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Sample records for attachment ii sample

  1. Long-term effects on adult attachment in German occupation children born after World War II in comparison with a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-10-28

    Children born of war are a phenomenon of every conflict. At the end of World War II and thereafter, approximately 400,000 children were fathered by foreign soldiers and born to local women in Germany. Quantitative research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as German occupation child (GOC) has been missing so far. This study examines adult attachment and its association with current depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Adult Attachment Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire. Data were compared to a birth-cohort-matched representative sample of the German population (BCMS; N = 786). GOC differ in both attachment dimensions (less comfortable with closeness/intimacy, lowered ability to depend on others) and adult attachment (more dismissive and fearful) compared to BCMS. Insecure adult attachment is associated with current depression. GOC grew up under difficult circumstances (e.g. poverty, adverse events, and stigmatization). Even decades later they display more insecure attachment in current relationships. Findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their developmental conditions on attachment and current mental health.

  2. [Infants' attachment security in a vulnerable French sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, S; Guedeney, N; Dugravier, R; Greacen, T; Saïas, T; Tubach, F; Ulgen, S; Matos, I; Guédeney, A

    2017-04-01

    Attachment is a long lasting emotional link established between infants and their caregivers. The quality of early relationships allows infants to safely explore their environment and contribute to the establishment of a broad range of social skills. Several intervention programs targeting infant attachment have been implemented in different contexts, showing diverse degrees of efficacy. The present paper describes, for the first time, children's attachment quality distributions in a French multi-risk population, with a preventive intervention, usual or reinforced. In the CAPEDP study (Parenting and Attachment in Early Childhood: reducing mental health disorder risks and promoting resilience), a sub-sample of 117 women was recruited to assess the effects of this home-visiting program on children's attachment security. With that intent, the Strange Situation Paradigm was used when infants were between 12 and 16 months of age. In the intervention group, 63% (n=41) of the infants were coded as secure, while 15% (n=10) of them were coded as insecure-avoidant and 22% (n=14) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. 56% (n=29) of control group infants (usual care) were coded as secure, while 27% (n=14) were coded as insecure-avoidant and 17% (n=9) as insecure-ambivalent/resistant. Even if the percentage of children with a secure attachment in the reinforced intervention group was higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach the threshold of significance [Chi 2 (2)=2.40, P=0.30]. Intervention group distributions were closer to normative samples, and these distributions show the clinical impact of our program. In general, preventive interventions focused on attachment quality have moderate effects but, in our case, several factors might have contributed to lower the statistical impact of the program. Firstly, the control group cannot be considered has having received zero intervention for two reasons: (a) the French usual perinatal health system (Maternal

  3. 32 CFR Attachment 3 to Part 2800 - Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 3 Attachment 3 to Part 2800—Sample EC25OC91.012 ...

  4. 32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855—Sample Temporary...

  5. Attachment and Learning. Part II: The Learning Profile of the Avoidant and Disorganized Attachment Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Using the framework of Attachment Theory, and following on from Part 1, further patterns of Attachment Behaviour are described and linked to responses in the classroom. The Avoidant and Disorganized patterns are described and linked to responses in the classroom to the teacher and to the educational task illustrated by examples from practice.…

  6. Relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and attachment style in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michelle B; Siefert, Caleb J; Stewart, Rosemarie Vala; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the relationship between the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS) and two measures of adult attachment: the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-Revised (ECR-R). Forty-five patients (76% female) at a university-based outpatient treatment clinic participated in this study. We hypothesized that higher levels of attachment security would be associated with higher, more adaptive ratings on the SCORS variables. Results indicated that the SCORS Self-Esteem (SE) variable was significantly positively related to the RQ's Secure Attachment ratings and negatively related with the ECR-R's Anxious Attachment scale. Additionally, negative trends were noted between SE and the RQ's Fearful and Preoccupied Attachment scores. The SCORS Emotional Investments in Relationships and Affective Quality of Representations variables were associated with higher Secure scores and lower, more maladaptive Preoccupied scores on the RQ. It was also associated with greater attachment anxiety as measured by the ECR-R. Using both clinician (SCORS) and participant-rated measures (ECR-R and RQ), this study provides further understanding on how object representations and attachment style relate within a clinical sample. Results are discussed in light of prior research examining relationships between object relations and adult attachments, and clinical implications are also reviewed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • Individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety may enter therapy with more self-image problems. • Individuals with higher levels of attachment anxiety may enter therapy with more maladaptive expectations about relationships. • Patients who endorse high levels of attachment anxiety (e.g., fearful and preoccupied) may be more likely to present with Axis II complaints. • Examining a patient's attachment style and object relations using different

  7. Adult attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Berry, Katherine; Meijer, Carin J; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that attachment theory could enhance our knowledge and understanding of psychotic phenomenology. We systematically reviewed and critically appraised research investigating attachment and psychotic phenomenology in clinical and non-clinical samples. We searched databases Pub Med, PsycINFO, Medline and Web of Science using the keywords. Attachment, Adult Attachment, Psychosis, Schizotypy and Schizophrenia and identified 29 studies assessing adult attachment in combination with psychotic phenomenology. The findings indicated that both insecure anxious and insecure avoidant attachment are associated with psychotic phenomenology. Insecurely attached individuals are more vulnerable to developing maladaptive coping strategies in recovering from psychosis. The importance of attachment experiences for processing social information, mentalization skills and developing social relationships, including therapeutic relationships, in samples with psychosis is also highlighted. Attachment style is a clinically relevant construct in relation to development, course and treatment of psychosis. Understanding the role of attachment in symptoms may help to gain insight into the development or persistence of symptoms. Associations between attachment and recovery style suggest that it may be helpful to improve attachment security in a context of therapeutic relationships or other social relationships before encouraging people to explore their experiences of psychosis. Associations between insecure attachment and impaired mentalization skills may help in understanding interpersonal difficulties and this knowledge can be used to improve recovery. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The dynamics of attachment insecurity and paranoid thoughts: An experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Varese, Filippo; Sellwood, William; Hammond, Amy; Bentall, Richard

    2016-12-30

    It has been proposed that insecure attachment can have adverse effects on the course of psychosis once symptoms have emerged. There is longitudinal evidence that increased insecure attachment is associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. The present study examined whether in the flow of daily life attachment insecurity fluctuates, whether elevated stress precedes the occurrence of attachment insecurity, and whether elevated attachment insecurity precedes the occurrence of paranoia. Twenty clinical participants with a psychosis-spectrum diagnosis and twenty controls were studied over six consecutive days using the experience sampling method (ESM). The findings revealed that fluctuations in attachment insecurity were significantly higher in the clinical group, that elevated stress predicted a subsequent increase in attachment insecurity, and that elevated attachment insecurity predicted a subsequent increase in paranoia; this effect was not observed in auditory hallucinations once co-occurring symptoms were controlled for. Finally, although previous ESM studies have shown that low self-esteem precedes the occurrence of paranoia, attachment insecurity continued to predict paranoia even when self-esteem was controlled for. The findings suggest that attachment security may be associated with a lower risk of paranoia, and that psychological interventions should address attachment beliefs and work towards establishing a sense of attachment security. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Maternal interactive behaviour as a predictor of preschoolers' attachment representations among full term and premature samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Moran, Greg; Roy, Caroline; Jaunin, Lyne; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Muller-Nix, Carole; Borghini, Ayala

    2013-05-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity and child attachment have been established in many samples, but the strength of the association varies across populations. The sensitivity-attachment link has never been examined at the level of representations nor among premature samples. The present study is aimed at exploring associations between maternal interactive behaviour and children's attachment representations in a population of preterm and full-term infants. Maternal interactive behaviour was assessed at 6 and 18 months (Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale & Care Index) and children's attachment representations were measured at 42 months (Attachment Story Completion Task) in a sample of preterm (N=48) and full-term (N=23) infants. Maternal unresponsiveness at 6 months and sensitivity at 18 months explained 54% of the variance of disorganized attachment representations in the full-term group but was not significantly related to attachment patterns in the preterm group. These results corroborate previous work on the causes of disorganized attachment and also point to the need to consider the development of attachment differently for children evolving in specific developmental contexts. They especially stress the importance of distinguishing between risk factors associated with the mother as opposed to the child. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J; Jongmans, Marian J; Mooren, Trudy T M; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on families by studying the unique contribution of disconnected and extremely insensitive parenting behavior on child attachment in a highly traumatized sample of 68 asylum seekers and refugees and their children (18-42 months). The results show that parental symptoms of PTSD are directly related to children's insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. The greatest proportion of the risk could be attributed to factors related to the dyad and not the family. A mediation effect of adverse parenting behavior was not confirmed. On the one hand the results indicate the need for an effective treatment of PTSD symptomatology while on the other hand the results indicate the need for clinical attention to insecure attachment relationships.

  11. Relationships between adult attachment style ratings and sleep disturbances in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G Camelia; McWilliams, Lachlan A

    2015-07-01

    Recent research with small non-clinical and clinical samples suggests a positive association between attachment insecurity and sleep disturbances. The present study extends this line of research by exploring this relationship in a large sample of the U.S. population and by statistically adjusting for health conditions and psychiatric disorders as potential confounds. The data used were from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (N=5692). The main interview consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview used to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Ratings of three adult attachment styles (viz., secure, avoidant, and anxious) were obtained along with self-reports of health conditions and four sleep disturbances (viz., difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and daytime sleepiness). Bivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that ratings of secure attachment were negatively associated with each sleep disturbance and ratings of insecure attachment were positively associated with each sleep disturbance. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between the attachment ratings and sleep disturbances while statistically controlling for sociodemographic variables, the presence of a health condition, and psychiatric disorders (viz., depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol/substance disorders, and attention deficit disorder). With one exception, the insecure attachment ratings continued to be positively associated with sleep disturbances. The findings demonstrate that attachment insecurity is related to sleep disturbances independent of health conditions and concurrent psychiatric disorders. Research aimed at delineating the mechanisms responsible for these associations is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Giovanardi; Roberto Vitelli; Carola Maggiora Vergano; Alexandro Fortunato; Luca Chianura; Vittorio Lingiardi; Anna Maria Speranza

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienc...

  13. The Impact of Attachment Style on Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Desire in a Sexually Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Patrick, Laura M; Murray, Sarah H

    2017-11-22

    Research has indicated that adult romantic attachment is influential and important to sexual and relationship satisfaction. Sexual desire, although not a direct focus of attachment literature, is highly related to sexual and relationship satisfaction, suggesting it may also be impacted by attachment style in romantic couples. However, the research conducted on sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and attachment has been largely heterocentric, making it difficult to determine whether the findings documented in the literature thus far are relevant in a sexually diverse group of individuals. The current study aimed to better understand the way that attachment style may impact sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of sexually diverse men and women. In total, 955 individuals (63.4% cis-gender women, 30.7% cis-gender men, 6.0% genderqueer; 54.8% straight, 20.4% bisexual, 18.4% gay) participated in a web-based study examining relationship dynamics. In three multivariate regression models indicated that attachment style significantly predicted relationship satisfaction (29% of variance accounted for), sexual satisfaction (19% of variance accounted for), and sexual desire (4% of variance accounted for). Attachment style appears to be a more important contributing factor to satisfaction than desire amongst diverse sexual orientations. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. The contribution of social rank and attachment theory to depression in a non clinical sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puissant, Sylvia Pinna; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Van Oirbeek, Robin

    2011-11-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of the overall quality of attachment to the mother, to the father and to peers (Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scales), the style of attachment towards peers (Attachment Questionnaire for Children scale), the social rank variables (submissive behavior and social comparison), and sex and age variables in predicting the depression score (Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) on a non-psychiatric sample of 13-18 year old adolescents (n = 225). Results of our integrated model (adjusted R-Square of .50) show that attachment variables (overall quality of attachment to the father and to the mother), social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior), age and sex are important in predicting depressive symptoms during adolescence. Moreover, the attachment to peers variables (quality of attachment to peers, secure and ambivalent style of attachment) and sex are mediated by the social rank variables (social comparison and submissive behavior).

  15. Female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and romantic attachment style in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Holly K; Garcia, Marilyn; Pickett, Scott M

    2005-06-01

    The frequency, severity, and reciprocity of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and its consequences (i.e., injuries) were investigated in a college sample of women (N = 457). Participants were classified into one of the following four groups on the basis of self-reported physical assault perpetration and victimization against their relationship partners: nonviolent, perpetrator-only, victim-only, and bidirectionally violent. Results showed that females in the bidirectionally violent group had a reportedly higher occurrence (although not always statistically significant) of perpetration and victimization than those in the perpetrator-only and victim-only groups. Additionally, a similar degree of reciprocity was indicated by females in bidirectionally violent relationships in terms of violence severity and the occurrence of injury. Adult romantic attachment style was also examined among a subset of females (N = 328), and bidirectionally violent females were found to have the highest reported levels of attachment anxiety. Further, females high in attachment anxiety and low in attachment avoidance were more likely to report perpetrating violence than females high in both styles. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  16. SEDSAT-1 is attached to Delta II rocket launching Deep Space 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Attached to the second stage of a Boeing Delta II at Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, is the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space Satellite-1 (SEDSat-1). An international project, SEDSat-1 is a secondary payload on the Deep Space 1 mission and will be deployed 88 minutes after launch over Hawaii. The satellite includes cameras for imaging Earth, a unique attitude determination system, and amateur radio communication capabilities. Deep Space 1, targeted for launch on Oct. 24, is the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program and is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century.

  17. The role of attachment style in Facebook use and social capital: evidence from university students and a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Hsuan

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) can be beneficial tools for users to gain social capital. Although social capital consists of emotional and informational resources accumulated through interactions with strong or weak social network ties, the existing literature largely ignores attachment style in this context. This study employed attachment theory to explore individuals' attachment orientations toward Facebook usage and toward online and offline social capital. A university student sample (study 1) and a representative national sample (study 2) showed consistent results. Secure attachment was positively associated with online bonding and bridging capital and offline bridging capital. Additionally, secure attachment had an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook time. Avoidant attachment was negatively associated with online bonding capital. Anxious-ambivalent attachment had a direct association with online bonding capital and an indirect effect on all capital through Facebook. Interaction frequency with good friends on Facebook positively predicted all online and offline capital, whereas interaction frequency with average friends on Facebook positively predicted online bridging capital. Interaction frequency with acquaintances on Facebook was negatively associated with offline bonding capital. The study concludes that attachment style is a significant factor in guiding social orientation toward Facebook connections with different ties and influences online social capital. The study extends attachment theory among university students to a national sample to provide more generalizable evidence for the current literature. Additionally, this study extends attachment theory to the SNS setting with a nuanced examination of types of Facebook friends after controlling extraversion. Implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Attachment Patterns and Complex Trauma in a Sample of Adults Diagnosed with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Giovanardi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated attachment representations and complex trauma in a sample of gender dysphoric adults. Although it has been proven that the psychological wellbeing of gender diverse persons is largely mediated by family acceptance and support, research on their relationships with parental figures is scarce. A total of 95 adults took part in the study. The attachment distribution was as follows: 27% secure, 27% insecure and 46% disorganized. Regarding early traumas, 56% experienced four or more traumatic forms. Further, gender dysphoric adults showed significantly higher levels of attachment disorganization and polyvictimisation, relative to controls. Comparisons of subgroups, defined by natal gender, showed that trans women, compared to control males, had more involving and physically and psychologically abusive fathers, and were more often separated from their mothers; trans men, relative to female controls, had more involving mothers and were more frequently separated from and neglected by their fathers. The research has several implications for treatment, clinical health psychology, family support and education.

  19. Attachment Styles, Perceived Stress and Social Support in a Malaysian Young Adults Sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siamak Khodarahimi; Intan H.M. Hashim; Norzarina Mohd-Zaharim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of an adult attachment style questionnaire, to understand the relationships between the type of attachment style in relation to self-perceived...

  20. Associations between attachment and psychopathology dimensions in a large sample of patients with psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Berry, Katherine; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe; Ponizovsky, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Attachment theory is a powerful theoretical framework that complements and extents current models psychosis. We tested the hypothesis that attachment anxiety and avoidance are differentially associated with the severity of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in patients with a

  1. Parental bonds and body dissatisfaction in a clinical sample: The mediating roles of attachment anxiety and media internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Renee; Tasca, Giorgio A; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Proulx, Genevieve; Bissada, Hany

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated an attachment theory model in which mother and father care were hypothesized to be indirectly related to body dissatisfaction mediated by attachment anxiety and media internalization. Participants were 232 women diagnosed with an eating disorder who completed a retrospective measure of parental bonds, and measures of attachment anxiety, media internalization, and body image. Mother care was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction, suggesting that recollection of mothers as less caring was directly related to poorer body image. Lower father care, was indirectly associated with greater body dissatisfaction mediated by higher attachment anxiety and higher media internalization. That is, women with an eating disorder who recollected fathers as less caring had higher attachment anxiety, which was related to greater internalizing of media-related thin ideals, that in turn was associated with poorer body image. Mothers and fathers may impact body dissatisfaction by differing mechanisms in clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attachment representations of school-aged Korean children: comparing family drawing and narrative assessments in a clinical and a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mi Kyoung; Chung, Unsun; Hazen, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the links between two different methods of assessing children's attachment representations, a narrative task (the Manchester Attachment Story Task, MCAST) and a drawing task (the Family Drawing Task, FDT), in a clinical sample of 51 and a community sample of 45 Korean children aged 7-9. In both samples, attachment classifications derived from the MCAST were related to attachment classifications and global ratings derived from the FDT. In addition, rates of insecure attachment determined by MCAST classifications and by FDT global scales indicative of insecure attachment were higher in the clinical sample than the community sample. Variations in attachment patterns for these Korean samples are discussed in relation to Korean child-rearing customs. Results of this study contribute to the cross-cultural validation of both of these instruments, as well as extending our understanding of patterns of attachment in Korea from infancy to middle childhood.

  3. Attachment style, psychotic phenomena and the relationship with aggression: an investigation in a non-clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Research has long suggested that there is a link between psychosis and aggression, but we continue to not fully understand that relationship. This paper aims to explore whether attachment, which is empirically linked to both psychosis and aggression, could be an important factor in understanding this relationship. Using a community sample, 213 participants participated in an online questionnaire and responded to measures of adult attachment, aggression and psychotic like events (PLE). Results...

  4. The use and abuse of attachment theory in clinical practice with maltreated children, part II: treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing debate about the role of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated children. Many professional organizations have issued statements against physically restraining children as some attachment therapists promote; however, often lost in these debates is the fundamental issue of what attachment theory and research proposes as the appropriate form of treatment. Given that these attachment therapies are often directed toward maltreated children, it becomes critical for clinicians working with abused and neglected children to understand these issues and recognize unethical and dangerous treatments. This article provides a summary of the theoretical and empirical bases for the use of attachment theory in the treatment of maltreated school-age children, an examination of the ways questionable approaches to treatment have misinterpreted and misapplied attachment theory, and a conceptualization of attachment-based intervention grounded in current theory and research.

  5. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment Representation and Sensitivity: The Moderating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Refugee Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Elisa; Jongmans, Marian J; van der Aa, Niels; Kleber, Rolf J

    2017-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that adult attachment representations guide caregiving behavior and influence parental sensitivity, and thus affect the child's socio-emotional development. Several studies have shown a link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reduced parental sensitivity, so it is possible that PTSD moderates the relationship between insecure attachment representations and insensitivity. In this study symptoms of PTSD (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), parental sensitivity (Emotional Availability Scales), and attachment representations (Attachment Script Assessment) were assessed in 53 parents who were asylum seekers or refugees. Results showed that when parents were less able to draw on secure attachment representations, symptoms of PTSD increased the risk of insensitive parenting. These findings suggest that parental sensitivity is affected not just by attachment representations, but by a conjunction of risk factors including symptoms of PTSD and insecure attachment representations. These parents should therefore be supported to establish or confirm secure models of attachment experiences, to facilitate their ability interact sensitively and form a secure relationship with their children. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental PTSD, adverse parenting and child attachment in a refugee sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ee, Elisa; Kleber, Rolf J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069316929; Jongmans, Marian J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258268743; Mooren, Trudy T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107551519; Out, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In contrast with traumatic experiences, there is a dearth of studies on the link between trauma symptoms, disconnected (frightened, threatening and dissociative) parenting behavior, extremely insensitive parenting behavior and child attachment. This study extends previous work on the

  9. Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, G J; Bohlen, U; Carlson, E A; Spangler, G; Frumentia Maier, M

    2016-10-01

    STEEP(TM) was one of the first attachment-based early intervention programs. The program applied findings from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study on Risk and Adaptation to the development of a supportive program for young high-risk mothers and their infants. STEEP's effectiveness was evaluated first in a randomized controlled study launched in 1987. The study showed effects of the one-year intervention on important individual and parenting variables, but not on quality of mother-infant attachment. In the current German study with young mothers at risk for abuse and neglect, a two-year adaptation of STEEP was evaluated within a quasi-experimental design. STEEP mother-infant pairs (N = 78) were compared with pairs who received standard services of the German Child Welfare System (GCWS, N = 29). Compared with GCWS pairs, significantly more mother-infant pairs in the intervention group showed secure attachment patterns in Ainsworth´s Strange Situation when the infants were 12 months of age. At the end of the intervention (infant age = 24 month), attachment security scores derived from Waters' Attachment Q-Sort were in the predicted direction and showed a medium effect size, but did not reach criteria of statistical significance. At both time points, the STEEP group showed significantly fewer signs of attachment disorganization than the comparison group.

  10. Correlates of self-reported adult attachment styles in a Dutch sample of married men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mutsaers, W.C M

    The relationships between attachment style, recollections of the family of origin, working model of self and others and current relational satisfaction were examined in a Dutch sample of married subjects from the general community. Measures were adapted from those developed by Hazan & Shaver (1987).

  11. A Behavior-Genetic Study of Parenting Quality, Infant Attachment Security, and Their Covariation in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2008-01-01

    A number of relatively small-sample, genetically sensitive studies of infant attachment security have been published in the past several years that challenge the view that all psychological phenotypes are heritable and that environmental influences on child development--to the extent that they can be detected--serve to make siblings dissimilar.…

  12. Attachment dimensions and group climate growth in a sample of women seeking treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Vanessa; Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2011-01-01

    Adult attachment and group process research are emerging areas of research for treating eating disorders. In this study, we examined several aspects of group processes: the weekly growth of group therapy climate, the relationship between group climate growth and outcomes, and the impact of the group on individual experiences of group climate. Further, we assessed the relationship between adult attachment dimensions and these group processes. Women (n = 264) diagnosed with an eating disorder completed attachment scales pre-treatment, eating disorder symptom scales pre- and post-treatment, and group climate scales weekly during treatment. Treatment consisted of a specialized eating disorders group-based day hospital program with rolling admissions. Engaged group climate increased and Avoidance group climate decreased across weeks of treatment. Engaged group climate growth was associated with improved eating disorder symptoms post-treatment. Higher attachment avoidance at pre-treatment was related to lower Engaged group climate at week 1, and was related to a greater impact of the group on the individual's experience of group engagement. Clinicians might improve group processes and outcomes by tailoring interventions to individuals' attachment avoidance when treating women for eating disorders.

  13. Small molecule HIV entry inhibitors: Part II. Attachment and fusion inhibitors: 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inder Pal; Chauthe, Siddheshwar Kisan

    2011-03-01

    The first US FDA approved HIV entry inhibitor drug Enfuvirdine belongs to the fusion inhibitor category. Earlier efforts in this area were focused on peptides and monoclonal antibodies; recently, the focus has shifted towards the development of small molecule HIV attachment and fusion inhibitors. They can be used for prophylactic purposes and also hold potential for the development of HIV microbicides. In a previous paper ('Small molecule HIV entry inhibitors: Part I'), we reviewed patents and patent applications for small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists from major pharmaceutical companies. In this paper, the development of small molecule HIV attachment and fusion inhibitors is discussed in detail. It covers patents and patent applications for small molecule HIV attachment and fusion inhibitors published between 2004 and 2010 and related literature with a focus on recent developments based on lead generation and lead modification. To augment the potency of currently available antiretroviral drug combinations and to fight drug-resistant virus variants, more effective drugs which target additional steps in the viral replication cycle are urgently needed. HIV attachment and fusion processes are such targets. Inhibitors of these targets will provide additional options for the treatment of HIV drug-resistant strains. Small molecule HIV attachment inhibitors such as BMS-378806 and analogs from Bristol Myers Squibb, N-aryl piperidine derivatives from Propharmacon, and NBD-556 and NBD-557 from New York Blood Center may have potential as vaginal microbicidal agents and can be an economical alternative to monoclonal antibodies.

  14. Determinants of maternal fetal attachment in women from a community-based sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundMaternal fetal attachment (MFA) has been found to be an important predictor for the developing relationship between mother and child. During the last decades, research on determinants of MFA has yielded inconclusive and even contradictory results. Until now, a process model in which

  15. College Adjustment in a Multiethnic Sample: Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and Ethnic Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, Lydia; Pistole, M. Carole

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-two students completed the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scales, and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, Results from Asian, Asian Indian, Black, Hispanic, and White participants revealed sex differences in predicting college…

  16. Adult attachment, intimacy and psychological distress in a clinical and community sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, SB; Luteijn, F; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals' later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The present study examined the role of intimacy in the current romantic relationship as a possible mediator of the relationship

  17. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Paul; McEwan, Kirsten; Catarino, Francisca; Baião, Rita; Palmeira, Lara

    2014-06-01

    In a non-clinical population, fears of compassion and fear of happiness have both been found to be highly correlated with alexithymia and depression. This study sought to explore these processes and their links with adult attachment and social safeness and pleasure in a depressed group. A total of 52 participants suffering from moderate to severe depression completed measures of fears of happiness, compassion from others and for self, in addition to measures of alexithymia, attachment, social safeness, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fears of compassion and happiness were highly correlated with alexithymia, adult attachment, and depression, anxiety, and stress. Fear of happiness was found to be the best predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas fear of compassion from others was the best predictor of adult attachment. A path analysis showed that fears of positive emotion fully mediate the link between alexithymia and depression. This clinical sample had higher mean scores in fears of positive emotions, alexithymia, and depression, anxiety, and stress than a previously studied student sample. This study adds to the evidence that fears of positive emotions are important features of mental health difficulties. Unaddressed, these fears can block positive emotions and may lead to emotional avoidance of positive affect thus contributing as blocks to successful therapy. Therapies for depression may therefore profitably assess and desensitize the fear of positive emotions. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Mechanism of Bacterial Cell-Surface Attachment Revealed by the Structure of Cellulosomal Type II Cohesin-dockerin Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams,J.; Pal, G.; Jia, Z.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial cell-surface attachment of macromolecular complexes maintains the microorganism in close proximity to extracellular substrates and allows for optimal uptake of hydrolytic byproducts. The cellulosome is a large multienzyme complex used by many anaerobic bacteria for the efficient degradation of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The mechanism of cellulosome retention to the bacterial cell surface involves a calcium-mediated protein-protein interaction between the dockerin (Doc) module from the cellulosomal scaffold and a cohesin (Coh) module of cell-surface proteins located within the proteoglycan layer. Here, we report the structure of an ultra-high-affinity (K{sub a} = 1.44 x 10{sup 10} M{sup 1-}) complex between type II Doc, together with its neighboring X module from the cellulosome scaffold of Clostridium thermocellum, and a type II Coh module associated with the bacterial cell surface. Identification of X module-Doc and X module-Coh contacts reveal roles for the X module in Doc stability and enhanced Coh recognition. This extremely tight interaction involves one face of the Coh and both helices of the Doc and comprises significant hydrophobic character and a complementary extensive hydrogen-bond network. This structure represents a unique mechanism for cell-surface attachment in anaerobic bacteria and provides a rationale for discriminating between type I and type II Coh modules.

  19. Re-Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in a Hungarian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrek, Andrea; Kekecs, Zoltan; Hadhazi, Eva; Boukydis, Zack; Varga, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    To explore the factor structure of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and investigate its psychosocial and demographic correlates in a Hungarian sample. Cross-sectional survey. Sonography clinic in a metropolitan area. One hundred fourteen women over the age of 18 years in the second or third trimesters of pregnancy. Participants completed the Hungarian version of the MFAS and provided information on demographic, socioeconomic, and pregnancy-related factors. The internal consistency of the MFAS total scale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = .87). However, the reliability of the five subscales was low (alpha coefficients between .57 and .74), and the original five-factor model was not supported by the factor analyses. Married mothers had higher scores on the MFAS than participants who were unmarried, and uncertainty about the sex of the fetus was associated with lower attachment scores. Furthermore, gestational age showed a positive correlation with MFAS scores. No significant association was found between the total score on the MFAS and such factors as age, income, or education of the parents; whether the pregnancy was planned; method of conception; number of children born previously; prior perinatal losses; and circumstances of the mother's own birth. Our study showed that marital status, uncertainty about the sex of the fetus, and gestational age were associated with maternal-fetal attachment; however, more detailed analysis was not possible because of the instability of the subscales of the instrument. Further research is warranted on the underlying factors related to maternal-fetal attachment. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. EMP Attachment 1 DOE-SC PNNL Site Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Kirsten M.

    2011-11-10

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is written for the radiological environmental air surveillance program for the DOE-SC PNNL Site, Richland Washington. It provides the requirements for planning sampling events, and the requirements imposed on the analytical laboratory analyzing the air samples. The actual air sampling process is in procedure EPRP-AIR-029. The rationale for analyte selection, media, and sampling site location has been vetted through the data quality objectives (DQO) process (Barnett et al. 2010). The results from the DQO process have been reviewed and approved by the Washington State Department of Health. The DQO process (Barnett et al. 2010) identified seven specific radionuclides for analysis along with the need for gross alpha and gross beta radiological analyses. The analytes are {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 60}Co, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 233}U. The report also determined that air samples for particulates are the only sample matrix required for the monitoring program. These samples are collected on 47-mm glass-fiber filters.

  1. A sample lesson plan for the course English Composition II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Cubillo, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present a lesson plan and a series of sample tasks to help the instructors from the course English Composition II, at the School of Modern Languages from the University of Costa Rica, to guide students write an essay integrating the four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These activities will be a source of comprehensible input for the learners that will hopefully result in a good writing piece. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un plan de lección y una serie de actividades que le ayudarán a los y las instructoras del curso Composición Inglesa II de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica a guiar a sus estudiantes a escribir un ensayo integrando las cuatro macro-destrezas, a saber comprensión auditiva, conversación, lectura y escritura. Mediante estas actividades se espera que los estudiantes elaboren un ensayo de calidad.

  2. TRU Waste Sampling Program: Volume II. Gas generation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Kudera, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    Volume II of the TRU Waste Sampling Program report contains the data generated from evaluating the adequacy of venting/filtering devices for maintaining safe hydrogen levels in plutonium contaminated waste drums. Additional studies reported in this volume include gas generation rates, selected waste form monitoring, and evaluation of hydrogen migration from sealed 90-mil rigid polyethylene drum liners containing /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes. All wastes used in the studies were newly-generated, and the waste drums were under controlled, experimental conditions. Studies using /sup 239/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant. Studies using /sup 238/Pu-contaminated wastes were conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  4. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  5. Complexometric Determination of Zinc (II) in Pharmaceutical Samples Using Hydroxytriazenes

    OpenAIRE

    Khanam R.; Sharma J.C.; Khan S; Dashora R.; Chauhan R.S.; Goswami A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes complexometric determination of Zn (II) using three hydroxytriazenes as metallochromic indicators in three medicines- Zivinal-CD, Becozine, and Vi - Syneral-Z. The hydroxytriazenes used were 3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-1-p-carboxyphenyltriazene (HPpCPT), 3-hydroxy-3-phenyl-1-o-chlorophenyltriazene (HPoCPT), 3-hydroxy-3-p-tolyl-1-p-sulphonamidophenyltriazene (HpTpSPT), respectively. Determination of zinc (II) was done by back titration method.

