01

    Skinner, et al. interpreted as significant the difference between means for Canadian men and women on Kirton's inventory and those for British and American samples. The means were similar to prior values. Skinner, et al.'s groups were large and composed of very unequal numbers of men and women, which factors could account for their interpretation. As reported, their analysis is insufficient to interpret very small mean variations as differences in national character.

  14. On the Importance of Accounting for Competing Risks in Pediatric Brain Cancer: II. Regression Modeling and Sample Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Bee-Choo; Grundy, Richard; Machin, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately model the cumulative need for radiotherapy in trials designed to delay or avoid irradiation among children with malignant brain tumor, it is crucial to account for competing events and evaluate how each contributes to the timing of irradiation. An appropriate choice of statistical model is also important for adequate determination of sample size. Methods and Materials: We describe the statistical modeling of competing events (A, radiotherapy after progression; B, no radiotherapy after progression; and C, elective radiotherapy) using proportional cause-specific and subdistribution hazard functions. The procedures of sample size estimation based on each method are outlined. These are illustrated by use of data comparing children with ependymoma and other malignant brain tumors. The results from these two approaches are compared. Results: The cause-specific hazard analysis showed a reduction in hazards among infants with ependymoma for all event types, including Event A (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.28). Conversely, the subdistribution hazard analysis suggested an increase in hazard for Event A (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-2.30), but the reduction in hazards for Events B and C remained. Analysis based on subdistribution hazard requires a larger sample size than the cause-specific hazard approach. Conclusions: Notable differences in effect estimates and anticipated sample size were observed between methods when the main event showed a beneficial effect whereas the competing events showed an adverse effect on the cumulative incidence. The subdistribution hazard is the most appropriate for modeling treatment when its effects on both the main and competing events are of interest.

  15. Reactivity and neutron emission measurements of burnt PWR fuel rod samples in LWR-PROTEUS phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Brogli, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H. D.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the reactivity effects and the neutron emission rates of uranium oxide and mixed oxide burnt fuel samples having a wide range of burnup values and coming from a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). The reactivity measurements have been made in a PWR lattice moderated in turn with: water, a water and heavy water mixture, and water containing boron. An interesting relationship has been found between the neutron emission rate and the measured reactivity. (authors)

  16. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  18. THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ∼15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ∼35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from –2.9 to –3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < –3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< – 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] ∼< –3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ∼500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

  19. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  20. Studying the relationship between the styles of attachment, drug addiction and psychological profile of addicts in comparison with non-addicts (in self-introduced centers of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Emphasizing on effective factors in drug dependency and multiple drug relapse, is probably related to formation of personality models. These models are heavily affected by development orientation personality. Various researches show that attachment as a development factor has a decisive role in forming personality models. Hence, in one hand, the present research evaluates the relationship between attachment styles and drug dependency and ,in the other hand, it addresses the relationship between attachment /drug addiction and psychological profile. The statistical community of this research consists of all male referrals to self-introduced centers in Bushehr province in summer 1381. The sample group consists 100 individuals of this community and comparison group cnosists another 100 individuals who had no history of drug abuse. They were controlled by counterpart variables. The tools of this research are MCMI-II and adults’ attachment questionnaire. The satisfaction of validity and reliabilty of research literature are reported. Apllied statistical methods include χ² statistical test and profile analysis. To compare the individual distribution based on attachment style, χ² test is obtained meaningfully in P<0/05 level. Also, the results of profile analysis for evaluating the effect of drug addiction and attachment style on psychological profile is meaningful in P<0/01 level. In summary, the research shows that there is a relationship between attachment style and drug addiction as well as between attachment/addiction and psychological profile.

  1. Visual detection of copper(II) ions in blood samples by controlling the leaching of protein-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Fei; Deng, Ting-Wei; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Wei, Tsao-Yen; Roy, Prathik; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2012-04-21

    We have developed a simple, low-cost, paper-based probe for the selective colorimetric detection of copper ions (Cu(2+)) in aqueous solutions. The bovine serum albumin (BSA)-modified 13.3-nm Au nanoparticle (BSA-Au NP) probe was designed to detect Cu(2+) ions using lead ions (Pb(2+)) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 12.0) solution. In addition, a nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) was used to trap the BSA-Au NPs, leading to the preparation of a nanocomposite film consisting of a BSA-Au NP-decorated membrane (BSA-Au NPs/NCM). The BSA-Au NPs probe operates on the principle that Cu deposition on the surface of the BSA-Au NPs inhibits their leaching ability, which is accelerated by Pb(2+) ions in the presence of 2-ME. Under optimal solution conditions (5 mM glycine-NaOH (pH 12.0), Pb(2+) (50 μM), and 2-ME (1.0 M)), the Pb(2+)/2-ME-BSA-Au NPs/NCM enabled the detection of Cu(2+) at nanomolar concentrations in aqueous solutions by the naked eye with high selectivity (at least 100-fold over other metal ions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed for the rapid and simple determination of Cu(2+) ions in not only natural water samples but also in a complex biological sample (in this case, blood sample).

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  3. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  4. [Attachment Representation and Emotion Regulation in Patients with Burnout Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Characterization of L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots and application to test Cu(II) deficiency in biological samples from critically ill patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáez, Laura; Molina, Jorge; Florea, Daniela I.; Planells, Elena M. [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Cabeza, M. Carmen [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Quintero, Bartolomé, E-mail: bqosso@ugr.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We examinate stability of L-cysteine capped CdTe QD. •Factors influence QD fluorescence response are controlled. •Application in copper deficiency analysis is made. •We report comparison with other techniques. -- Abstract: The catalytic activity of copper ion gives, from the physiological point of view, a central role in many biological processes. Variations in the composition and location of cellular copper have been addressed given their physiological and pathological consequences. In this paper L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots is used for the fluorimetric determination of Cu(II) in biological samples from healthy individuals and patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICU). An acceptable homogeneity in the CdTe QDs size has been obtained with an average value of 3 nm. No significant alterations in the spectral properties were observed for 2 months when stored in vacutainers at 6 °C and a concentration of approximately 2 μM. Data from oxidative stress markers such superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage can be correlated with a Cu(II) deficiency for the ICU patients as measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Aqueous solutions 0.3 μM of L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs in MOPS buffer (6 mM, pH 7.4) used at 21 °C in the range 15–60 min after preparation of the sample for the measurements of fluorescence gives contents in Cu(II) for erythrocytes in good agreement with those obtained in FAAS and ICP-MS but the comparative ease of use makes the fluorimetric technique more suitable than the other two techniques for routine analysis.

  6. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solid-phase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples.

  7. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solidphase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples

  8. Polymeric membrane sensors based on Cd(II) Schiff base complexes for selective iodide determination in environmental and medicinal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Mehtab, Sameena

    2008-01-15

    The two cadmium chelates of schiff bases, N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,4-diaminobutane, (Cd-S(1)) and N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-3,4-diaminotoluene (Cd-S(2)), have been synthesized and explored as ionophores for preparing PVC-based membrane sensors selective to iodide(I) ion. Potentiometric investigations indicate high affinity of these receptors for iodide ion. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based membranes of Cd-S(1) and Cd-S(2) using as hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) cation discriminator and o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), dibutylphthalate (DBP), acetophenone (AP) and tributylphosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as iodide-selective sensors. The best performance was shown by the membrane of composition (w/w) of (Cd-S(1)) (7%):PVC (31%):DBP (60%):HTAB (2%). The sensor works well over a wide concentration range 5.3x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-2)M with Nernstian compliance (59.2mVdecade(-1) of activity) within pH range 2.5-9.0 with a response time of 11s and showed good selectivity for iodide ion over a number of anions. The sensor exhibits adequate life (3 months) with good reproducibility (S.D.+/-0.24mV) and could be used successfully for the determination of iodide content in environmental water samples and mouth wash samples.

  9. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  10. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  11. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  12. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  13. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  14. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  15. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from ATLANTIS II in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1981-06-12 to 1981-07-08 (NODC Accession 0117713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117713 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ATLANTIS II in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1981-06-12 to...

  17. A spectroscopic survey of the youngest field stars in the solar neighborhood . II. The optically faint sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Guillout, P.; Klutsch, A.; Ferrero, R. Freire; Marilli, E.; Biazzo, K.; Gandolfi, D.; Montes, D.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Star formation in the solar neighborhood is mainly traced by young stars in open clusters, associations, and in the field, which can be identified, for example, by their X-ray emission. The determination of stellar parameters for the optical counterparts of X-ray sources is crucial for a full characterization of these stars. Aims: This work extends the spectroscopic study of the RasTyc sample, obtained by the cross-correlation of the Tycho and ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalogs, to stars fainter than V = 9.5 mag and aims to identify sparse populations of young stars in the solar neighborhood. Methods: We acquired 625 high-resolution spectra for 443 presumably young stars with four different instruments in the northern hemisphere. The radial and rotational velocity (vsini) of our targets were measured by means of the cross-correlation technique, which is also helpful to discover single-lined (SB1), double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2), and multiple systems. We used the code ROTFIT to perform an MK spectral classification and to determine the atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) and vsini of the single stars and SB1 systems. For these objects, we used the spectral subtraction of slowly rotating templates to measure the equivalent widths of the Hα and Li I 6708 Å lines, which enabled us to derive their chromospheric activity level and lithium abundance. We made use of Gaia DR1 parallaxes and proper motions to locate the targets in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and to compute the space velocity components of the youngest objects. Results: We find a remarkable percentage (at least 35%) of binaries and multiple systems. On the basis of the lithium abundance, the sample of single stars and SB1 systems appears to be mostly ( 60%) composed of stars younger than the members of the UMa cluster. The remaining sources are in the age range between the UMa and Hyades clusters ( 20%) or older ( 20%). In total, we identify 42 very young (PMS-like) stars

  18. A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Serena Cherry; Sadler, Lois S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review attachment theory and relate the attachment perspective to adolescent mothers and their children. Attachment theory explains positive maternal-infant attachment as a dyadic relationship between the infant and mother that provides the infant with a secure base from which to explore the world. With respect to cognitive, social, and behavioral domains, securely attached infants tend to have more favorable long-term outcomes, while insecurely attached infants are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Adolescent parenthood can disrupt normal adolescent development, and this disruption influences development of the emotional and cognitive capacities necessary for maternal behaviors that foster secure attachment. However, it appears that if specialized supports are in place to facilitate the process of developing attachment, infants of adolescent mothers can obtain higher rates of secure attachment than normative samples in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. A Sample of 14 Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ~15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ~35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ~500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. Attachment predicts cortisol response and closeness in dyadic social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Beck, Lindsey A

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how the interplay of partners' attachment styles influences cortisol response, actual closeness, and desired closeness during friendship initiation. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at four timepoints throughout either a high or low closeness task that facilitated high or low levels of self-disclosure with a potential friend (i.e., another same-sex participant). Levels of actual closeness and desired closeness following the task were measured via inclusion of other in the self. Results from multi-level modeling indicated that the interaction of both participants' attachment avoidance predicted cortisol response patterns, with participants showing the highest cortisol response when there was a mismatch between their own and their partners' attachment avoidance. Further, the interaction between both participants' attachment anxiety predicted actual closeness and desired closeness, with participants both feeling and wanting the most closeness with partners when both they and their partners were low in attachment anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  2. Attachment change processes in the early years of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, J; Karney, B R; Bradbury, T N

    1999-05-01

    The authors examined 4 models of attachment change: a contextual model, a social-cognitive model, an individual-difference model, and a diathesis-stress model. Models were examined in a sample of newlyweds over the first 2 years of marriage, using growth curve analyses. Reciprocal processes, whereby attachment representations and interpersonal life circumstances affect one another over time, also were studied. On average, newlyweds became more secure over time. However, there was significant within-subject variability on attachment change that was predicted by intra- and interpersonal factors. Attachment representations changed in response to contextual, social-cognitive, and individual-difference factors. Reciprocal processes between attachment representations and marital variables emerged, suggesting that these factors influence one another in an ongoing way.