  6. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  7. Attachment organization in a sample of incarcerated mothers: distribution of classifications and associations with substance abuse history, depressive symptoms, perceptions of parenting competency and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Goshin, Lorie; Joestl, Sarah; Clark, Juliette; Byrne, Mary W

    2010-07-01

    We report attachment classifications in a sample of pregnant women incarcerated in a state prison with a nursery program. Analyses were based on 69 women serving sentences for felony crimes who were followed from the birth of their child to completion of the prison nursery co-residence. They completed the Adult Attachment Interview shortly after entering the program and scales measuring depression, perceived parenting competency, and social support at study entry (Time 1) and program completion (Time 2). Incarcerated mothers had higher rates of insecure attachment than previous low-risk community samples. Compared with dismissing and secure mothers, preoccupied mothers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower parenting competency, and lower satisfaction with social support at the conclusion of the nursery program. Higher scores on unresolved loss and derogation were associated with a history of substance abuse; higher scores on unresolved trauma were associated with depressive symptoms at program completion.

  8. Mind-Mindedness as a Multidimensional Construct: Appropriate and Nonattuned Mind-Related Comments Independently Predict Infant-Mother Attachment in a Socially Diverse Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meins, Elizabeth; Fernyhough, Charles; de Rosnay, Marc; Arnott, Bronia; Leekam, Susan R.; Turner, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In a socially diverse sample of 206 infant-mother pairs, we investigated predictors of infants' attachment security at 15 months, with a particular emphasis on mothers' tendency to comment appropriately or in a non-attuned manner on their 8-month-olds' internal states (so-called mind-mindedness). Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed…

  9. Efficiency and limitation of periodic sample multiplication to reduce computational load in Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms in gas under attachment-dominated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotake

    2018-03-01

    In Monte Carlo simulations of electron swarms, sample electrons were copied periodically so that a sufficient number of samples are obtained in equilibrium after relaxation even under a severe attachment-dominated condition where most electrons vanish during the relaxation. The final sampling results were equivalent to those sampled by a conventional method, and the computational time conventionally wasted for the tracking of vanishing electrons was reduced drastically. The time saved can be utilized for tracking more samples to reduce statistical fluctuation. The efficiency of this technique and its limitation are discussed quantitatively together with details on its implementation.

  10. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: metagenomic characterization of viruses within aquatic microbial samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J Williamson

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on our planet. Interactions between viruses and their hosts impact several important biological processes in the world's oceans such as horizontal gene transfer, microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling. Interrogation of microbial metagenomic sequence data collected as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Expedition (GOS revealed a high abundance of viral sequences, representing approximately 3% of the total predicted proteins. Cluster analyses of the viral sequences revealed hundreds to thousands of viral genes encoding various metabolic and cellular functions. Quantitative analyses of viral genes of host origin performed on the viral fraction of aquatic samples confirmed the viral nature of these sequences and suggested that significant portions of aquatic viral communities behave as reservoirs of such genetic material. Distributional and phylogenetic analyses of these host-derived viral sequences also suggested that viral acquisition of environmentally relevant genes of host origin is a more abundant and widespread phenomenon than previously appreciated. The predominant viral sequences identified within microbial fractions originated from tailed bacteriophages and exhibited varying global distributions according to viral family. Recruitment of GOS viral sequence fragments against 27 complete aquatic viral genomes revealed that only one reference bacteriophage genome was highly abundant and was closely related, but not identical, to the cyanomyovirus P-SSM4. The co-distribution across all sampling sites of P-SSM4-like sequences with the dominant ecotype of its host, Prochlorococcus supports the classification of the viral sequences as P-SSM4-like and suggests that this virus may influence the abundance, distribution and diversity of one of the most dominant components of picophytoplankton in oligotrophic oceans. In summary, the abundance and broad geographical distribution of viral

  11. A sample lesson plan for the course English Composition II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Córdoba Cubillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un plan de lección y una serie de actividades que le ayudarán a los y las instructoras del curso Composición Inglesa II de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica a guiar a sus estudiantes a escribir un ensayo integrando las cuatro macro-destrezas, a saber comprensión auditiva, conversación, lectura y escritura. Mediante estas actividades se espera que los estudiantes elaboren un ensayo de calidad.

  12. A Sample of Light Curves of Type II-n and other Unclassified Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Justin; Martin, J. C.; Hambsch, F.; Strickland, W.; Cason, A.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been speculated that there is a connection between supernova impostors and Type II-n supernovae. The modern Type II-n spectroscopic classification overlaps a great deal with Zwicky’s “Type V” supernovae, which includes several impostors. In late 2012, SN 2009ip, a known impostor, may have exploded as a Type II-n supernova. The decline from that event exhibited unusual fluctuations in brightness that are not evident in other Type II-n light curves. We present the light curves of several more recent Type II-n supernova and compare them with other published samples.

  13. Application of carrier element free coprecipitation (CEFC) method for determination of Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in food and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serencam, Huseyin; Duran, Celal; Ozdes, Duygu; Bektas, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    A simple and highly sensitive separation and preconcentration procedure, which has minimal impact on the environment, has been developed. The procedure is based on the carrier element free coprecipitation (CEFC) of Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) ions by using 2-{4-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro- 1H-1,2,4-triazol-l-yl}-N'-(pyridin-2-yl methylidene)acetohydrazide (IMOTPA), as an organic coprecipitant. The levels of analyte ions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The detection limits for Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions were found to be 0.40, 0.16 and 0.17 microg L(-1), respectively, and the relative standard deviations for the analyte ions were lower than 3.0%. Spike tests and certified reference material analyses were performed to validate the method. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions levels in sea and stream water as liquid samples and red pepper, black pepper, and peppermint as solid samples.

  14. Statistical analysis of particle flux flowing into the end-target in between attached and detached states in the linear divertor plasma simulator NAGDIS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI, Toki (Japan); Ohno, N.; Onda, T.; Takeyama, K.; Tsuji, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kajita, S.; Kuwabara, T. [Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    We have investigated the particle flux flowing into the axisymmetric end-target in the transient state from attached to detached divertor conditions in the linear plasma device NAGDIS-II. In the transient state, a dramatic decrease of the mean particle flux and a large-amplitude fluctuation with negative and positive spikes were observed. We have analyzed the fluctuation with a newly suggested analysis technique: pre-multiplied cubic spectrum with the wavelet transform. Analysis result indicates that these spikes consist of a few kilohertz components. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Determination of Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Co(II) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in food and water samples after preconcentration by coprecipitation with Mo(VI)-diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekci, Mehmet; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Elvan, Hamide; Ozdes, Duygu; Soylak, Mustafa; Duran, Celal

    2013-02-01

    A new, simple, and rapid separation and preconcentration procedure, for determination of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions in environmental real samples, has been developed. The method is based on the combination of coprecipitation of analyte ions by the aid of the Mo(VI)-diethyldithiocarbamate-(Mo(VI)-DDTC) precipitate and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The effects of experimental conditions like pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of DDTC and Mo(VI), standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume, etc. and also the influences of some foreign ions were investigated in detail on the quantitative recoveries of the analyte ions. The preconcentration factors were found to be 150 for Pb(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), and 200 for Cd(II) ions. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1-2.2 μg L(-1) while the relative standard deviations were found to be lower than 5 % for the studied analyte ions. The accuracy of the method was checked by spiked/recovery tests and the analysis of certified reference material (CRM TMDW-500 Drinking Water). The procedure was successfully applied to seawater and stream water as liquid samples and baby food and dried eggplant as solid samples in order to determine the levels of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Co(II) ions.

  16. Sampling for Air Chemical Emissions from the Life Sciences Laboratory II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lindberg, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Sampling for air chemical emissions from the Life Science Laboratory II (LSL-II) ventilation stack was performed in an effort to determine potential exposure of maintenance staff to laboratory exhaust on the building roof. The concern about worker exposure was raised in December 2015 and several activities were performed to assist in estimating exposure concentrations. Data quality objectives were developed to determine the need for and scope and parameters of a sampling campaign to measure chemical emissions from research and development activities to the outside air. The activities provided data on temporal variation of air chemical concentrations and a basis for evaluating calculated emissions. Sampling for air chemical emissions was performed in the LSL-II ventilation stack over the 6-week period from July 26 to September 1, 2016. A total of 12 sampling events were carried out using 16 sample media. Resulting analysis provided concentration data on 49 analytes. All results were below occupational exposure limits and most results were below detection limits. When compared to calculated emissions, only 5 of the 49 chemicals had measured concentrations greater than predicted. This sampling effort will inform other study components to develop a more complete picture of a worker’s potential exposure from LSL-II rooftop activities. Mixing studies were conducted to inform spatial variation in concentrations at other rooftop locations and can be used in conjunction with these results to provide temporal variations in concentrations for estimating the potential exposure to workers working in and around the LSL-II stack.

  17. Childhood abuse and neglect and insecure attachment states of mind in adulthood: Prospective, longitudinal evidence from a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Labella, Madelyn H; Martin, Jodi; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-05-01

    The present report used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to investigate the factor structure and childhood abuse and/or neglect related antecedents of adults' attachment states of mind in a high-risk sample. Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) were collected when participants were age 26 years (N = 164) and Current Relationship Interviews (CRIs) were collected from participants (N = 116) and their romantic partners when target participants were between ages 20 and 28 years (M = 25.3 years). For both the AAI and the CRI, exploratory factor analyses revealed that (a) attachment state of mind scales loaded on two weakly correlated dimensions reflecting dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) ratings of unresolved discourse loaded on the same factor as indicators of preoccupied states of mind. Experiencing any subtype of abuse and/or neglect, especially during multiple developmental periods, and experiencing multiple subtypes of abuse and/or neglect during childhood were associated with risk for preoccupied (but not dismissing) AAI states of mind regarding childhood relationships with caregivers. Analyses focused on the particular subtypes, and perpetrators indicated that the predictive significance of childhood abuse/neglect for adult's AAI preoccupied states of mind was specific to experiences of abuse (but not neglect) perpetrated by primary caregivers. In addition, experiencing chronic or multiple subtypes of childhood abuse and/or neglect increased risk for dismissing (but not preoccupied) CRI states of mind regarding adult romantic partners.

  18. [Reliability and validity of the Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results from German samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühner, C; Bürger, C; Keller, F; Hautzinger, M

    2007-06-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) underwent revision in 1996 (BDI-II) with the goal of addressing DSM-IV depression criteria. The present study assessed psychometric properties of the German version of the BDI-II. The BDI-II was translated into German and evaluated in a series of studies with clinical and nonclinical samples. The content validity of the BDI-II has improved by following DSM-IV symptom criteria. Internal consistency was satisfactorily high (alpha>or=0.84), and retest reliability exceeded r>or=0.75 in nonclinical samples. Associations with construct-related scales (depression, dysfunctional cognitive constructs) were high, while those with nonsymptomatic personality assessment (NEO-FFI) were lower. The BDI-II differentiated well between different grades of depression and was sensitive to change. The German BDI-II demonstrates good reliability and validity in clinical and nonclinical samples. It may now replace the older version of the BDI for assessing self-rated severity of depression and course of depressed symptoms under treatment.

  19. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of Sudan Blue II in environmental samples after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Unsal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure coupled to spectrophotometry is described for the determination of the trace levels of Sudan Blue II. Analytical parameters, such as pH, volume of extraction solvent (carbon tetrachloride, volume of dispersant (ethanol, volume of sample, and extraction time, were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Preconcentration factor was found to be 200. Detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD were 0.55 µg L-1 and 3.9%, respectively. The procedure was successfully used for the determination of trace levels of Sudan Blue II in food, ink, antifreeze, and industrial waste-water samples.

  1. Psychometric properties of a 20-item version of the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale in a sample of Italian expectant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busonera, Alessandra; Cataudella, Stefania; Lampis, Jessica; Tommasi, Marco; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare

    2016-03-01

    the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS), a 24-item self-report questionnaire to measure the antenatal maternal feeling towards the unborn baby, was introduced by Mecca Cranley in 1981. Despite the widespread use of the questionnaire in clinical and research contexts, issues exist about its psychometric properties. An analysis of the literature showed the need for studies aimed at reviewing the MFAS by eliminating some items and modifying and "modernising" others. This study started from these suggestions and aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a modified 20-item Italian version of the scale. the original MFAS was back translated and then administered to a pilot sample of 20 pregnant women in order to identify items hard to understand, inappropriate or ambiguous. On the basis of qualitative information derived from this pilot phase, we developed a 20-item Italian version of the MFAS that was later administered to a large sample of pregnant women. antenatal education classes carried out in public and private structures of Italian central and insular regions. a sample of 482 women in middle and late pregnancy, attending antenatal education classes between February 2013 and October 2014. the modified MFAS was administered together with other scales measuring maternal-fetal attachment, psychological well-being, relational variables. Internal consistencies were evaluated using Cronbach׳s alpha. Nomological validity was assessed via Pearson correlations. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure. the hypothesised relationships with external criteria were partially substantiated. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-dimensional structure. Confirmatory factor analyses provided general support for an oblique three-factor model. Internal consistency was adequate for the total scale and for two of the three subscales. the 20-item Italian version of the MFAS is a reliable measure of maternal attachment to

  2. Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Low-Income African American Sample of Medical Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Karen B.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Jones, Glenn N.; Bodenlos, Jamie; Ancona, Martin; Brantley, Phillip J.

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) are well established with primarily Caucasian samples. However, little is known about its reliability and validity with minority groups. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the BDI-II in a sample of low-income African American medical outpatients (N = 220).…

  3. Magnetic Graphene Oxide as an Efficient Adsorbent for the Separation and Preconcentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), and Cd(II) from Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Acar, Demet; Yilmaz, Erkan; El-Khodary, Sherif A; Morsy, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2017-09-01

    The separation and preconcentration of copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II) ions on magnetic graphene oxide (MGO) by solid-phase extraction was carried out. Quantitative recovery was obtained by adsorption of analytes on MGO at pH 6 and elution of 3 M HNO3 in 10% acetone. To optimize the presented method, the effects of various parameters-including pH, eluent conditions, and vortex time-were examined. Matrix effects were also investigated. Mean recoveries of the analytes were between 95 and 105%. The proposed method was validated by applying it to certified reference materials. Addition and recovery tests were also performed. The method was applied to verify the analyte content of several water and food samples.

  4. The Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II): A Cross-Sample Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Lane, Forrest C.

    2017-01-01

    A common concern about the Beck Depression Inventory, Second edition (BDI-II) among researchers in the area of depression has long been the single-factor scoring scheme. Methods exist for making cross-sample comparisons of latent structure but tend to rely on estimation methods that can be imprecise and unnecessarily complex. This study presents a…

  5. Method comparison between Munich II and III nomenclature for Pap smear samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkel, Christoph; Barop, Claudia; Beyer, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Munich Nomenclature III for cervical smear evaluation also known as Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was launched in Germany in July 2014, and it is the only used system in Germany. The study aims at a method comparison between the previously used nomenclature Munich II and the currently used Munich III. A method comparison was performed by analyzing 117 Pap smear samples (pss) in the cytological laboratory of the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Luebeck University between January and March 2014. The samples were evaluated twice using both nomenclatures (Munich II and Munich III). One out of the 117 pss showed a loss of cellular material. According to Munich III, this Pap smear should be linked to group 0. Concerning Pap I, Munich II showed 0/117 pss (0%) and Munich III showed 55/117 pss (47%) cases (pPap II results were seen less frequently in Munich III than in Munich II (47% vs 93%, pPap IVa, IVb, and V stay similar in both nomenclatures [IVa: 1/117 pss (0.85%), IVb: 0/117 pss (0%) and V: 1/117 pss (0.85%)]. Patients at risk are clearly separated by Munich III from those with no evidence of pathology. The former clusters have been extended by distinctly defined subgroups, resulting in a more precise way to differentiate cytological findings. Differentiating between Pap IIID 1 and IIID 2 clearly separates mild and moderate dysplasia [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (CIN 1) and CIN 2)].

  6. Feasibility and efficacy of an attachment-based intervention in a maltreatment sample in residential care: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casonato, Marta; Nazzari, Sarah; Frigerio, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline on improving maternal sensitivity and sensitive discipline were investigated using a randomized control design in a pilot sample of mothers at high risk of maltreatment. The study included 12 mothers and their 10- to 36-month-old children placed in parental residential care, due to a guardianship order issued by the Youth Court. Both at pretest and post-test, maternal sensitivity and sensitive discipline were assessed during mother-child interaction via observational measures. Mothers who received the intervention showed a significant reduction in dysfunctional strategies of maternal discipline. Results highlight the usefulness and feasibility of a brief residential care-based intervention in such a risk sample, with promising implications for the prevention of child maltreatment.

  7. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and

  8. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder

    2004-01-01

    , identifying the correct alignment is a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. In this context, we wish to describe a novel Gibbs motif sampler method ideally suited for recognizing such weak sequence motifs. The method is based on the Gibbs sampling method, and it incorporates...... novel features optimized for the task of recognizing the binding motif of MHC classes I and II. The method locates the binding motif in a set of sequences and characterizes the motif in terms of a weight-matrix. Subsequently, the weight-matrix can be applied to identifying effectively potential MHC...... binding peptides and to guiding the process of rational vaccine design. Results: We apply the motif sampler method to the complex problem of MHC class II binding. The input to the method is amino acid peptide sequences extracted from the public databases of SYFPEITHI and MHCPEP and known to bind...

  9. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Clinically-Identified Sample of Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVoorhis, Carmen R. Wilson; Blumentritt, Tracie L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the internal consistency reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a sample of 131 Mexican American youth. The BDI-II demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability (alpha = 0.90) and solid convergent and divergent validity with various clinical scales…

  11. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...

  12. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  13. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II across U.S. and Turkish Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel-Cinarbas, Deniz; Cui, Ying; Lauridsen, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) for factorial invariance across Turkish and U.S. college student samples. The results indicated that (a) a two-factor model has an adequate fit for both samples, thus providing evidence of configural invariance, and (b) there is a metric invariance but "no"…

  14. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  15. DSM-5 section III personality traits and section II personality disorders in a Flemish community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Tim; Smits, Dirk; De Hert, Marc; Vanwalleghem, Dominique; Claes, Laurence

    2016-04-30

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012) is a dimensional self-report questionnaire designed to measure personality pathology according to the criterion B of the DSM-5 Section III personality model. In the current issue of DSM, this dimensional Section III personality model co-exists with the Section II categorical personality model derived from DSM-IV-TR. Therefore, investigation of the inter-relatedness of both models across populations and languages is warranted. In this study, we first examined the factor structure and reliability of the PID-5 in a Flemish community sample (N=509) by means of exploratory structural equation modeling and alpha coefficients. Next, we investigated the predictive ability of section III personality traits in relation to section II personality disorders through correlations and stepwise regression analyses. Results revealed a five factor solution for the PID-5, with adequate reliability of the facet scales. The variance in Section II personality disorders could be predicted by their theoretically comprising Section III personality traits, but additional Section III personality traits augmented this prediction. Based on current results, we discuss the Section II personality disorder conceptualization and the Section III personality disorder operationalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequential injection anodic stripping voltammetry with monosegmented flow and in-line UV digestion for determination of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriangkhawut, Watsaka; Grudpan, Kate; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    A cost-effective sequential injection system incorporating with an in-line UV digestion for breakdown of organic matter prior to voltammetric determination of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) of a small scale voltammetric cell was developed. A low-cost small scale voltammetric cell was fabricated from disposable pipet tip and microcentrifuge tube with volume of about 3 mL for conveniently incorporated with the SI system. A home-made UV digestion unit was fabricated employing a small size and low wattage UV lamps and flow reactor made from PTFE tubing coiled around the UV lamp. An in-line single standard calibration or a standard addition procedure was developed employing a monosegmented flow technique. Performance of the proposed system was tested for in-line digestion of model water samples containing metal ions and some organic ligands such as strong organic ligand (EDTA) or intermediate organic ligand (humic acid). The wet acid digestion method (USEPA 3010a) was used as a standard digestion method for comparison. Under the optimum conditions, with deposition time of 180 s, linear calibration graphs in range of 10-300 μg L(-1) Zn(II), 5-200 μg L(-1) Cd(II), 10-200 μg L(-1) Pb(II), 20-400 μg L(-1) Cu(II) were obtained with detection limit of 3.6, 0.1, 0.7 and 4.3 μg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation were 4.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 4.7% for seven replicate analyses of 27 μg L(-1) Zn(II), 13 μg L(-1) Cd(II), 13 μg L(-1) Pb(II) and 27 μg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively. The system was validated by certified reference material of trace metals in natural water (SRM 1640 NIST). The developed system was successfully applied for speciation of Cd(II) Pb(II) and Cu(II) in ground water samples collected from nearby zinc mining area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. I. Observations, Sample Characterization, and Spectral Line Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; González-Gaitan, Santiago; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, Mark M.; Galbany, Lluis; Folatelli, Gastón; Dessart, Luc; Contreras, Carlos; Della Valle, Massimo; Freedman, Wendy L.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Madore, Barry F.; Maza, José; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Prieto, Jose Luis; González, Luis; Cappellaro, Enrico; Navarrete, Mauricio; Pizzella, Alessandro; Ruiz, Maria T.; Smith, R. Chris; Turatto, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    We present 888 visual-wavelength spectra of 122 nearby type II supernovae (SNe II) obtained between 1986 and 2009, and ranging between 3 and 363 days post-explosion. In this first paper, we outline our observations and data reduction techniques, together with a characterization based on the spectral diversity of SNe II. A statistical analysis of the spectral matching technique is discussed as an alternative to nondetection constraints for estimating SN explosion epochs. The time evolution of spectral lines is presented and analyzed in terms of how this differs for SNe of different photometric, spectral, and environmental properties: velocities, pseudo-equivalent widths, decline rates, magnitudes, time durations, and environment metallicity. Our sample displays a large range in ejecta expansion velocities, from ˜9600 to ˜1500 km s-1 at 50 days post-explosion with a median {{{H}}}α value of 7300 km s-1. This is most likely explained through differing explosion energies. Significant diversity is also observed in the absolute strength of spectral lines, characterized through their pseudo-equivalent widths. This implies significant diversity in both temperature evolution (linked to progenitor radius) and progenitor metallicity between different SNe II. Around 60% of our sample shows an extra absorption component on the blue side of the {{{H}}}α P-Cygni profile (“Cachito” feature) between 7 and 120 days since explosion. Studying the nature of Cachito, we conclude that these features at early times (before ˜35 days) are associated with Si II λ 6355, while past the middle of the plateau phase they are related to high velocity (HV) features of hydrogen lines. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2008B-Q-56). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere

  18. Disturbances of Attachment and Parental Psychopathology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As the field of attachment has expanded over the past four decades, the perturbations in the relational context which give rise to disturbances of attachment are increasingly, though by no means conclusively, understood. In Part I, this article reviews the historical and current state of research regarding normative attachment classification, the diagnosis of Reactive Attachment Disorder, and the proposed categories of Secure Base Distortions and Disrupted Attachment Disorder. In Part II, the article explores the role of parental psychopathology and the manner in which disturbed caregiver self-regulation leads to disturbances in the mutual regulation between caregiver and infant. The question of the relationship between particular types of maternal pathology and particular forms of attachment disturbance is examined through recent research on the association between maternal PTSD, Atypical Maternal Behavior, and child scores on the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). The authors present original research findings to support that the presence and severity of maternal violence-related PTSD were significantly associated with secure base distortion in a community pediatrics sample of 76 mothers and preschool-age children. Clinical implications and recommendations for treatment of attachment disturbances conclude the article. PMID:19486844

  19. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  20. Author Contribution to the Pu Handbook II: Chapter 37 LLNL Integrated Sample Preparation Glovebox (TEM) Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Mark A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    The development of our Integrated Actinide Sample Preparation Laboratory (IASPL) commenced in 1998 driven by the need to perform transmission electron microscopy studies on naturally aged plutonium and its alloys looking for the microstructural effects of the radiological decay process (1). Remodeling and construction of a laboratory within the Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate facilities at LLNL was required to turn a standard radiological laboratory into a Radiological Materials Area (RMA) and Radiological Buffer Area (RBA) containing type I, II and III workplaces. Two inert atmosphere dry-train glove boxes with antechambers and entry/exit fumehoods (Figure 1), having a baseline atmosphere of 1 ppm oxygen and 1 ppm water vapor, a utility fumehood and a portable, and a third double-walled enclosure have been installed and commissioned. These capabilities, along with highly trained technical staff, facilitate the safe operation of sample preparation processes and instrumentation, and sample handling while minimizing oxidation or corrosion of the plutonium. In addition, we are currently developing the capability to safely transfer small metallographically prepared samples to a mini-SEM for microstructural imaging and chemical analysis. The gloveboxes continue to be the most crucial element of the laboratory allowing nearly oxide-free sample preparation for a wide variety of LLNL-based characterization experiments, which includes transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, optical microscopy, electrical resistivity, ion implantation, X-ray diffraction and absorption, magnetometry, metrological surface measurements, high-pressure diamond anvil cell equation-of-state, phonon dispersion measurements, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The sample preparation and materials processing capabilities in the IASPL have also facilitated experimentation at world-class facilities such as the

  1. EFFICACY OF THE 20-WEEK CIRCLE OF SECURITY INTERVENTION: CHANGES IN CAREGIVER REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING, REPRESENTATIONS, AND CHILD ATTACHMENT IN AN AUSTRALIAN CLINICAL SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Anna; McMahon, Catherine A; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Circle of Security is an attachment theory based intervention that aims to promote secure parent-child attachment relationships. Despite extensive uptake of the approach, there is limited empirical evidence regarding efficacy. The current study examined whether participation in the 20-week Circle of Security intervention resulted in positive caregiver-child relationship change in four domains: caregiver reflective functioning; caregiver representations of the child and the relationship with the child; child attachment security, and attachment disorganization. Archived pre- and postintervention data were analyzed from 83 clinically referred caregiver-child dyads (child age: 13-88 months) who completed the Circle of Security intervention in sequential cohorts and gave permission for their data to be included in the study. Caregivers completed the Circle of Security Interview, and dyads were filmed in the Strange Situation Procedure before and after the intervention. Results supported all four hypotheses: Caregiver reflective functioning, caregiving representations, and level of child attachment security increased after the intervention, and level of attachment disorganization decreased for those with high baseline levels. Those whose scores were least optimal prior to intervention showed the greatest change in all domains. This study adds to the evidence suggesting that the 20-week Circle of Security intervention results in significant relationship improvements for caregivers and their children. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  3. Statistical inferences with jointly type-II censored samples from two Pareto distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zinadah, Hanaa H.

    2017-08-01

    In the several fields of industries the product comes from more than one production line, which is required to work the comparative life tests. This problem requires sampling of the different production lines, then the joint censoring scheme is appeared. In this article we consider the life time Pareto distribution with jointly type-II censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) and the corresponding approximate confidence intervals as well as the bootstrap confidence intervals of the model parameters are obtained. Also Bayesian point and credible intervals of the model parameters are presented. The life time data set is analyzed for illustrative purposes. Monte Carlo results from simulation studies are presented to assess the performance of our proposed method.

  4. The Impact of Social Support and Attachment Style on Quality of Life and Readiness to Change in a Sample of Individuals Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Fulmer, Barbara A; Stout, David

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle within the addictions treatment field is that social support is a vital ingredient in the recovery process. This study examines the nature of social support in a sample of opioid-dependent men and women who are currently being treated in a medication-assisted treatment program (methadone). This research examines the types of social support behaviors that the opioid-dependent individuals consider helpful and explores whether attachment style (i.e., secure, ambivalent, or anxious attachment) was a determining factor in whether social support was perceived as helpful. The dependent variables included readiness to change addictive behaviors and abstinence from other mood-altering drugs. Participants (N = 159) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Significant Others Scale, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment, the Readiness to Change Scale, and an Attachment Style Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included subjective ratings of self-improvement. Social support predicted perceived improvement in all of the areas examined (e.g., health, family/social relationships) and abstinence; however, attachment style did not predict improvement or with readiness to change. Social support is an important factor in one's recovery from substance use disorders. Yet attachment style (i.e., anxious, avoidant, or secure) did not predict abstinence or overall improvement in functioning.

  5. Separation and preconcentration of Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Cr(III) ions with coprecipitation method without carrier element and their determination in food and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendil, Durali; Karatas, Murat; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2015-06-15

    In this study, Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Cr(III) were determined in some food and water samples after development 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) coprecipitation procedure using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Effects of some analytical parameter including pH, sample volume, reagent amount, centrifuge rate and time, etc. on the presented coprecipitation system were studied for the quantitative recoveries of Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Fe(III) and Cr(III) ions. The influences of matrix ions were examined. The recovery values for analyte ions were calculated ⩾ 95%. The relative standard deviation was found 8.0% and the preconcentration factor was found as 25 for all analyte ions. The detection limits (k=3, N=21) were found to be as 0.80 μg L(-1) Cu(II), 3.08 μg L(-1) Pb(II), 0.28 μg L(-1) Zn(II), 0.91 μg L(-1) Fe(III) and 1.82 μg L(-1) Cr(III). NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW-07605 Tea certified reference materials were used to confirm the accuracy of the method. The simultaneous coprecipitation method was applied to various water and microwave digested food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  7. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: northwest Atlantic through eastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas B Rusch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The world's oceans contain a complex mixture of micro-organisms that are for the most part, uncharacterized both genetically and biochemically. We report here a metagenomic study of the marine planktonic microbiota in which surface (mostly marine water samples were analyzed as part of the Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition. These samples, collected across a several-thousand km transect from the North Atlantic through the Panama Canal and ending in the South Pacific yielded an extensive dataset consisting of 7.7 million sequencing reads (6.3 billion bp. Though a few major microbial clades dominate the planktonic marine niche, the dataset contains great diversity with 85% of the assembled sequence and 57% of the unassembled data being unique at a 98% sequence identity cutoff. Using the metadata associated with each sample and sequencing library, we developed new comparative genomic and assembly methods. One comparative genomic method, termed "fragment recruitment," addressed questions of genome structure, evolution, and taxonomic or phylogenetic diversity, as well as the biochemical diversity of genes and gene families. A second method, termed "extreme assembly," made possible the assembly and reconstruction of large segments of abundant but clearly nonclonal organisms. Within all abundant populations analyzed, we found extensive intra-ribotype diversity in several forms: (1 extensive sequence variation within orthologous regions throughout a given genome; despite coverage of individual ribotypes approaching 500-fold, most individual sequencing reads are unique; (2 numerous changes in gene content some with direct adaptive implications; and (3 hypervariable genomic islands that are too variable to assemble. The intra-ribotype diversity is organized into genetically isolated populations that have overlapping but independent distributions, implying distinct environmental preference. We present novel methods for measuring the genomic

  8. The relationships between problematic internet use, alexithymia levels and attachment characteristics in a sample of adolescents in a high school, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Nurullah; Yavuz, Mesut; Eliaçık, Kayı; Zorlu, Adil

    2017-10-25

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and IPPA scores (r = -.392), and a negative weak relationship between IAT and s-IPPA scores (r = -.208). S-IPPA scores were significantly lower in the PIU group compared to the controls (p IPPA scores and TAS-20 significantly predict the PIU development (p < .05). The results indicate that alexithymia increases the risk of PIU and higher attachment quality is a protective factor for both alexithymia and PIU. These results suggest that it is important to focus on the insecure attachment patterns and alexithymic characteristics when studying adolescents with PIU.