  3. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  4. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  5. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System: integrating attachment into clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol; West, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the development and validation of the Adult Attachment Projective System (AAP), a measure we developed from the Bowlby-Ainsworth developmental tradition to assess adult attachment status. The AAP has demonstrated excellent concurrent validity with the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984/1985/1996; Main & Goldwyn, 1985-1994; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003), interjudge reliability, and test-retest reliability, with no effects of verbal intelligence or social desirability. The AAP coding and classification system and application in clinical and community samples are summarized. Finally, we introduce the 3 other articles that are part of this Special Section and discuss the use of the AAP in therapeutic assessment and treatment.

  6. 3D visualization and finite element mesh formation from wood anatomy samples, Part II – Algorithm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents new original application WOOD3D in form of program code assembling. The work extends the previous article “Part I – Theoretical approach” in detail description of implemented C++ classes of utilized projects Visualization Toolkit (VTK, Insight Toolkit (ITK and MIMX. Code is written in CMake style and it is available as multiplatform application. Currently GNU Linux (32/64b and MS Windows (32/64b platforms were released. Article discusses various filter classes for image filtering. Mainly Otsu and Binary threshold filters are classified for anatomy wood samples thresholding. Registration of images series is emphasized for difference of colour spaces compensation is included. Resulted work flow of image analysis is new methodological approach for images processing through the composition, visualization, filtering, registration and finite element mesh formation. Application generates script in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL which is fully compatible with ANSYS finite element solver and designer environment. The script includes the whole definition of unstructured finite element mesh formed by individual elements and nodes. Due to simple notation, the same script can be used for generation of geometrical entities in element positions. Such formed volumetric entities are prepared for further geometry approximation (e.g. by boolean or more advanced methods. Hexahedral and tetrahedral types of mesh elements are formed on user request with specified mesh options. Hexahedral meshes are formed both with uniform element size and with anisotropic character. Modified octree method for hexahedral mesh with anisotropic character was declared in application. Multicore CPUs in the application are supported for fast image analysis realization. Visualization of image series and consequent 3D image are realized in VTK format sufficiently known and public format, visualized in GPL application Paraview. Future work based on mesh

  7. What Are “X-shaped” Radio Sources Telling Us? II. Properties of a Sample of 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Roberts, David H.

    2018-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented Jansky Very Large Array multi-frequency, multi-array continuum imaging of a unique sample of low-axial ratio radio galaxies. In this paper, the second in the series, we examine the images to learn the phenomenology of how the off-axis emission relates to the main radio source. Inversion-symmetric offset emission appears to be bimodal and to originate from one of two strategic locations: outer ends of radio lobes (outer-deviation) or from inner ends (inner-deviation). The latter sources are almost always associated with edge-brightened sources. With S- and Z-shaped sources being a subset of outer-deviation sources, this class lends itself naturally to explanations involving black hole axis precession. Our data allow us to present a plausible model for the more enigmatic inner-deviation sources with impressive wings; as for outer-deviation sources these too require black hole axis shifts, although they also require plasma backflows into relic channels. Evolution in morphology over time relates the variety in structures in inner-deviation sources including XRGs. With features such as non-collinearities, central inner-S “spine,” corresponding lobe emission peaks, double and protruding hotspots not uncommon, black hole axis precession, drifts, or flips could be active in a significant fraction of radio sources with prominent off-axis emission. At least 4% of radio galaxies appear to undergo black hole axis rotation. Quasars offer a key signature for recognizing rotating axes. With a rich haul of sources that have likely undergone axis rotation, our work shows the usefulness of low-axial ratio sources in pursuing searches for binary supermassive black holes.

  8. Attachment sites of the coracoclavicular ligaments are characterized by fibrocartilage differentiation: a study on human cadaveric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert, B; Braunstein, V; Sprecher, C; Shinohara, Y; Kirchhoff, C; Milz, S

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the immunohistochemical labeling patterns of the extracellular matrix of the coracoclavicular ligaments (CCL) in order to relate the molecular composition of the attachment sites to their mechanical environment. Ligaments were exposed from 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric samples (four males, mean age: 48.6 ± 12.1 years). Cryosection of methanol-fixed and decalcified tissue was cut and sections were labeled with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, proteoglycans and proteins of vascular components. Attachment sites of both ligaments showed characteristic fibrocartilaginous labeling of collagen type II, aggrecan and link protein in all samples. Labeling for type II collagen was most conspicuous at the insertion of the coracoid process. Morphometry of adjacent samples revealed a fibrocartilage zone of 10-15% in relationship with the ligament proper, where labeling for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein was negative. The presence of fibrocartilage at both entheses of the trapezoid and conoid ligament suggests that the CCL complex is subject to shear/compression forces. A variable fibrocartilage differentiation at the entheses of both ligaments may be related to the marked change in loading and insertion angle that the ligaments undergo during shoulder movement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. No-migration variance petition. Volume 3, Revision 1: Appendix B, Attachments A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Volume III contains the following attachments: TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms (Appendix 2.10.12 of TRUPACT-II safety analysis report); and chemical compatibility analyses for waste forms across all sites.

  10. Attachment representation in institutionalized children: a preliminary study using the child attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  12. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  13. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  14. Japanese children's family drawings and their link to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Kaplan, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the applicability of family drawings as a tool to estimate attachment security in a sample of Japanese six-year-olds (N = 47), applying Kaplan and Main's ( 1986 ) Family Drawing system. Maternal secure/insecure attachment status judged by the Adult Attachment Interview predicted family drawings' secure/insecure distinction produced by Japanese six-year-olds. However, insecure Japanese drawings took forms not seen in the original Berkeley drawings, such as a lineup of faces alone. Further examination of the Japanese children's drawings using global rating scales (Fury, Carlson, & Sroufe, 1997 ) yielded significant gender differences, rarely reported in the attachment literature, with girls scoring higher in scales that predict attachment security and boys scoring higher in scales that predict attachment insecurity. However, attachment security, as captured in the drawings, was not related to attachment security, observed behaviorally using Main and Cassidy's ( 1988 ) sixth-year reunion system. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of measurements, gender, and culture.

  15. Validating the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II) Using Set-ESEM: Identifying Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Sample of School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Theresa; Marsh, Herbert W; Riley, Philip; Parker, Philip D; Guo, Jiesi; Horwood, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering multiple psychosocial factors identified by leading occupational stress theories. We evaluated the COPSOQ-II regarding factor structure and longitudinal, discriminant, and convergent validity using latent structural equation modeling in a large sample of Australian school principals ( N = 2,049). Results reveal that confirmatory factor analysis produced marginally acceptable model fit. A novel approach we call set exploratory structural equation modeling (set-ESEM), where cross-loadings were only allowed within a priori defined sets of factors, fit well, and was more parsimonious than a full ESEM. Further multitrait-multimethod models based on the set-ESEM confirm the importance of a principal's psychosocial risk factors; Stressors and depression were related to demands and ill-being, while confidence and autonomy were related to wellbeing. We also show that working in the private sector was beneficial for showing a low psychosocial risk, while other demographics have little effects. Finally, we identify five latent risk profiles (high risk to no risk) of school principals based on all psychosocial factors. Overall the research presented here closes the theory application gap of a strong multi-dimensional measure of psychosocial risk-factors.

  16. BOOSTING LY α   AND He ii λ 1640 LINE FLUXES FROM POPULATION III GALAXIES: STOCHASTIC IMF SAMPLING AND DEPARTURES FROM CASE-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Ly α and He ii λ 1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Ly α flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n  = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Ly α flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ∼4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  17. Boosting Lyα and He II λ1640 Line Fluxes from Population III Galaxies: Stochastic IMF Sampling and Departures from Case-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Dijkstra, Mark; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.

    2016-12-01

    We revisit calculations of nebular hydrogen Lyα and He II λ1640 line strengths for Population III (Pop III) galaxies, undergoing continuous, and bursts of, star formation. We focus on initial mass functions (IMFs) motivated by recent theoretical studies, which generally span a lower range of stellar masses than earlier works. We also account for case-B departures and the stochastic sampling of the IMF. In agreement with previous work, we find that departures from case-B can enhance the Lyα flux by a factor of a few, but we argue that this enhancement is driven mainly by collisional excitation and ionization, and not due to photoionization from the n = 2 state of atomic hydrogen. The increased sensitivity of the Lyα flux to the high-energy end of the galaxy spectrum makes it more subject to stochastic sampling of the IMF. The latter introduces a dispersion in the predicted nebular line fluxes around the deterministic value by as much as a factor of ˜4. In contrast, the stochastic sampling of the IMF has less impact on the emerging Lyman Werner photon flux. When case-B departures and stochasticity effects are combined, nebular line emission from Pop III galaxies can be up to one order of magnitude brighter than predicted by “standard” calculations that do not include these effects. This enhances the prospects for detection with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and large, ground-based telescopes.

  18. Fitting by a pearson II function of the spatial deposited energy distribution in superconducting YBaCuO samples calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Alfonso Vazquez, Onexis

    2001-01-01

    The spatial deposited energy distribution inside YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconducting ceramics irradiated with gamma rays were simulated using the codes system EGS4, based on the Monte Carlo method. The obtained distributions evidence a notable inhomogeneity, which may be one of the possible sources of inconsistent results of irradiation studies. The profiles of these distributions show asymmetrical behaviors, which may be fitted satisfactorily through a Pearson II Gamma type function. These fittings are presented in the paper and the behavior of the fitting parameters with the energy of incident photons, its number, and the experimental geometry were studied. The physical signification of each fitting parameters is discussed in the text. The exponent is related to certain mass absorption coefficient when the thick of the sample is sufficiently large

  19. Development of a portable analyzer with polymer lab-on-a-chip (LOC) for continuous sampling and monitoring of Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, A; Zou, Z; MacKnight, E; Wu, P M; Kim, I S; Ahn, C H; Bishop, P L

    2009-01-01

    A new portable analyzer with polymer lab-on-a-chip (LOC) has been designed, fabricated and fully characterized for continuous sampling and monitoring of lead (Pb(II)) in this work. As the working electrodes of the sensor, bismuth (Bi (III)) which allowed the advantage of being more environmentally friendly than traditional mercury drop electrodes was used, while maintaining similar sensitivity and other desirable characteristics. The size of a portable analyzer was 30 cmx23 cmx7 cm, and the weight was around 3 kg. The small size gives the advantage of being portable for field use while not sacrificing portability for accuracy of measurement. Furthermore, the autonomous system developed in coordination with the development of new polymer LOC integrated with electrochemical sensors can provide an innovative way to monitor surface waters in an efficient, cost-effective and sustainable manner.

  20. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  1. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  2. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  3. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  4. Trace Cd(II, Pb(II and Ni(II ions extraction and preconcentration from different water samples by using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay as a natural new adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigate presents the extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from water samples using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay or “Geleh-Sar-Shoor” (means head-washing clay as a natural and native new adsorbent in batch single element systems. The Ghezeljeh clay is categorized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer Operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, Surface property valuation (SBET by the BET method from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface area of Ghezeljeh nanoclay was computed as 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was determined as 150 meq (100 g-1. The results of XRD, FT-IR, XRF, zeta potential, BET surface area and CEC of the Ghezeljeh clay confirm that montmorillonite is the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and the adsorption capacity were obtained. The result of several interfering ions was considered. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay as a new adsorbent and experimental method were effectively used for the extraction of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel in a variety of real water samples.

  5. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of...

  7. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  8. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  9. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  10. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  11. Thyroid Function in Women after Multimodal Treatment for Breast Cancer Stage II/III: Comparison With Controls From a Population Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinertsen, Kristin Valborg; Cvancarova, Milada; Wist, Erik; Bjoro, Trine; Dahl, Alv A.; Danielsen, Turi; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A possible association between thyroid diseases (TD) and breast cancer (BC) has been debated. We examined prevalence and development of TD in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC compared with women from a general population. Secondarily, we explored the impact of two different radiotherapy (RT) techniques (standardized field arrangements vs. computed tomography [CT]-based dose planning) on TD in BC patients examined 35-120 months after primary BC treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 403 BC patients completed a questionnaire about TD and had blood samples taken for analyses of thyroid function. All had undergone postoperative RT with or without (2%) adjuvant systemic treatment. The results in the BC patients were compared with a cancer-free, age-matched control group from a general population (CGr). Results: There was higher prevalence of self-reported hypothyroidism in the BC patients as compared with the CGr (18% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). The raised prevalence was predominantly due to a substantial increase in the development of hypothyroidism after BC diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of hypothyroidism before BC diagnosis was similar to that observed in the CGr. Patients treated with CT-based RT showed a trend for increased post-BC development of hypothyroidism as compared with those treated with standardized field arrangements (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is significantly increased in women after multimodal treatment for Stage II/III BC. Radiation to the thyroid gland may be a contributing factor. BC patients should be routinely screened for hypothyroidism.

  12. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  13. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  14. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  16. A Qualitative Study on Patients' Perceptions of Two Types of Attachments for Implant Overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Marina; Bedos, Christophe; da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Fromentin, Olivier; de Albuquerque, Rubens F

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of patient perceptions of wearing implant-retained overdentures with ball-shaped or cylindrical attachment systems. Twenty-two wearers of implant-supported overdentures participated in this qualitative study based on a randomized crossover clinical trial that aimed to compare a cylindrical attachment and a ball attachment. In phase I of the study, group A experienced ball attachments (n = 11) and group B Locator attachments (n = 11) for 1 year. Afterward, in phase II, the attachments were changed; group A received Locator attachments and group B received ball attachments. One week after the attachment's replacement, semistructured individual interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The analysis was guided by thematic content analysis. Most of the patients from both groups preferred the attachment they received in phase II, regardless the type. A major theme raised by the participants to justify their preference between the attachment types was prosthesis retention/stability, sometimes considered as a positive and other times as a negative factor. Other themes were also explored: oral function, pain, hygiene, previous experiences, confidence on the dentist's work, and esthetic. Aspects related to the retention/stability of the overdentures are the main concerns associated with the perceptions of most patients treated with implant overdentures regardless of the type of attachment. Adequate retention level should be identified and adjusted on an individual basis and maintained overtime as possible. Therefore, follow-up appointments should be planned for readjustment of the attachment's retention. Overretention should be avoided.

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLACE ATTACHMENT AND EVENT SATISFACTION: A STUDY ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ARGAN, Metin; KAYA, Sabri; TOKAY ARGAN, Mehpare; AKYILDIZ, Müge; KORKMAZ, Tanju

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the dimensions of place attachment and to analyze the relationship between event satisfaction and place attachment dimensions. The study involved a quantitative research methodology employing a questionnaire and convenience sampling with a total sample of 300 Anadolu University’s students within Eskişehir of the middle region in Turkey. The first part of the questionnaire contained 16 statements related to place attachment. Second part was related to the scal...

  18. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  19. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment

  20. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  1. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiasson, A.

    2008-03-01

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  2. Effect of natural phosphate to remove silver interference in the detection of mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lahrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A silver particles impregnated onto natural phosphate (Ag/NP was synthesized using reaction in solid state. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The (Ag/NP was used as modifier of carbon paste electrode (CPE to determine mercury by square wave voltammetry. The calibration graph obtained is linear from 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol·L−1 at preconcentration time of 5 min, percentage loading of 7%, with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limits of detection (DL,3σ and quantification (QL,10σ were 5.8 × 10−9 mol·L−1 and 19.56 × 10−9 mol·L−1 respectively. The repeatability of the method expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D. is 2.1% (n = 8. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples. Keywords: Natural phosphate, Square wave voltammetry, Silver, Mercury, Aquatic algae, Seawater

  3. An Investigation of the Factors Related to Low Parent-Adolescent Attachment Security in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Chang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence may involve increases in many behavioral problems and psychosocial maladaptation. Adolescents must successfully cope with these challenges to achieve positive developmental milestones. To investigate whether low parental attachment security among adolescents in Taiwan is associated with their demographic characteristics, psychosocial maladaptation, and depression. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 335 adolescents completed the questionnaires. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Chinese version of the Youth Self-Report, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to survey the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regressions, using low attachment security as the response variable, were used in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of Taiwanese adolescents with low parental attachment security was 38.5%. Low parental attachment security in adolescents was significantly associated with parental remarriage status and psychosocial maladaptation. By considering these risk factors, nursing educators and nurses could develop effective interventions to strengthen parent-adolescent attachment security.

  4. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  5. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  6. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  7. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachme...

  8. Attachment and self-evaluation in Chinese adolescents: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and self-evaluation was measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Self-Liking and Self-Competence Scale. Consistent with findings with Western samples, our analyses revealed (a) lower parent-child relationship quality in middle (compared to early) adolescence, (b) a significant association of parental and peer attachment with self-evaluation, and (c) gender differences in attachment to peers, with females reporting stronger attachment than males. Chinese females reported stronger maternal attachment than did males, and for females the quality of maternal attachment was more strongly related to self-evaluation than any other attachment relationship. During high school, peer attachment quality - rather than parental - was preeminently associated with self-evaluation. The findings of this study indicate that in a context of considerable consistency of findings with Western studies, parent-child attachment in Chinese adolescents is also influenced by culture-specific practices that influence parent-youth relationships and their meaning to the child.

  9. Effect of bovine manure on fecal coliform attachment to soil and soil particles of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, Andrey K; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Yu, Olivia

    2007-05-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff.

  10. Constraining the Evolution of the Ionizing Background and the Epoch of Reionization with z~6 Quasars. II. A Sample of 19 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaohui; Strauss, Michael A.; Becker, Robert H.; White, Richard L.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, Masataka

    2006-07-01

    We study the evolution of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the reionization epoch using moderate-resolution spectra of a sample of 19 quasars at 5.745.7: the GP optical depth evolution changes from τeffGP~(1+z)4.3 to (1+z)>~11, and the average length of dark gaps with τ>3.5 increases from 80 comoving Mpc. The dispersion of IGM properties along different lines of sight also increases rapidly, implying fluctuations by a factor of >~4 in the UV background at z>6, when the mean free path of UV photons is comparable to the correlation length of the star-forming galaxies that are thought to have caused reionization. The mean length of dark gaps shows the most dramatic increase at z~6, as well as the largest line-of-sight variations. We suggest using dark gap statistics as a powerful probe of the ionization state of the IGM at yet higher redshift. The sizes of H II regions around luminous quasars decrease rapidly toward higher redshift, suggesting that the neutral fraction of the IGM has increased by a factor of >~10 from z=5.7 to 6.4, consistent with the value derived from the GP optical depth. The mass-averaged neutral fraction is 1%-4% at z~6.2 based on the GP optical depth and H II region size measurements. The observations suggest that z~6 is the end of the overlapping stage of reionization and are inconsistent with a mostly neutral IGM at z~6, as indicated by the finite length of the dark absorption gaps. Based on observations obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation, with the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and with the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m Mayall Telescope. This paper

  11. Personality traits are related to intimate partner violence among securely attached individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The general assumption has been that male batterers from clinical samples were mostly insecurely attached as compared to non-batterers. Recently, a large group was found (39.4 % of batterers in a clinical sample) whose main attachment style was secure. No previous studies have examined specifically

  12. The influence of psychoeducation on regulating biological rhythm in a sample of patients with bipolar II disorder: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria AD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Augusto Duarte Faria,1 Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza,2 Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso,2 Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro,2 Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro,2 Ricardo Azevedo da Silva,2 Karen Jansen21Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil; 2Health and Behavior Postgraduate Program, Universidade Católica de Pelotas – UCPEL, Pelotas, RS, BrazilIntroduction: Changes in biological rhythm are among the various characteristics of bipolar disorder, and have long been associated with the functional impairment of the disease. There are only a few viable options of psychosocial interventions that deal with this specific topic; one of them is psychoeducation, a model that, although it has been used by practitioners for some time, only recently have studies shown its efficacy in clinical practice.Aim: To assess if patients undergoing psychosocial intervention in addition to a pharmacological treatment have better regulation of their biological rhythm than those only using medication.Method: This study is a randomized clinical trial that compares a standard medication intervention to an intervention combined with drugs and psychoeducation. The evaluation of the biological rhythm was made using the Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, an 18-item scale divided in four areas (sleep, activity, social rhythm, and eating pattern. The combined intervention consisted of medication and a short-term psychoeducation model summarized in a protocol of six individual sessions of 1 hour each.Results: The sample consisted of 61 patients with bipolar II disorder, but during the study, there were 14 losses to follow-up. Therefore, the final sample consisted of 45 individuals (26 for standard intervention and 19 for combined. The results showed that, in this sample and time period evaluated, the combined treatment of medication and psychoeducation had no statistically significant impact on the