  9. Genotyping of samples from German patients with ocular, cerebral and systemic toxoplasmosis reveals a predominance of Toxoplasma gondii type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Daland C; Maksimov, Pavlo; Hotop, Andrea; Groß, Uwe; Däubener, Walter; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Pleyer, Uwe; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis transmitted from animals to humans world-wide. In order to determine Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in individuals living in Germany and to compare findings with those in animals, we analysed nine independent and unlinked genetic markers (nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) by PCR-RFLP in 83 archived T. gondii-positive DNA samples from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (n=35), toxoplasmic encephalitis (n=32), systemic toxoplasmosis after bone-marrow transplantation (n=15) and congenital toxoplasmosis (n=1). In 46 of these 83 samples the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed by conventional end-point PCR. Among these, 17 T. gondii-positive samples were typed at all nine loci. The majority (15/17, 88.2%) of these samples were of T. gondii type II (i.e., including both, the Apico type II and Apico type I variants). In addition, in one sample a T. gondii type II/type III allele combination and in another sample a T. gondii genotype displaying type III alleles at all markers was observed. In the remaining 11 samples, in which T. gondii could only be partially typed, exclusively type II (n=10) or type III (n=1) alleles were observed. Results of the present study suggest that the majority of patients in Germany are infected with type II T. gondii regardless of the clinical manifestation of toxoplasmosis. This finding is in accord with the predominance of type II T. gondii in oocysts isolated from cats and in tissues of other intermediate hosts in Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical performance evaluation of Anyplex II HPV28 and Euroarray HPV for genotyping of cervical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latsuzbaia, Ardashel; Tapp, Jessica; Nguyen, Trung; Fischer, Marc; Arbyn, Marc; Weyers, Steven; Mossong, Joël

    2016-07-01

    Analytically accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methods are required to assess the impact of HPV vaccination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene, Korea) and Euroarray HPV (Euroimmun, Germany) genotyping kits, for conducting a future HPV vaccine efficacy monitoring study in Luxembourg. A total number of 150 cervical swabs were collected from women with mean age 31.4 years. Agreements for detecting any HPV between Aptima/Anyplex (88.0%) and Aptima/Euroarray (90.7%) were similar. Agreement of Anyplex/EuroArray with Aptima was higher for Genotypes 16, 18 or 45 than for the other 11 HPVs. The average number of HPV genotypes detected per sample was similar with 2.6 and 2.5, for Anyplex and EuroArray, respectively. In conclusion, Anyplex and Euroarray showed high agreement in general and in particular for detecting genotypes contained in HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from clinical samples from Denmark: not only genotypes II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, P; Murat, J-B; Nielsen, H V

    2018-03-01

    Genetic variation within Toxoplasma gondii can have both clinical and epidemiological significance, while the genotypes circulating in many parts of the world, including the Nordic country Denmark, are still unknown. We genetically characterized T. gondii strains that had been detected in human clinical samples in Denmark in 2011-2016. Samples that had tested positive for T. gondii DNA and had a quantification cycle value <33 were included in this study and subjected to direct genetic characterization of T. gondii based on length-polymorphism of 15 microsatellite markers. A total of 23 DNA samples from 22 individual patients were analyzed. The results were consistent with genotype II with 15/15 markers amplified from seven samples from the central nervous system (CNS) including two samples from one patient, four ocular samples, and one unspecified sample; with genotype III with 15/15 markers amplified from two ocular samples; with genotype Africa 1 with 15/15 markers amplified from one amniotic fluid sample and from one CNS-sample; with atypical genotype with 15/15 markers amplified from one CNS-sample and with 11/15 markers amplified from one CNS-sample; and with HG12-like genotype with 9/15 markers amplified from one CNS-sample. Genotype II, which is endemic in Europe, was predominant, but more than a third of the successfully genotyped strains were non-type-II. The possibility that clinical toxoplasmosis is caused by a strain that is not considered endemic to the region is definitely not negligible.

  12. A rapid extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) in environmental samples, alloys, complexes and pharmaceutical samples using 4-[N,N(dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, J; Naik, P Parameshwara; Shetty, A Nityananda

    2011-05-01

    4-[N,N-(Dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DMABT) is proposed as an analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). DMABT forms yellow colored complex with copper(II) in the pH range 4.4-5.4. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range up to 4.7 μg mL(-1). The optimum concentration range for minimum photometric error as determined by Ringbom plot method is 1.2-3.8 μg mL(-1). The yellowish Cu(II)-DMABT complex shows a maximum absorbance at 420 nm, with molar absorptivity of 1.72 × 10(4)dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity of the complex obtained from Beer's data is 0.0036 μg cm(-2). The composition of the Cu(II)-DMABT complex is found to be 1:2 (M/L). The interference of various cations and anions in the method were studied. Thus the method can be employed for the determination of trace amount of copper(II) in water, alloys and other natural samples of significant importance.

  13. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure was firstly developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions combining with ICP-OES. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed d-CPE can significantly eliminate the surfactant of Triton X-114 and successfully extend to the determination of water samples with good performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designed method is simple, high efficient, low cost, and in accordance with the green chemistry concept. - Abstract: A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH = 7.0, Triton X-114 = 0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ = 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, HNO{sub 3} = 0.8 mol L{sup -1}), the detection limits for Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion in water samples.

  14. Type II Supernova Spectral Diversity. I. Observations, Sample Characterization, and Spectral Line Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Claudia P.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario

    2017-01-01

    We present 888 visual-wavelength spectra of 122 nearby type II supernovae (SNe II) obtained between 1986 and 2009, and ranging between 3 and 363 days post-explosion. In this first paper, we outline our observations and data reduction techniques, together with a characterization based on the spect...

  15. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  16. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  17. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of appearance and weight satisfaction in a U.S. National Sample: Personality, attachment style, television viewing, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Morse, Patrick J; Swami, Viren

    2016-06-01

    We examined the prevalence and correlates of satisfaction with appearance and weight. Participants (N=12,176) completed an online survey posted on the NBCNews.com and Today.com websites. Few men and women were very to extremely dissatisfied with their physical appearances (6%; 9%), but feeling very to extremely dissatisfied with weight was more common (15%; 20%). Only about one-fourth of men and women felt very to extremely satisfied with their appearances (28%; 26%) and weights (24%; 20%). Men and women with higher body masses reported higher appearance and weight dissatisfaction. Dissatisfied people had higher Neuroticism, more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles, and spent more hours watching television. In contrast, satisfied people had higher Openness, Conscientious, and Extraversion, were more secure in attachment style, and had higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. These findings highlight the high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the factors linked to dissatisfaction among U.S. adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  20. Recurrence Relations for Moments of Order Statistics from the Lindley Distribution with General Multiply Type-II Censored Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander Al-Zahrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the recurrence relations for the moments of function of single and two order statistics from Lindley distribution. We also consider the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE of the parameter of the distribution based on multiply type-II censoring. However maximum likelihood estimator does not have an explicit form for the involved parameter. In order to compute the MLE of the parameter, Monte Carlo simulation is used. A comparative study is presented between classical MLE and MLE from multiply type-II censored sample.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with a covalently attached copper(II) salen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bazarganipour, Mehdi

    2009-06-01

    Hydroxyl functionalized copper(II) Schiff-base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-ethylene-1,2-diaminecopper(II), [Cu((OH) 2-salen)], has been covalently anchored on modified MWCNTs. The new modified MWCNTs ([Cu((OH) 2-salen)]-MWCNTs) have been characterized by TEM, thermal analysis, XRD, XPS, UV-vis, DRS, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The modified copper(II) MWCNTs solid was used to affect the catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidant at 333 K. The system is truly heterogeneous (no leaching observed) and reusable (no decrease in activity) in three consecutive runs. Acetophenone was the major product though small amounts of o- and p-hydroxyacetophenones were also formed revealing that C-H bond activation takes place both at benzylic and aromatic ring carbon atoms. Ring hydroxylation was more over the "neat" complexes than over the encapsulated complexes.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic oxidation properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with a covalently attached copper(II) salen complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazarganipour, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Hydroxyl functionalized copper(II) Schiff-base, N,N'-bis(4-hydroxysalicylidene)-ethylene-1,2-diaminecopper(II), [Cu((OH){sub 2}-salen)], has been covalently anchored on modified MWCNTs. The new modified MWCNTs ([Cu((OH){sub 2}-salen)]-MWCNTs) have been characterized by TEM, thermal analysis, XRD, XPS, UV-vis, DRS, FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The modified copper(II) MWCNTs solid was used to affect the catalytic oxidation of ethylbenzene with tert-butylhydroperoxide as the oxidant at 333 K. The system is truly heterogeneous (no leaching observed) and reusable (no decrease in activity) in three consecutive runs. Acetophenone was the major product though small amounts of o- and p-hydroxyacetophenones were also formed revealing that C-H bond activation takes place both at benzylic and aromatic ring carbon atoms. Ring hydroxylation was more over the 'neat' complexes than over the encapsulated complexes.

  3. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  4. Reaction path sampling of the reaction between iron(II) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, B.; Baerends, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Previously, we have studied the coordination and dissociation of hydrogen peroxide with iron(II) in aqueous solution by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics at room temperature. We presented a few illustrative reaction events, in which the ferryl ion ([Fe(IV)O

  5. Teaching about World War II: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents nine documents from the ERIC database dealing with teaching about World War II. Includes articles addressing the lessons of Pearl Harbor, the Holocaust, the wartime internment of Japanese Americans, industry's response to the war, and the moral lessons of Nazism. (SG)

  6. Sample information - RED II INAHO | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available redii_inaho_sample.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/redii-inaho/LATEST/redii_inaho_sample...size: 11.4 KB Simple search URL http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/redii_inaho_sample#en Data acquisition

  7. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  8. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan, E-mail: kimyager_erkan@hotmail.com; Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr

    2015-07-30

    A switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2} (Dry ice) via proton transfer reaction has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelate. Cd(II)-APDC chelate was extracted into the switchable polarity solvent drops by adding 2 mL 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical parameters affecting the complex formation and microextraction efficiency such as pH, amount of ligand, volume of switchable polarity solvent and NaOH, sample volume were optimized. The effects of foreign ions were found tolerably. Under optimum conditions, the detection limit was 0.16 μg L{sup −1} (3Sb/m, n = 7) and the relative standard deviation was 5.4% (n = 7). The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-51.3 fortified water, TMDA-53.3 fortified water and SPS-WW2 waste water, 1573a Tomato Leaves and Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5)) and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to determination of cadmium contents of water, vegetable, fruit and cigarette samples. - Highlights: • Switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2}. • The switchable polarity solvent has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II). • The important factors were optimized. • The method was applied to determination of cadmium in real samples.

  9. Assessment of type II diabetes mellitus using irregularly sampled measurements with missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandegan, Melissa; Ekram, Fatemeh; Kwok, Ezra; Gopaluni, Bhushan; Tulsyan, Aditya

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading diseases in the developed world. In order to better regulate blood glucose in a diabetic patient, improved modelling of insulin-glucose dynamics is a key factor in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the current work, the insulin-glucose dynamics in type II diabetes mellitus can be modelled by using a stochastic nonlinear state-space model. Estimating the parameters of such a model is difficult as only a few blood glucose and insulin measurements per day are available in a non-clinical setting. Therefore, developing a predictive model of the blood glucose of a person with type II diabetes mellitus is important when the glucose and insulin concentrations are only available at irregular intervals. To overcome these difficulties, we resort to online sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) estimation of states and parameters of the state-space model for type II diabetic patients under various levels of randomly missing clinical data. Our results show that this method is efficient in monitoring and estimating the dynamics of the peripheral glucose, insulin and incretins concentration when 10, 25 and 50% of the simulated clinical data were randomly removed.

  10. A rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) in pharmaceutical and environmental samples using benzildithiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B K; Kumar, J R; Reddy, K J; Sarma, L S; Reddy, A V

    2003-03-01

    Benzildithiosemicarbazone (BDTSC) is proposed as a sensitive and selective analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). BDTSC reacts with copper(II) in the pH range 1.0-7.0 to form a yellowish complex. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range 0.5-0.4 microg cm(-3). The yellowish Cu(II)-BDTSC complex in chloroform shows a maximum absorbance at 380 nm, with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of 1.63 x 10(4) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.00389 microg cm(-2), respectively. A repetition of the method is checked by finding the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 10), which is 0.6%. The composition of the Cu(II)-BDTSC complex is established as 1:1 by slope analysis, molar ratio and Asmus' methods. An excellent linearity with a correlation coefficient value of 0.98 is obtained for the Cu(II)-BDTSC complex. The instability constant of the complex calculated from Edmond and Birnbaum's method is 7.70 x 10(-4) and that of Asmus' method is 7.66 x 10(-4), at room temperature. The method is successfully employed for the determination copper(II) in pharmaceutical and environmental samples. The reliability of the method is assured by analyzing the standard alloys (BCS 5g, 10g, 19e, 78, 32a, 207 and 179) and by inter-comparison of experimental values, using an atomic absorption spectrometer.

  11. Variations in Early Attachment Mechanisms Contribute to Attachment Quality: Case Studies Including Babies Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, Andrea; Ruiz, Nina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2016-01-01

    Three boys (an extremely preterm, a moderate preterm twin and a full-term toddler; all 12 to 15 months old) were selected from a large sample to investigate mechanisms of parent-child attachments, specifically of babies born preterm. Attachments were observed at home with the Attachment-Q-Sort (AQS) as well as in the lab with the Strange Situation…

  12. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; West, M.; Mahoney, A; Keller, A

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  13. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  14. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  15. Protocols for the analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. II - Enzymatic and chemical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobaly, Balazs; D'Atri, Valentina; Goyon, Alexandre; Colas, Olivier; Beck, Alain; Fekete, Szabolcs; Guillarme, Davy

    2017-08-15

    The analytical characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and related proteins usually incorporates various sample preparation methodologies. Indeed, quantitative and qualitative information can be enhanced by simplifying the sample, thanks to the removal of sources of heterogeneity (e.g. N-glycans) and/or by decreasing the molecular size of the tested protein by enzymatic or chemical fragmentation. These approaches make the sample more suitable for chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis. Structural elucidation and quality control (QC) analysis of biopharmaceutics are usually performed at intact, subunit and peptide levels. In this paper, general sample preparation approaches used to attain peptide, subunit and glycan level analysis are overviewed. Protocols are described to perform tryptic proteolysis, IdeS and papain digestion, reduction as well as deglycosylation by PNGase F and EndoS2 enzymes. Both historical and modern sample preparation methods were compared and evaluated using rituximab and trastuzumab, two reference therapeutic mAb products approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). The described protocols may help analysts to develop sample preparation methods in the field of therapeutic protein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. HICOSMO: cosmology with a complete sample of galaxy clusters - II. Cosmological results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The X-ray bright, hot gas in the potential well of a galaxy cluster enables systematic X-ray studies of samples of galaxy clusters to constrain cosmological parameters. HIFLUGCS consists of the 64 X-ray brightest galaxy clusters in the Universe, building up a local sample. Here, we utilize this sample to determine, for the first time, individual hydrostatic mass estimates for all the clusters of the sample and, by making use of the completeness of the sample, we quantify constraints on the two interesting cosmological parameters, Ωm and σ8. We apply our total hydrostatic and gas mass estimates from the X-ray analysis to a Bayesian cosmological likelihood analysis and leave several parameters free to be constrained. We find Ωm = 0.30 ± 0.01 and σ8 = 0.79 ± 0.03 (statistical uncertainties, 68 per cent credibility level) using our default analysis strategy combining both a mass function analysis and the gas mass fraction results. The main sources of biases that we correct here are (1) the influence of galaxy groups (incompleteness in parent samples and differing behaviour of the Lx-M relation), (2) the hydrostatic mass bias, (3) the extrapolation of the total mass (comparing various methods), (4) the theoretical halo mass function and (5) other physical effects (non-negligible neutrino mass). We find that galaxy groups introduce a strong bias, since their number density seems to be over predicted by the halo mass function. On the other hand, incorporating baryonic effects does not result in a significant change in the constraints. The total (uncorrected) systematic uncertainties (∼20 per cent) clearly dominate the statistical uncertainties on cosmological parameters for our sample.

  17. Epigenetic Segregation of Microbial Genomes from Complex Samples Using Restriction Endonucleases HpaII and McrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohong; Weston, Christopher Q; Pham, Long K; Waltz, Shannon; Barnes, Helen; King, Paula; Sphar, Dan; Yamamoto, Robert T; Forsyth, R Allyn

    2016-01-01

    We describe continuing work to develop restriction endonucleases as tools to enrich targeted genomes of interest from diverse populations. Two approaches were developed in parallel to segregate genomic DNA based on cytosine methylation. First, the methyl-sensitive endonuclease HpaII was used to bind non-CG methylated DNA. Second, a truncated fragment of McrB was used to bind CpG methylated DNA. Enrichment levels of microbial genomes can exceed 100-fold with HpaII allowing improved genomic detection and coverage of otherwise trace microbial genomes from sputum. Additionally, we observe interesting enrichment results that correlate with the methylation states not only of bacteria, but of fungi, viruses, a protist and plants. The methods presented here offer promise for testing biological samples for pathogens and global analysis of population methylomes.

  18. Epigenetic Segregation of Microbial Genomes from Complex Samples Using Restriction Endonucleases HpaII and McrB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Liu

    Full Text Available We describe continuing work to develop restriction endonucleases as tools to enrich targeted genomes of interest from diverse populations. Two approaches were developed in parallel to segregate genomic DNA based on cytosine methylation. First, the methyl-sensitive endonuclease HpaII was used to bind non-CG methylated DNA. Second, a truncated fragment of McrB was used to bind CpG methylated DNA. Enrichment levels of microbial genomes can exceed 100-fold with HpaII allowing improved genomic detection and coverage of otherwise trace microbial genomes from sputum. Additionally, we observe interesting enrichment results that correlate with the methylation states not only of bacteria, but of fungi, viruses, a protist and plants. The methods presented here offer promise for testing biological samples for pathogens and global analysis of population methylomes.

  19. Dimensional and hierarchical models of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in an Arab college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turkait, Fawziyah A; Ohaeri, Jude U

    2010-07-29

    An understanding of depressive symptomatology from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objectives of the study were: (i) using the responses of a sample of Arab college students to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in CFA, to compare the "goodness of fit" indices of the original dimensional three-and two-factor first-order models, and their modifications, with the corresponding hierarchical models (i.e., higher - order and bifactor models); (ii) to assess the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II, including convergent/discriminant validity with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25). Participants (N = 624) were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the questionnaires in class. CFA was done by AMOS, version 16. Eleven models were compared using eight "fit" indices. In CFA, all the models met most "fit" criteria. While the higher-order model did not provide improved fit over the dimensional first - order factor models, the bifactor model (BFM) had the best fit indices (CMNI/DF = 1.73; GFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.034). All regression weights of the dimensional models were significantly different from zero (P depression factor, indicating that the general depression score is an adequate representation of severity. The BDI-II had adequate internal consistency and convergent/discriminant validity. The mean BDI score (15.5, SD = 8.5) was significantly higher than those of students from other countries (P depression probably contains hierarchical and dimensional elements. The bifactor model is emerging as the best way to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression. The psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II lend support to our CFA results.

  20. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  1. Measurement of DSM-5 section II personality disorder constructs using the MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Pymont, Carly; Smid, Wineke; De Saeger, Hilde; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the associations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) scale scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Section II personality disorder (PD) criterion counts in inpatient and forensic psychiatric samples from The Netherlands using structured clinical interviews to operationalize PDs. The inpatient psychiatric sample included 190 male and female patients and the forensic sample included 162 male psychiatric patients. We conducted correlation and count regression analyses to evaluate the utility of relevant MMPI-2-RF scales in predicting PD criterion count scores. Generally, results from these analyses emerged as conceptually expected and provided evidence that MMPI-2-RF scales can be useful in assessing PDs. At the zero-order level, most hypothesized associations between Section II disorders and MMPI-2-RF scales were supported. Similarly, in the regression analyses, a unique set of predictors emerged for each PD that was generally in line with conceptual expectations. Additionally, the results provided general evidence that PDs can be captured by dimensional psychopathology constructs, which has implications for both DSM-5 Section III specifically and the personality psychopathology literature more broadly. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Folates in Asian noodles: II. A comparison of commercial samples and the impact of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Lan T T; Small, Darryl M

    2007-06-01

    The folate contents of 26 commercial noodle samples were investigated. The impact of ingredients, pH, and cooking on folate content was studied for the 3 predominant styles of noodles: white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant. Some variability was found in the proportion of folate present in the free form and the noodles generally had low total folate contents. The pH values of the samples covered a wide range, varying from 3.7 to 10.3; however, the results did not provide strong evidence for a relationship between pH and folate content for any of the noodle styles studied. Higher folate levels were typically found in yellow alkaline samples compared to white salted and instant noodles. The storage of noodles in dry or moist forms did not appear to influence total folate contents, and subsequent losses during cooking depended upon the time of exposure to elevated temperatures. The enzymatic treatment of samples was particularly important for cooked noodles, indicating that folates were bound or entrapped during this process.

  3. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  4. Electrochemical studies on stress corrosion cracking of incoloy-800 in caustic solution. Part II: Precracking samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Alice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a caustic medium may affect the secondary circuit tubing of a CANDU NPP cooled with river water, due to an accidental formation of a concentrated alkaline environment in the areas with restricted circulation, as a result of a leakage of cooling water from the condenser. To evaluate the susceptibility of Incoloy-800 (used to manufacture steam generator tubes for CANDU NPP to SCC, some accelerated corrosion tests were conducted in an alkaline solution (10% NaOH, pH = 13. These experiments were performed at ambient temperature and 85 °C. We used the potentiodynamic method and the potentiostatic method, simultaneously monitoring the variation of the open circuit potential during a time period (E corr/time curve. The C-ring method was used to stress the samples. In order to create stress concentrations, mechanical precracks with a depth of 100 or 250 μm were made on the outer side of the C-rings. Experimental results showed that the stressed samples were more susceptible to SCC than the unstressed samples whereas the increase in temperature and crack depth lead to an increase in SCC susceptibility. Incipient micro cracks of a depth of 30 μm were detected in the area of the highest peak of the mechanical precrack.

  5. The Kinematics of the Permitted C ii λ 6578 Line in a Large Sample of Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G.; Suárez, Genaro; López, José Alberto; García Díaz, María Teresa, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: gsuarez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2017-03-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line for 83 lines of sight in 76 planetary nebulae at high spectral resolution, most of them obtained with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We study the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line with respect to other permitted and collisionally excited lines. Statistically, we find that the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 line are not those expected if this line arises from the recombination of C{sup 2+} ions or the fluorescence of C{sup +} ions in ionization equilibrium in a chemically homogeneous nebular plasma, but instead its kinematics are those appropriate for a volume more internal than expected. The planetary nebulae in this sample have well-defined morphology and are restricted to a limited range in H α line widths (no large values) compared to their counterparts in the Milky Way bulge; both these features could be interpreted as the result of young nebular shells, an inference that is also supported by nebular modeling. Concerning the long-standing discrepancy between chemical abundances inferred from permitted and collisionally excited emission lines in photoionized nebulae, our results imply that multiple plasma components occur commonly in planetary nebulae.

  6. Attachment and Related Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Morsunbul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Attachment which is defined as strong emotional bond people develop for significant others have been investigated by researchers for long years. Attachment theory proposes that attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life are carried onto next stages of life with internal working models. Additionally it is also proposed that attachment patterns are important to determine individual’s social-emotional competence. This study aims to review how attachment patterns differ according to life stages, continuity/discontiniuty of attachment patterns developed in the first stages of life and evaluate the relations between attachment patterns and social-emotional competence. The basic features of social relations model, relationship between attachment patterns and identity development, and risk taking behavior in adolescence have also been investigated in this review.

  7. I. Enabling Single-Chain Surfactants to Form Vesicles by Nonamphiphilic Liquid Crystals in Water II. Controlling Attachment and Ligand-Mediated Adherence of Candida albicans on Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Nisha

    . Adhesion of C. albicans to a surface is a complex process and is governed by nonspecific attachment or multiple ligand-receptor interactions. The work demonstrates that the multiple ligand-receptor interactions used by C. albicans for adherence to a surface can be individually studied using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) decorated with minimal motif of the ligands. The SAMs were also used to differentiate between the interactions of the two different morphological forms of C. albicans.. Chapter 5 presents a study on small molecules that were used to inhibit biofilm formed by C. albicans. The acyclic triazoles used in the study were not toxic to the C. albicans and were capable of inhibiting biofilm formed by C. albicans. The acyclic triazole can be used as promising candidates to design new antifungal agents. The chapter also reports the synthesis of squarylated homoserine lactones (SHLs) structural mimics of bacterial acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) to study the inhibitory effects of SHLs on fungal biofilm. The bacterial AHLs are known to repress the growth of C. albicans and control fungal biofilm in native host environment. The synthesized SHLs were non-toxic to C. albicans and failed to inhibit biofilm formed by C. albicans. . Chapter 6 uses gradient nanotopography combined with controlled surface chemistry to confine bacterial biofilm formed by Escherichia coli. The E. coli biofilm were confined within micrometer sized regions of hydrophobic SAMs surrounded by polyol-terminated SAMs. The study reveals that surface with higher topography enhances the ability of the bioinert SAMs to resist bacterial adherence to surface.

  8. Removal of Cd (II in Water Samples Using Modified Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kakaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals, even at low concentrations, are harmful to human health and environment. Cadmium as a heavy metal is highly toxic and can cause serious threat to living organisms. This research was designed to evaluate the adsorption potential of modified magnetic iron nanoparticles by 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo-5-diethylaminophenol ligand for the removal of cadmium ions from water solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran, in 2014. Modified magnetic iron nanoparticle was used as adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution. In batch extraction, the effects of parameters like pH of sample solution (3.0-11.0, initial metal concentrations (50-300 mgL-1, contact time (1.0-10 min and adsorbent dose (10.0-60.0 mg were studied on the adsorption process. Modified magnetite nanoparticle was presented as the adsorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous samples and later was confirmed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The adsorption of cadmium ions on modified magnetite nanoparticles strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm. Maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of cadmium ions by the sorbent was 24.09 mgg-1. Conclusion: The method was successfully applied to adsorption of cadmium in water samples with satisfactory results. Other advantages include high capacity, good stability and fast adsorption kinetics. High pre-concentration factor was obtained easily by this method (120 and low analysis cost.

  9. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  10. Dimensional and hierarchical models of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory-II in an Arab college student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of depressive symptomatology from the perspective of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA could facilitate valid and interpretable comparisons across cultures. The objectives of the study were: (i using the responses of a sample of Arab college students to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in CFA, to compare the "goodness of fit" indices of the original dimensional three-and two-factor first-order models, and their modifications, with the corresponding hierarchical models (i.e., higher - order and bifactor models; (ii to assess the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II, including convergent/discriminant validity with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25. Method Participants (N = 624 were Kuwaiti national college students, who completed the questionnaires in class. CFA was done by AMOS, version 16. Eleven models were compared using eight "fit" indices. Results In CFA, all the models met most "fit" criteria. While the higher-order model did not provide improved fit over the dimensional first - order factor models, the bifactor model (BFM had the best fit indices (CMNI/DF = 1.73; GFI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.034. All regression weights of the dimensional models were significantly different from zero (P Conclusion The broadly adequate fit of the various models indicates that they have some merit and implies that the relationship between the domains of depression probably contains hierarchical and dimensional elements. The bifactor model is emerging as the best way to account for the clinical heterogeneity of depression. The psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II lend support to our CFA results.

  11. CA II TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD RED GIANTS. III. ABUNDANCES AND VELOCITIES FOR A SAMPLE OF 14 CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Marcionni, N. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba, CP 5000 (Argentina); Geisler, D.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Grocholski, A. J., E-mail: celeste@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: nmarcionni@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: svillanova@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We obtained spectra of red giants in 15 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) clusters in the region of the Ca ii lines with FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope. We determined the mean metallicity and radial velocity with mean errors of 0.05 dex and 2.6 km s{sup −1}, respectively, from a mean of 6.5 members per cluster. One cluster (B113) was too young for a reliable metallicity determination and was excluded from the sample. We combined the sample studied here with 15 clusters previously studied by us using the same technique, and with 7 clusters whose metallicities determined by other authors are on a scale similar to ours. This compilation of 36 clusters is the largest SMC cluster sample currently available with accurate and homogeneously determined metallicities. We found a high probability that the metallicity distribution is bimodal, with potential peaks at −1.1 and −0.8 dex. Our data show no strong evidence of a metallicity gradient in the SMC clusters, somewhat at odds with recent evidence from Ca ii triplet spectra of a large sample of field stars. This may be revealing possible differences in the chemical history of clusters and field stars. Our clusters show a significant dispersion of metallicities, whatever age is considered, which could be reflecting the lack of a unique age–metallicity relation in this galaxy. None of the chemical evolution models currently available in the literature satisfactorily represents the global chemical enrichment processes of SMC clusters.

  12. The X-Shooter Lens Survey - II. Sample presentation and spatially-resolved kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Trager, S. C.; Barnabè, M.; Treu, T.; Czoske, O.; Vegetti, S.; Bolton, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the X-Shooter Lens Survey (XLENS) data. The main goal of XLENS is to disentangle the stellar and dark matter content of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs), through combined strong gravitational lensing, dynamics and spectroscopic stellar population studies. The sample consists of 11 lens galaxies covering the redshift range from 0.1 to 0.45 and having stellar velocity dispersions between 250 and 380 km s-1. All galaxies have multiband, high-quality HST imaging. We have obtained long-slit spectra of the lens galaxies with X-Shooter on the VLT. We are able to disentangle the dark and luminous mass components by combining lensing and extended kinematics data sets, and we are also able to precisely constrain stellar mass-to-light ratios and infer the value of the low-mass cut-off of the initial mass functions (IMF), by adding spectroscopic stellar population information. Our goal is to correlate these IMF parameters with ETG masses and investigate the relation between baryonic and non-baryonic matter during the mass assembly and structure formation processes. In this paper, we provide an overview of the survey, highlighting its scientific motivations, main goals and techniques. We present the current sample, briefly describing the data reduction and analysis process, and we present the first results on spatially-resolved kinematics.