  13. Exposure of UK industrial plumbers to asbestos, Part II: Awareness and responses of plumbers to working with asbestos during a survey in parallel with personal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Delphine; Burdett, Garry

    2007-03-01

    Throughout the European Union, millions tonnes of asbestos were used in the manufacture of products for building and for industrial installations. Today, in the UK, it is estimated that over half a million non-domestic premises alone have asbestos-containing materials in them and it is recognized that those working in building maintenance trades continue to be at significant risk. In part II, the awareness of UK plumbers to when they are working with asbestos was investigated and compared with the monitored levels reported in part I. The plumbers were issued by post with passive samplers, activity logs to monitor a working week and a questionnaire. The activity logs were used to assess whether maintenance workers were knowingly or unknowingly exposed to airborne asbestos fibres during a course of a working week. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on their: age, employment status, current and past perception of the frequency which they work with asbestos and knowledge of the precautions that should be taken to limit exposure and risk. Approximately 20% of workers reported on the sample log that they had worked with asbestos. There was a high correlation (93%) between the sampling log replies that they were knowingly working with asbestos and measured asbestos on the passive sampler. However, some 60% of the samples had >5 microm long asbestos structures found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggesting that the plumbers were aware of about only one-third of their contacts with asbestos materials throughout the week. This increased to just over one half of the plumbers being aware of their contact based on the results for phase contrast microscopy (PCM) countable asbestos fibres. The results from the questionnaire found that over half of the plumbers replying thought that they disturb asbestos only once a year and 90% of them thought they would work with asbestos for<10 h year-1. Their expectations and awareness of work with

  14. Novo método espectrofotométrico para determinação de Hg (II em amostras de peixe New spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hg (II in fish samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carvalho Martiniano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um novo método espectrofotométrico simples, sensível e com boa seletividade é apresentado para a determinação rápida de mercúrio (II em nível de traços com 2-mercapto-5-metilbenzilimidazol (MMBI como um novo reagente espectrofotométrico (lambda max = 320 nm, em um meio aquoso ligeiramente alcalino (tampão Britton-Robinson (BR 0,04 M, pH 8,0. A reação é instantânea e a absorbância permanece estável por mais de 24 horas. O coeficiente de absorção molar encontrado foi de 2,71 x 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1. A composição estequiométrica do complexo é de 1:1 (Hg:MMBI. Considerável excesso dos íons cobre, zinco, chumbo e cádmio não interfere na determinação. O método desenvolvido permitiu a determinação de mercúrio na faixa de 2 x 10-6 a 4 x 10-5 mol.L-1 com boa precisão e exatidão, e o limite de detecção para Hg foi de 9,9 x 10-7 mol.L-1. O método foi aplicado com sucesso a amostras de peixe e os resultados foram avaliados com o clássico método de espectrometria de absorção atômica (EAA. Os desvios padrão relativos para as amostras analisadas foram de 7,2 e 33% (n = 5, enquanto os erros foram de 1,63 e 11,6. O método mostrou-se sensível, seletivo e foi aplicado para a determinação de mercúrio em amostras de peixe com resultados satisfatórios.A simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotmetric method is presented for the rapid determination of mercury (II at trace levels using 2-mercapto-5-methylbenzimidazole (MMBI as a new spectrophotometric reagent (lambdamax = 320 nm in a slightly basic (0.04 M Britton-Robinson (BR buffer, pH 8.0 aqueous solution. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 hours. The average molar absorption coefficient was found to be 2.71 x 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:1 (Hg:MMBI. Considerable excesses of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium do not interfere in the determination. The method developed allowed the

  15. Attachment representation as predictor of internalizing problems in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Halamová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The current study examines the relationship between the representation of attachment relationship with mother and internalizing problems in the developmental period of middle childhood. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the quality of attachment predicts the intensity and seriousness of internalizing problems in middle childhood; and to examine whether the models are gender-specific. Methods: Participants in this study were 151 children aged 9-12 (M = 11.21, 77 boys and 74 girls, recruited from elementary schools in Nitra region. Children completed measures assessing the quality of attachment representation of the relationship with mother (selfreport questionnaire Security Scale, the tendency to react anxiously (self-report questionnaire Childen´s Manifest Anxiety Scale – CMAS, social anxiety (self-report questionnaire Scale of Classical Social Situational Anxiety – KSAT and depression (self-report questionnaire Children´s Depression Inventory – CDI. Results: Regression analysis indicated that secure attachment representation is a significant negative predictor of children's internalizing problems – manifest anxiety (ß = -.324, p 0.05 and ß = -.194, p > 0.05, respectively, but in the sample of girls, secure attachment representation was a significant negative predictor of both depressive symptoms (ß = -.296, p < .05 for Negative Mood; and ß = -.285, p < .05 for Anhedony. Other models, except for social anxiety, were statistically significant for both samples. In the sample of girls, the predictor accounted for 26.3% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.512; p < .001, 18.9% of variance of the total of depression symptoms (ß = -.435; p < .001, 10.9% of variance in Ineffectiveness (ß = -.331; p < .05 and 10.5% of variance in manifest anxiety (ß = -.324; p < .05. The results were similar for the sample of boys. Attachment security accounted for 17.4% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.435; p

  16. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  17. Change in attachment predicts change in emotion regulation particularly among 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viddal, Kristine Rensvik; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Belsky, Jay; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    In view of the theory that the attachment relationship provides a foundation for the development of emotion regulation, here, we evaluated (a) whether change in attachment security from 4 to 6 years predicts change in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 years and (b) whether 5-HTTLPR moderates this relation in a Norwegian community sample (n = 678, 99.7% Caucasian). Attachment was measured with the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, and teachers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist. Attachment security was modestly stable, with children becoming more secure over time. Regression analyses revealed that increased attachment security from 4 to 6 forecasted increases in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 and decreased attachment security forecasted decreases in emotion regulation. This effect was strongest among the 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes and, according to competitive model fitting, in a differential-susceptibility manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  19. The role of attachment in predicting CBT treatment outcome in children with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walczak, Monika Anna; Normann, Nicoline; Tolstrup, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Child’s insecure attachment to parents and insecure parental attachment has been linked to childhood anxiety (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010; Manassis et al.,1994).Whether attachment patterns can predict treatment outcome, is yet to be investigated. We examined the role of children......’s attachment to parents, and parental attachment in predicting treatment outcome in anxious children receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment. Method: A total of 69 children aged 7-13 years were diagnosed at intake and post-treatment, using Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV (Silverman and Albano...... style in responders and non-responders in the present sample. We found a significant difference in maternal attachment anxiety scale (p=.011), with mothers of non-responders showing significantly higher attachment anxiety. Binominal logistic regression analysis was used to measure a predictive value...

  20. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  1. Does reflective functioning mediate the relationship between attachment and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic assisted dispersive solid-phase microextraction of Eriochrome Cyanine R from water sample on ultrasonically synthesized lead (II) dioxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Experimental design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sonia; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Mansoorkhani, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood; Asfaram, Arash; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar; Purkait, Mihir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The present research focus on designing an appropriate dispersive solid-phase microextraction (UA-DSPME) for preconcentration and determination of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) in aqueous solutions with aid of sonication using lead (II) dioxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (PbO-NPs-AC). This material was fully identified with XRD and SEM. Influence of pH, amounts of sorbent, type and volume of eluent, and sonication time on response properties were investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with surface response methodology using STATISTICA. Among different solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an efficient eluent, which its combination by present nanoparticles and application of ultrasound waves led to enhancement in mass transfer. The predicted maximum extraction (100%) under the optimum conditions of the process variables viz. pH 4.5, eluent 200μL, adsorbent dosage 2.5mg and 5min sonication was close to the experimental value (99.50%). at optimum conditions some experimental features like wide 5-2000ngmL -1 ECR, low detection limit (0.43ngmL -1 , S/N=3:1) and good repeatability and reproducibility (relative standard deviation, <5.5%, n=12) indicate versatility in successful applicability of present method for real sample analysis. Investigation of accuracy by spiking known concentration of ECR over 200-600ngmL -1 gave mean recoveries from 94.850% to 101.42% under optimal conditions. The procedure was also applied for the pre-concentration and subsequent determination of ECR in tap and waste waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  4. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... over civil aircraft operations. Should a conflict arise between air carrier and Air Force operational... all charges which will be billed to BIA not later than(date)by the Accounting and Finance Office. IN...

  5. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  6. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  7. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace amounts of Pb(II) and Cr(III) in biological, food and environmental samples after preconcentration by modified nano-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, A.; Madrakian, T.; Saber-Tehrani, M.; Bagheri, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new solid-phase extraction sorbent was used for the preconcentration of Pb(II) and Cr(III) ions prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. It was prepared by immobilization of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine on nano-alumina coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and used for preconcentration and separation of Pb(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. The ions on the sorbent were eluted with a mixture of nitric acid and methanol. The effects of sample pH, flow rates of samples and eluent, type of eluent, breakthrough volume and potentially interfering ions were studied. Linearity is maintained between 1.2 and 350 μg L -1 of Pb(II), and between 2.4 and 520 μg L -1 of Cr(III) for an 800-mL sample. The detection limit (3 s, N=10) for Pb(II) and Cr(III) ions is 0.43 and 0.55 μg L -1 , respectively, and the maximum preconcentration factor is 267. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of these trace and toxic metals in various water, food, industrial effluent and urine samples. (author)

  8. Attachment figures when death is approaching: a study applying attachment theory to adult patients' and family members' experiences during palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.

  9. Beyond the usual suspects: a multidimensional genetic exploration of infant attachment disorganization and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Irene; Szekely, Eszter; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Although the environmental influences on infant attachment disorganization and security are well-studied, little is known about their heritability. Candidate gene studies have shown small, often non-replicable effects. In this study, we gathered the largest sample (N = 657) of ethnically homogenous, 14-month-old children with both observed attachment and genome-wide data. First, we used a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) approach to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with attachment disorganization and security. Second, we annotated them into genes (Versatile Gene-based Association Study) and functional pathways. Our analyses provide evidence of novel genes (HDAC1, ZNF675, BSCD1) and pathways (synaptic transmission, cation transport) associated with attachment disorganization. Similar analyses identified a novel gene (BECN1) but no distinct pathways associated with attachment security. The results of this first extensive, exploratory study on the molecular-genetic basis of infant attachment await replication in large, independent samples.

  10. Emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship between attachment and depressive symptomatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  12. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  13. Childhood maltreatment, adult attachment and psychotic symptomatology: a study in patients, siblings and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, D S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Velthorst, E; Meijer, C J; de Haan, L

    2014-11-01

    The association between childhood maltreatment (ChM) and psychotic disorders is well established. However, there is an ongoing debate about which factors account for this relationship. One explanation is that the relationship between ChM and psychosis is mediated by adult attachment style. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether adult attachment style mediates the relationship between ChM and positive and negative symptomatology. We investigated the relation between ChM and psychotic symptoms, taking into account levels of (insecure) attachment, in 131 patients with psychotic illness, 123 siblings and 72 controls. ChM was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance were measured using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM). In both patients and siblings, ChM predicted positive symptoms and this relationship was partly mediated by attachment style. This relationship was found to be stronger for siblings than for patients. ChM predicted negative symptoms in patients and siblings. In the patient sample, attachment style did not mediate the relationship between ChM and negative symptoms, whereas attachment style was found to be a mediator in the sibling sample. ChM was associated with positive and negative symptomatology in both patients and siblings. Particularly in siblings, the relationship between ChM and psychosis seems to be mediated by adult attachment style. Perhaps attachment style may play a more prominent role on a subclinical level.

  14. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL -1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL -1 to 17.5μgmL -1 . The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10 4 Lmol -1 cm -1 , 0.01996μgcm -2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  16. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH 4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414 nm which remains stable for > 48 h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5 μg mL- 1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5 μg mL- 1 to 17.5 μg mL- 1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813 × 104 L mol- 1 cm- 1, 0.01996 μg cm- 2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples

  17. PCR-DGGE Analysis of Bacterial Population Attached to the Bovine Rumen Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Lukáš, F. (Filip); Šimůnek, J. (Jiří); Mrázek, J. (Jakub); Kopečný, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    We isolated and amplified by PCR 16S rDNA from bacteria attached to the bovine rumen wall and analyzed it by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent sequence analysis. The attached bacterial community differed from the bacteria of rumen content; however, no differences were observed among the five epithelial sampling sites taken from each animal. The DGGE profile of the bacterial population attached to the rumen wall represented a high inter-animal variation.

  18. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich; Nicole M. Stettler; Kristen A. Stouder; Chelsea Harrington

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM) (Simpson, 1990) and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR) (Schaefer & Olson, 1981). Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for posit...

  19. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. Material and Methods The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). Results The bariatric group reported significant...

  20. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  1. Maternal Attachment Strategies and Emotion Regulation with Adolescent Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mothers' attachment strategies and emotion regulation in a sample of 42 families with 2 high school-aged siblings. Found that mothers with preoccupied strategies had difficulty regulating emotion during conversations with their older teenagers about them leaving home. Mothers with secure strategies perceived their…

  2. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  3. The influence of home and community attachment on firewise behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard T. Kyle; Gene L. Theodori; James D. Absher; Jinhee. Jun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of residents’ attachment to their homes and community on their willingness to adopt Firewise recommendations. Our sample was drawn from a population residing in the wildland–urban interface where the threat of wildfire is acute. The Firewise recommendations concerned 13 activities affecting home design,...

  4. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  5. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  6. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  7. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Cornall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun, with Linear Array HPV (Roche. Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Results: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 − 1.00 for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 – 0.98 for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497, HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039 and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047. EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002 and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035 than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively, but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = −0.01. Conclusions: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Genotyping, Linear Array, Anyplex II, EuroArray, Cervix

  8. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  9. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,

  10. The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2018-05-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mother-Infant Attachment Style as a Predictor of Depression among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: There are an increasing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment styles to psychopathology. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between attachment style and depression among students of Bu-Ali Sina University in Iran. Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 157 girl students who were randomly selected. They were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI (Hazan and Shaver, and theBeck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. The data was analysis by using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Findings indicated that secure attachment style had no significant correlation with depression and insecure attachment styles had a significant positive correlation with depression (p

  13. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  14. Split ring containment attachment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammel, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A containment attachment device is described for operatively connecting a glovebag to plastic sheeting covering hazardous material. The device includes an inner split ring member connected on one end to a middle ring member wherein the free end of the split ring member is inserted through a slit in the plastic sheeting to captively engage a generally circular portion of the plastic sheeting. A collar potion having an outer ring portion is provided with fastening means for securing the device together wherein the glovebag is operatively connected to the collar portion. 5 figs

  15. Effect of topical phenytoin on cr eeping attachment of human gingiva: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Ali Najafi-Parizi DDS, MS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:The aim ofthis study was to evaluate the effect oftopical phenytoin on creeping attachment.METHODS:In this pilot quasi-experimental study, 8 patients referring to Kerman School of Dentistry, Kerman, Iran withMiller class I or II gingival recessions were selected using convenient non-random sampling if they needed rootcoverage and met the study's inclusion criteria. The patients applied phenytoin mucoadhesive paste 1% on the surface ofthe deepithelialized gingiva of the tooth with gingival recession, twice a day for two months. Data was analyzed withpaired t-test using SPSS version 17.RESULTS:According to our findings, the width of keratinized gingiva at the baseline was 3 mm, and after 2 months itincreased to 3.1 mm. The mean baseline height and widthof gingival recession were 1.9 mm and 3 mm, respectively,and after 2 months they decreased to 1.8 mm and 2.9 mm accordingly. There was no significant difference in any of theaforementioned parameters before and after treatment (P > 0.05.CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study showed that topical application of phenytoin mucoadhesive paste can notinitiate and promote creeping attachment.

  16. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  17. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien M. Rotteveel-de Groot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman–Coulter. Design and methods: Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Results: Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04–500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. Conclusions: In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence. Keywords: Thyroglobulin, Roche Elecsys Tg II assay, validation, reporting limit

  18. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Poljak, Marin; Garland, Suzanne M; Phillips, Samuel; Machalek, Dorothy A; Tan, Jeffrey H; Quinn, Michael A; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2017-12-01

    To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene) and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun), with Linear Array HPV (Roche). DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic), from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 - 1.00) for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 - 0.98) for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497), HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039) and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047). EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002) and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035) than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively), but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = -0.01). EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture.

  20. Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.

  1. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  2. Examining the Link between Infant Attachment and Child Conduct Problems in Grade 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vando, Jessica; Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the extent to which infant attachment status is directly related to child conduct problems 6 years later, and assessed the potential mediating roles of hostile parenting and maternal depression. The sample included 84 adolescent mothers and their children (45 girls, 39 boys). Infant attachment status was assessed using the Strange…

  3. Electron attachment mass spectrometry as a diagnostics for electronegative gases and plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.

    1998-01-01

    Electron attachment mass spectrometry (EAMS) has been developed to study mixtures of electronegative gases and plasmas. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been used to detect negative ions, formed from sampled species by attachment of low energy electrons. Varying the electron energy allows to

  4. Changes in attachment security and mindfulness as predictors of changes in depression and general anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, David; Gillath, Omri; Deboeck, Pascal; Lang, K.M.; Kerr, Barb

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined the role short-term changes in adult attachment and mindfulness play in depression and general anxiety. Study 1, using a sample of college students (n = 121) who were not engaged in any clinical intervention, showed that changes in attachment anxiety and security, but not in

  5. Attachment, Well-Being, and College Senior Concerns about the Transition out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among attachment, psychological well-being (PWB), life satisfaction, and concerns about the transition out of college among a sample of college seniors. A path analysis was conducted predicting that PWB and life satisfaction would mediate the relationships between attachment and 3 types of graduation…

  6. Parental Attachment, Psychological Separation and Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.

    In this study the relationship of parental attachment and psychological separation to levels of eating disorder symptoms was examined for a sample of college women (N=162) from English classes at a private, urban, coeducational Jesuit university in the northeast. Participants resonded to the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Parental…

  7. Infant Attachment Disorganization and Moderation Pathways to Level and Change in Externalizing Behavior during Preschool Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's…

  8. Parental Representations and Attachment Security in Young Israeli Mothers' Bird's Nest Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Golan, Yifat

    2016-01-01

    The Bird's Nest Drawing (BND; Kaiser, 1996) is an art-based technique developed to assess attachment security. In an attempt to expand the BND's validity, the authors explored the possible associations between parental representations and the BND's dimensions and attachment classifications in a sample of 80 young Israeli mothers. Positive…

  9. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  10. College Student Binge Eating: Attachment, Psychological Needs Satisfaction, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…

  11. Attachment in context: The role of demographic factors among Indonesians from three ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Z.L.; Halim, M.S.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined attachment in Indonesia, one of the fourth most populous countries in the world. We applied the Indonesian version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) on 1313 Indonesians from three ethnically diverse samples (404 Bataks, 430 Minangkabau, and 479 Javanese). We assessed

  12. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  13. Attachment, Coping, Acculturative Stress, and Quality of Life among Haitian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizaire, Lonette S.; Fuertes, Jairo N.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between attachment, coping, acculturative stress, and quality of life (QOL) in a sample of Haitian immigrants in the United States. Results indicated that an increase in years living in the United States and greater anxiety attachment were negatively associated with QOL and that higher levels of adaptive…

  14. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  15. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  16. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  17. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H 2 O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 (± 133) mg/m 3 and 659 (± 88) mg/m 3 , respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m 3 at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m 3 at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m 3 at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 ± 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound

  18. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, Dorien M; Ross, H Alec; Janssen, Marcel J R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Oosting, Janine D; Sweep, Fred C G J; van Herwaarden, Antonius E

    2016-08-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman-Coulter). Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL) for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04-500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence.

  19. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, alexithymia, and body esteem in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationships between adult attachment, theoretical orientation, and therapist-reported alliance quality among licensed psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Sari; Shorey, Hal S

    2016-01-01

    Attachment anxiety has been depicted as an undesirable therapist characteristic based on findings that preoccupied therapists, relative to those with other attachment styles, report more ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. What has not been considered, however, is the extent to which attachment dynamics are related to theoretical orientations and how attachment styles and theoretical orientations combine to predict therapists' perceptions of the quality of their alliances. The present surveyed 290 licensed psychologists nationally. Results revealed that even within a sample of primarily secure psychologists, higher 15 levels of attachment anxiety correlated positively with the endorsement of psychodynamic orientations, and negatively with the endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations and self-reported alliance quality. Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations, in turn, correlated positively with therapist-reported alliance quality. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which attachment dimensions should be considered in therapists' understandings of their therapeutic alliances.