  13. Estimating chlorophyll content and photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) using solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different growing stages of attached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubuxin, Bayaer; Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Ginnan, Yusaku; Hosoi, Fumiki; Omasa, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    This paper illustrates the possibility of measuring chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence parameters by the solar-induced Chl fluorescence (SIF) method using the Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle, and compares the results with the standard measurement methods. A high-spectral resolution HR2000+ and an ordinary USB4000 spectrometer were used to measure leaf reflectance under solar and artificial light, respectively, to estimate Chl fluorescence. Using leaves of Capsicum annuum cv. 'Sven' (paprika), the relationships between the Chl content and the steady-state Chl fluorescence near oxygen absorption bands of O2B (686nm) and O2A (760nm), measured under artificial and solar light at different growing stages of leaves, were evaluated. The Chl fluorescence yields of ΦF 686nm/ΦF 760nm ratios obtained from both methods correlated well with the Chl content (steady-state solar light: R(2) = 0.73; artificial light: R(2) = 0.94). The SIF method was less accurate for Chl content estimation when Chl content was high. The steady-state solar-induced Chl fluorescence yield ratio correlated very well with the artificial-light-induced one (R(2) = 0.84). A new methodology is then presented to estimate photochemical yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII) from the SIF measurements, which was verified against the standard Chl fluorescence measurement method (pulse-amplitude modulated method). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.74) between the ΦPSII of the two methods shows that photosynthesis process parameters can be successfully estimated using the presented methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Quality of the relationship between origin of childhood perception of attachment and outcome of attachment associated with diagnosis of PTSD in adult Finnish war children and Finnish combat veterans from World War II (1939-1945) - DSM-IV applications of the attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pentti Kalevi

    2015-06-01

    Using diagnoses exclusively, comparable evaluations of the empirical evidence relevant to the content can be made. The term holocaust survivor syndrome according to the DSM-IV classification encompasses people with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorders and psychopathological symptoms exposed to the Nazi genocide from 1933-1945 identified by Natan Kellermann, AMCHA, Israel (1999). The relationships between disorders of affectionate parenting and the development of dysfunctional models on one hand, and various psychopathological disorders on the other hand were investigated. Multi-axial assessment based on PTSD diagnosis (APA, 2000) with DSM-IV classification criteria of holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome earlier found in holocaust survivors was used as criteria for comparison among Finnish sub-populations. Symptoms similar to those previously described in association with holocaust survivor syndrome and child survivor syndrome were found in the population of Finnish people who had been displaced as children between 1939-1945. Complex PTSD syndrome is found among survivors of prolonged or repeated trauma who have coping strategies intended to assist their mental survival. Surviving Finnish child evacuees had symptoms at similar level to those reported among holocaust survivors, though Finnish combat veterans exhibited good mental adjustment with secure attachment.

  15. MHC class II complexes sample intermediate states along the peptide exchange pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Sticht, Jana; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Günther, Sebastian; Wehmeyer, Christoph; El Habre, Zeina; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2016-11-09

    The presentation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCIIs) for surveillance by T cells is a well-known immunological concept in vertebrates, yet the conformational dynamics of antigen exchange remain elusive. By combining NMR-detected H/D exchange with Markov modelling analysis of an aggregate of 275 microseconds molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that a stable pMHCII spontaneously samples intermediate conformations relevant for peptide exchange. More specifically, we observe two major peptide exchange pathways: the kinetic stability of a pMHCII's ground state defines its propensity for intrinsic peptide exchange, while the population of a rare, intermediate conformation correlates with the propensity of the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway. Helix-destabilizing mutants designed based on our model shift the exchange behaviour towards the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway and further allow us to conceptualize how allelic variation can shape an individual's MHC restricted immune response.

  16. MHC class II complexes sample intermediate states along the peptide exchange pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Sticht, Jana; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Günther, Sebastian; Wehmeyer, Christoph; El Habre, Zeina; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCIIs) for surveillance by T cells is a well-known immunological concept in vertebrates, yet the conformational dynamics of antigen exchange remain elusive. By combining NMR-detected H/D exchange with Markov modelling analysis of an aggregate of 275 microseconds molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that a stable pMHCII spontaneously samples intermediate conformations relevant for peptide exchange. More specifically, we observe two major peptide exchange pathways: the kinetic stability of a pMHCII's ground state defines its propensity for intrinsic peptide exchange, while the population of a rare, intermediate conformation correlates with the propensity of the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway. Helix-destabilizing mutants designed based on our model shift the exchange behaviour towards the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway and further allow us to conceptualize how allelic variation can shape an individual's MHC restricted immune response. PMID:27827392

  17. Chandra Cluster Cosmology Project. II. Samples and X-Ray Data Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Burenin, R. A.; Ebeling, H.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the measurements of the galaxy cluster mass functions at z ≈ 0.05 and z ≈ 0.5 using high-quality Chandra observations of samples derived from the ROSAT PSPC All-Sky and 400 deg2 surveys. We provide a full reference for the data analysis procedures, present updated calibration of relati...... at a fixed mass threshold, e.g., by a factor of 5.0 ± 1.2 at M 500 = 2.5 × 1014 h –1 M sun between z = 0 and 0.5. This evolution reflects the growth of density perturbations, and can be used for the cosmological constraints complementing those from the distance-redshift relation....

  18. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  19. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling expedition: expanding the universe of protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Yooseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  20. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Scale for Depression (Beck Depression Inventory BDI-II)--A Study on a Sample of Students in the State of Kuwait Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahem, Ahmed Mohammed Faleh

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) the Arabized version by Gharib (2000); the study sample consisted of 500 male and female students from the Kuwaiti universities by 250 males and 250 females on whom the BDI-II scale was applied twice; the psychometric characteristics such as the…

  2. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  3. Attachment style, anxiety coping, and personality-styles in withdrawn alcohol addicted inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Bandelow, Borwin; Heitmann, Soren; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Engel, Kirsten R; Huether, Gerald

    2013-01-10

    Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.

  4. Sampling Theory for Asynoptic Satellite Observations. Part II: Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salby, Murry L.

    1982-11-01

    A one to one correspondence between alias-free asynoptic data and twice-daily synoptic maps is established in the Synoptic Retrieval Theorem. The uniqueness follows from an extension of the Sampling Theorem.A Fast Fourier Transform Scheme is defined for retrieving the unique sequence of synoptic maps from the asynoptic observations. The procedure involves the construction of space-time spectra from `irregular,' combined asynoptic data. This is accomplished by application of the asynoptic form of the space-time transform. The `regular' sequence of synoptic maps is then recovered by application of the synoptic form of the inverse space-time transform. Twice-daily, synoptic sequences retrieved in this fashion, contain exactly the correct spectral contribution resolvable in both types of data. The technique conserves information and fully utilizes the information content of combined, asynoptic observations. Furthermore, it is directly amenable to parallel processing of data over large ensembles of latitudes and pressure levels. Temporal evolution is retrieved equally well for both statistically stationary and nonstationary processes.Intermediate products of the synoptic inversion are global spectra. Their availability during the procedure allows the removal of latitudinally incoherent noise by low-pass filtering. It also makes possible the expansion of observed fields, or equivalently their wavenumber-frequency components, in arbitrary sets of spherical functions. In particular, the projection of remotely derived geopotential components onto Hough harmonics, facilitates the construction of `global' wind fields, thereby circumventing the equatorial problem characteristic of geostrophic treatments.

  5. Coloured solar collectors. Phase II : from laboratory samples to collector prototypes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, A.; Roecker, Ch.; Chambrier, E. de; Munari Probst, M.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the second phase of a project concerning the architectural integration of glazed solar collectors into the facades of buildings for heat production. The factors that limit the integration of photovoltaic panels in facades are discussed. The authors state that, for a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples and high quality levels are needed. The sol-gel deposition of the multi-layered coatings on A4-sized glass panes demonstrated in the laboratory by EPFL-LESO are discussed. The coatings produced exhibit a coloured reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure is discussed: This should result in the speeding up of the sol-gel process and thus save energy, thereby significantly reducing costs. Collaboration with industry is discussed in which full-scale glass panes are to be coated with novel multiple layers. The novel glazing is to be integrated into first prototype collectors. The manufacturing and test processes for the prototypes manufactured are discussed in detail.

  6. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  7. The relation of infant attachment to attachment and cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan-hua; Xu, Xiu; Wang, Zheng-yan; Li, Hui-rong; Wang, Wei-ping

    2014-09-01

    In China, research on the relation of mother-infant attachment to children's development is scarce. This study sought to investigate the relation of mother-infant attachment to attachment, cognitive and behavioural development in young children. This study used a longitudinal study design. The subjects included healthy infants (n=160) aged 12 to 18 months. Ainsworth's "Strange Situation Procedure" was used to evaluate mother-infant attachment types. The attachment Q-set (AQS) was used to evaluate the attachment between young children and their mothers. The Bayley scale of infant development-second edition (BSID-II) was used to evaluate cognitive developmental level in early childhood. Achenbach's child behaviour checklist (CBCL) for 2- to 3-year-olds was used to investigate behavioural problems. In total, 118 young children (73.8%) completed the follow-up; 89.7% of infants with secure attachment and 85.0% of infants with insecure attachment still demonstrated this type of attachment in early childhood (κ=0.738, pdevelopment index (MDI) in early childhood than did infants with secure attachment, especially the resistant type. In addition, resistant infants were reported to have greater social withdrawal, sleep problems and aggressive behaviour in early childhood. There is a high consistency in attachment development from infancy to early childhood. Secure mother-infant attachment predicts a better cognitive and behavioural outcome; whereas insecure attachment, especially the resistant attachment, may lead to a lower cognitive level and greater behavioural problems in early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radionuclide activity measurements in environmental samples of water, soil and grass: CCRI(II)-S4 comparison report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-04-15

    In the frame of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement of the International Committee for Weights and Measures, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II - Measurement of Radionuclides - proposed to the national metrology institutes of Member States signatories of the Metre Convention, to participate in an interlaboratory comparison exercise on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in soil, grass and water. The exercise was piloted by the Reference Materials Group at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). The exercise is classed as a supplementary comparison, with reference CCRI(II)-S4 and the present report will be referenced in the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) key comparison database (KCDB). Five national metrology institutes took part in the present interlaboratory comparison exercise: the Czech Metrology Institute, the National Centre of Metrology, Bulgaria, National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, the National Physical Laboratory, UK, and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. In addition, two expert laboratories participated in this comparison: the Japan Chemical Analysis Centre, Japan, and the IAEA Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. This comparison was aimed at: supporting calibration and measurement capability (CMC) claims of national metrology institutes for radionuclide measurements in different matrices (grass, soil and water), and assigning the certified reference value of the 372 grass Certified Reference Material. This report presents the sample preparation methodology, participants' results and data comparison approach. Appendix I contains the analytical results sorted according to the analyte with the Mixture Models Median (MM-median) graphs. Appendix II reports tables of results evaluation, including uncertainty budgets sorted by institute. Appendix III contains the documentation used in this

  9. Separation and Preconcentration of Sudan Blue II Using Membrane Filtration and UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Determination in River Water and Industrial Wastewater Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Yunus Emre; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A new separation and preconcentration method based on adsorption on a cellulose acetate membrane filter and elution with ethanol was established for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II. Various analytical parameters such as pH of working media, flow rates of solutions, and sample volumes were optimized. Matrix effects of concomitants were investigated for the quantitative recovery values of Sudan blue II. The preconcentration factor was 200. LOD was calculated as 0.96 μg/L. RSD was 5.1%. The optimized procedure was applied to the spectrophotometric determination of Sudan blue II in river and industrial wastewater samples from oil and dye products.

  10. Assessment of DSM-5 Section II Personality Disorders With the MMPI-2-RF in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Smith, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 / 2011 ) is frequently used in clinical practice. However, there has been a dearth of literature on how well this instrument can assess symptoms associated with personality disorders (PDs). This investigation examined a range of hypothesized MMPI-2-RF scales in predicting PD symptoms. We evaluated these associations in a sample of 397 university students who had been administered the MMPI-2-RF and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997 ). Zero-order correlation analyses and negative binomial regression models indicated that a wide range of MMPI-2-RF scale hypotheses were supported; however, the least support was available for predicting schizoid and obsessive-compulsive PDs. Implications for MMPI-2-RF interpretation and PD diagnosis are discussed.

  11. Effective phospholipid removal from plasma samples by solid phase extraction with the use of copper (II) modified silica gel cartridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, Jolanta; Tatarczak-Michalewska, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Anna; Madejska, Anna; Śniegocki, Tomasz; Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika

    2017-12-01

    The new sorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE), based on silica gel modified with a copper (II), was obtained and its application for phospholipids removal from the human plasma was tested. SPE column conditioning requirements, the volume of the plasma, the composition of the elution solvent were all established. The efficacy of the removal of phospholipids was compared for different methods such as standard protein precipitation or HybridSPE Phospholipid Ultra and HybridSPE-PPT. The sample clean-up was verified by mass spectrometry (MS) and by monitoring of chromatograms in the region between 190nm and 400nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FT-IR and confocal Raman microscopy were used to evaluating the silica gel modifications and to show the structure of lipids confined in the silica pores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  13. Heavy Metals (Mg, Mn, Ni and Sn contamination in Soil Samples of Ahvaz II Industrial Estate of Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil l Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the rapid industrial development in Khuzestan province of Iran during recent years, this study was performed to analyze the variation of metals concentrations (Mg, Mn, Ni, and Sn in soil samples of Ahvaz II Industrial estate during the spring season of 2013. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 27 topsoil samples were collected from nine stations. The intensity of the soil contamination was evaluated, using a contamination factor (Cf and geo-accumulation index (I-geo. Results:  The mean soil concentrations (in mg kg-1 (dry weight were in ranged within 870-1144 (Mg, 188-300 (Mn, 93-199 (Ni and 9-15 (Sn. The data indicated that the I-geo value for all metals falls in class ‘1’. Also the Cf value for Mg and Mn falls in class ‘0’, the Cf value for Sn falls in class ‘1’ and the Cf value for Ni falls in the classes of ‘1’ and ‘2’. The result of the Pearson correlation showed that there were significant positive associations between all metals. Conclusions: According to the results which were achieved by a cluster analysis, there were significant positive associations among all metals based on Pearson correlation coefficient, especially between Ni and Sn; also both of them with Mn. Because the Ni originates from oil sources it can be resulted that Mn and Sn originate from oil sources, too. Therefore, industrial activities and exploitation of oil reservoirs are the main cause of pollution in that area. Also, it can be concluded that, with increasing the distance from the source of pollution, the accumulation of contaminants in the soil samples decreased.

  14. Convergence and Divergence in Attachment Style Across Male and Female College Students' Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Van Uitert, Victoria Jean

    2009-01-01

    Attachment representations in friendship and romantic relationship contexts were examined in a sample of 398 college students. Analyses examined patterns of attachment style in both relationship contexts, divergence and convergence in attachment style, and links between attachment representations and negative peer and romantic relationship experiences (i.e., relational and physical victimization and betrayal). The majority of participants reported more secure attachment representations, relat...

  15. [Attachment in autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivantürk, Berna

    2004-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder which begins in the first years of life with delays and deviance in social, communicative and cognitive development and with restricted repertoire of activities and interests. It is thought that autistic children do not form attachments to parents or caregivers because of their difficulties in social interaction. Yet, the findings of the studies demonstrate evidences for the existence of attachment between autistic children and their caregivers. The aim of the present study is to review the studies that examine the attachment behaviors in autism. Autistic children show similar attachment behaviors when compared to children with normal development, children with other psychiatric disorders, children with Down syndrome and mentally retarded children. Children with autism prefer their mothers to strangers and attempt to remain close to them as much as other children. However they do not engage in attention sharing behaviors such as pointing or showing objects. They also do not seem to recognize the meaning of facial expressions and emotions. Although autism does not exclude the development of secure attachment relationships, it may delay the development of secure attachment and change the behavioral patterns related with attachment security. It is concluded that the awareness of the parents and the clinicians might help to establish treatment alternatives that preserve and improve the attachment behaviors of autistic children.

  16. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  17. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  18. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Nanotechnology Research Center (ERNAM), Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Ozdemir, Nalan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L{sup −1} and 8.8 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. - Highlights: • The synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers is reported. • The nanoflowers were utilized for solid phase microextraction of

  19. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays: split-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Sarah; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Bonde, Jesper

    2016-07-20

    High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing is replacing cytology in cervical cancer screening as it is more sensitive for preinvasive cervical lesions. However, the bottleneck of HPV testing is the many false positive test results (positive tests without cervical lesions). Here, we evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays. Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested with the three evaluated DNA and mRNA HPV assays. Genotyping was undertaken using CLART HPV2 assay, individually detecting 35 genotypes. The presence or absence of cervical lesions was determined with histological examinations; women with abnormal cytology were managed as per routine recommendations; those with normal cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3 assays. None of the 35 genotypes was detected in 49 (1.0 %), 162 (3.2 %), and 56 (1.1 %) samples, respectively. In primary screening at age 30 to 65 years (n = 2859), samples of 72 (25 %) out of 289 with high-risk infections on HC2 and < CIN2 histology were due to cross-reactivity. On cobas, this was 106 (26 %) out of 415, and on APTIMA 48 (21 %) out of 224. Despite manufacturer claims, all three assays showed cross-reactivity. In primary cervical screening at age ≥30 years, cross

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of the Use of Attachment Theory in Adult Psychological Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eilish; Danquah, Adam; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest into how attachment theory can inform psychotherapeutic practice with adults. This study aimed to explore how a group of therapists with an interest in attachment theory use it in their work with adult clients. A cross-sectional qualitative design was adopted. Sampling, data collection and analysis procedures were guided by grounded theory principles. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 therapists from a variety of training backgrounds. Data were coded and developed into thematic categories. Six primary themes were identified to describe how attachment theory influenced the clinical practice of the sample through the following: (i) complementing other therapeutic models; (ii) providing a framework to understand the development of clients' mental health problems; (iii) working with different attachment styles; (iv) thinking about the therapeutic relationship as an attachment relationship; (iv) influencing the different stages of the therapeutic process; and (vi) influencing clinical service design and delivery. It is concluded that attachment theory can play a significant role in influencing the practice of therapists and can be usefully adopted to complement therapeutic processes irrespective of the therapist's dominant clinical orientation. Further research is needed to explore the views of clinicians from different theoretical orientations and to investigate the security of the client-therapist attachment within the context of therapeutic change processes. Attachment theory may have implications for practice across a range of different types of therapy and may help therapists to bridge apparent differences between modality-specific formulation and techniques. Attachment theory can be used to understand the development of mental health problems. Therapists should assess and formulate clients' attachment styles, and these formulations should guide therapeutic approaches. Attachment theory provides a comprehensive

  1. Attachment in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. BehnazH

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Removable and fixed prosthesis are fabricated for reasons of appearance, mastication, speech clarity and general well - being. At the same time, they must preserve remaining theeth. Alveolar bone, Ginginal tissue and tooth position by bringing the forces acting on the removavle prosthesis within the limits of tissue tolerance. Satisfying these objectives may reqiure the use of single crowns of fixed partial denture with specific contours and attachments that provide the necessary support and retention for the prosthesis."nHowever, before any detailde discussion can takeplace, it is desirble to divide attachments into groups. Several classifications have been divised, based mainly on the attributes claimed for the devices by the attachment manufactures."nSince the function severed by an attachment depend entirely upon the manner in which it is used and function in the mouth are complex and by no means completely understood, the classification of prefabricated attachments used in this title has been based on their shape.

  2. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  3. Restricted accessed material-copper(II) ion imprinted polymer solid phase extraction combined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for the determination of free Cu(II) in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chao; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2013-11-15

    A novel restricted accessed material (RAM)-Cu(II) ion imprinted polymer (IIP) was synthesized by the surface imprinted-emulsion method, and possessed a high selectivity to Cu(II) and good macromolecules exclusion property. And a novel method of RAM-IIP packed microcolumn solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed for the determination of trace free Cu(II) in human body fluids. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacity of RAM-IIP for Cu(II) was 15.9 mg g(-1). With a preconcentration factor of 30, the limit of detection was 0.17 µg L(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 2.2% (n=7, c=1 µg L(-1)). The developed method was validated by the analysis of two Certified Reference Materials, and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. This method was also successfully applied for the direct analysis of free Cu(II) in human urine and serum samples. While the total Cu can be determined by the proposed method after microwave digestion. The concentrations of free Cu(II) were much lower than that of total Cu, indicating that Cu is mainly coordinated with macromolecules in these biological samples. From this point of view, the developed method exhibits application potential in speciation of free metal ions and metallic complex molecules in biological samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MATERNAL GRIEVING AND THE PERCEPTION OF AND ATTACHMENT TO CHILDREN BORN SUBSEQUENT TO A PERINATAL LOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. Association of children's obesity with the quality of parental-child attachment and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Jafari, Nasim; Kaveh, Zabihollah; Isanejad, Omid

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of children's obesity with parental attachment and psychological variables as impulsivity, self-control and efficiency of eating control. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 obese students aged 9-13 years selected by multistage cluster sampling from different areas of Isfahan, Iran. Three questionnaires were considered to be answered by the students and one for their parents. The students completed the following questionnaires: (i) Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised version for Children (IPPA-R); (ii) Impulsivity Scale (IS); (iii) Efficiency of Eating Control; and (iv) Self-control Rating Scale (SCRS). The quality of children's attachment had direct effects on self-efficacy of eating management and on obesity by mediating of self-efficacy of eating. Moreover, attachment had direct effect on self-control and impulsivity, and in turn through these psychological variables, it had indirect effects on self-efficacy of eating management. The findings of this study underscore the importance of parent-child attachment quality. It can be suggested that childhood obesity can be prevented and managed with creating a secure attachment bond between children and parents and increasing perceived self-efficacy eating management in children. © 2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sample problems for the novice user of the AMPX-II system. [For generating coupled multigroup neutron--gamma libraries, in FORTRAN IV for IBM 360/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. III; Roussin, R.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Diggs, B.R.; Comolander, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    Contents of the IBM version of the APMX system distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (APMX-II) are described. Sample problems which demonstrate the procedure for implementing AMPX-II modules to generate point cross sections; generate multigroup neutron, photon production, and photon interaction cross sections for various transport codes; collapse multigroup cross sections; check, edit, and punch multigroup cross sections; and execute a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation are detailed. 25 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and ultrasensitive dynamic light scattering assay for the selective detection of Pb(II) from paints, plastics, and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Senapati, Dulal; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-03-01

    Pb (II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. According to the CDC, about 310,000 U.S. children of ages 1-5 have high levels of lead in their blood that it is due to the exposure to lead from plastic toys and other products. As a result, the development of ultrasensitive assays for the real-time detection of Pb(II) from plastic toys and paints is very important for water controlling, clinical toxicology and industrial processes. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Pb(II) from water samples, we report a label-free, highly selective and ultra sensitive glutathione modified gold nanoparticle based dynamic light scattering (DLS) probe for Pb(II) recognition in 100 ppt level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals. The sensitivity of our assay to detect Pb(II) level in water is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the EPA standard limit. We have also demonstrated that our DLS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Pb(II) in paint, plastic toys, and water from MS river. A possible mechanism and operating principles of our DLS assay have been discussed. Ultimately, this nanotechnology driven assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site monitoring of Pb(II) from day-to-day sample.

  8. Application of silica fume as a new SP-extractor for trace determination of Zn(II) and Cd(II) in pharmaceutical and environmental samples by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa A.; Gaber, Ahmed A. Abdel; Rahim, Asmaa M. Abdel

    2017-05-01

    In this work, silica fume (SF) is used as a solid-phase extractor for extraction of Zn(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions. Characterization of SF is performed by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The optimum experimental conditions for the two metal ions are investigated using batch and column techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity values are found to be 54.13 and 121.28 mg g-1 at the optimum pH 6.0 and 8.0 for Zn(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The equilibrium data are analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms by nonlinear regression analysis. Also, the kinetics analysis revealed that the overall adsorption process is successfully fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The method is applied for determination of the target metal ions in pharmaceutical and environmental samples using square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection (LOD) values are 0.102 and 1.43 × 10-3 mg L-1 for Zn(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The percentage recovery values are 98.8-100.5 % which indicate the success of the proposed method for determination of Zn(II) and Cd(II) without interfering effects.

  9. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  10. Precursors and sequelae of attachment in foster children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on attachment of foster children by examining factors associated with attachment relationships of children raised from birth by the same parents. The sample included 61 children between 26 to 88 months of age and their foster caregivers. Attachment security and caregiver

  11. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  12. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  13. Bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers: An effective adsorbent for solid phase extraction and slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of cadmium and lead in water, hair, food and cigarette samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Ocsoy, Ismail; Ozdemir, Nalan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-04

    Herein, the synthesis of bovine serum albumin-Cu(II) hybrid nanoflowers (BSA-NFs) through the building blocks of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and copper(II) ions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and their use as adsorbent for cadmium and lead ions are reported. The BSA-NFs, for the first time, were efficiently utilized as novel adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of cadmium and lead ions in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. The method is based on the separation and pre-concentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by BSA-NFs prior to determination by slurry analysis via flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The analytes were adsorbed on BSA-NFs under the vortex mixing and then the ion-loaded slurry was separated and directly introduced into the flame AAS nebulizer by using a hand-made micro sample introduction system to eliminate a number of drawbacks. The effects of analytical key parameters, such as pH, amount of BSA-NFs, vortexing time, sample volume, and matrix effect of foreign ions on adsorbing of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were systematically investigated and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were calculated as 0.37 μg L(-)(1) and 8.8 μg L(-)(1), respectively. The relative standard deviation percentages (RSDs) (N = 5) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 7.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-53.3 Fortified Water, TMDA-70 Fortified Water, SPS-WW2 Waste Water, NCSDC-73349 Bush Branches and Leaves) and by addition/recovery analysis. The quantitative recoveries were obtained for the analysis of certified reference materials and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of cadmium and lead in water, food, cigarette and hair samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attachment security and immunity in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Battisti, Francesca; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Baldassari, Maurizio; Copertaro, Alfredo; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Biondi, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Attachment security is associated with health and possibly autonomic and endocrine reactivity to stress, however the relationship between attachment style and immune function has not yet been investigated. A random sample of 61 female nurses provided a blood sample and completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Immune measures included immunophenotypic analysis, lymphocyte proliferative response to Phytohemagglutinin, and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC). Statistical analysis focused on the relationship between attachment-related anxiety or avoidance and immune measures. Multiple regression was used to control for perceived stress and support, alexithymia, health-related behaviors possibly influencing immunity, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs, tobacco or alcohol. Attachment-related anxiety was not associated with any immune parameter. Attachment-related avoidance was associated with lower NKCC. This association was independent from the number of circulating NK cells, which suggests a change in cell functionality. Perceived stress was also associated with lower NKCC. This study suggests a link between attachment security and immunity. While our findings should be interpreted with great caution and need replication, they are consistent with previous work suggesting that insecure attachment may be a risk factor for health and may relate to biological processes relevant to health.

  15. Isolation and preconcentration of Cd(II) from environmental samples using polypropylene porous membrane in a hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane extraction procedure and determination by FAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Raquel Medeiros; Bedendo, Gizelle Cristina; Carletto, Jeferson Schneider; Carasek, Eduardo

    2010-05-15

    The use of polypropylene porous membrane in a hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane (HFRLM) procedure for determination of Cd(II) in water samples was assessed. Ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was used to complex cadmium (II) in an acid medium to obtain a neutral hydrophobic complex. The organic solvent introduced to the sample extracts this complex from the aqueous solution and carries it over the polypropylene membrane porous. The organic solvent is immobilized inside the polypropylene membrane porous, leading to an homogeneous phase. The complex strips the lumen of the membrane where, at higher pH, the complex Cd-DDTP is broken down and Cd(II) is released into the stripping phase. EDTA was used to complex the cadmium (II), helping to trap the analyte in the stripping phase. The optimized variables were: sample pH, DDTP concentration, stripping pH, EDTA concentration, extraction temperature and time, extractor solvent and addition of salt to saturate the sample. The sample volume used was 15 mL and the stripping volume was 165 microL. The analyte enrichment factor was 107, limit of detection 1.5 microg L(-1), relative standard deviation 4.0% (15 microg L(-1), n=7) and the working linear range 5-30 microg L(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment plan Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder are serious clinical conditions. However, close and ongoing ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the ...

  17. Breastfeeding, sensitivity, and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, John R; Britton, Helen L; Gronwaldt, Virginia

    2006-11-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires administered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding practice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, mothers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a significant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security mediated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breastfeed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year

  18. Selective chemosensor for Hg(II) ions based on tris[2-(4-phenyldiazenyl)phenylaminoethoxy]cyclotriveratrylene in aqueous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuriman, [Unknown; Kuswandi, Bambang; Verboom, Willem

    2009-01-01

    A novel chemosensor, based on tris[2-(4-phenyldiazenyl)phenylaminoethoxy]cyclotriveratrylene (TPPECTV) as chromophore, has been developed for the colorimetric determination and visual detection of Hg(II) ions. TPPECTV exhibits a pronounced chromogenic behavior toward Hg(II) ions by changing the

  19. Simultaneous trace-levels determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions in various samples using a modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new synthesized Schiff base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afkhami, Abbas, E-mail: afkhami@basu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Hasan [Department of Chemistry, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshsafar, Hosein [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabatabaee, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzadmehr, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode was constructed and used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new Schiff base and multi-walled carbon nanotube was used as a modifier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode was used to the simultaneous determination of Pb{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. - Abstract: A modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-thioxothiazolodin-4-one as a new synthesized Schiff base was constructed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent selectivity and stability for Hg(II) and Pb(II) determinations and for accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and the analytes. The electrochemical properties and applications of the modified electrode were studied. Operational parameters such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized for the purpose of determination of traces of metal ions at pH 3.0. Under optimal conditions the limits of detection, based on three times the background noise, were 9.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {mu}mol L{sup -1} for Hg(II) and Pb(II) with a 90 s preconcentration, respectively. In addition, the modified electrode displayed a good reproducibility and selectivity, making it suitable for the simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) in real samples such as sea water, waste water, tobacco, marine and human teeth samples.

  20. Tripodal chelating ligand-based sensor for selective determination of Zn(II) in biological and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Mehtab, Sameena; Singh, Udai P.; Aggarwal, Vaibhave [Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Department of Chemistry, Roorkee (India)

    2007-08-15

    Potassium hydrotris(N-tert-butyl-2-thioimidazolyl)borate [KTt{sup t-Bu}] and potassium hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl-l-pyrazolyl)borate [KTp{sup t-Bu,i-Pr}] have been synthesized and evaluated as ionophores for preparation of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane sensor for Zn(II) ions. The effect of different plasticizers, viz. benzyl acetate (BA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), tributyl phosphate (TBP), and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE), and the anion excluders sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB), potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB), and oleic acid (OA) were studied to improve the performance of the membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained from a sensor with a of [KTt{sup t-Bu}] membrane of composition (mg): [KTt{sup t-Bu}] (15), PVC (150), DBP (275), and NaTPB (4). This sensor had a Nernstian response (slope, 29.4 {+-} 0.2 mV decade of activity) for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide concentration range (1.4 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 9.5 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. It had a relatively fast response time (12 s) and could be used for 3 months without substantial change of the potential. The membrane sensor had very good selectivity for Zn{sup 2+} ions over a wide variety of other cations and could be used in a working pH range of 3.5-7.8. The sensor was also found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media and could be successfully used for estimation of zinc at trace levels in biological and environmental samples. (orig.)

  1. The graphical method for goodness of fit test in the inverse Weibull distribution based on multiply type-II censored samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Bok; Han, Jun-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have considered a truncated and censored samples which are type-I, type-II and hybrid censoring scheme. The inverse Weibull distribution has been utilized for the analysis of life testing and reliability data. Also, this distribution is a very flexible distribution. The inverse Rayleigh distribution and inverse exponential distribution are a special case of the inverse Weibull distribution. In this paper, we derive the approximate maximum likelihood estimators (AMLEs) of the scale parameter and the shape parameter in the inverse Weibull distribution under multiply type-II censoring. We also propose a simple graphical method for goodness-on-fit test based on multiply type-II censored samples using AMLEs.