  1. Comparison of Attachment to Parents, Peers and Siblings in the Involved and Noninvolved Adolescents in Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, and the Inventory of Siblings Attachment. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in attachment to parents, peers and siblings between involved adolescents in bulling and noninvolved ones (p>0/0001. Regarding the attachment to parents, peers and siblings, noninvolved group scored higher than the involved groups. Also, among involved groups, the bully and the victim- bully groups received higher scores in attachment to mother prior to the peer attachment. Finally, the attachment to siblings in both groups was the lowest scores of attachment.

  2. The effect of EDTA in attachment gain and root coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M; Cohen, Robert E; Andreana, Sebastiano; Dentino, Andrew R

    2006-06-01

    Root surface biomodification using low pH agents such as citric acid and tetracycline has been proposed to enhance root coverage following connective tissue grafting. The authors hypothesized that root conditioning with neutral pH edetic acid would improve vertical recession depth, root surface coverage, pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels. Twenty teeth in 10 patients with Miller class I and II recession were treated with connective tissue grafting. The experimental sites received 24% edetic acid in sterile distilled water applied to the root surface for 2 minutes before grafting. Controls were pretreated with only sterile distilled water. Measurements were evaluated before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences between experimental and control groups. We found significant postoperative improvements in vertical recession depth, root surface coverage, and clinical attachment levels in test and control groups, compared to postoperative data. Pocket depth differences were not significant (P<.01).

  3. An Adapted Measure of Sibling Attachment: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency of the Sibling Attachment Inventory in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie A; Francis, Sarah E; Tilley, Micah A

    2018-04-01

    Parent-youth and peer relationship inventories based on attachment theory measure communication, trust, and alienation, yet sibling relationships have been overlooked. We developed the Sibling Attachment Inventory and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 172 youth ages 10-14 years. We adapted the 25-item Sibling Attachment Inventory from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised peer measure. Items loaded onto three factors, identified as communication, trust, and alienation, α = 0.93, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively. Sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression (r s  = -0.33, r s  = 0.48) and self-worth (r s  = 0.23; r s  = -0.32); sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression after controlling for parent trust and parent alienation (r s  = -0.23, r s  = 0.22). Preliminary analyses showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental predictive validity. Following replication of these properties, this measure can facilitate large cohort assessments of sibling attachment.

  4. TcI, TcII and TcVI Trypanosoma cruzi samples from Chagas disease patients with distinct clinical forms and critical analysis of in vitro and in vivo behavior, response to treatment and infection evolution in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maykon Tavares de; Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Alessio, Gláucia Diniz; Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos; Nogueira-de-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis Martins; Lana, Marta de

    2017-03-01

    The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection. The global results showed that the in vitro essays (acellular and cellular cultures) TcII parasites showed higher values for all parameters (growth and infectivity) than TcVI, followed by TcI. In vivo TcII parasites were more virulent and originated from patients with severe disease. Two TcII isolates from patients with severe pathology were virulent in mice, while the isolate from a patient with the indeterminate form of the disease caused mild infection. The only TcVI sample, which displayed low values in all parameters evaluated, was also originated of an indeterminate case of Chagas disease. Response to nifurtimox was not associated to parasite genetic and biology, as well as to clinical aspects of human disease. Although few number of T. cruzi samples have been analyzed, a discreet correlation between parasite genetics, biological behavior in vitro and in vivo (murine model) and the clinical form of human disease from whom the samples were isolated was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  6. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  7. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rasmussen, Pernille Darling; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. METHOD: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. CONCLUSION: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  8. Place attachment and disasters: Knowns and unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Mehdi; Nejat, Ali

    When considering the factors important for disaster recovery, one must consider the attachment individuals have toward their living area. This article reviews and synthesizes the current literature on the determinants of place attachment in the context of postdisaster recovery. Although the majority of the reviewed articles focused on disaster recovery, there were some which had a broader scope and were included due to their importance. This research categorizes the determinants of place attachment into four categories: demographic, socioeconomic, spatial, and psychosocial. Age, ethnicity, and religion were grouped under the category of demographics. Job status, education, and property ownership were categorized under the socioeconomic category. Attachment to home, neighborhood, and city, together with attachment to rural and urban areas, were grouped under the spatial category. Finally, mental health status and community attachment were classified under the psychosocial heading. Based on the outcome of the aforementioned synthesis, this article develops a conceptual framework to guide future research.

  9. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  10. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  11. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  13. Security for Network Attached Storage Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gobioff, Howard

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a novel cryptographic capability system addressing the security and performance needs of network attached storage systems in which file management functions occur at a different...

  14. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  15. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  16. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK/II. Second report on task FIN A 847 of the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.; Klemola, S.

    1995-06-01

    Radionuclide determinations of 35 environmental samples of eight different materials were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. In most of the samples the found radionuclide contents were roughly at the same levels as in the same types of environmental samples in the northern hemisphere. However, some samples of grass, moss, lichen and sheep faeces showed exceptionally great contents of radionuclides measured. The maximum contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were found in the sam individual samples. The ratios of nuclide concentrations in these samples also deviated from ratios in other samples. This referred to an origin of these nuclides other than the global fallout. The work was a continuation to the study carried out under the Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguard. (orig.) (1 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  17. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers are key developmental achievements during adolescence and peer attachment warrants attention as a separate concept. In a cross-sectional study, female outpatients (M age 15.78=, SD = 1.04) who fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for BPD ( N  = 106) or met at least 4 BPD criteria ( N  = 4) completed self-reports on attachment to parents and peers, mentalizing capacity (reflective function) and borderline personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. The current study is the first to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  18. Gender moderates the associations between attachment and discrete emotions in late middle age and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L

    2009-11-01

    Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.

  19. Genetic Contributions to Continuity and Change in Attachment Security: A Prospective, Longitudinal Investigation from Infancy to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron; Collins, W. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal research has demonstrated that individual differences in attachment security show only modest continuity from infancy to adulthood. Recent findings based on retrospective reports suggest that individuals’ genetic variation may moderate the developmental associations between early attachment-relevant relationship experiences and adult attachment security. The purpose of this study was to use a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic contributions to continuity and changes in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood in a higher risk sample. Methods Infant attachment security was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 12 and 18 months. Adults’ general attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and age 26. Romantic attachment representations were assessed with the Current Relationship Interview at ages 20–21 and ages 26–28. Individuals were genotyped for variants within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Results The continuity of attachment security from infancy into young adulthood was consistently moderated by OXTR genetic variation. Infant attachment security predicted the security of adults’ general and romantic attachment representations only for individuals with the OXTR G/G genotype. This interaction was significant when predicting adult attachment security as measured by the Adult Attachment Interview at age 19 and 26 and the Current Relationship Interview at ages 26–28. DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR genetic variation did not consistently moderate the longitudinal associations between attachment security during infancy and adulthood. Conclusions This study provides initial longitudinal evidence for genetic contributions to continuity and change in attachment security from infancy to young adulthood. Genetic variation related to the oxytocin system may moderate the

  20. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  1. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  2. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  3. Hamiltonian dynamics of preferential attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, Konstantin; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment (PA), known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton’s equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in PA. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by PA is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree distributions. In other words, PA generates nothing but random graphs with power-law degree distribution. The extension of the developed canonical formalism for network analysis to richer geometric network models with non-degenerate groups of symmetries may eventually lead to a system of equations describing network dynamics at small scales. (paper)

  4. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  5. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Thermal-driven attachment of gold nanoparticles prepared with ascorbic acid onto indium tin oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Md. Abdul; Oyama, Munetaka, E-mail: oyama.munetaka.4m@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Thermal-driven attachment of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), of which size was less than 50 nm, onto the surfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO) is reported as a new phenomenon. This was permitted by preparing AuNPs via the reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl{sub 4}) with ascorbic acid (AA). While the AuNPs prepared via the AA reduction sparsely attached on the surface of ITO even at room temperature, a heat-up treatment at ca. 75 Degree-Sign C caused denser attachment of AuNPs on ITO surfaces. The attached density and the homogeneity after the thermal treatment were better than those of AuNP/ITO prepared using 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane linker molecules. The denser attachment was observed similarly both by the immersion of ITO samples after the preparations of AuNPs by AA and by the in situ preparation of AuNPs with AA together with ITO samples. Thus, it is considered that the thermal-driven attachment of AuNPs would occur after the formation of AuNPs in the aqueous solutions, not via the growth of AuNPs on ITO surfaces. The preparation of AuNPs with AA would be a key for the thermal-driven attachment because the same attachments were not observed for AuNPs prepared with citrate ions or commercially available tannic acid-capped AuNPs.

  7. The study of Relation between Cultural Components and National Attachment among Citizens of Yazd city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farahmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available National attachment sense as one of the components of social Property is a key word in national culture. Any definition of society is Occurred by accepting attachment and commitment sense and the society is existed to some extent because people have positive sense about that. National attachment sense is considered as one the important affairs of any society and its proper recognition and full knowledge of authorities and affair operators about the effective social factors on that can be an effective step in recognizing the existent problems in society. The present research reviewed the relation between cultural components and national attachment among the Yazd citizens. The research statistical society was all of the Yazd’s 15 to 65 years old citizens that 384 people were selected as sample by Cochran formula. The tool of data gathering was researcher-made questionnaire that had appropriate validity and reliability. Sampling method has been multi-stage clustered. Results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between secularization, consumerism and virtual social networks with national attachment has been reverse and meaningful, but the relationship between age and values preferences with national attachment has been direct and meaningful. Independent variables in regression equation managed to explain 39 percent of national attachment variable changes. The greatest impact on dependent variable (national attachment has belonged to the variables of secularization, age, values preferences and consumerism.

  8. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  9. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  10. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  11. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  12. The role of time in place attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Smaldone

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative studies have found that the length of association is an important variable affecting place attachment (Kaltenborn 1998, Moore & Graefe 1994, Patterson & Williams 1991, Vorkinn & Riese 2001). These studies, however, have provided less insight into how and why time is involved in the process of forming place attachment, as well as the meanings...

  13. Internal Representational Models of Attachment Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Patricia M.

    This paper outlines several properties of internal representational models (IRMs) and offers terminology that may help to differentiate the models. Properties of IRMs include focus, memory systems, content, cognitive function, "metastructure," quality of attachment, behavioral strategies, and attitude toward attachment. An IRM focuses on…

  14. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  15. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  16. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  17. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  18. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  19. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  20. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  1. Attachment Patterns in the Psychotherapy Relationship: Development of the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes development of an instrument, the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS). CATS factors correlated in expected directions with survey measures of object relations, client-rated working alliance, social self-efficacy, and adult attachment. Cluster analysis revealed four types of client attachment. Discusses implications of attachment…

  2. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  3. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  4. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Attachment Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي زينالي

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.