  2. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

    2002-05-30

    This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

  3. Assessing attachment: convergent validity of the adult attachment interview and the parental bonding instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, K; Owens, M; Adam, K S; West, M; Sheldon-Keller, A E

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) can provide information about parent-child attachment that is comparable to information obtained from the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), a more complex measure of attachment. One hundred and thirty emotionally and/or behaviourally disturbed adolescents (73 male, 57 female; ages 13-19 years, x = 15.3 +/- 1.47 years) participating in a study of attachment and suicidality completed the PBI and the AAI. Data from these measures were compared within participants. Maternal care and overprotection on the PBI differed significantly by AAI attachment classification (F3,122 = 2.79, p = 0.012), with autonomous participants showing the most optimal and unresolved participants the least optimal PBI results. Maternal love and maternal involvement/role reversal on the AAI were significant predictors of maternal care and maternal overprotection, respectively, on the PBI (R2 = 0.15; R2 = 0.16). These predictions improved when AAI scales measuring idealisation and involving anger towards the mother were included in the regression analyses (R2 = 0.35; R2 = 0.20). Autonomous participants on AAI showed the highest scale correlations across instruments. Attachment information obtained from the PBI and the AAI is comparable in participants with optimal attachment histories, but not in participants showing idealisation or anger towards their mothers. Caution is, therefore, advisable when using the PBI to obtain attachment information in clinical samples where suboptimal attachment histories are likely.

  4. A literature update on maternal-fetal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L

    2008-01-01

    To critically review and synthesize original research published since 2000 designed to measure factors that influence maternal-fetal attachment. EBSCOhost Research Databases that included PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS were searched for journal articles published in the past 7 years (2000-2007) that examined variables thought to increase, decrease, or cause no change in level of maternal-fetal attachment. Keyword searches included maternal-fetal attachment, parental attachment, and prenatal attachment. Twenty-two studies were selected that met the inclusion criteria of original research, clear delineation of the measurement of maternal-fetal attachment, measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy, and inclusion of women or couples, or both. Studies measuring maternal-fetal attachment included a broad range of variables as potential risk or protective factors, or both. Factors associated with higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment included family support, greater psychological well-being, and having an ultrasound performed. Factors such as depression, substance abuse, and higher anxiety levels were associated with lower levels of maternal-fetal attachment. The large majority of studies reviewed were limited by small, homogenous samples deemed insufficient to detect significant differences, inconsistent measurement of maternal-fetal attachment during gestational periods, and cross-sectional designs. Further research is essential to identify factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment. Specifically, research needs to be conducted on larger sample sizes of greater racial and ethnic diversity.

  5. Woodbridge research facility remedial investigation/feasibility study. Sampling and analysis plan vol 1: Field sampling plan vol II: Quality assurance project plan. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisbeck, D.; Thompson, P.; Williams, T.; Ehlers, M.; Eliass, M.

    1996-09-01

    U.S. Army Woodbridge Research Facility (WRF) was used in the past as a major military communications center and a research and development laboratory where electromagnetic pulse energy was tested on military and other equipment. WRF is presently an inactive facility pursuant to the 1991 Base Realignment and Closure list. Past investigation activities indicate that polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are the primary chemicals of concern. This task calls for provision of the necessary staff and equipment to provide remedial investigation/feasibility study support for the USAEC BRAC Program investigation at WRF. This Sampling and Analysis Plan, Addendum 1, Field Sampling Plan presents the sample location and rationale for additional samples required to complete the RI/FS; and the Quality Assurance Project Plan presents any additional data quality objectives and proposed laboratory methods for chemical analysis of samples.

  6. [C II] 158-micrometer Observations of a Sample of Late-type Galaxies from the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, K. J.; Volk, H. J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Hippelein, H.; Metcalfe, L.; Pierini, D.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Xu, C.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed 19 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) obtaining spectral around the (C II) 157.741-micrometer fine structure line.

  7. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  8. Stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper aimed to explore relations between stressful life experiences and attachment in adolescence. The sample included 279 adolescents of both sexes, who were students of first two years at the University of Novi Sad. Attachment styles were assessed by RQ (Relationship Questionnaire, Bartolomew & Horowitz, 1991, and stressful experiences by Risk Scale (Grossman et al., 1990. The average score on the Risk scale indicated that participants had relatively small number of stressful events; but majority had at least two stressful experiences. The most frequent event was loss of family member (61,2% of participants and traffic accident (40,6% of participants. Participants with secure and insecure attachment styles had similar number of stressful experiences in their lives. Difference between these groups was significant only in the case stressors that origin from the characteristics of the family and intrafamilial relations, which was more frequent experience in participants with insecure attachment styles. However, the results showed that stressful experiences may have negative influence on security of attachment, i.e. on positivity of model of self. The highest and statistically significant contribution was made by separation from family and by family characteristics. The results are discussed in context of attachment theory and previous research data on effects of stressful and traumatic events on security of attachment.

  9. Speciation of Mn(II), Mn(VII) and total manganese in water and food samples by coprecipitation-atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-15

    A speciation procedure based on the coprecipitation of manganese(II) with zirconium(IV) hydroxide has been developed for the investigation of levels of manganese species. The determination of manganese levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Total manganese was determined after the reduction of Mn(VII) to Mn(II) by ascorbic acid. The analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc., were investigated for the quantitative recoveries of manganese(II). The effects of matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries for manganese(II) were in the range of 95-98%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 50. The detection limit for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n=21) was 0.75 microg L(-1) for Mn(II). The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 7%. The validation of the presented procedure was performed by analysis of certified reference material having different matrices, NIST SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and NIST SRM 1568a (Rice Flour). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples.

  10. A sensitive, selective and rapid determination of lead(II) ions in real-life samples using an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-graphite reinforced carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsawahini, Kunashegaran; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sensitive and cost-effective electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) on graphite reinforced carbon (GRC) was developed for the detection of lead (Pb(II)) ions present in the real-life samples. A film of graphene oxide (GO) was drop-casted on GRC and their electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Factors influencing the detection of Pb(II) ions, such as grades of GRC, constant applied cathodic potential (CACP), concentration of hydrochloric acid and drop-casting drying time were optimised. GO is irreversibly reduced in the range of -0.7 V to -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl (3 M) in acidic condition. The results showed that the reduction behaviour of GO contributed to the high sensitivity of Pb(II) ions detection even at nanomolar level. The ErGO-GRC showed the detection limit of 0.5 nM and linear range of 3-15 nM in HCl (1 M). The developed electrode has potential to be a good candidate for the determination of Pb(II) ions in different aqueous system. The proposed method gives a good recovery rate of Pb(II) ions in real-life water samples such as tap water and river water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  12. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  13. Comparison of EMIT II, CEDIA, and DPC RIA assays for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide in forensic urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Russell F; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Gehlhausen, Jay M

    2002-10-01

    In an effort to determine a practical, efficient, and economical alternative for the use of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human urine, the performance of two photometric immunoassays (Dade Behring EMIT II and Microgenics CEDIA) and the Diagnostics Products Corp. (DPC) RIA were compared. Precision, accuracy, and linearity of the 3 assays were determined by testing 60 replicates (10 for RIA) at 5 different concentrations below and above the 500-pg/mL LSD cut-off. The CEDIA and RIA exhibited better accuracy and precision than the EMIT II immunoassay. In contrast, the EMIT II and CEDIA demonstrated superior linearity r2 = 0.9809 and 0.9540, respectively, as compared with the RIA (r2 = 0.9062). The specificity of the three assays was assessed using compounds that have structural and chemical properties similar to LSD, common over-the-counter products, prescription drugs and some of their metabolites, and other drugs of abuse. Of the 144 compounds studied, the EMIT II cross-reacted with twice as many compounds as did the CEDIA and RIA. Specificity was also assessed in 221 forensic human urine specimens that previously screened positive for LSD by the EMIT II assay. Of these, only 11 tested positive by CEDIA, and 3 were positive by RIA. This indicated a comparable specificity performance between CEDIA and RIA. This also was consistent with a previously reported high false-positive rate of EMIT II (low specificity). Each of the immunoassays correctly identified LSD in 23 out of 24 human urine specimens that had previously been found to contain LSD by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at a cut-off concentration of 200 pg/mL. The CEDIA exhibited superior precision, accuracy, and decreased cross-reactivity to compounds other than LSD as compared with the EMIT II assay and does not necessitate the handling of radioactive materials.

  14. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    Dyadic interactions between children and depressed mothers have been characterized as less synchronous and with lower maternal sensitivity, fostering an inharmonious, insecure attachment relationship between mother and child. Thus, these children may experience enhanced early life stress and are at higher risk of disturbed socioemotional development. Recently, this association has also been found in women with mild depressive symptoms. However, potential confounding effects of mother's history of own rearing experiences or infant temperament on the link between depressive symptoms and postnatal mother-to-infant attachment have not yet been investigated. Differences in mother-to-infant attachment (e.g. quality of attachment, absence of hostility, and pleasure in interaction) between mothers with and without symptoms of depression 6-8 months postpartum were analyzed in a low-risk community sample (n = 38, 19 per group). Depressive symptomatology was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Depressed mothers indicated mild-to-moderate depressive symptomatology (mean BDI-II 11.26 ± 3.86) but did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode and, thus, were referred to as 'subclinically' depressed. Potential confounders, namely maternal history of own rearing experiences and infant temperament, were explored by multivariate AN(C)OVA. Primiparous mothers with subclinical depression differed significantly from healthy control mothers, i.e. showed poorer mother-to-infant attachment and higher infant-related hostility 6-8 months postpartum. As expected, infant temperament and mother's history of own rearing experiences were both associated with mother-to-infant attachment but did not explain the negative effects of subclinical depression on the mother-infant relationship. Given the high prevalence of maternal depression, the current findings give reason for increased concern for the developing mother

  15. Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D S; Vondra, J I

    1993-10-01

    A beginning step in the prevention of psychopathology in children is the identification of conditions and events associated with a disproportionately high incidence of behavior problems. Rutter, Cox, Tupling, Berger and Yule (1975a, British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 493-509) have reported a dramatic increase in the probability of children's adjustment difficulties as a function of multiple family stressors. However, this association has never been tested with infants. Among instruments of infant behavior, attachment classification has been found to be a significant predictor of later adjustment problems, particularly among low-income samples. The present investigation examines the relation between six significant familial stressors and infant attachment security in a sample of 100 low-income parent-infant dyads. Family stressors included parental criminality, maternal depressive symptomatology, maternal personality risk, overcrowding in the home, and the quality of the relationship with a significant other. Cumulative family adversity was found to differentiate secure from insecure infants, but only among families with three or four stressors present. There also was moderate support for one hypothesis derived from attachment theory, namely that stressors more closely associated with maternal functioning are more common among families with insecurely attached infants. Conceptual links between stressors and attachment are discussed, including pathways by which chronic stressors may interfere with the formation and maintenance of secure mother-infant attachment relations.

  16. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  17. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  18. Preconcentration of Zn(II from Sample Water by Phenyl-iminodiacetic Acid Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available : phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared by grafted phenyl-iminodiacetic acid groups onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes via a diazotation reaction. The stability of chemically phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes in concentrated hydrochloric acid which was then used as a recycling and pre-concentration reagent for further uses of phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The application of this  phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for sorption of a series of metal ions was performed by using different controlling factors such as the pH of metal ion solution and the equilibration shaking time by the static technique. Zn(II was found to exhibit the highest affinity towards extraction by these  phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes phases. The pronounced selectivity was also confirmed from the determined distribution coefficient (Kd of all the metal ions, showing the highest value reported for Zn(II to occur by  phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The potential applications of  phenyl-iminodiacetic acid grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes for selective extraction of Zn(II to occur from aqueous solution were successfully accomplished as well as pre- concentration of low concentration of Zn(II (60 pg ml-1 from natural tap water with a pre-concentration factor of 100 for Zn(II off-line analysis by flame atomic absorption analysis. 

  19. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Oliveira, Marcio Henrique; Gorenstein, Clarice; Lotufo Neto, Francisco; Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan Pang

    2012-12-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is used worldwide for detecting depressive symptoms. This questionnaire has been revised (1996) to match the DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode. We assessed the reliability and the validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BDI-II for non-clinical adults. The questionnaire was applied to 60 college students on two occasions. Afterwards, 182 community-dwelling adults completed the BDI-II, the Self-Report Questionnaire, and the K10 Scale. Trained psychiatrists performed face-to-face interviews with the respondents using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Descriptive analysis, signal detection analysis (Receiver Operating Characteristics), correlation analysis, and discriminant function analysis were performed to investigate the psychometric properties of the BDI-II. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the BDI-II was 0.89, and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was 0.93. Taking the SCID as the gold standard, the cut-off point of 10/11 was the best threshold for detecting depression, yielding a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 87%. The concurrent validity (a correlation of 0.63-0.93 with scales applied simultaneously) and the predictive ability of the severity level (over 65% correct classification) were acceptable. The BDI-II is reliable and valid for measuring depressive symptomatology among Portuguese-speaking Brazilian non-clinical populations.

  20. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy......, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently...... the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis...

  1. Simple hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane extraction method for pre-concentration of Cd(II) in environmental samples and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Jeferson Schneider; Luciano, Raquel Medeiros; Bedendo, Gizelle Cristina; Carasek, Eduardo

    2009-04-06

    A hollow fiber renewal liquid membrane (HFRLM) extraction method to determine cadmium (II) in water samples using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. Ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was used to complex cadmium (II) in an acid medium to obtain a neutral hydrophobic complex (ML(2)). The organic solvent introduced to the sample extracts this complex from the aqueous solution and carries it over the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane, that had their walls previously filled with the same organic solvent. The organic solvent is solubilized inside the PDMS membrane, leading to a homogeneous phase. The complex strips the lumen of the membrane where, at higher pH, the complex Cd-DDTP is broken down and cadmium (II) is released into the stripping phase. EDTA was used to complex the cadmium (II), helping to trap the analyte in the stripping phase. A multivariate procedure was used to optimize the studied variables. The optimized variables were: sample (donor phase) pH 3.25, DDTP concentration 0.05% (m/v), stripping (acceptor phase) pH 8.75, EDTA concentration 1.5x10(-2) mol L(-1), extraction temperature 40 degrees C, extraction time 40 min, a solvent mixture N-butyl acetate and hexane (60/40%, v/v) with a volume of 100 microL, and addition of ammonium sulfate to saturate the sample. The sample volume used was 20 mL and the stripping volume was 165 microL. The analyte enrichment factor was 120, limit of detection (LOD) 1.3 microg L(-1), relative standard deviation (RSD) 5.5% and the working linear range 2-30 microg L(-1).

  2. Quick-attach clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, A. E.

    1968-01-01

    Clamp of the slideable jaw type can be applied to moving lines such as cables or ropes. The clamp has a trigger-operated jaw that can be attached to a redrop parachute on a moving tow cable. The trigger mechanism maintains the jaws retracted in the housing until they are released for clamping.

  3. Organisational Attachment Among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most studied in industrial and organisational psychology and in the sociology of work and occupations. Some of .... employee differences in job satisfaction and organisation attachment. In this study, the following job .... were studied. These are subsid- iaries of multinational corporations based in Europe and North America.

  4. Attachment and autism: parental attachment representations and relational behaviors in the parent-child dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-10-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders of relating and communicating. The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was employed to derive parental working models of attachment relationships. The Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS) was used to determine the quality of relational and functional behaviors in parents and their children. The sample included parents and their 4- to 16-year-old children with autism and associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Hypothesized relationships between AAI classifications and FEAS scores were supported. Significant correlations were found between AAI classification and FEAS scores, indicating that children with autism spectrum disorders whose parents demonstrated secure attachment representations were better able to initiate and respond in two-way pre-symbolic gestural communication; organize two-way social problem-solving communication; and engage in imaginative thinking, symbolic play, and verbal communication. These findings lend support to the relevance of the parent's state of mind pertaining to attachment status to child and parent relational behavior in cases wherein the child has been diagnosed with autism or an associated neurodevelopmental disorder of relating and communicating. A model emerges from these findings of conceptualizing relationships between parental internal models of attachment relationships and parent-child relational and functional levels that may aid in differentiating interventions.

  5. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  6. Influencias del apego a la madre en el vínculo con los pares en la adolescencia: Diferencias entre una muestra femenina clínica y no clínica Influences of mother attachment into peer relationship during adolescence: Difference between a clinical and non-clinical female sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica C. Vega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone indagar tipos de apego a madre y pares en 83 mujeres de 12 a 18 años (Media: 14,63 años, DS 1,20 con Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (n=30 y sin ellos (n=53 y analizar si el tipo de apego a madre se repite en pares. Se utilizó durante la fase clínica de un estudio bietápico (UBACyT 2008-2010, el Inventario de Apego a Padres y Pares (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987. Resultados: Los grupos clínico y control se diferencian significativamente en el apego a la madre (p The present study examines attachment types to mother and peer in eighty-three women of 12 -18 years old (Media:14,63 years, SD 1,20 with Eating Disorders (n=30 and without them (n=53. In order to research repeated tendencies in types of attachment to mother and peer, in 2009, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA, Armsden & Greenberg 1987 was self-reported during the clinical phase of a two phases study (UBACyT 2008-2010. Results: Clinical and control groups present significantly differences in mother scale (p < .001, but marginal ones in peer scale. At the same time, inluences of mother attachment into peers´ were found. Conclusions: Results conirm the ethio-pathogenic relationship between mother-daughter in eating disorders but even there are tendencies repeated in both attachment mother-daughter, statistical indings are not enough to assure that insecure attachment with mother replicates with peer. Same study in a bigger sample should be done to conirm so.

  7. Studies of zinc(II in pharmaceutical and biological samples by extractive spectrophotometry: using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone as chelating reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma L. Subramanyam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of zinc(II. PPT reacts with zinc(II in the pH range 5.0-6.0 to form a yellow colored complex, which was well extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of Zn(II-PPT complex was measured at different intervals of time at 430 nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. It was observed that the color development was instantaneous and stable for more than 48 h. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 6.0 µg mL-1 of zinc(II, with an excellent linearity in terms of correlation coefficient value of 0.999. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species is 1.6 X 10(4 L mol-1 cm-1 and 4.085 X 10-3 µg cm-2 at 430 nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.04 µg mL-1. To assess precision of the method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations; the relative standard deviation does not exceed 3.1%. The composition of the zinc(II complex with PPT was studied by the method of Job's continuous variation, molar ratio method, Asmus' method and slope ratio method. It has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of zinc(II, when present alone or in presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with zinc(II in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Various certified reference materials (NIST 1573, NBS 1572 and NIST SRM 8435 have been tested for the determination of zinc for evaluating the accuracy of the developed method. The results of the proposed method are in agreement with flame atomic absorption spectometry.

  8. Determination of Traces of Pd(II in Spiked Samples by Using 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinol-hydrazone as a Chelating Agent with UV Visible Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lakshmi Narayana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of palladium(II using 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (3,4-DHBINH. The metal ion gives a yellow colored complex with 3,4-DHBINH in acetate buffer of pH 3.0 with 1:1 (metal: ligand composition. The complex shows maximum absorption at 380 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed in the range 0.5-20.0 ppm of Pd(II. The molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity and detection limit were found to be 0.53×104 L mol-1 cm-1, 0.02 μg cm-2 and 0.0948 μg mL-1, respectively. The correlation coefficient and regression coefficient of the Pd(II-3,4-DHBINH complex were 1.08 and 0.04 respectively. Major cations and anions did not show any interference. Anti-microbial activity of the Pd(II-3,4-DHBINH has been studied. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of Pd(II in spiked samples. Comparing the results with those obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer tested the validity of the method

  9. Survival after major cardiac surgery: performance and comparison of predictive ability of EuroSCORE II and logistic EuroSCORE in a sample of Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo

    2014-06-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has been recently introduced to improve mortality prediction in cardiac surgery. We compare the predictive ability of the new EuroSCORE II with that of the original logistic EuroSCORE and we made an evaluation of a sample of our population submitted to major cardiac surgery in the context of a Mediterranean country. Predicted and observed mortality were recorded in 1,200 consecutive patients undergoing major cardiac surgery at our institution with both logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II. Patients were grouped according to type of surgery: isolated valvular (n = 538), isolated coronary (n = 322), combined (n = 192), and miscellaneous (n = 148). Predictive capacity of both scales was compared for overall population and for each group in terms of calibration and discrimination using the observed by expected mortality rate, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and C-statistic. Overall mortality was 6.8%, whereas that predicted by logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II was 9.7 and 3.7%, respectively. Mortality in our population was higher than mortality expected according to the original EuroSCORE II database. For all groups included in our population, logistic EuroSCORE overestimated mortality and EuroSCORE II underestimated the outcome even more. However, EuroSCORE II showed better calibration than logistic EuroSCORE for overall, valvular, and combined surgery. In contrast, logistic EuroSCORE demonstrated better calibration for coronary surgery. Discrimination capacity was good for both risk scores, but it was superior for logistic EuroSCORE than for EuroSCORE II in all considered subgroups unless combined surgery. Mortality in our population was higher than the mortality that would have been expected by the new EuroSCORE II analysis. Although EuroSCORE II has good calibration and discrimination capacity, both are worse than those demonstrated by logistic EuroSCORE. Forthcoming evaluations are

  10. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. II. Sampling by high-volume airsampler with immunochemical quantification versus Burkard pollen trap sampling with morphologic quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Weeke, E R; Nielsen, J

    1992-01-01

    operated 24 h a day. They were placed less than 5 m apart, and estimation of the pollen amount was made on a day-to-day basis during the pollen seasons, and on a weekly basis outside the seasons. The occurrence of the 3 clinically most important allergenic types of pollen, birch, grass, and mugwort......, was analysed, and close correlations between the 2 sampling techniques were found (rs 0.5-0.8, p 1 SQ-U/m3, respectively...

  11. Mediators of the Link Between Adult Attachment and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon G. Caldwell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to be mindfully aware of the present moment without judgment is associated with a number of positive psychological and physiological outcomes. Experiences in attachment relationships are related to specific cognitive-emotional patterns that may contribute to dispositional mindfulness. A sample of adults (N = 93 completed questionnaires regarding adult attachment, rumination, thought suppression, attentional control, and mindfulness. Attachment-related avoidance predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by thought suppression and poorer attentional control. Attachment-related anxiety also predicted lower levels of mindfulness, a relation mediated by rumination and poorer attentional control. The results suggest that in the context of insecure attachment relationships thought suppression and rumination defend against personal and interpersonal losses by deactivating (in the case of avoidance or hyperactivating (in the case of anxiety the attachment system. These habitual defensive patterns may be important links between adult attachment orientations and mindfulness.

  12. Parental rules, parent and peer attachment, and adolescent drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Family factors have been widely implicated in the development of adolescent drinking behaviors. These include parental attachment and parental rules concerning drinking behaviors. Moreover, throughout adolescence attachment to parents gives way to attachment to peers, and parental rules about alcohol use become less strict. The present study examined the relationship between parental and peer attachment, parental rules on drinking and alcohol use in a large sample (n = 1,724) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Controlling for school grade (proxy for age), sex and the non-independence of respondents (clustering at school level) results showed that scores on a parental rules on drinking questionnaire were a significant statistical predictor when comparing moderate drinkers and abstainers, as well as moderate drinkers and problematic drinkers. Scores on both attachment scales were also significant, but only in the comparison between moderate and problematic drinkers, with lower attachment to parents and higher attachment to peers associated with problematic drinking.

  13. Multivariate optimization of differential pulse polarographic–catalytic hydrogen wave technique for the determination of nickel(II) in real samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kanchi, S.; Sabela, M.I.; Singh, P.; Bisetty, K.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate optimized experimental conditions were established for the determination of nickel(II) in 92 grape samples after complexation with ammonium piperidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and ammonium morpholine dithiocarbamate (AMDC). Differential pulse polarographic (DPP) studies of the wave characteristics indicated that it is of the catalytic hydrogen wave (CHW) type sensitive to pH, concentration and scan rates. A single, sharp peak obtained at −1.22 V allowed for the trace determination ...

  14. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  15. Removal, preconcentration and determination of Ni(II from different environmental samples using modified magnetite nanoparticles prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple, fast and reliable solid phase extraction (SPE method to determine Ni(II using dimethylglyoxim/sodium dodecyl sulfate-immobilized on alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles (DMG/SDS-ACMNPs as a new adsorbent prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS is described. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the preconcentration factor, detection limit, linear range and relative standard deviation (RSD of nickel(II ions were 320 (for 800 mL of sample solution, 4.6 ng mL−1, 10.0–100.0 ng mL−1 and 1.9% (for 50.0 ng mL−1, n = 7, respectively. This method avoided the time-consuming column-passing process of loading large volume samples in traditional SPE through the rapid isolation of DMG/SDS-ACMNPs with an adscititious magnet. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the content of Ni(II in soil, spinach, tomato, black tea, tobacco and different water samples and suitable recoveries were obtained.

  16. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

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    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  17. Prediction of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) Score Using Acoustic Measurements in a Sample of Iium Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri Zanil, Muhamad; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Azam, Huda

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatrist currently relies on questionnaires and interviews for psychological assessment. These conservative methods often miss true positives and might lead to death, especially in cases where a patient might be experiencing suicidal predisposition but was only diagnosed as major depressive disorder (MDD). With modern technology, an assessment tool might aid psychiatrist with a more accurate diagnosis and thus hope to reduce casualty. This project will explore on the relationship between speech features of spoken audio signal (reading) in Bahasa Malaysia with the Beck Depression Inventory scores. The speech features used in this project were Power Spectral Density (PSD), Mel-frequency Ceptral Coefficients (MFCC), Transition Parameter, formant and pitch. According to analysis, the optimum combination of speech features to predict BDI-II scores include PSD, MFCC and Transition Parameters. The linear regression approach with sequential forward/backward method was used to predict the BDI-II scores using reading speech. The result showed 0.4096 mean absolute error (MAE) for female reading speech. For male, the BDI-II scores successfully predicted 100% less than 1 scores difference with MAE of 0.098437. A prediction system called Depression Severity Evaluator (DSE) was developed. The DSE managed to predict one out of five subjects. Although the prediction rate was low, the system precisely predict the score within the maximum difference of 4.93 for each person. This demonstrates that the scores are not random numbers.

  18. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  19. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  20. Leadership and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  1. Dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II from environmental water and vegetable samples with ionic liquid modified graphene oxide nanoparticles

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    Nasrollahpour Atefeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dispersive solid phase micro-extraction (dispersive-SPME method for separation and preconcentration of mercury(II using ionic liquid modified magnetic reduced graphene oxide (IL-MrGO nanoparticles, prior to the measurement by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS has been developed. The IL-MrGO composite was characterized by Brunauer– Emmett–Teller method (BET for adsorption-desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The method is based on the sorption of mercury( II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles due to electrostatic interaction and complex formation of ionic liquid part of IL-MrGO with mercury(II. The effect of experimental parameters for preconcentration of mercury(II, such as solution type, concentration and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, amount of the sorbent and coexisting ion concentration have been optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.08–10 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 0.01 ng mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 3.4 and 4.5 %, respectively. The dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully used for extraction and determination of mercury(II in water and vegetable samples.

  2. Development of highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil, industrial effluents and standard alloy samples using pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Kumar, Jyothi Rajesh; Reddy, Koduru Janardhan; Thriveni, Thenepalli; Reddy, Ammireddy Varada

    2008-01-01

    Pyridoxal-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (PPT) is proposed as a new sensitive reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of nickel(II). PPT reacts with nickel(II) in the pH range 4.0-6.0 to form a reddish brown colored complex, which was well-extracted into n-butanol. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-PPT complex was measured at different time intervals at 430nm, to ascertain the stability of the complex. The system obeyed Beer's law up to 0.5-5.0microgmL(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity in terms of the correlation coefficient value of 0.99. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species are 1.92 x 10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.003057microgcm(-2) respectively at 430nm. The detection limit of the method is 0.069microgmL(-1). To assess precision and accuracy of the developed method, determinations were carried out at different concentrations. The relative standard deviation of all measurements does not exceed 2.62%. The developed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of nickel(II), when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions, which are usually associated with nickel(II) in medicinal leaves, soil and industrial effluent samples. Various standard and certified reference materials (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have also been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are compared with those obtained from an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS).

  3. Parenting quality in drug-addicted mothers in a therapeutic mother-child community: the contribution of attachment and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Francesca; Capra, Nicoletta; Simonelli, Alessandra; Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology, and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996). The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers' profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community (TC). Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R), respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a TC. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%), with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5) were found for some experience scales (i.e., neglect and rejection scales). Data also showed very low values (1-3) in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients' different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds) were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for children.

  4. PARENTING QUALITY IN DRUG-ADDICTED MOTHERS IN A THERAPEUTIC MOTHER-CHILD COMMUNITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATTACHMENT AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDe Palo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996. The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers’ profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community. Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a therapeutic community. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%, with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5 were found for some experience scales (i.e. neglect and rejection scales. Data also showed very low values (1-3 in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients’ different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for

  5. A systematic review of adult attachment and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ray P C; Dickson, Joanne M; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Taylor, Peter J

    2017-03-15

    Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples. The review included cross sectional, interventional and longitudinal research. Of the 30 identified studies, 28 showed a positive association between attachment insecurity and social anxiety. This association was particularly strong when considering attachment anxiety. Cognitive variables and evolutionary behaviours were identified as potential mediators, concordant with psychological theory. Due to a lack of longitudinal research, the direction of effect between attachment and social anxiety variables could not be inferred. There was substantial heterogeneity in the way that attachment was conceptualised and assessed across studies. The literature indicates that attachment style is associated with social anxiety. Clinicians may wish to consider attachment theory when working clinically with this population. In the future, it may be useful to target the processes that mediate the relationship between attachment and social anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SPE coupled to AAS trace determination of Cd(II) and Zn(II) in food samples using amine functionalized GMA-MMA-EGDMA terpolymer: Isotherm and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Aminul; Kumar, Suneel; Zaidi, Noushi; Ahmad, Hilal

    2016-12-15

    An ethylenediamine functionalized glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) based terpolymeric chelating resin was synthesized for the separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by SPE from bread, rice and fruit juice prior to FAAS determination. The resin was characterized by FT-IR, TGA/DTA, SEM, BET analysis and EDS. Synthesized resin shows a good capacity of 53.96mgg(-1) for Cd(II) and 24.19mgg(-1) for Zn(II) at pH 8.0. Five isotherm equilibrium models were studied to explain the sorption phenomenon out of which Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Scatchard and Temkin models were found to be the best fitted. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were observed to be 1.5 and 5.1μgL(-1) for Cd and 1.2 and 4.1μgL(-1) for Zn. The reliability of the method was investigated by the analysis of SRM and the recovery of analytes from various spiked food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  8. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  9. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  10. Extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II in water and alloy samples with 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde-4-bromophenyl hydrazone (3,4-MHBBPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. REKHA

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A facile, sensitive and selective extractive spectrophotometricmethod was developed for the determination of copper(II in various water and alloy samples using a newly synthesized reagent, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy benzaldehyde 4-bromophenyl hydrazone (3,4-MHBBPH. Copper(II forms a orange colored complex with (3,4-MHBBPH in acetate buffermedium (pH 4 which increases the sensitivity and the complexwas extracted into chloroform. Under optimum conditions, the maximum absorption of the chloroform extract was measured at 462 nm. The Beer law was obeyed in the range of 0.20 to 4.0 mg ml-1 of copper. The molar absorptivity and the Sandell's sensitivity of the complex were 2.0520 ´ 104 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.2540 mg cm-2, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 0.0270 mg mL-1. Adetailed study of various interfering ions made the method more sensitive. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Cu(II in water and alloy samples. The performance of the present method was evaluated in terms of Student 't' test and Variance ratio 'f ' test, which indicate the significance of the present method over reported methods.