  5. Adult Attachment Interview Discourse Patterns Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cynthia R.; Usher, Nicole; Dearing, Eric; Barkai, Ayelet R.; Crowell-Doom, Cindy; Mantzoros, Christos S.; Crowell, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Adult attachment discourse patterns and current family relationship quality were examined as predictors of health behaviors and number of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) criteria met. Methods A sample of 215 White/European American and Black/African American adults, aged 35 to 55, were examined cross-sectionally. Discourse was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), specifically: 1) coherence, a marker of attachment security, 2) unresolved trauma/loss, a marker of disorganized and distorted cognition related to trauma, and 3) idealization, the tendency to minimize the impact of stressful experiences. Health behaviors of diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol use were also assessed, as were adverse childhood experiences, current depressive symptoms and relationship functioning. MetS includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity. Results Using path analysis and accounting for childhood adversity and depressive symptoms, AAI coherence and unresolved trauma or loss were directly linked to number of MetS criteria met (β = −.22 and .21 respectively). Idealization was indirectly linked to MetS through poor diet (β = −.26 and −.36 respectively), predicting 21% of the variance in number of MetS criteria met. Conclusions Attachment representations related to stress appraisal and care-seeking behaviors appear to serve as cognitive mechanisms increasing risk of MetS. PMID:25264975

  6. Data Overview for Sensor Fish Samples Acquired at Ice Harbor, John Day, and Bonneville II Dams in 2005, 2006, and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2008-03-12

    The purpose of this work was to acquire Sensor Fish data on turbine passage at Bonneville II, John Day, and Ice Harbor dams for later analysis and use. The original data sets have been entered into a database and are being maintained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory pending delivery to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers when requested. This report provides documentation for the data sets acquired and details about the operations of the Sensor Fish and interpretation of Sensor Fish data that will be necessary for later use of the acquired data. A limited review of the acquired data was conducted to assess its quality and to extract information that might prove useful to its later use.

  7. Determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Part II. Application to sediment and sludge samples in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen; Sitka, Andrea; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Scharf, Sigrid; Gans, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (MS/MS) was used for the determination of selected quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in solid samples. The method was applied for the determination of alkyl benzyl, dialkyl and trialkyl quaternary ammonium compounds in sediment and sludge samples in Austria. The overall method quantification limits range from 0.6 to 3 μg/kg for sediments and from 2 to 5 μg/kg for sewage sludges. Mean recoveries between 67% and 95% are achieved. In general sediments were especially contaminated by C12 chain benzalkonium chloride (BAC-C12) as well as by the long C-chain dialkyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC-C18) with a maximum concentration of 3.6 mg/kg and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively. Maxima of 27 mg/kg for DDAC-C10, 25 mg/kg for BAC-C12 and 23 mg/kg for BAC-C14 were determined for sludge samples. The sums of the 12 selected target compounds range from 22 mg/kg to 103 mg/kg in the sludge samples. - The presence of quaternary ammonium surfactants in sediment and sludge samples is reported for the first time in Austria

  8. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The process of developing and changing of infant-teacher attachment : A study on an infant whose attachment to the first attachment figure is insecure

    OpenAIRE

    上田, 七生

    2003-01-01

    Toward infants whose attachment to their first attachment figures (mainly their mothers) is insecure, how can we intervene in them? To reveal it, an observation was carried out regularly once a week, over a period of 9 months. The subjects were an infant who has insecure attachment and comparative one who has secure attachment. And the attachment behaviors they exhibited toward nursery school teachers, strangers, and an observer were counted. The amount of the attachment behaviors of the infa...

  10. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  11. IRAS observations of the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects. II. The Reipurth and Graham sample and low-resolution spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using IRAS COADDed images, candidates are suggested for the exciting stars of Herbig-Haro objects from the Reipurth and Graham sample. The IRAS low-resolution spectrometer provides spectra for 20 of the 46 candidate stars so far identified as exciting young, unevolved H-H systems. These reveal 10-micron silicate absorption features, or are too red to show detectable flux near 10 microns. The histogram of bolometric luminosities for 46 young Herbig-Haro exciting stars has a median of 13 solar luminosities and a mode between 16 and 32 solar luminosities. Although the enlarged sample of known exciting stars has more of the higher luminosity objects than an earlier sample, the histogram still represents a generally low-luminosity distribution. 27 refs

  12. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  13. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. The relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the relationship between attachment and psychopathology during adolescence have been performed separately for clinical and nonclinical adolescents and have used different assessment measures, which together might produce a methodological bias that increases the association between attachment and psychopathology. With the aim of avoiding this bias, the present study used identical measures to explore the relationship between attachment styles and internalizing or externalizing symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples of adolescents. The sample consisted of 258 adolescents, 129 clinical and 129 nonclinical, aged between 14 and 18 years. The adolescents in each sample were matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Attachment was assessed using the CaMir Q-sort, and psychopathological symptoms were assessed by means of the Youth Self Report (YSR. The relationships between attachment and psychopathology were similar for clinical and nonclinical adolescents. A preoccupied attachment style predicted internalizing and externalizing symptoms, somatic complaints, anxious-fearful behavior, verbal aggression, attention-seeking behavior, and thinking problems. Compared to previous studies, this research has made it possible to identify broader, stronger, and more specific associations between preoccupied attachment style and psychopathological symptoms in adolescents.

  15. THE ORIGIN OF THE INFRARED EMISSION IN RADIO GALAXIES. II. ANALYSIS OF MID- TO FAR-INFRARED SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2JY SAMPLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicken, D.; Tadhunter, C.; Axon, D.; Morganti, R.; Inskip, K. J.; Holt, J.; Delgado, R. Gonzalez; Groves, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of deep mid- to far-infrared (MFIR) Spitzer photometric observations of the southern 2Jy sample of powerful radio sources (0.05

  16. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  17. Attachment and parental divorce: a test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Heffernan, Marie E

    2013-09-01

    One of the assumptions of attachment theory is that disruptions in parental relationships are prospectively related to insecure attachment patterns in adulthood. The majority of research that has evaluated this hypothesis, however, has been based on retrospective reports of the quality of relationships with parents-research that is subject to retrospective biases. In the present research, the authors examined the impact of parental divorce-an event that can be assessed relatively objectively-on attachment patterns in adulthood across two samples. The data indicate that parental divorce has selective rather than diffuse implications for insecure attachment. Namely, parental divorce was more strongly related to insecure relationships with parents in adulthood than insecure relationships with romantic partners or friends. In addition, parental insecurity was most pronounced when parental divorce took place in early childhood. This finding is consistent with hypotheses about sensitive periods in attachment development.

  18. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  19. Comparison of the role of attachment, aggregation and internalisation of microorganisms in UVC and UVA (solar) disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichai, Françoise; Léveillé, Simon; Barbeau, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    In this comparative study, the impact of two microbial protective mechanisms against simulated UVA disinfection was assessed by using protocols previously developed for UVC disinfection assays. (i) The impact of natural microorganism aggregation and attachment to particles was assessed by targeting total coliform bacteria in natural surface water samples. (ii) The impact of bacteria internalisation by zooplankton was assessed by using C. elegans nematodes as a model host and E. coli as a bacterial target for UVA inactivation. Dispersion of natural aggregates by blending prior to UVA exposure was shown to enhance the inactivation rate of total coliforms as compared to untreated raw water. Removal of particles by an 8-microm membrane filtration did not improve UVA disinfection efficiency. Twenty-four per cent of the highest applied UVA fluence was found to reach internalised E. coli in nematodes. Both aggregation and internalisation showed similar impact as protective mechanisms against UVA and UVC bacterial inactivation.

  20. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post whiplash

  1. Attachment insecurity and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder among inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Adler, Herman; Smith, Ryan; Rufino, Katrina; Frazier, Christopher; Shepard, Christopher; Booker, Kirk; Simmons, Diedra; Richardson, Leah; Allen, Jon G; Fowler, J Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is characterized by traits such as extreme rigidity, perfectionism, and controlling behavior, all of which have a negative impact on interpersonal functioning. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to elucidate the interpersonal dysfunction characteristic of OCPD; yet, there is a dearth of attachment research on OCPD in the context of severe mental illness. Attachment security and personality disorders were assessed in adult inpatients with severe mental illness. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) was used to match OCPD and control subjects on age, gender, number of psychiatric disorders, and number of criteria endorsed for borderline personality disorder. Consistent with hypotheses, the OCPD group (n=61) showed greater attachment avoidance than controls (n=61), and the avoidance was manifested in a predominance of the most insecure attachment style, fearful attachment. Correlations between attachment anxiety/avoidance with specific OCPD diagnostic criteria revealed that attachment avoidance was correlated with four of eight OCPD criteria across the full sample. Within the subset of OCPD patients, attachment avoidance was significantly correlated with OCPD criterion 3 (is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships). The use of self-report measure of attachment and the high burden of illness in the SMI population may not generalize to interview based assessment or outpatients, respectively. Findings attest to the severity of impairment in interpersonal functioning and attachment avoidance, in particular, is characteristic of OCPD patients. These results suggest that viable treatment targets include interpersonal functioning along with more classical features of OCPD such as perfectionism and obsessiveness in task performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Bartholomew (1990) proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973) proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS). In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. Objective The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990). Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. Method A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577) participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. Results The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%), Class two Preoccupied (34.5%), and Class three Secure (46.9%). The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. Conclusions The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display

  3. Attachment typologies and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety: a latent profile analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Armour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bartholomew (1990 proposed a four category adult attachment model based on Bowlby's (1973 proposal that attachment is underpinned by an individual's view of the self and others. Previous cluster analytic techniques have identified four and two attachment styles based on the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. In addition, attachment styles have been proposed to meditate the association between stressful life events and subsequent psychiatric status. The current study aimed to empirically test the attachment typology proposed by Collins and Read (1990. Specifically, LPA was used to determine if the proposed four styles can be derived from scores on the dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, we aimed to test if the resultant attachment styles predicted the severity of psychopathology in response to a whiplash trauma. A large sample of Danish trauma victims (N=1577 participated. A Latent Profile Analysis was conducted, using Mplus 5.1, on scores from the RAAS scale to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes/subgroups. Class membership was used in a series of one-way ANOVA tests to determine if classes were significantly different in terms of mean scores on measures of psychopathology. The three class solution was considered optimal. Class one was termed Fearful (18.6%, Class two Preoccupied (34.5%, and Class three Secure (46.9%. The secure class evidenced significantly lower mean scores on PTSD, depression, and anxiety measures compared to other classes, whereas the fearful class evidenced significantly higher mean scores compared to other classes. The results demonstrated evidence of three discrete classes of attachment styles, which were labelled secure, preoccupied, and fearful. This is in contrast to previous cluster analytic techniques which have identified four and two attachment styles based on the RAAS.In addition, Securely attached individuals display lower levels of psychopathology post

  4. The influence of sense of coherence and mindfulness on PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic cognitions in a sample of elderly Austrian survivors of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Raninger, Simone; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) and mindfulness are known protective factors against psychopathology, also in older age. We set out to investigate the influence of SOC and mindfulness on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions in the context of lifetime trauma in elderly persons with a history of childhood war-experiences. Elderly Austrians (N = 97) filled in questionnaires on traumatic lifetime experiences and posttraumatic symptoms (ETI), posttraumatic cognitions (PTCI), SOC (SOC-13) and mindfulness (FFMQ). We expected the influence of SOC scores on posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions to be on one hand influenced by mindfulness. On the other hand, we expected that both aspects would uniquely explain fewer posttraumatic symptoms and cognitions. Participants reported various lifetime traumas (M = 2.42), including experiences during World War II (WWII) as children and adolescents. Mindfulness partially mediated the association of SOC scores with posttraumatic cognitions, but not with posttraumatic symptoms. However, in a two-stage mediation model, mindfulness significantly predicted posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. Although SOC was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic symptoms, mindfulness influenced the severity of posttraumatic symptoms via its effects on posttraumatic cognitions. We discuss implications for mindfulness-based interventions on trauma-related cognitions in the elderly.

  5. Impaired bacterial attachment to light activated Ni-Ti alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Valappil, Sabeel P.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Abou Neel, Ensanya A.; Lee, Kevin; Parkin, Ivan P.; Wilson, Michael; Armitage, David A.; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Ni-Ti alloy due to its unique mechanical properties, is used for many types of implants. Failure of these implants can be attributed to many different factors; however infections are a common problem. In this paper, the attachment of the bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, to the Ni-Ti surface modified by a range of processes with and without of light activation (used to elicit antimicrobial properties of materials) was assessed and related to different surface characteristics. Before the light activation the number of bacterial colony forming units was the greatest for the samples thermally oxidised at 600 deg. C. This sample and the spark oxidised samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity but only the thermally oxidised samples at 600 deg. C showed a significant drop of S. aureus attachment. The findings in this study indicate that light activation and treating samples at 600 deg. C is a promising method for Ni-Ti implant applications with inherent antimicrobial properties. Light activation was shown to be an effective way to trigger photocatalytic reactions on samples covered with relatively thick titanium dioxide via accumulation of photons in the surface and a possible increase in defects which may result in free oxygen. Moreover, light activation caused an increase in the total surface energy.

  6. Slides with no attached paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique; Wallenius, Janne; Ouzounian, Gerald; Wikberg, Peter; Todd, Terry A.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhael V.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Mayorshin, A.A.; McLachlan, Fiona; Nash, Ken L.; Nilsson, M.; Grimes, T.; Braley, J.C.; TAKESHITA, Kenji; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Spendlikova, I.; Distler, P.; John, J.; Sebesta, F.; VU, Trong-Hung; SIMONIN, Jean-Pierre; PAULENOVA, Alena; PRECEK, Martin; HARTIG, Kyle; KNAPP, Nathan; Vidick, Geoffrey; Bouslimani, Nouri; Desreux, Jean F.; Lewis, F.W.; Hudson, M.J.; Harwood, L.M.; Nunez, Ana; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Raj, Baldev; Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Alexander; Pouchon, Manuel A.; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Allard, Stefan; Ekberg, Christian; Retegan, Teodora; Nordlund, Anders; John, Jan; Maershin, Alexander; Zakirov, R.; Panov, A.; Toropov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    This document brings together the different presentations (slides) given at the workshop but with no attached paper. These slides refer to the following presentations: - Presentation of ITN (Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear); - Minor Actinide Partitioning (Dominique Warin); - Transmutation (Janne Wallenius); - Radioactive Waste Management, IGD-TP (Gerald Ouzounian); - Present status of the Swedish nuclear waste management programme (Peter Wikberg); - The U.S. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program - Separations Research and Development (Terry Todd); - Strategies and national programs of closed fuel cycles - Russian Expert Vision (Mikhael Kormilitsyn) - Extraction Studies Of Potential Solvent Formulations For The GANEX Process (Fiona MacLachlan); - Investigations of The Fundamental Chemistry of the TALSPEAK Process (Ken Nash); - Extraction Separation of Trivalent Minor Actinides and Lanthanides by Hexa-dentate Nitrogen-donor Extractant, TPEN, and its Analogs (Kenji Takeshita); - Fluorinated Diluents for HLW Processing - technological point of view (Vasiliy Babain); - Extraction properties of some new pyridine molecules and search for better diluents (Irena Spendlikova); - Kinetics of extraction of Eu 3+ ion by TODGA and CyMe 4 -BTBP studied using the RMC technique (Trong Hung Vu); - Redox Chemistry of Neptunium in Solutions of Nitric Acid (Alena Paulenova); - NMR applied to actinide ions and their complexes. In search of covalency effects (Geoffrey Vidick); - Towards 'Stability Rules' for Radiolysis of bis-DGA compounds (Ana Nunez); - Pyroprocess Research Activities at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India (K. Nagarajan); - Critical issues of nuclear energy systems employing molten salt fluorides: from ISTC No. 1606 to No. 3749 (1. year of project activity) and MARS/EVOL cooperation (Victor Ignatiev); - Conversion processes: Internal Gelation and the Sphere-pac concept (Manuel Pouchon); - A Combined Nuclear Technology and Nuclear Chemistry Master. A Unique

  7. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  8. The fourth pattern of attachment: Disorganized / disoriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment behavior, the author answers the following questions about: the behavior children categorized as Disorganized/disorientated or Controlling in the procedure of the Strange situation; the life circumstances, in which these children live; the reasons for lack of balanced strategies of attachment and characteristics of their general manner of adaptation. The author finds the characteristics of the mothers' (insensitivity to be significantly influential for the emergence of the fourth pattern of attachment. These children are heterogeneous regarding adaptation in general. Professional help preceding negative consequences for their socioemotional development is neccesary.

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The invention involves a technique to quickly, inexpensively and rigidly attach a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. The invention also allows for the repeated non-destructive removal and replacement of the fuel rod. The proposed fuel rod and support member attachment and removal system consists of a locking cap fastened to the fuel rod and a locking strip fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two or more opposing fingers shaped to form a socket. The fingers spring back when moved apart and released. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion

  10. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Caregiver Soothing Behaviors After Immunization and Infant Attachment: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillgrove-Stuart, Jessica; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2015-01-01

    There were 2 primary objectives to the current study: (1) to relate caregiver behavior trajectories across immunization appointments over the first year of life to subsequent infant attachment and (2) to relate caregiver behavior trajectories within each immunization appointment over the first year of life to subsequent infant attachment. A subsample of 130 caregivers and their infants were recruited from a sample of 760 caregivers who were part of an ongoing longitudinal cohort that videotaped infants' 2-, 4-, 6-, and 12-month immunization appointments. This subsample of caregivers and their infants (n = 130) were invited to participate in an assessment of attachment when infants were between 12 and 18 months of age at the local children's hospital. Caregiver proximal soothing behaviors were the only caregiver behaviors postimmunization that were related to subsequent infant attachment. Higher frequencies of caregiver proximal soothing at 12 months were related to infants' organized attachment, whereas steeper decreases in proximal soothing across the first year were associated with disorganized infant attachment. In addition, when caregivers engaged in proximal soothing for longer after their 12 month olds' immunizations, these infants were more likely to be secure or organized in their attachment. These results provide empirical support for the ecological validity of studying infant attachment in a pediatric pain context. The pediatric "well-baby" visit may provide a potential opportunity to feasibly integrate brief infant mental health screening and intervention.

  12. Insatiable insecurity: maternal obesity as a risk factor for mother-child attachment and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Sierau, Susan; Klein, Annette M; Bergmann, Sarah; Grube, Matthias; von Klitzing, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a rising health problem, and because parental obesity is a basic risk factor for childhood obesity, biological factors have been especially considered in the complex etiology. Aspects of the family interaction, e.g., mother-child attachment, have not been the main focus. Our study tried to fill this gap by investigating whether there is a difference between children of obese and normal weight mothers in terms of mother-child attachment, and whether mother-child attachment predicts child's weight, in a sample of 31 obese and 31 normal weight mothers with children aged 19 to 58 months. Mother-child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-Set. We found that (1) children of obese mothers showed a lower quality of mother-child attachment than children of normal weight mothers, which indicates that they are less likely to use their mothers as a secure base; (2) the attachment quality predicted child`s BMI percentile; and (3) the mother-child attachment adds incremental validity to the prediction of child's BMI beyond biological parameters (child's BMI birth percentile, BMI of the parents) and mother's relationship status. Implications of our findings are discussed.

  13. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  14. Attachment orientation and sexual risk behaviour among young Black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Watkins, Daphne C; Calebs, Benjamin; Wilson, Patrick A

    This mixed methods study used an explanatory sequential design to examine the relationship between attachment and sexual behavior among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Cross sectional online surveys and sex diaries were completed by a sample of YBGBM in New York City ( n = 153) to assess the association between adult attachment insecurity and sexual risk behavior. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R) was used to assess three types of adult attachment (i.e., secure, anxious, and avoidant). Participants reported condomless sex encounters, as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex encounters, as measures of sexual risk. Quantitative findings suggested that there were few associations between attachment type and sexual risk behavior; only men with attachment avoidance were likely to engage in condomless sex. However, qualitative findings illuminated some of the social complexities of the association between attachment in childhood, attachment in young adulthood and intimate partnerships, which could be linked to young adult sexual risk behavior. The study findings highlight the need for researchers to further examine the process by which individual differences in attachment orientation are related to YBGBM's sexual behavior.

  15. Attachment as a partial mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-12-15

    Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borde......Background: Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting...... personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. Conclusions: The current study is the first...... to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also...

  17. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-01-01

    To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachment status at 42 months of age (typical [secure, avoidant, or ambivalent] or atypical [disorganized-controlling, insecure-other]), and their interaction were examined as predictors of externalizing behavior at age 54 months. 5HTTLPR genotype and atypical attachment at age 42 months interacted to predict externalizing behavior at age 54 months. Specifically, children with the s/s genotype with an atypical attachment had the highest externalizing scores. However, s/s children with a typical attachment demonstrated the lowest externalizing scores, even after controlling for intervention group status. There was no association between attachment status and externalizing behavior among children carrying at least 1 copy of the l allele. These findings indicate that genetic variation in the serotonergic system moderates the association between atypical attachment status and externalizing in young children. Our findings suggest that children, as a result of genetic variability in the serotonergic system, demonstrate differential sensitivity to the attachment relationship.

  18. Serotonin Transporter Genotype (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Longitudinal Impact of Atypical Attachment on Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether genotype of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) and atypical attachment interact to predict externalizing psychopathology prospectively in a sample of children with a history of early institutional care. Methods Caregiver report of externalizing behavior at 54 months was examined in 105 children initially reared in institutional care and enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of high quality foster care. 5HTTLPR genotype, attachme