  11. A dispersive liquid--liquid microextraction methodology for copper (II) in environmental samples prior to determination using microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothman, Zeid A; Habila, Mohamed; Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method combined with microsample injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II). 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) was used to form a hydrophobic complex of Cu(II) ions in the aqueous phase before extraction. To extract the Cu(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex from the aqueous phase to the organic phase, 2.0 mL of acetone as a disperser solvent and 200 microL of chloroform as an extraction solvent were used. The influences of important analytical parameters, such as the pH, types and volumes of the extraction and disperser solvents, amount of chelating agent, sample volume, and matrix effects, on the microextraction procedure were evaluated and optimized. Using the optimal conditions, the LOD, LOQ, preconcentration factor, and RSD were determined to be 1.4 microg/L, 4.7 microg/L, 120, and 6.5%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was investigated using standard addition/recovery tests. The analysis of certified reference materials produced satisfactory analytical results. The developed method was applied for the determination of Cu in real samples.

  12. Determination of Hg(II) ions in sea food samples after extraction and preconcentration by novel Fe3O 4@SiO 2@polythiophene magnetic nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hosseinzadeh Khanmiri, Rahim; Babazadeh, Mirzaagha; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim; Edjlali, Laden; Hassanpour, Akbar

    2015-09-01

    This work describes a novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polythiophene magnetic nanocomposite and its application in the preconcentration of Hg(II) ions. The parameters affecting the preconcentration procedure were opted by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Three factors (uptake time, magnetic nanosorbent amount, and pH of sample) were selected as the main factors affecting the sorption step, while four variables (type, volume and concentration of the eluent as well as the elution time) were selected as main factors in the optimization study of the elution step. Following the sorption and elution of Hg(II), it was quantified by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Under the optimum condition, the limit of detection was 0.02 ng mL(-1) and all the relative standard deviations were less than 9.2 %. The obtained sorption capacity of this new sorbent was 59 mg g(-1). Finally, this nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of Hg(II) ions in sea food samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  13. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  14. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  16. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  17. Attachment models in incarcerated sex offenders: a preliminary Italian study using the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, Ignazio; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Costantini, Alessandro; Laquale, Giovanni Michele; Latrofa, Alessandra; Papagna, Sonia; Sette, Giovanna; Taurino, Alessandro; Terlizzi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A group of sex offenders (clinical group: n = 19) was compared to a nonclinical sample matched by age, years of education, and gender (control group A: n = 19) to verify a higher incidence of insecure attachment models among sex offenders. In addition, we tested whether sex offenders were characterized by specific childhood experiences, compared to control adults (control group B: n = 19) with the same secure/insecure attachment classification. Results showed significant differences between offenders and control adults on both the AAI continuous score and the distribution of the two-way attachment classifications. Furthermore, sex offenders reported more intense experiences of rejection by the father figure and abuse in the family context during early childhood compared to not offenders subjects with the same attachment classification. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. II - The carbon chemistry of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Firth, J. N. M.; Maxwell, J. R.; Mays, B. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The methane and carbide concentrations of a number of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples of fines and breccias have been examined by the deuterated acid dissolution method. Location studies indicate that these carbon compounds are concentrated in the outer surfaces of the fines particles of 48-152 micron diameter; for larger particles a volume-related component may contribute. In individual samples the methane and carbide concentrations correlate with parameters indicative of lunar surface exposure. The data provide further evidence that solar wind implantation is the major source of the methane in the fines and that the carbide originates from both solar wind implantation and meteorite impacts.

  19. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  20. Patterns of Attachment and Emotional Competence in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Del Giudice, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between patterns of attachment and emotional competence at the beginning of middle childhood in a sample of 122 seven-year-olds. A new battery of tasks was developed in order to assess two facets of emotional competence (emotion recognition and knowledge of regulation strategies). Attachment was related to…

  1. The Link between Types of Attachment and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and types of attachment and the predictive role of childhood trauma on types of attachment. The sample was composed of 911 (492 female; 419 male) university students at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, in Turkey. Data were collected using the brief screening version of the Childhood…

  2. Attachment, Acculturation, and Psychosomatic Complaints among Hispanic American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiachih D. C.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Barajas-Munoz, I. Alejandro; Julio, Kathy; Gomez, Ayleen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated adult attachment and acculturation frameworks of reported psychosomatic complaints related to perceived discrimination among a sample of Latino/Hispanic university students (N = 160). The model supported by the data suggests that attachment anxiety, acculturation toward the dominant cultural norms, and adherence to…

  3. Association between Adult Attachment Representations and Undergraduate Student Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Alisha M.; Scharfe, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Students' course evaluations often play an important role in career advancement for faculty. The authors examined the association between attachment representations of parents and course evaluations in a sample of 230 undergraduate students. They found a significant negative association between attachment anxiety with parents and course…

  4. Attachment styles, personality, and Dutch emigrants ' intercultural adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W; Van Oudenhoven, JP; Van Der Zee, KI

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural

  5. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with (/sup 3/H)- and (/sup 14/C)adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture.

  6. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    four selfrepot questionnaires. The childhood attachment was measured by Attachment History Paragraphs (Granqvist & Kirkpatrick, 2004, adult attachment was measured by The Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 and satisfaction in marriage was measuredby two measures: Quality Marriage Index (Norton, 1983 and Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale (Schumm, Bollman, & Jurich, 1997.The research sample consisted of 78 heterosexual married couple, together 156 people. The average length of marriages is 20.76 years. Participants were instructed to complete the questionnaires independently. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. People with a secure attachment style and their partners were most satisfied with their marriages. Our study showed relation between dismissive attachment style and low level of marital satisfaction for the individual, and for the partner of the examined one. The results of our study did not suggest any relationship between childhood attachment and marital satisfaction. The results indicate that secure attachment style is related to higher level of relationship satisfaction, in spite of stressful situation or demanding changes which are occurring in marriage. People with insecure attachment style devote a lot of effort to reinforce marital and couple relationship stability during difficult situations in relationship. Connection between marital satisfaction and childhood attachment has not been proven. The reason may be that childhood attachment is not always totally stable and it can be changed by life experience or personal characteristics of the individual. Our research confirmed that attachment is related to satisfaction in marriage. Research of relationship between attachment and factors affecting marriage is very beneficial, because new finding in this topic can help in clinical practice.

  7. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  8. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  9. Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria, II: further studies of differences amongst sample means and their taxonomic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Williams

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Lengths of cnidae, sampled from fresh tissue (tentacles, acontia or column from the sea anemones Metridium senile (Linnaeus, Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant, Sagartia elegans (Dalyell, Sagartia troglodytes (Price, Anthopleura thallia (Gosse and Urticina eques (Gosse, were measured. The mean, mode, median, standard deviation, variance, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and range of each sample were calculated. Lengths of nematocysts (basitrichs and microbasic p-mastigophores and spirocysts had normal (Gaussian frequency distributions, and there was no important within-sample variability. A between-sample (same specimen difference was detected between mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from acontia in Sagartia elegans. Intraspecific (between-specimen differences amongst mean lengths of basitrichs from column ectoderm were detected amongst four specimens of Urticina eques, and a difference occurred between the mean lengths of microbasic p-mastigophores from the acontia of two specimens of Sagartia elegans. However, for each of the species U. eques and S. elegans, there was no direct correlation between the sizes of the anemones examined and the mean lengths of their nematocysts. Overall, the results confirm that cnida size, when taken in isolation, is not a reliable taxonomic character for sea anemones. For other purposes, mean cnida measurements may be useful and a rapid sample range test is suggested for analysing differences between them. Methods are also presented for estimating means and standard deviations from data in publications that provide only ranges of cnida sizes and the number of cnidae measured. The present results and conclusions supplement those of Williams (1996, Scientia Marina, 60: 339-351.

  10. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  11. Adult Attachment as Mediator between Recollections of Childhood and Satisfaction with Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, C.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of

  12. New core@shell nanogel based 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid for preconcentration of Pb(II) from various water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoueir, Kamel Rizq; Akl, Magda Ali; Sarhan, Ali Ali; Atta, Ayman Mohamdy

    2017-11-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) core coated with poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co- N-isopropylacrylamide) shell to produce well-define PVA@P(AMPS-co-NIPAm) core shell nanogels with a core of 25 ± 0.5 nm and shell of 5 ± 0.5 nm. The synthetic approach was produced by a surfactant free emulsion polymerization (SFEP). The specific area was found to be 1685.8 m2/g. The nanogels were studied in a batch adsorption for removal of Pb(II) ions and characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA and BET measurements. The results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic studies are well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Pb(II) maximum adsorption was 510.2 (mg/g) for PVA@P(90AMPS-co-10NIPAm) (wt.: wt%). The PVA@P(AMPS-co-NIPAm) nanogels were applied for extracting of Pb(II) in real different environmental water samples successfully with high recoveries reaches 104.4%.

  13. Selective flotation-spectrophotometric determination of trace copper(II) in natural waters, human blood and drug samples using phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M E; Akl, M A; Ghazy, S E

    2001-06-01

    Copper(II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 intense red complexes with phenanthraquinone monophenylthiosemicarbazone (PPT) at pH 3-3.5 and > or =6.5, respectively. These complexes exhibit maximal absorbance at 545 and 517 nm, the molar absorptivity being 2.3 x 10(4) and 4.8 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1), respectively. However, the 1:1 complex was quantitatively floated with oleic acid (HOL) surfactant in the pH range 4.5-5.5, providing a highly selective and sensitive procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of CuII. The molar absorptivity of the floated Cu-PPT complex was 1.5 x 10(5) l mol)(-1) cm(-1). Beer's law was obeyed over the range 3-400 ppb at 545 nm. The analytical parameters affecting the flotation process and hence the determination of copper traces were reported. Also, the structure of the isolated solid complex and the mechanism of flotation were suggested. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of CuII in natural waters, serum blood and some drug samples.

  14. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  15. Are adult attachment styles categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis of general and relationship-specific attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Hudson, Nathan W; Heffernan, Marie E; Segal, Noam

    2015-08-01

    One of the long-standing debates in the study of adult attachment is whether individual differences are best captured using categorical or continuous models. Although early research suggested that continuous models might be most appropriate, we revisit this issue here because (a) categorical models continue to be widely used in the empirical literature, (b) contemporary models of individual differences raise new questions about the structure of attachment, and (c) methods for addressing the types versus dimensions question have become more sophisticated over time. Analyses based on 2 samples indicate that individual differences appear more consistent with a dimensional rather than a categorical model. This was true with respect to general attachment representations and attachment in specific relationship contexts (e.g., attachment with parents and peers). These findings indicate that dimensional models of attachment style may be better suited for conceptualizing and measuring individual differences across multiple levels of analysis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  17. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...... of urban politics as inclusive learning processes, more hospitable to a wider diversity of familiar attachments to cities and their ecologies....

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  19. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  20. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 246-254, 2003

  1. Zn(II)-concentration dependent Raman spectra in the dithizone complex on gold nanoparticle surfaces in environmental water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen Hoang; Joo, Sang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    After the formation of dithizone with metal ion complexes, a selective Raman detection method for the Zn2+ ions in aqueous solutions was developed by observing the intensity change of the ring mode peaks at ∼1585 cm-1 on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). At high concentrations of Zn2+ ions, the conformation of the dithizone complex may have different orientations on AuNPs to yield the spectral changes at ca. ∼510 and ∼1585 cm-1. The concentration dependent spectra changes indicated that a detection limit would be in the submicromolar region of Zn2+ ions. The other ions of Mg2+, K+, Fe3+, Hg2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, NH4+, Cd2+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ at micromolar concentrations of 1 μM did not produce such spectral changes. The detection limit based on the Raman band intensities was estimated to be as low as 500 nM of Zn2+ ion in aqueous solutions. The three real samples of tap, river, and seawater were tested under the interference of the commonly existing interfering ions. Despite the presence of highly concentrated Na, Ca, Mg, and K, our interfacial spectroscopic methodology of Zn2+ determination could be applied in the environmental water samples.

  2. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  3. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  4. Characterization of L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots and application to test Cu(II) deficiency in biological samples from critically ill patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáez, Laura; Molina, Jorge; Florea, Daniela I.; Planells, Elena M. [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Cartuja, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Cabeza, M. Carmen [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Quintero, Bartolomé, E-mail: bqosso@ugr.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-06-27

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •We examinate stability of L-cysteine capped CdTe QD. •Factors influence QD fluorescence response are controlled. •Application in copper deficiency analysis is made. •We report comparison with other techniques. -- Abstract: The catalytic activity of copper ion gives, from the physiological point of view, a central role in many biological processes. Variations in the composition and location of cellular copper have been addressed given their physiological and pathological consequences. In this paper L-cysteine capped CdTe quantum dots is used for the fluorimetric determination of Cu(II) in biological samples from healthy individuals and patients admitted to the Intensive Care Units (ICU). An acceptable homogeneity in the CdTe QDs size has been obtained with an average value of 3 nm. No significant alterations in the spectral properties were observed for 2 months when stored in vacutainers at 6 °C and a concentration of approximately 2 μM. Data from oxidative stress markers such superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and DNA damage can be correlated with a Cu(II) deficiency for the ICU patients as measured by flame-atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Aqueous solutions 0.3 μM of L-cysteine capped CdTe QDs in MOPS buffer (6 mM, pH 7.4) used at 21 °C in the range 15–60 min after preparation of the sample for the measurements of fluorescence gives contents in Cu(II) for erythrocytes in good agreement with those obtained in FAAS and ICP-MS but the comparative ease of use makes the fluorimetric technique more suitable than the other two techniques for routine analysis.

  5. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moghimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solid-phase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples.

  6. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  7. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  8. Preconcentration, separation and spectrophotometric determination of aluminium(III) in water samples and dialysis concentrates at trace levels with 8-hydroxyquinoline-cobalt(II) coprecipitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Volkan Numan; Arslan, Deniz; Ozdes, Duygu; Soylak, Mustafa; Tufekci, Mehmet

    2010-10-15

    A separation-preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in water samples and dialysis concentrates by UV-vis Spectrophotometry after coprecipitation using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as a chelating agent and Co(II) as a carrier element. This procedure is based on filtration of the solution containing precipitate on a cellulose nitrate membrane filter following aluminium(III) coprecipitation with Co/8-HQ and then the precipitates together with membrane filter were dissolved in concentrated nitric acid. The metal contents of the final solution were determined by UV-vis Spectrophotometry with Erio Chrome Cyanine-R standard method. Several parameters including pH of sample solution, amount of carrier element and reagent, standing time, sample volume for precipitation and the effects of diverse ions were examined. The enrichment factor was calculated as 50 and the detection limits, corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank (N: 10), was found to be 0.2 microg L(-1). The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (CRM-TMDW-500) and spiked addition. Determination of aluminium(III) was carried out in sea water, river water, tap water and haemodialysis fluids samples. The recoveries were >95%. The relative standard deviations of determination were less than 6%. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Study on the use of TaqMan Real-time PCR to detect genogroup I and II norovirus in oysters and patients' stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Min; Song, Shi-Li; Zhang, Xin-Hui; Li, Rong

    2008-06-01

    To develop a rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic method for quantification and typing of genogroup I and II norovirus in oyster shellfish and stool samples from patients who had eaten them. Specific primers and probe, following large scale norovirus genome consensus analysis were designed and subsequently a TaqMan based Real-time PCR assay to detect both GI and GII were established. This method showed high specificity for norovirus nucleic acid detection, and no cross-reaction among norovirus GI and GII. The limit on detection of NV genomes was 10(2) copies/microl. A total of 90 oysters and 37 stool specimens with diarrhea were tested for norovirus by conventional reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) assay as well as the TaqMan Real-time PCR, respectively. The norovirus detection rate in oysters by TaqMan PCR was significantly higher than that by conventional RT-PCR, but no differences between the two PCR methods were found when detecting the stool samples. Reliability of the Real-time PCR for norovirus detection was further confirmed by DNA sequencing of the positive samples This TaqMan Real-time PCR assay was proved to be a useful method for quantification and typing for norovirus in routine monitoring of both oyster shellfish and clinical samples. This method is recommended to be an effective diagnostic method for outbreak-associated gastroenteritis due to norovirus.

  10. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [INAF-Observatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kim, D. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rich, J. A. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Spoon, H. W. W. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); U, V., E-mail: sabrinas@virginia.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L

  11. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  13. Demographic factors related to maternal and child attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Isabel Giraldo Montoya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum is one of the decisive moments to strengthen the attachment between the mother and child relationship; however, there are demographic factors that can limit this interaction and become a disadvantage for the proper development of the child. Objective: Determine the demographic factors related to maternal child attachment in the postpartum during the year 2014. Materials and methods: An analytical transversal study was carried out with a sample of 117 mothers with their newborn. The instrument Mother-child relationship was used. The variables to determine attachment were: breastfeeding, interest, response, language and tact. They were evaluated on a numerical scale whose final score allowed to determine whether there was a healthy or at-risk attachment. A logistic regression model was implemented to explore the association between demographic variables and at-risk attachment. Results: The median age was 27 years with an interquartile range between 22 and 31. 54.7% lived in free union and 34.2% had fulfilled high school studies. Healthy attachment was presented in 80.3% of the mothers. Nevertheless, 60.7% had low initial motivation for breastfeeding which could lead to at-risk attachment. Statistical association between at-risk attachment, marital status and schooling was found, but the only variable that explained this association was the civil status: single (RP = 4.88 IC 95% P = 0.48. Conclusion: According to the multivariate model, at-risk attachment is associated with the civil status: single.

  14. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  15. Aptamer-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow strip for rapid detection of mercury (II) ion in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze; Shen, Haicong; Hu, Junhui; Fu, Qiangqiang; Yao, Cuize; Yu, Shiting; Xiao, Wei; Tang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Divalent mercury ion (Hg 2+ ) is one of the most common and stable forms of mercury pollution. In this study, a skillfully designed lateral flow strip (LFS) was developed for sensitive detection of Hg 2+ in river water samples. Aptamer, a specific oligonucleotide probe, was used to selectively identify and target Hg 2+ instead of antibody in traditional immunechromatographic strips; and the fluorescence-quenching system was used to generate positive and low background florescence signals in the competitive-likely LFS. The linear detection range of the LFS for Hg 2+ was 0.13 ng mL -1 to 4 ng mL -1 and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.13 ng mL -1 . This test provided results in 15 min and demonstrated high specificity. For detection of Hg 2+ in river water, the results were consistent with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry measurements. The aptamer-based fluorescence-quenching LFS was shown to provide a reliable, accurate method for rapid detection of mercury contamination. Graphical Abstract The principle of the aptamer-based fluorescence-quenching LFS.

  16. Quantifying RNA and DNA in planktonic organisms with SYBR Green II and nucleases. Part B. Quantification in natural samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Berdalet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction procedures for RNA and DNA in crude extracts of natural microplankton samples are developed. The methodology is compatible with the fluorometric assay of RNA and DNA developed by Berdalet et al. (2005. Mechanical cell disruption using a manual tissue grinder is combined with chemical extraction using 0.5% sarcosine and 0.5 mM EDTA in 5 mM Tris, pH 8.0, to release the nucleic acid. The new extraction and assay procedure is used to estimate the RNA/DNA ratios of fish larvae and natural microplankton communities maintained in the laboratory under different nutritional conditions. In the two experiments, the RNA/DNA ratios were related to the nutrient availability of the organisms. The level of sensitivity of the method is experimentally set at ca. 40 ng of RNA and 10 ng DNA in the 1 ml assay, which corresponds to a minimum biomass requirement of ca. 400 ng ml-1 protein or 3 µg ml-1 dry weight. The precision, estimated at different steps of the procedure, had an overall coefficient of variation of ?10%. The new approach provides RNA/DNA ratios comparable with those obtained with ethidium bromide.

  17. Determination of heavy metals in mussel and oyster samples with tris (2,2‧-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)/graphene/Nafion® modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisoc, Shirley T.; Uy, Donald Jans S.; Natividad, Michelle T.; Lopez, Toni Beth G.

    2017-11-01

    Tris (2,2‧-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/graphene/Nafion® modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were fabricated using the drop coating method. The modified electrode was used as the working electrode in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for the determination of lead, cadmium, and copper in mussel and oyster samples. The concentration of Tris (2,2‧-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) and graphene were varied while those of Nafion®, methanol, and ethanol were held constant in the coating solution. The morphology and elemental composition of the fabricated electrodes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was done to investigate the reversibility and stability of the modified electrodes. The modified electrode with the best figures of merit was utilized for the detection of copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) via DPV. This was the electrode modified with 4 mg [Ru (bpy)3]2+ and 3 mg graphene. The anodic current and metal concentration showed linear relationship in the range of 48 ppb–745 ppb for Pb2+, 49 ppb–613 ppb for Cd2+, and 28 ppb–472 ppb for Cu2+. The limits of detection for lead, cadmium, and copper were 48 ppb, 49 ppb, and 28 ppb, respectively. Results from atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) were compared with those measured with DPV. Lead, cadmium, and copper were in mussels, oysters, and sea water. In addition, DPV was able to detect other metals such as zinc, iron, tin and mercury in sea water samples and some samples of oysters.

  18. A sensitive one-step TaqMan amplification approach for detection of rubella virus clade I and II genotypes in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, C; Bergs, S; Emmrich, N C; Hübschen, J M; Mankertz, A; Liebert, U G

    2017-02-01

    Although teratogenic rubella virus (RV) causes a vaccine-preventable disease, it is still endemic in several countries worldwide. Thus, there is a constant risk of RV importation into non-endemic areas. RV monitoring, especially during measles and Zika virus outbreaks, requires reliable diagnostic tools. For this study, a TaqMan-based one-step reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, with the p90 gene as a novel and so far unexplored target for detection of clade I and II genotypes, was developed and evaluated. Automated nucleic acid extraction was carried out. Performance characteristics of the TaqMan RT-qPCR assay were determined for a RV plasmid standard and RNA extracted from virus-infected cell culture supernatants representing clade I and II genotypes. Diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were validated against other RNA and DNA viruses, relevant for RV diagnostic approaches and for RV-positive clinical samples, respectively. The assay is specific and highly sensitive with a limit of detection as low as five to one copies per reaction or 200 infectious virus particles per ml. The coefficients of variation (CV) were specified as intra- (within one run) and inter- (between different runs) assay variation, and calculated based on the standard deviations for the obtained Ct values of the respective samples. Intra- and inter-assay CV values were low, with a maximum of 3.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The assay was shown to be suitable and specific for the analysis of clinical samples. With p90 as a novel target, the highly sensitive and specific TaqMan assay outlined in this study is suitable for RV diagnosis worldwide.

  19. A mid-IR study of Hickson compact groups. II. Multiwavelength analysis of the complete GALEX-Spitzer sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; da Cunha, E.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.

    2011-09-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the impact of the environment of compact galaxy groups on the evolution of their members using a multiwavelength analysis from the ultraviolet to the infrared, for a sample of 32 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) containing 135 galaxies. Fitting the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of all galaxies with the state-of-the-art model of da Cunha et al. (2008, MNRAS, 388, 1595) we can accurately calculate their mass, SFR, and extinction, as well as estimate their infrared luminosity and dust content. We compare our findings with samples of field galaxies, early-stage interacting pairs, and cluster galaxies with similar data. We find that classifying the groups as dynamically "old" or "young", depending on whether at least one quarter of their members are early-type systems, is physical and consistent with past classifications of HCGs based on their atomic gas content. Dynamically "old" groups are more compact and display higher velocity dispersions than "young" groups. Late-type galaxies in dynamically "young" groups have specific star formation rates (sSFRs), NUV-r, and mid-infrared colors that are similar to those of field and early-stage, interacting pair spirals. Late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups have redder NUV-r colors, because they have likely experienced several tidal encounters in the past, thereby building up their stellar mass, and display lower sSFRs. We identify several late-type galaxies that have sSFRs and colors similar to those of elliptical galaxies, since they lost part of their gas due to numerous interactions with other group members. Also, 25% of the elliptical galaxies in these groups have bluer UV/optical colors than normal ellipticals in the field, probably due to star formation as they accreted gas from other galaxies of the group or via merging of dwarf companions. Finally, our SED modeling suggests that in 13 groups, ten of which are dynamically "old", there is diffuse cold dust in the

  20. Star Formation in the Local Universe from the CALIFA Sample. II. Activation and Quenching Mechanisms in Bulges, Bars, and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Bekeraite, S.; Costantin, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Florido, E.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Mast, D.; Pascual, S.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Marino, R. A.; Masegosa, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; CALIFA Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We estimate the current extinction-corrected Hα star formation rate (SFR) of the different morphological components that shape galaxies (bulges, bars, and disks). We use a multicomponent photometric decomposition based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging to Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) datacubes for a sample of 219 galaxies. This analysis reveals an enhancement of the central SFR and specific SFR (sSFR = SFR/M ⋆) in barred galaxies. Along the main sequence, we find that more massive galaxies in total have undergone efficient suppression (quenching) of their star formation, in agreement with many studies. We discover that more massive disks have had their star formation quenched as well. We evaluate which mechanisms might be responsible for this quenching process. The presence of type 2 AGNs plays a role at damping the sSFR in bulges and less efficiently in disks. Also, the decrease in the sSFR of the disk component becomes more noticeable for stellar masses around {10}10.5 {M}⊙ ; for bulges, it is already present at ˜ {10}9.5 {M}⊙ . The analysis of the line-of-sight stellar velocity dispersions (σ) for the bulge component and of the corresponding Faber-Jackson relation shows that AGNs tend to have slightly higher σ values than star-forming galaxies for the same mass. Finally, the impact of environment is evaluated by means of the projected galaxy density, Σ5. We find that the SFR of both bulges and disks decreases in intermediate- to high-density environments. This work reflects the potential of combining IFS data with 2D multicomponent decompositions to shed light on the processes that regulate the SFR.

  1. 3D visualization and finite element mesh formation from wood anatomy samples, Part II – Algorithm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents new original application WOOD3D in form of program code assembling. The work extends the previous article “Part I – Theoretical approach” in detail description of implemented C++ classes of utilized projects Visualization Toolkit (VTK, Insight Toolkit (ITK and MIMX. Code is written in CMake style and it is available as multiplatform application. Currently GNU Linux (32/64b and MS Windows (32/64b platforms were released. Article discusses various filter classes for image filtering. Mainly Otsu and Binary threshold filters are classified for anatomy wood samples thresholding. Registration of images series is emphasized for difference of colour spaces compensation is included. Resulted work flow of image analysis is new methodological approach for images processing through the composition, visualization, filtering, registration and finite element mesh formation. Application generates script in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL which is fully compatible with ANSYS finite element solver and designer environment. The script includes the whole definition of unstructured finite element mesh formed by individual elements and nodes. Due to simple notation, the same script can be used for generation of geometrical entities in element positions. Such formed volumetric entities are prepared for further geometry approximation (e.g. by boolean or more advanced methods. Hexahedral and tetrahedral types of mesh elements are formed on user request with specified mesh options. Hexahedral meshes are formed both with uniform element size and with anisotropic character. Modified octree method for hexahedral mesh with anisotropic character was declared in application. Multicore CPUs in the application are supported for fast image analysis realization. Visualization of image series and consequent 3D image are realized in VTK format sufficiently known and public format, visualized in GPL application Paraview. Future work based on mesh

  2. What Are “X-shaped” Radio Sources Telling Us? II. Properties of a Sample of 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Lakshmi; Roberts, David H.

    2018-01-01

    In an earlier paper, we presented Jansky Very Large Array multi-frequency, multi-array continuum imaging of a unique sample of low-axial ratio radio galaxies. In this paper, the second in the series, we examine the images to learn the phenomenology of how the off-axis emission relates to the main radio source. Inversion-symmetric offset emission appears to be bimodal and to originate from one of two strategic locations: outer ends of radio lobes (outer-deviation) or from inner ends (inner-deviation). The latter sources are almost always associated with edge-brightened sources. With S- and Z-shaped sources being a subset of outer-deviation sources, this class lends itself naturally to explanations involving black hole axis precession. Our data allow us to present a plausible model for the more enigmatic inner-deviation sources with impressive wings; as for outer-deviation sources these too require black hole axis shifts, although they also require plasma backflows into relic channels. Evolution in morphology over time relates the variety in structures in inner-deviation sources including XRGs. With features such as non-collinearities, central inner-S “spine,” corresponding lobe emission peaks, double and protruding hotspots not uncommon, black hole axis precession, drifts, or flips could be active in a significant fraction of radio sources with prominent off-axis emission. At least 4% of radio galaxies appear to undergo black hole axis rotation. Quasars offer a key signature for recognizing rotating axes. With a rich haul of sources that have likely undergone axis rotation, our work shows the usefulness of low-axial ratio sources in pursuing searches for binary supermassive black holes.

  3. [Attachment Representation and Emotion Regulation in Patients with Burnout Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  5. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Parenting Behaviours, Parents' Attachment Relationships and Their Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyl, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.; Freeman, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, parenting behaviours (i.e. parent-child involvement, parenting consistency and co-parenting consistency) and parenting context (i.e. parents' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a sample of 235 culturally diverse families. The authors predicted that…

  6. New mini dental implant attachments versus O-ring attachment after cyclic aging: Analysis of retention strength and gap space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Cao, Ying-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Overdenture as a treatment modality for both partially and fully edentulous patients is costeffective and less expensive. The purpose of the present study was to examine the newly fabricated attachments by comparing them with conventional O-ring attachment in vitro in terms of retention force and cyclic aging resistance. A total of 150 samples were prepared and divided into five groups according to the materials used (O-ring attachment, Deflex M10 XR, Deflex Classic SR, Deflex Acrilato FD, and flexible acrylic resin). The retention force of different attachments was measured by a mini dental implant after three subsequent aging (0, 63, and 126) cycles in the circumstances similar to the oral environment. The gap space between the head of the implant and the inner surface of the attachments was detected. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis with multiple comparisons test was applied for statistical analysis. The results showed that Deflex M10 XR had the highest retention force and the lowest gap space after cyclic aging; in addition, by comparing the relative force reduction, the lowest values were obtained in the O-ring attachment and the highest values in the flexible acrylic resin attachment. The retention force measured after cyclic aging for the Deflex M10 XR attachment was greatly improved when compared with the O-ring attachment and other types of attachment materials; in addition, the Deflex M10 XR attachment exhibited the minimum gap space between the inner surface and the mini dental implant head. In conclusion, Deflex M10 XR has the ability to withstand weathering conditions and retains its durable and retentive properties after aging when compared with other attachments.

  7. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  8. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  9. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  10. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  11. Histologic evaluation of new attachment in humans. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, G M; Granet, M; Stevens, M; Emerson, J; Corio, R; Mellonig, J; Lewis, S B; Peltzman, B; Romberg, E; Risom, L

    1985-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential for regeneration of a new attachment (alveolar bone, cementum and a functional periodontal ligament) in patients whose attachment apparatus had been destroyed by periodontal disease. In each of the three parts of the investigation, the most apical level of calculus on the root served as a histologic reference point to measure regeneration. In Part I, attempts were made to initiate the formation of a new attachment by surgical debridement, crown removal (coronectomy) and submersion of the vital root below the mucosa. Nonsubmerged, surgically debrided defects served as controls. In Part II, debrided intrabony defects were treated with and without demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft and the associated vital roots were submerged. Part III evaluated potential for regeneration of a new attachment in nonsubmerged roots with and without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. Gingival grafts were placed over the experimental and control sites in an attempt to retard epithelial migration. Biopsies were obtained in 6 months and regeneration was evaluated histometrically. Preliminary results in 7 patients and 24 intrabony defects indicate that new attachment is possible on pathologically exposed root surfaces in a submerged environment with and without the incorporation of demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts. New attachment was observed on pathologically exposed root surfaces in a nonsubmerged environment when intrabony defects were grafted with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. New attachment was not observed on nongrafted, nonsubmerged, defects with and without the placement of gingival grafts over the defects.

  12. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  13. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  14. Sex differences in romantic attachment: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2011-02-01

    This article presents the first meta-analysis of sex differences in the avoidance and anxiety dimensions of adult romantic attachment, based on 113 samples (N = 66,132) from 100 studies employing two-dimensional romantic attachment questionnaires (Experiences in Close Relationships, Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, and Adult Attachment Questionnaire). Overall, males showed higher avoidance and lower anxiety than females, with substantial between-study heterogeneity. Sex differences were much larger in community samples (bivariate D = .28) than in college samples (D = .12); web-based studies showed the smallest sex differences (D = .07) in the opposite direction. Sex differences also varied across geographic regions (overall Ds = .10 to .34). Sex differences in anxiety peaked in young adulthood, whereas those in avoidance increased through the life course. The relevance of these findings for evolutionary models of romantic attachment is discussed, and possible factors leading to underestimation of sex differences are reviewed.

  15. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Impact of Event Scale using a sample of World War II and Korean War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2000-12-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure of intrusion and avoidance, using a sample of World War II and Korean War veterans who had experienced combat 40-50 years earlier. A series of 3 confirmatory factor analytic models were specified and estimated using LISREL 8.3. Model 1 specified a 1-factor model. Model 2 specified a correlated 2-factor model. Model 3 specified a 2-factor model with additional cross-factor loadings for Items 2 and 12. Model 3 was found to fit the data. In addition, this model was found to be a better explanation of the data than the other models. Also in addition, the correlations between the Intrusion and Avoidance factors and the 4 subscales of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire were examined to determine the distinctiveness of the two IES factors.

  16. Transfer of attachment functions and adjustment among young adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Chan, Darius K-S; Teng, Fei

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the process of attachment transfer from parents to peers, as well as factors related to this transfer process among Mainland Chinese. A total of 147 Chinese college students (with a mean age of 21.44) completed questionnaires that measured attachment style, attachment transfer, attachment support from various figures, loneliness, positive/negative affects, and self-esteem. Major findings of the current study include the following: (a) Hazan and Shaver's sequential model of attachment transfer was generalized to the Chinese sample; (b) the extent of attachment transfer was found to be associated with participants' emotional states (loneliness and positive affect) and was a significant predictor of these emotional states beyond the effects of attachment style and attachment support. As one of the first studies exploring the phenomenon of attachment transfer among young Chinese adults, conceptual and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Serena Cherry; Sadler, Lois S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review attachment theory and relate the attachment perspective to adolescent mothers and their children. Attachment theory explains positive maternal-infant attachment as a dyadic relationship between the infant and mother that provides the infant with a secure base from which to explore the world. With respect to cognitive, social, and behavioral domains, securely attached infants tend to have more favorable long-term outcomes, while insecurely attached infants are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Adolescent parenthood can disrupt normal adolescent development, and this disruption influences development of the emotional and cognitive capacities necessary for maternal behaviors that foster secure attachment. However, it appears that if specialized supports are in place to facilitate the process of developing attachment, infants of adolescent mothers can obtain higher rates of secure attachment than normative samples in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. To attach or not to attach? The effect of carrier surface morphology and topography on attachment of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropoda orbicularis (Acari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, Daria; Adamski, Zbigniew; Kacalak, Wojciech; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Wiesner, Maciej; Jurga, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on preferences of phoretic deutonymphs of Uropodina for attachment sites have shown that they frequently select smooth and hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of our study was to provide the detailed morphological and topographical characteristics of beetle body surfaces to which deutonymphs frequently attach and to verify how the presence of setae and surface sculpture affects deutonymph attachment. The study was conducted on Uropoda orbicularis (Müller, 1776) and its common beetle carriers: Aphodius prodromus (Brahm, 1790), Aphodius fimetarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Onthophagus nuchicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Margarinotus carbonarius (Hoffmann, 1803). Morphology and topography of elytra, femora, propygidia and pygidia of beetles were analysed mainly using SEM methods supported with CLSM and AFM techniques. The hypothesis that deutonymphs may attach to surfaces covered with setae, if seta density is low enough not to disturb mite movement, was tested. The study revealed that deutonymphs attach to surfaces of various types as follows: (i) smooth, (ii) hairy, i.e., covered with setae, (iii) flat and (iv) sculptured. Smooth body parts and body parts covered with setae of low density were most frequently and intensively occupied with deutonymphs. Surfaces of high seta density were avoided by mites. Within elytra of Aphodius beetles, deutonymphs definitely preferred flat surfaces of elytral intervals. On the contrary, densely punctuated propygidium and pygidium in M. carbonarius were heavily infested with deutonymphs. We conclude that carrier surface morphology and topography are important for Uropodina deutonymph attachment, but these two factors cannot fully explain the observed relation.

  19. Attachment Styles, Social Skills, and Depression in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H.…

  20. Predicting School Connectedness Based on Parent and Peers Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    الهه حجازی

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was investigated the relationship and predictability of school connectedness through parent and peers attachment in adolescence. For this reason, 387 male students of second grade of high school were chosen through cluster sampling method and completed a survey consisted of Parent Peers Attachment Inventory (IPPA and School connection Scale (SCS. The results of stepwise regression show predicting of school connectedness based on parent and peers attachment. Among attachment subscales, communication whit peers and parent have the most power to predict school connectedness. The relationship between Peers alienation and parent alienation with school connectedness is significantly negative.In general, secure attachment to parent and peers could be considered as a factor for school connectedness.

  1. The role of attachment in current and future parent caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantzas, Gery C; Evans, Lynette; Foddy, Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how attachment bonds between older parents and their adult children influence adult children's provision of care and older parents' seeking of support from kin. The aim of this study was to investigate how the attachment orientations of adult children (N = 119) and older parents (N = 148) predict family caregiving and perceptions of carer burden. Across both samples (that were unrelated), attachment dimensions were associated with current and future caregiving and care receiving and perceptions of carer burden, even when accounting for demographic variables, parental dependence and filial obligation. Specifically, attachment avoidance was associated negatively with adult children's future care of parents and positively with burden. In contrast, attachment anxiety was positively associated with older parents' seeking current support, perceptions of carer burden, and intentions to seek future support.

  2. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  3. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Parental Attachment, College Adjustment, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkhorst, Brittany B.; Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the connection between the parent-adult child attachment relationship, adjustment, and achievement among a sample of 168 college students and explored how the attachment relationship changed over time. Our findings indicated the attachment variables were all positively related to adjustment to college during years one and three…

  5. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  6. Attachment sites of the coracoclavicular ligaments are characterized by fibrocartilage differentiation: a study on human cadaveric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockert, B; Braunstein, V; Sprecher, C; Shinohara, Y; Kirchhoff, C; Milz, S

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the immunohistochemical labeling patterns of the extracellular matrix of the coracoclavicular ligaments (CCL) in order to relate the molecular composition of the attachment sites to their mechanical environment. Ligaments were exposed from 12 fresh-frozen human cadaveric samples (four males, mean age: 48.6 ± 12.1 years). Cryosection of methanol-fixed and decalcified tissue was cut and sections were labeled with a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against collagens, proteoglycans and proteins of vascular components. Attachment sites of both ligaments showed characteristic fibrocartilaginous labeling of collagen type II, aggrecan and link protein in all samples. Labeling for type II collagen was most conspicuous at the insertion of the coracoid process. Morphometry of adjacent samples revealed a fibrocartilage zone of 10-15% in relationship with the ligament proper, where labeling for type II collagen, aggrecan and link protein was negative. The presence of fibrocartilage at both entheses of the trapezoid and conoid ligament suggests that the CCL complex is subject to shear/compression forces. A variable fibrocartilage differentiation at the entheses of both ligaments may be related to the marked change in loading and insertion angle that the ligaments undergo during shoulder movement. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Trace Cd(II, Pb(II and Ni(II ions extraction and preconcentration from different water samples by using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay as a natural new adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra hassanzadeh Siahpoosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigate presents the extraction-preconcentration of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel ions from water samples using Ghezeljeh montmorillonite nanoclay or “Geleh-Sar-Shoor” (means head-washing clay as a natural and native new adsorbent in batch single element systems. The Ghezeljeh clay is categorized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer Operating (SEM-EDS, X-ray Diffractometry (XRD, X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC measurements, Surface property valuation (SBET by the BET method from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and Zeta potential. According to BET theory, the specific surface area of Ghezeljeh nanoclay was computed as 19.8 m2 g-1 whereas the cation exchange capacity was determined as 150 meq (100 g-1. The results of XRD, FT-IR, XRF, zeta potential, BET surface area and CEC of the Ghezeljeh clay confirm that montmorillonite is the dominant mineral phase. Based on SEM images of clay, it can be seen that the distance between the plates is nm level. For all three ions, the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, dynamic linear range, preconcentration factor, and the adsorption capacity were obtained. The result of several interfering ions was considered. The Ghezeljeh nanoclay as a new adsorbent and experimental method were effectively used for the extraction of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel in a variety of real water samples.

  8. No-migration variance petition. Volume 3, Revision 1: Appendix B, Attachments A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Volume III contains the following attachments: TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms (Appendix 2.10.12 of TRUPACT-II safety analysis report); and chemical compatibility analyses for waste forms across all sites.

  9. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, A-K J; Shergill, S S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Yakub, F; Gromann, P M; Krabbendam, L

    2016-05-01

    Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties and disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether trust is reduced in patients with early psychosis and whether this is accounted for by attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. We used two trust games with a cooperative and unfair partner in a sample of 39 adolescents with early psychosis and 100 healthy controls. Patients had higher levels of attachment anxiety, but the groups did not differ in attachment avoidance. Basic trust was lower in patients than controls, as indicated by lower initial investments. During cooperation patients increased their trust towards levels of controls, i.e. they were able to learn and to override initial suspiciousness. Patients decreased their trust less than controls during unfair interactions. Anxious attachment was associated with higher basic trust and higher trust during unfair interactions and predicted trust independent of group status. Discussion Patients showed decreased basic trust but were able to learn from the trustworthy behaviour of their counterpart. Worries about the acceptance by others and low self-esteem are associated with psychosis and attachment anxiety and may explain behaviour that is focused on conciliation, rather than self-protection.

  10. Five-factor model personality domains in the prediction of Axis II personality disorders: an exploratory study in late adulthood women non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Junqueira, Diana; Sacoto, Carlota; Keong, Ana Marta

    2014-05-01

    Relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the five-factor model were explored in a non-clinical sample of late adulthood women. The sample consists of 90 women (M = 72.29 years of age, standard deviation = 7.10), who were administered with two measures, the NEO-FFI and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+. Some personality disorders scales such as paranoid, schizotypal, borderline and dependent demonstrate a differentiated pattern of five-factor model domain predictors. Low agreeableness predicted schizoid, narcissistic and antisocial; histrionic, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic were predicted by high neuroticism and low agreeableness; high neuroticism and low extraversion, in turn, predicted dependent and depressive scales. Also, two clusters of personality disorders are identified, one associated with low agreeableness and another with low agreeableness and high neuroticism. This study suggest that some traits become maladaptive personality traits, and correspond more closely to psychopathology, when they become opposite to what would be expected in line with studies in normal late adulthood development. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  12. The use of tetragonal star-like polyaniline nanostructures for efficient solid phase extraction and trace detection of Pb(II) and Cu(II) in agricultural products, sea foods, and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Bide, Yasamin; Salarian, Mani; Niknezhad, Mahvash; Bagheri, Saman; Bagheri, Akbar; Nabid, Mohammad Reza

    2014-09-01

    Due to importance of trace analysis of lead and copper ions because of their toxicity, in this paper, for the first time a unique tetragonal star-like morphology of polyaniline was applied as a efficient solid phase for selective trace separation of copper and lead at optimum experimental conditions in shrimp, fish and water samples. Due to the unique star like nanostructure of synthesized sorbent, the tendency of the sorbent toward selective extraction of lead and copper ion in the optimised pH is very interesting. The prepared polymeric resin displayed good figures of merits with analytical calibration curve ranging from 1 to 120 μg L(-1) for copper and 2 to 100 μg L(-1) for lead ions with limits of detection of 0.4 μg L(-1) for copper and 0.9 μg L(-1) for lead, adsorption capacities of 84 and 110 mg g(-1) for copper and lead ions, respectively, extraction efficiency of greater than 96%, and relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4% for eight separate column experiments in determination of 5.0 μg of lead and copper. The obtained data for adsorption capacity of the sorbent shows the high tendency of the sorbent toward the mentioned ions in this nanostructure form. Finally, this sorbent can be used as a simple, rapid, reliable, selective and sensitive method for determination of trace levels of Cu(II) and Pb(II). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  14. Attachment, ethology and adult psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pat

    2004-03-01

    This article discusses Bowlby's development of an ethological-evolutionary perspective, and its implications for psychotherapy with adults. According to Bowlby, attachment behavior is instinctive, having emerged throughout the course of evolution to ensure protection and actual survival. Because the environment affects how attachment behavior unfolds, adverse experiences can divert developmental pathways away from resilience, toward dysfunction and emotional distress. Psychotherapy offers the experience of an attachment relationship. Part of the process involves helping patients understand that feelings such as fear and anxiety are inherent responses to safeguard affectional relationships when they are endangered. As working models are re-appraised and revised, there is emphasis on clarifying the attachment experiences that may have intensified these natural feelings.

  15. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  16. Attachment to pets and interpersonal relationships: Can a four-legged friend replace a two-legged one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Smolkovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research is to investigate pet attachment and measure the connection between owner-pet attachment and interpersonal attachment characteristics of dog owners and cat owners, social support and loneliness. From a sample of 268 dog and 97 cat owners, significant differences on pet attachment appeared between pet owners’ gender, owners living location, kinds of pets and the length of ownership. The pedigree of pets influenced owner-pet attachment levels.

  17. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  18. An exploratory study of attachment patterns in institutionalised children

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. This exploratory study drew primarily upon narrative interviews and projective tests and secondarily on collateral information taken from case files from a small sample of adolescents who were institutionalised as a result of neglect and abuse. The aim of this study was to explore and develop a better understanding of the nature of attachment patterns of institutionalised adolescents by looking at how attachment abuse, maternal deprivation and institutionalisation can be detrimental t...

  19. Attachment Hierarchies Among At Risk Teens and Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Dangaltcheva, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the degree to which teens at high risk for behaviour problems rely on friends and romantic partners rather than parents to meet attachment needs and whether this affected their psychological adjustment. Participants were 158 adolescents recruited from youth custody settings and a mental health facility. Attachment functions shifted from parents to peers much earlier compared to previously published results based on normative samples. Only 9% of participants preferred their ...

  20. The relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intellectual abilities in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the relationship between attachment, mentalization, and intelligence as it occurs in adolescence. Study participants were 345 students (123 males in their third year of high school. Participants were administered three standard tests of intelligence, the SM-ECR-R, and the recently developed Mentalization Questionnaire (MQ. The study also utilized earlier collected data from a sample of 284 employed adults. In line with our research hypothesis, attachment security and mentalization were positively related, with correlations ranging from small to moderate depending on the dimension inspected. Attachment anxiety was found to be higher in the adolescent than in the adult sample, and contrary to expectations was not significantly related to intelligence in the former group. Attachment avoidance did not correlate with intelligence in the total student sample, but did show a small negative association with analogical reasoning and the g-factor when the intellectually gifted were excluded from analyses. This latter group, as well as males from the student sample scored significantly higher on attachment avoidance than their respective comparison groups - intellectually average and female adolescents. Finally, mentalization was found to be positively related to intellectual ability and higher in a gifted than average-ability girls, b girls than boys, and c adults than adolescents. The results are discussed as shedding light on the peculiarities of the attachment system in adolescence, revealing specific associations between attachment avoidance, mentalization, and intellectual ability, highlighting gender differences in both attachment and mentalization, and adding to our understanding of the socioemotional characteristics of intellectually gifted students.

  1. Disparities in Depressive Distress by Sexual Orientation in Emerging Adults: The Roles of Attachment and Stress Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Wypij, David; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4% female), 1.7% were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7% bisexual (BI), 10.0% mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7% completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs vs. CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings. PMID:23780518

  2. Adult attachment and pain catastrophizing for self and significant other.

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    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Holmberg, Diane

    2010-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that attachment insecurity is associated with pain-related catastrophizing. Attachment anxiety has consistently been found to be positively associated with pain catastrophizing. In contrast, the relationship between attachment avoidance and pain catastrophizing has been less consistent. The current study was designed to (a) determine whether anxiety accounts for unique variance in catastrophizing beyond that contributed by the overlapping constructs of self-esteem and neuroticism and (b) clarify the relationship between avoidance and catastrophizing by investigating this relationship when controlling for attachment anxiety. The final objective was to investigate whether attachment is also related to catastrophizing about the pain of significant others. A convenient sample of individuals currently in a romantic relationship (N=148) completed self-report measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance, neuroticism, self-esteem, pain catastrophizing, and significant other pain catastrophizing. Multiple regression analyses indicated that attachment anxiety accounted for unique variance in pain catastrophizing and each of its lower-order components (i.e., rumination, magnification, helplessness), beyond that accounted for by the personality variables. Attachment avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination component of catastrophizing, but this association was only found after controlling for attachment anxiety. The attachment dimensions were also associated with some components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Anxiety was positively associated with the helplessness component of significant other pain catastrophizing, and avoidance was negatively associated with the rumination and helplessness components of significant other pain catastrophizing. Future research directions regarding the social context of pain are discussed. Copyright 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B

  3. The change in retentive force of magnetic attachment by abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjin; Tawada, Yasuyuki; Hata, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Fumihiko

    2008-07-01

    Magnets are frequently applied to removable dentures as retentive attachments. A magnet-retained removable overdenture might be slightly shifted from side to side by eccentric movement in the mouth, and the surface of magnetic attachment may be worn as a result. However, the relationship between the retentive force of magnetic attachment and its surface abrasion has not been reported. The purpose of this research is to investigate this relationship. Ten Mgfit DX 400 magnetic attachments for natural tooth roots were used for this experiment. The magnetic attachments were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin, and ten pairs of specimens were fabricated. A 5-mm repeated gliding motion was applied on each pair of specimens until 30 000, 50 000, or 90 000 cycles had been achieved. The abrasion machine was under 5 kg loading, and the slide speed was 60 times/min. The retentive force of magnetic attachment was measured with a tension gauge at (1) before gliding; (2) after 30 000 gliding cycles; (3)after 50 000 gliding cycles; or (4) after 90 000 gliding cycles. The average change of retentive force of ten magnetic attachments after 30 000, 50 000, and 90 000 gliding cycles was 0.016 N, 0.003 N, and -0.008 N, respectively. The change was statistically analyzed using a paired-sample t test, which showed that the number of gliding cycles did not affect the retentive force of magnetic attachment significantly. The surface of magnetic attachment after gliding was observed by a microscope, and the abrasion of this attachment surface is clearly seen.

  4. II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi Mizah Basını ve İçeriklerinden Seçilmiş Örnekler Humor Press of the II. Constitutional Era and Selected Samples

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    Salih SEYHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available July 24, 1908, when Second Constitution was declared is animportant date for the history of Turkish Press as well as the history ofTurkish Politics, Turkish Literature History and the history of TurkishLaw. The Turkish press has entered a new era on that date, got rid of the bonds which were limiting the media and the newspapers wereprinted without the supervision of censorship board for the first time.By this freedom, numerous newspapers and magazines joined to pressand also humor magazines has taken place in that area. In this regard,the date July 24, 1908 represents a greater sense for Turkish humormedia. According to the information we have today, about a 30 yearperiod from the II. Abdulhamids’ ascending to the throne until thedeclaration of the II. Constitutional Monarchy although five or sixnewspapers were published but none of the newspapers or magazines ofhumor was allow to be published. This date has been declared as apress feast; in fact it is a lot more the feast of humor publishing.In this study, the humor newspapers named Boşboğaz ileGüllabi, Püsküllü Belâ, Lala, Malum and Kahya Kadın will be analyzedwhich were published after the period called pressexplosion consecutively the declaration of II. Constitutional Monarchy.During the analysis, firstly they will be presented by the information inthe samples and later the topics covered will be determined by thecontent analysis method. In addition, discourse analysis will be done forunderstanding the messages of the cartoons, news and articles. Theoverview of humor magazines to the declaration of Constitution and theway of its treatment to social and political issues of that period are thegoals of this study. II. Meşrutiyet’in ilan edildiği 24 Temmuz 1908 tarihi, TürkSiyasî Tarihi, Türk Edebiyat Tarihi, Türk Hukuk Tarihi gibi alanlar içinolduğu kadar Türk Basın Tarihi için de çok önemlidir. Türk basını butarihte yeni bir döneme girmiş ve kendisini s

  5. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

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    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  6. Exploring the Link among State of Mind Concerning Childhood Attachment, Attachment in Close Relationships, Parental Bonding, and Psychopathological Symptoms in Substance Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musetti, Alessandro; Terrone, Grazia; Corsano, Paola; Magnani, Barbara; Salvatore, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users. We explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R) measured psychopathological symptoms. We found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression, and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships, and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants' own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. These results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug-addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.

  7. Exploring the link among state of mind concerning childhood attachment, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathological symptoms in substance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Musetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users.MethodsWe explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R measured psychopathological symptoms.ResultsWe found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. ConclusionThese results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.

  8. Attachment styles and clinical correlates in people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Hodgekins, Joanne; Iglesias-González, Maria; Chipps, Penelope; Painter, Michelle; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus

    2017-04-24

    Evidence suggests that attachment styles may influence subclinical psychosis phenotypes (schizotypy) and affective disorders and may play a part in the association between psychosis and childhood adversity. However, the role of attachment in the initial stages of psychosis remains poorly understood. Our main aim was to describe and compare attachment styles in 60 individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and a matched sample of 60 healthy volunteers (HV). The HV had lower anxious and avoidant attachment scores than the UHR individuals (p attachment. In the HV group, depression, anxiety, schizotypy paranoia, and social anxiety were correlated with insecure attachment. This difference and some discrepancies with previous studies involving UHR suggest that individuals at UHR may compose a heterogeneous group; some experience significant mood and/or anxiety symptoms that may not be explained by specific attachment styles. Nonetheless, measuring attachment in UHR individuals could help maximize therapeutic relationships to enhance recovery. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  9. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2017-07-06

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  10. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A; Silvia, Paul J; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants' momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  11. Attachment style predicts affect, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Chun, Charlotte A.; Silvia, Paul J.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2015-01-01

    The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using experience sampling methodology (ESM) in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for 1 week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the ASI and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life. PMID:25852613

  12. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

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    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  13. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

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    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  14. Clarifying the associations between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Elliott; Sellbom, Martin; Wilkinson, Ross B

    2017-10-01

    The association between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy is currently unclear, despite the potential utility attachment theory could provide regarding the interpersonal characteristics of psychopathy and the etiology of this construct. The purpose of the current investigation was to clarify these associations. For this purpose, we analyzed responses from an Australian community sample (N = 249) and a U.S. community sample (N = 292) containing validated measures of psychopathy (Triarchic Psychopathy Measure and Expanded-Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scales [Australian sample only]) and general attachment styles (Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised-General Short Form and Attachment Styles Questionnaire) to replicate our findings across measures and samples. The psychopathy domain of boldness was consistently negatively associated with insecure attachment styles. Psychopathy's affective domain (meanness, callousness) was consistently associated with avoidant attachment, whereas its behavioral domain (disinhibition, antisocial) was consistently associated with insecure attachment styles, particularly anxious attachment. Our findings suggest that there are consistent associations between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy in adult samples and provides preliminary support for further consideration of attachment theory in psychopathy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Attachment and Personality Disorders Among Child Molesters: The Role of Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)-and the mediating role of trust-in a sample of child molesters ( n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community ( n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, with a marginal contribution of antisocial PD. Attachment anxiety was related to borderline and histrionic PDs, with a marginal contribution of obsessive-compulsive PD. Paranoid and dependent PDs contributed to both variates. In the control group, a more general association between attachment insecurity and PDs emerged. Finally, mistrust significantly explained the associations between attachment and PDs in both samples. Future studies should examine whether treatment for PDs in child molesters could benefit from a focus on attachment and trust.

  17. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelli, Alberto; Jones, Derek; Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.

    2013-11-01

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]-) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  18. Attachment and exploration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Reis, Harry T

    2003-08-01

    In the present work, the relationship between attachment and exploration in adulthood is examined from both theoretical and empirical standpoints. Theoretically, attachment theory's exploration system is linked to R. W. White's (1959) concept of effectance motivation, and to the motive and goals constructs that are central to the achievement motivation literature. Empirically, 4 studies are presented that document a link between adult attachment (operationalized using categorical, continuous, and dimensional measures) and achievement motives (need for achievement and fear of failure) and achievement goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and approach relative to avoidance personal strivings). Mediational analyses establish the role of challenge construal, threat construal, and competence valuation in accounting for the observed relationships.

  19. Attachment Styles in a group of Patients with Terminal Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Santelices-Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that attachment in adults is feasible with modificationsthroughout life, especially in situations of change, as is the experienceof chronic disease. This study aims to describe the attachment patterns ofa group of patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied a group of 22patients with this disease requiring dialysis, compared with a group of 22adults for non-clinical sample (without disease, matching the participantsaccording to sex and age. The results showed differences significant patternsof attachment in both groups. Clinically healthy individuals tend to havepredominantly a secure attachment pattern, while those patients on dialysistend to have a preoccupied attachment pattern.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Discret Typing Units (TcII and TcVI) in samples of patients from two municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil, using two molecular typing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; de Assis, Girley Francisco Machado; Oliveira e Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel; Machado, Evandro Marques Menezes; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Veloso, Vanja Maria; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; de Lana, Marta

    2015-10-31

    Trypanosoma cruzi is classified into six discrete taxonomic units (DTUs). For this classification, different biological markers and classification criteria have been used. The objective was to identify the genetic profile of T. cruzi samples isolated from patients of two municipalities of Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil. Molecular characterization was performed using two different criteria for T. cruzi typing to characterize 63 T. cruzi samples isolated from chronic Chagas disease patients. The characterizations followed two distinct methodologies. Additionally, the RAPD technique was used to evaluate the existence of genetic intragroup variability. The first methodology identified 89% of the samples as TcII, but it was not possible to define the genetic identity of seven isolates. The results obtained with the second methodology corroborated the classification as TcII of the same samples and defined the classification of the other seven as TcVI. RAPD analysis showed lower intra-group variability in TcII. The results confirmed the preliminary data obtained in other municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, showing a predominance of TcII, similar to that verified in northeast/south axis of Brazil and the first detection of TcVI in the study region. The second protocol was more simple and reliable to identify samples of hybrid character.

  1. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  2. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  3. An Investigation of the Factors Related to Low Parent-Adolescent Attachment Security in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Chang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence may involve increases in many behavioral problems and psychosocial maladaptation. Adolescents must successfully cope with these challenges to achieve positive developmental milestones. To investigate whether low parental attachment security among adolescents in Taiwan is associated with their demographic characteristics, psychosocial maladaptation, and depression. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 335 adolescents completed the questionnaires. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Chinese version of the Youth Self-Report, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to survey the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regressions, using low attachment security as the response variable, were used in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of Taiwanese adolescents with low parental attachment security was 38.5%. Low parental attachment security in adolescents was significantly associated with parental remarriage status and psychosocial maladaptation. By considering these risk factors, nursing educators and nurses could develop effective interventions to strengthen parent-adolescent attachment security.

  4. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth And Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Walsh, Jeremy R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  5. Engineered microtopographies and surface chemistries direct cell attachment and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea Marie

    Harrison, in 1914, first recognized that cells respond to physicochemical cues such as substratum topography when he observed that fibroblasts elongated while cultured on spider silk. Recently, techniques developed in the micro-electronics industry have been used to create molds for producing microscaled topographies with various shapes and spatial arrangements. Although these patterning techniques are well-established, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying cell sensing and response to microtopographies. In this work cellular micro-environments with varying surface topographies and chemistries were evaluated with marine organisms and mammalian cells to investigate cellular sensing and response. Biofouling---the accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on submerged surfaces---is an environmental and economic concern. Engineered topographies, replicated in polydimethylsiloxane elastomer (PDMSe) and functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels, were evaluated for inhibition of marine fouling organism attachment. Microtopographies replicated in PDMSe inhibited attachment of the marine bacterium, Cobetia marina up to 99% versus smooth. The average normalized attachment densities of cells of C. marina and zoospores of the green algae Ulva on PDMSe topographies scaled inversely with the Engineered Roughness Index (ERIII), a representation of surface energy. Attachment densities of Ulva from four assays and C. marina from two growth phases to PDMSe surfaces scaled inversely with one equation: ERI II multiplied by the Reynolds number of the organism (Re) (R 2 = 0.77). The same microtopographies created in PDMSe reduced the initial attachment density and attachment strength of cells of the diatoms Navicula incerta and Seminavis robusta compared to smooth PDMSe. The average normalized attachment density of Navicula after exposure to shear stress (48 Pa) was correlated with the contact area between the diatom and a

  6. Personality traits are related to intimate partner violence among securely attached individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, N.M.L.; Leenaars, P.E.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The general assumption has been that male batterers from clinical samples were mostly insecurely attached as compared to non-batterers. Recently, a large group was found (39.4 % of batterers in a clinical sample) whose main attachment style was secure. No previous studies have examined specifically

  7. Validity and reliability of the attachment insecurity screening inventory (AISI) 2-5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/293037817; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Colonnesi, C.; Asscher, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288661834; Hoeve, M.; Noom, M.J.; Polderman, Nelleke; Kellaert-Knol, Marijke G.

    2016-01-01

    The Attachment Insecurity Screening Inventory (AISI) 2–5 years is a parent-report questionnaire for assessing attachment insecurity in preschoolers. Validity and reliability of the AISI 2–5 years were examined in a general sample (n = 429) and in a clinical sample (n = 71). Confirmatory factor

  8. Electron attachment to boron trichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tav, Cumali; Datskos, Panos G.; Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1998-11-01

    Low-energy electron attachment to BCl3 was measured using an electron swarm technique. The parent negative ion, BCl3-, was observed within a narrow electron range close to thermal energy. Previous negative ion measurements in BCl3 discharges, which yielded seemingly inconsistent results, can be shown to be self-consistent based on the present observations.

  9. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult

  10. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  11. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A; Gulaldi, Nedim C M; Szabo, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    The radioligand 11C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of 11C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. The experimental animals were injected with [11C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent phase of the ID-IF. The combined use of FBP

  12. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  13. Attachment representation as predictor of internalizing problems in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Halamová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The current study examines the relationship between the representation of attachment relationship with mother and internalizing problems in the developmental period of middle childhood. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the quality of attachment predicts the intensity and seriousness of internalizing problems in middle childhood; and to examine whether the models are gender-specific. Methods: Participants in this study were 151 children aged 9-12 (M = 11.21, 77 boys and 74 girls, recruited from elementary schools in Nitra region. Children completed measures assessing the quality of attachment representation of the relationship with mother (selfreport questionnaire Security Scale, the tendency to react anxiously (self-report questionnaire Childen´s Manifest Anxiety Scale – CMAS, social anxiety (self-report questionnaire Scale of Classical Social Situational Anxiety – KSAT and depression (self-report questionnaire Children´s Depression Inventory – CDI. Results: Regression analysis indicated that secure attachment representation is a significant negative predictor of children's internalizing problems – manifest anxiety (ß = -.324, p 0.05 and ß = -.194, p > 0.05, respectively, but in the sample of girls, secure attachment representation was a significant negative predictor of both depressive symptoms (ß = -.296, p < .05 for Negative Mood; and ß = -.285, p < .05 for Anhedony. Other models, except for social anxiety, were statistically significant for both samples. In the sample of girls, the predictor accounted for 26.3% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.512; p < .001, 18.9% of variance of the total of depression symptoms (ß = -.435; p < .001, 10.9% of variance in Ineffectiveness (ß = -.331; p < .05 and 10.5% of variance in manifest anxiety (ß = -.324; p < .05. The results were similar for the sample of boys. Attachment security accounted for 17.4% of variance in Negative Self Esteem (ß = -.435; p

  14. Examining attachment to God and health risk-taking behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karissa D; Ellison, Christopher G; Loukas, Alexandra; Downey, Darcy L; Barrett, Jennifer B

    2012-06-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God--secure, avoidant, and anxious--were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328 undergraduate college students. Contrary to prior theory, secure attachment to God is not inversely associated with recent alcohol or marijuana use, or substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. Instead, avoidant and anxious attachment to God are associated with higher levels of drinking; anxious attachment to God is associated with marijuana use; and avoidant attachment to God is associated with substance use prior to last sexual intercourse. These patterns are gender-specific; problematic attachment to God is linked with negative outcomes solely among men.

  15. The influence of leadership style on subordinates' attachment to the leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero, Fernando; Moriano, Juan A; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the extent to which employees establish attachment bonds with their leaders and the effects these bonds have on organizational outcomes. A sample of 225 participants reported on their supervisor's leadership style (transformational, transactional, or passive-avoidant), their attachment bonds to this supervisor (anxious or avoidant), and four organizational variables (subordinate's satisfaction, identification with the organization, extra effort, and perceived leadership effectiveness). Results, analyzed using a Partial Least Squares (PLS) approach, indicated that (a) transformational leadership was negatively associated with employees' insecure (anxious or avoidant) attachment to their leader; (b) passive/avoidant leadership was positively associated with subordinates' insecure attachment to their leader; (c) transactional leadership was positively associated with employee's anxious attachment but not with their avoidant attachment; (d) avoidant, but not anxious, attachment to the leader was negatively associated with employee satisfaction, perceived leader effectiveness, employee's extra effort, and organizational identification.

  16. Self-compassion as a mediator between attachment anxiety and body appreciation: An exploratory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Piontkowski, Sarah; Hui, Kayi; Ziemer, Kathryn Schaefer; Garriott, Patton O

    2016-12-01

    Body appreciation has been found to be linked to interpersonal and intrapersonal factors, with attachment styles and self-compassion separately identified as important correlates. The present study examined these variables together in a model, and we hypothesized that maternal attachment anxiety was related to peer and romantic attachment anxiety, which, in turn, was associated with self-compassion and body appreciation. Using structural equation modeling, this cross-sectional study with a sample of 1306 incoming first year college women found that the proposed model explained 40% of the variance in body appreciation. Results further revealed that peer and romantic attachment anxiety mediated the relationships between maternal attachment anxiety and self-compassion, and that self-compassion mediated the associations between peer and romantic attachment anxiety and body appreciation. Self-compassion appears to hold a central role in explaining the relation between attachment anxiety and body appreciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of the evidence regarding associations between attachment theory and experimentally induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Pamela Joy

    2013-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that adult attachment and pain-related variables are predictably and consistently linked, and that understanding these links may guide pain intervention and prevention efforts. In general, insecure attachment has been portrayed as a risk factor, and secure attachment as a protective factor, for people with chronic pain conditions. In an effort to better understand the relationships among attachment and pain variables, these links have been investigated in pain-free samples using induced-pain techniques. The present paper reviews the available research linking adult attachment and laboratory-induced pain. While the diverse nature of the studies precludes definitive conclusions, together these papers offer support for associations between insecure attachment and a more negative pain experience. The evidence presented in this review highlights areas for further empirical attention, as well as providing some guidance for clinicians who may wish to employ preventive approaches and other interventions informed by attachment theory.

  18. Meta-analytic evidence for stability in attachments from infancy to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Feussner, Christina; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2013-01-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates results from 127 papers on attachment stability towards mothers and fathers, respectively, from infancy to early adulthood. More than twenty-one thousand attachments (n = 21,072) and 225 time intervals were explored, ranging from half a month to 29 years (348 months). An overall coefficient of r = .39 between times T1 and T2 was obtained, reflecting a medium-sized stability of attachment security. However, no significant stability was found in intervals larger than 15 years. Coefficients are higher for time intervals of less than two years compared to time spans of more than five years, if attachments were assessed beyond infancy using representational rather than behavioral measures and if normal middle class as opposed to at-risk samples were involved. Furthermore, securely attached children at risk were less likely to maintain attachment security whereas insecurely attached children at risk most likely maintained insecurity.

  19. Transmission of attachment across three generations: Continuity and reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautamäki, Airi; Hautamäki, Laura; Neuvonen, Leena; Maliniemi-Piispanen, Sinikka

    2010-07-01

    We followed a normative Finnish sample of primiparous mothers, fathers, and maternal grandmothers from pregnancy until the child was 3 years old (N = 32 families). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was used to assess attachment in mothers, fathers and grandmothers during the last trimester of the mother's pregnancy. The Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) was used to assess attachment in children at 3 years. Forty-seven percent of the 32 grandmother-mother-infant triads had the corresponding attachment classifications. Using EXACON for the analysis of single cells of 3 x 3 contingency tables with type-antitype classifications, and frequency tabulation of the major three-generation combinations, both triads indicating continuity across three generations (B/B/B 22% and A/A/A 19%) and reversal reactions (A/C/A and C/A/C 22%) were found. The results indicated continuity across three generations for Type B and for Type A and alternations from A to C and vice versa for insecure attachment. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory development and clinical work.

  20. Does reflective functioning mediate the relationship between attachment and personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Maria Paola; Boldrini, Tommaso; Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Giovanardi, Guido; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning (RF), can play a crucial role in the psychological mechanisms underlying personality functioning. This study aimed to: (a) study the association between RF, personality disorders (cluster level) and functioning; (b) investigate whether RF and personality functioning are influenced by (secure vs. insecure) attachment; and (c) explore the potential mediating effect of RF on the relationship between attachment and personality functioning. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200) was used to assess personality disorders and levels of psychological functioning in a clinical sample (N = 88). Attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Reflective Functioning Scale (RFS). Findings showed that RF had significant negative associations with cluster A and B personality disorders, and a significant positive association with psychological functioning. Moreover, levels of RF and personality functioning were influenced by attachment patterns. Finally, RF completely mediated the relationship between (secure/insecure) attachment and adaptive psychological features, and thus accounted for differences in overall personality functioning. Lack of mentalization seemed strongly associated with vulnerabilities in personality functioning, especially in patients with cluster A and B personality disorders. These findings provide support for the development of therapeutic interventions to improve patients' RF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B.; Shaikh, Abdul B.; Lokhande, Tukaram N.; Kamble, Ganesh S.; Anuse, Mansing A.; Gaikwad, Shashikant H.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH 4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414 nm which remains stable for > 48 h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5 μg mL- 1 of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5 μg mL- 1 to 17.5 μg mL- 1. The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813 × 104 L mol- 1 cm- 1, 0.01996 μg cm- 2 and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4‧-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples

  2. An efficient, cost effective, sensing behaviour liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) incorporated with 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole: Analysis of food samples, leafy vegetables, fertilizers and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barache, Umesh B; Shaikh, Abdul B; Lokhande, Tukaram N; Kamble, Ganesh S; Anuse, Mansing A; Gaikwad, Shashikant H

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present work is to develop an efficient, simple and selective moreover cost-effective method for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) by using the Schiff base 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole [CBIMMT]. This chromogenic reagent forms a yellow coloured complex with copper(II) in acetate buffer at pH4.2. The copper(II) complex with ligand is instantly extracted into chloroform and shows a maximum absorbance at 414nm which remains stable for >48h. The composition of extracted complex is found to be 1:2 [copper(II): reagent] which was ascertained using Job's method of continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope ratio method. Under optimal conditions, the copper(II) complex in chloroform adheres to Beer's law up to 17.5μgmL(-1) of copper(II). The optimum concentration range obtained from Ringbom's plot is from 5μgmL(-1) to 17.5μgmL(-1). The molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity and enrichment factor of the extracted copper(II) chelate are 0.33813×10(4)Lmol(-1)cm(-1), 0.01996μgcm(-2) and 2.49 respectively. In the extraction of copper(II), several affecting factors including the solution pH, ligand concentration, equilibrium time, effect of foreign ions are optimized. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied and use of masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The chromogenic sulphur containing reagent, 4-(4'-chlorobenzylideneimino)-3-methyl-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole has been synthesized in a single step with high purity and yield. The synthesized reagent has been successfully applied first time for determination of copper(II). The reagent forms stable chelate with copper(II) in buffer medium instantly and quantitatively extracted in chloroform within a minute. The method is successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in various synthetic mixtures, complexes, fertilizers, environmental samples such as food samples, leafy

  3. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  4. An innovative method for analysis of Pb (II) in rice, milk and water samples based on TiO2 reinforced caprylic acid hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Shahriyar; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Nezhadali, Azizollah; Banaei, Alireza; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2017-04-15

    In the present study, nano-sized titanium oxides were applied for preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) in aqueous samples using hollow fiber based solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). In this work, the nanoparticles dispersed in caprylic acid as an extraction solvent was placed into a polypropylene porous hollow fiber segment supported by capillary forces and sonification. This membrane was in direct contact with solutions containing Pb (II). The effect of experimental conditions on the extraction, such as pH, stirring rate, sample volume, and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the performance of the proposed method was investigated for the determination of Pb (II) in food and water samples. The method was linear in the range of 0.6-3000μgmL(-1). The relative standard deviations and relative recovery of Pb (II) was 4.9% and 99.3%, respectively (n=5). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HPV genotype-specific concordance between EuroArray HPV, Anyplex II HPV28 and Linear Array HPV Genotyping test in Australian cervical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M. Cornall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare human papillomavirus genotype-specific performance of two genotyping assays, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene and EuroArray HPV (EuroImmun, with Linear Array HPV (Roche. Methods: DNA extracted from clinican-collected cervical brush specimens in PreservCyt medium (Hologic, from 403 women undergoing management for detected cytological abnormalities, was tested on the three assays. Genotype-specific agreement were assessed by Cohen's kappa statistic and Fisher's z-test of significance between proportions. Results: Agreement between Linear Array and the other 2 assays was substantial to almost perfect (κ = 0.60 − 1.00 for most genotypes, and was almost perfect (κ = 0.81 – 0.98 for almost all high-risk genotypes. Linear Array overall detected most genotypes more frequently, however this was only statistically significant for HPV51 (EuroArray; p = 0.0497, HPV52 (Anyplex II; p = 0.039 and HPV61 (Anyplex II; p=0.047. EuroArray detected signficantly more HPV26 (p = 0.002 and Anyplex II detected more HPV42 (p = 0.035 than Linear Array. Each assay performed differently for HPV68 detection: EuroArray and LA were in moderate to substantial agreement with Anyplex II (κ = 0.46 and 0.62, respectively, but were in poor disagreement with each other (κ = −0.01. Conclusions: EuroArray and Anyplex II had similar sensitivity to Linear Array for most high-risk genotypes, with slightly lower sensitivity for HPV 51 or 52. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Genotyping, Linear Array, Anyplex II, EuroArray, Cervix

  6. Attachment styles, pain intensity and emotional variables in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Perez-Calvo, Soledad; Blanco, Sheila; Sanroman, Lucía

    2017-09-08

    This study aims to explore the relations between attachment styles and pain intensity and certain emotional variables (anxiety, depression and alexithymia) in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, in comparison with healthy women. Data were collected from 146 women with fibromyalgia and 122 healthy women. The variables studied were attachment style, pain intensity, anxiety, depression and alexithymia dimensions. Patients with fibromyalgia showed lower percentages of secure attachment style (69.9% vs. 86%) whilst showing higher avoidant attachment (19.8% vs. 7.4%), as well as increased numbers of anxious-ambivalent attachment (10.3% vs. 6.6%) than healthy women (X2  = 9.915, p = .007). Also, fibromyalgia patients showed significantly higher scores in two of the insecure attachment factors (p attachment factor (p = .008) in comparison with healthy women. Higher scores of alexithymia were found in women showing anxious-ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles in comparison with those showing a secure attachment style, regardless of the group they belonged to. In fibromyalgia patients, higher anxiety (p = .005) was found among the women with anxious-ambivalent attachment styles (Mean = 15.15; SD = 1.15) in comparison with those with secure attachment style (Mean = 11.18; SD = .45). No relation was found between attachment style and pain intensity. Avoidant attachment seems to carry out a contradictory role and warrants further research. The results found seem to highlight the need for the Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain to include attachment styles as a predictor of the emotional experience of pain in fibromyalgia patients. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Cervical Samples: Analysis of the New PGMY-PCR Compared To the Hybrid Capture II and MY-PCR Assays and a Two-Step Nested PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Lama, Anna; Capra, Giuseppina; Giordano, Viviana; Aricò, Pietro; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The PGMY-PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV) was evaluated, in parallel with nested PCR (nPCR), in samples with noted Hybrid Capture II (HCII) and MY-PCR results. PGMY-PCR detected HPV DNA in 2.5% of HCII-negative-MY-PCR-negative samples and in 71.7% of HCII-positive-MY-PCR-negative samples; also, it detected the MY-PCR-negative-nPCR-negative types HPV-42, HPV-44, HPV-51, HPV-87, and HPV-89.

  8. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  9. Attachment figures when death is approaching: a study applying attachment theory to adult patients' and family members' experiences during palliative home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Attachment theory is currently receiving much attention in relation to how adults cope with severe illness. The study aims were using the experiences of patients and family members to explore attachment figures (a central concept within the theory) during palliative home care. Twelve patients and 14 family members were interviewed during ongoing palliative home care. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four types of attachment figures were identified: (i) family and friends, (ii) health care practitioners, (iii) pets and (iv) God. Both non-physical and physical contact with the attachment figures facilitated a sense of security. In addition, the patient/family members and their attachment figures were described by some as a "we", and when one part of the "we" felt insecure, this made the other also feel insecure. The patients' unstable and progressing illnesses constituted a threat to the patients' and family members' sense of security. The availability of the attachment figures made them feel secure, and they could then divert their attention from the patients' illnesses to other things in everyday life, e.g. socialising with family and friends. Some family members also had to cope with the loss of their own attachment figure, when the patient, who had previously been a source of security for them, was no longer able to offer protection and comfort due to the progression of the illness. Important aspects of attachment figures in the end-of-life context were identified, and their clinical implications will be discussed.

  10. Emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship between attachment and depressive symptomatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adult attachment's unique contribution in the prediction of postpartum depressive symptoms, beyond personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axfors, Cathrine; Sylvén, Sara; Ramklint, Mia; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2017-11-01

    Personality traits such as neuroticism can help identify pregnant women at risk of postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS). However, it is unclear whether attachment style could have an additional contribution to this risk elevation. This study aimed to examine the overlap of adult attachment insecurity and neuroticism/trait anxiety as PPDS predictors, taking into account baseline depressive symptoms. A Swedish population-based sample of pregnant women reported on adult attachment and either neuroticism (n = 1063) or trait anxiety (n = 555). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and at six weeks and six months postpartum. Correlations between attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were calculated. Generalized linear models of PPDS tested the effect of attachment anxiety and avoidance, adjusting for neuroticism/trait anxiety and baseline depression. Logistic regression models with combined high attachment anxiety and neuroticism/trait anxiety visualized their value as risk factors beyond antenatal depression. Attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety were highly correlated (r = .55-.77). Attachment anxiety exerted a partially independent effect on PPDS at six weeks (p six months (p depressed, combined high attachment anxiety and high neuroticism or trait anxiety was predictive of PPDS at both assessment points. Low acceptance rate, exclusive use of self-reports. Beyond personality, attachment anxiety had a small independent effect on the risk of PPDS. Combining items of adult attachment and neuroticism/trait anxiety could prove useful in antenatal screening for high risk of PPDS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Eating disorders in adolescence: attachment issues from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eGander

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we review findings from an emerging body of research on attachment issues in adolescents with eating disorders from a developmental perspective. First, we will outline the crucial developmental changes in the attachment system and discuss how they might be related to the early onset of the disease. Then we will report on the major results from attachment studies using self-report and narrative instruments in that age group. Studies with a developmental approach on attachment will be analyzed in more detail. The high incidence of the unresolved attachment pattern in eating disorder samples is striking, especially for patients with anorexia nervosa. Interestingly, this predominance of the unresolved category was also found in their mothers. To date, these transgenerational aspects are still poorly understood and therefore represent an exciting research frontier. Future studies that include larger adolescent samples and provide a more detailed description including symptom severity and comorbidity would contribute to a better understanding of this complex and painful condition.

  13. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P stress (P stress in untreated transsexuals (P stress by attachment. Our results suggested that untreated patients suffer from a higher degree of stress and that attachment insecurity negatively impacts the stress management. Initiating the hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Relationship between attachment style and symptom severity across the psychosis spectrum: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah Christina; Hardy, Amy; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2017-12-06

    There is growing evidence for the role of attachment in psychosis, however, to date there has been no quantitative review of the prevalence of insecure attachment in psychosis. The current study sought to systematically appraise studies investigating the prevalence of insecure attachment and the association with psychosis-spectrum experiences using meta-analytic techniques. A systematic search of studies carried out between January 1980 and 30th November 2015 found 25 papers eligible for inclusion. The meta-analysis showed that the prevalence of insecure attachment style was significantly higher in individuals with psychosis (76%) than in non-clinical samples (38%), with fearful attachment being the most prevalent. Across the continuum, there was a small but significant relationship between positive symptom severity and insecure attachment and a significant relationship between negative symptom severity and insecure attachment in the non-clinical analysis. This relationship was not found in the clinical group. The prevalence of insecure attachment appears to be high in psychosis, however, the relationship between symptom severity and attachment is small. Attachment theory may provide greater understanding of the development of positive symptoms than previously thought, however, research needs to include more at-risk samples and longitudinal research to fully understand the dynamics of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A general factor model for the Beck Depression Inventory-II: validation in a sample of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Beck, Christine A; Pilote, Louise

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have linked symptoms of depression after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to negative health outcomes, including mortality. It has been suggested, however, that this link may be due to biased measurement of depressive symptoms in post-AMI patients related to confounding with somatic symptoms related to AMI. The objective of this study was to validate a factor model for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) that would allow for modeling of depressive symptoms after explicitly removing bias related to somatic symptom overlap. A total of 477 hospitalized post-AMI patients from 10 cardiac care units were administered the BDI-II. Confirmatory factor analysis models for ordinal data were conducted with MPLUS to test the fit of a model with a single General Depression factor (all 21 BDI-II items) and uncorrelated Somatic (5 items) and Cognitive (8 items) factors (G-S-C model) compared to standard correlated two-factor models. The G-S-C model fit as well or better than previously published correlated two-factor models. Seventy-three percent of variance in BDI-II scores is accounted for by the General Depression factor, whereas 11% and 13% respectively are accounted for by uncorrelated Somatic and Cognitive factors. The G-S-C model is a novel approach to understanding the measurement structure of the BDI-II, presents advantageous statistical and interpretive properties compared to standard correlated factor models, and provides a viable mechanism to test links between symptoms of depression, as measured by the General Depression factor, and health outcomes among patients with AMI after explicitly removing variance from somatic symptoms unrelated to the General Depression factor.

  16. Psychological characteristics of future helping professionals: Empathy and attachment of psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević Aleksandar; Hanak Nataša; Milojević Sonja

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether psychology students differ than students who have chosen non-helping professions in psychological features important for helping activities: attachment and empathy. The sample consisted of psychology students from Belgrade and Novi Sad (N=452) and students from several Belgrade University faculties for non-helping professions. The revised version of Attachment Questionnaire was used for assessment of attachment, while empathy was assessed by Empathy...

  17. Attachment and personality disorders among child molesters: The role of trust

    OpenAIRE

    Garofalo, C.; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated multivariate associations between attachment styles and personality disorders (PDs)—and the mediating role of trust—in a sample of child molesters (n = 84) and a matched control group from the general community (n = 80). Among child molesters, canonical correlation analysis revealed that two variates resembling avoidant and anxious attachment dimensions were associated with PD traits. Attachment avoidance was related to schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs, w...

  18. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy

  19. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measuring attachment and parental bonding in psychosis and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, S; Onwumere, J; Bissoli, S; Ruggeri, M; Kuipers, E; Valmaggia, L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment theory proposes that psychological functioning and affect regulations are influenced by the attachment we form with others. Early relationships with parents or caregivers lay the foundations for attachment styles. These styles are proposed to influence how we relate to others during our life can be modified by the relationships and events we experience in our lifespan. A secure attachment style is associated with a capacity to manage distress, comfort with autonomy and the ability to form relationships with others, whereas insecure attachment can lead to dysfunctional relationships, emotional and behaviour avoidance. Attachment theory provides a useful framework to inform our understanding of relationship difficulties in people with psychosis. This paper aims to complement recent systematic reviews by providing an overview of attachment theory, its application to psychosis, including an understanding of measurement issues and the clinical implications offered. A narrative review was completed of the measures of attachment and parental bonding in psychosis. Its clinical implications are also discussed. The paper also explores the link between insecure attachment styles and illness course, social functioning and symptomatology. The following questions are addressed: What are the key attachment measures that have been used within the attachment and psychosis literature? What are the results of studies that have measured attachment or parental bonding in psychosis and what clinical implications can we derive from it? What are some of the key questions for future research from these findings in relation to the onset of psychosis research field? The most commonly used measures of attachment in psychosis research are reviewed. Self-report questionnaires and semi-structured interviews have mainly been used to examine attachment styles in adult samples and in recent years comprise a measure specifically developed for a psychosis group. The review suggests that

  1. Children's Representations of Attachment Relationships in Family Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fury, Gail; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the representational model of self and attachment figures in family drawings of 8- to 9-year-olds in a high-risk, racially mixed sample. Found that specific signs and global rating scales were related to early relationship history. Even after contemporary influences of child intelligence, stress, and emotional functioning were…

  2. Cell attachment on diamond-like carbon coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in fabrication of the ophthalmic introcular lens and likely to have applications ranging from semi-permanent to permanent implants. 2. Experimental. PMMA samples with 6 mm dia. and 2 mm thickness were used as the substrates for cell attachment and chemical state analysis. They were cleaned sequentially in an.

  3. Past Peer Victimization and Current Adult Attachment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; DeLucia, Janice

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the potential long-term effects of peer victimization experiences during childhood on attachment quality in current adult relationships in a sample of 386 university students attending 2 northeastern universities. Findings included (a) no significant gender differences regarding verbal or relational peer victimization; (b)…

  4. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  5. The influence of home and community attachment on firewise behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard T. Kyle; Gene L. Theodori; James D. Absher; Jinhee. Jun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of residents’ attachment to their homes and community on their willingness to adopt Firewise recommendations. Our sample was drawn from a population residing in the wildland–urban interface where the threat of wildfire is acute. The Firewise recommendations concerned 13 activities affecting home design,...

  6. Attachment Theory, Foster Parents and Diversity Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael; Fleming, Ted

    2009-01-01

    relevance to attachment within the biological and foster family. Yet every foster parent has a childhood attachment history that influences their interpersonal relationships in adulthood. The primary concern of the foster parent and their supports is with the foster child. But as a result the foster parent may distract or block reflection on their own attachment history. This presentation will focus on attachment theory and the adult, with particular reference to the foster parent. The pre...

  7. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  8. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  9. After Love: Attachment Styles and Grief Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1996-01-01

    Examines the association of attachment organization and recalled grief responses following the dissolution of a romantic relationship. Data based on college students' (N=118) responses resulted in four interpretable grief themes. Preoccupied attachment predicted self-reproach, fearful attachment predicted partner blame, whereas both fearful and…

  10. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  11. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  12. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  13. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  14. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt-II and VMI-V in Samples of Typical Children and Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Martin A.; Lopata, Christopher; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Smerbeck, Audrey M.; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Schiavo, Audrey; Thomeer, Marcus L.

    2010-01-01

    The visual-motor skills of 60 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs) and 46 typically developing children were assessed using the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test-Second Edition (BG-II) and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Fifth Edition (VMI-V). Within-group comparisons yielded substantive…

  15. The Role of Attachment and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies in the Development of Bulimic Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Kim; Goossens, Lien; Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline

    2017-07-29

    Following the theoretical propositions of the Emotion Regulation model of attachment, the current study investigated whether attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance might play a differential contributing role in the development of bulimic symptoms, through assumed differences in adopting specific maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in a sample of adolescents. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were administered to a community sample of 397 adolescents (Mean age: 14.02; 62.7% female) and this at 2 time points with a 1-year time lag. Results provided longitudinal evidence for the Emotion Regulation model of attachment in confirming the differential contributing role of the attachment dimensions on the development of bulimic symptoms in a sample of adolescents. More specifically, attachment anxiety seemed to be related to bulimic symptoms through rumination, while attachment avoidance through emotional control. These results may have clinical implications for assessment and treatment of bulimic symptoms in adolescents.

  16. Temperament, disordered attachment and parental sensitivity in foster care: Differential findings on attachment security for shy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, J.C.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    In a foster care sample, the moderating effect of temperamental shyness on the association between parental sensitivity and attachment quality was tested. The foster parents of 59 foster children (age M=57 months, SD=16.4) filled out the Child Behavior Questionnaire. To control for confounds,

  17. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  18. A Review on Attachment and Adolescent Substance Abuse: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bröning, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the relation of attachment and substance use disorders (SUD) in adolescence. Based on a theoretical introduction, we review evidence for a possible general link between SUD and insecure attachment, for links between specific forms of SUD and specific patterns of attachment, and for studies on family patterns of attachment in adolescence. Using medical and psychological databases, we identified 10 studies on adolescent SUD and another 13 studies on adult SUD. Empirical evidence strongly supports the assumption of insecure attachment in SUD samples. With regard to specific patterns of attachment, results mainly point towards fearful and dismissing-avoidance, whereas single studies report preoccupied and unresolved patterns. Results indicate different patterns of attachment in different groups of substance abusers, that is, fearful-avoidant attachment in heroin addicts and more heterogeneous results in abusers of other substances. Explorative data suggest different types of insecure family attachment patterns, which might imply different functions of substance abuse and lead to different treatment recommendations. Methodological problems such as poor assessment of SUD and the use of different measures of attachment limit comparability. Although a lot of research is still needed to address the unknowns in the relation between attachment and SUD, there is strong evidence for a general link between SUD and insecure attachment. Data on connections between different patterns of attachment and different pathways towards SUD are less conclusive but mainly point to disorganized and externalizing pathways. Evidence suggests that fostering attachment security might improve the outcome of state-of-the-art approaches in both early interventional treatment and prevention. Implications for individual and family approaches are outlined.

  19. Transitions in Friendship Attachment During Adolescence are Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephanie H; Heinze, Justin E; Miller, Alison L; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Evolution in styles of romantic and interpersonal attachment in depressed adult women during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, M; Chahraoui, K; Vinay, A; Jebrane, A; Bonin, B; Gisselmann, A; Larome, A

    2012-10-01

    Bowlby (1984) regarded attachment as a model of psychological vulnerability to depression. Since then, a large number of studies have considered vulnerability to depression in light of the idea of attachment style. Attachment styles correspond to two dimensions observed in relationships (anxiety and avoidance) evoking ideally the internal operating models of self and other respectively, as first described by Bowlby (1984). Two types of adult attachment styles are evaluated in our study: romantic attachment (Hazan and Shaver, 1987) and interpersonal attachment (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). The existing literature indicates that depression is associated with the insecure attachment styles, in both romantic an interpersonal relationships. Nevertheless, a question remains concerning the nature of the link between attachment style and depression: are attachment styles stable and independent of the depression or are they modified as the depression evolves? The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between attachment and depression in adult women hospitalized for depression; following up the evolution in their romantic and interpersonal attachment styles from the beginning to the end of their hospitalization. The study population consisted of 50 women hospitalized for an episode of major depression (Axis I, DSM IV). Individuals exhibiting bipolar disorders and other pathologies linked to depression were not included in the population. Sixty-eight percent of the depressed women in our population had previously experienced depressive episodes and 42% of them also exhibited a personality disorder (Axis II, DSM IV). The clinical group participated in two psychological investigations, one at the beginning (T1) and one at the end of the hospitalization (T2), including each time a clinical interview during which the depression as well as the romantic (ECR, 1998) and interpersonal (RQ, 1991) attachment styles were evaluated. Our findings showed that

  1. Mother-Infant Attachment Style as a Predictor of Depression among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Amani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: There are an increasing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment styles to psychopathology. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between attachment style and depression among students of Bu-Ali Sina University in Iran. Methods: This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 157 girl students who were randomly selected. They were evaluated by demographic questionnaire, Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI (Hazan and Shaver, and theBeck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. The data was analysis by using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis in SPSS 16 statistical package. Results: Findings indicated that secure attachment style had no significant correlation with depression and insecure attachment styles had a significant positive correlation with depression (p

  2. Preferred Attachment in Affiliation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloznelis, Mindaugas; Götze, Friedrich

    2014-08-01

    Vertices of an affiliation network are linked to attributes and two vertices are declared adjacent whenever they share a common attribute. For example, two customers of an internet shop (or video-sharing website) are called adjacent if they have purchased (or downloaded) the same or similar items. Assuming that each newly arrived customer is linked preferentially to already popular items we obtain a preferred attachment affiliation network that evolves in time. We show that the fraction of customers having neighbours scales as for large . Here is the ratio between the two intensities: intensity of the flow of customers and that of the newly arriving items.

  3. THE RIEDER AUTOMATIC RIFLE ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    In March 1981, Mrs H. J. R. Rieder donated her husband's presentation British .303 SMLE Rifle No 1 Mark III (number M-45374) with the Rieder Automatic Rifle Attachment to the Military Museum at the Castle in Cape Town. With it were a number of photographs, letters, documents and plans concerning this once secret invention which was tested outside the Castle during the Second World War. Fortunately, the documents donated by Mrs Rieder include a list of the numbers of the 18 rifles to which Mr ...

  4. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  5. Clinical evaluation of a dermic allograft in procedures to increase attached gingiva width

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira,Ésio de Oliveira; Fidel Junior,Rivail Antonio Sergio; Figueredo,Carlos Marcelo da Silva; Fischer, Ricardo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the use of alloderm to increase the width of attached gingiva. Nine patients were selected. The inclusion criteria were: attached gingiva smaller than 1 mm; Miller's class I and II gingival recession; patients able to attend control dental appointments; absence of periodontal pocket and endodontic treatment in the neighboring area where the acellular dermal graft would be placed. The clinical evaluation included: allograft shrinkage 7, 14, 21, ...

  6. TcI, TcII and TcVI Trypanosoma cruzi samples from Chagas disease patients with distinct clinical forms and critical analysis of in vitro and in vivo behavior, response to treatment and infection evolution in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maykon Tavares de; Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Alessio, Gláucia Diniz; Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos; Nogueira-de-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis Martins; Lana, Marta de

    2017-03-01

    The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection. The global results showed that the in vitro essays (acellular and cellular cultures) TcII parasites showed higher values for all parameters (growth and infectivity) than TcVI, followed by TcI. In vivo TcII parasites were more virulent and originated from patients with severe disease. Two TcII isolates from patients with severe pathology were virulent in mice, while the isolate from a patient with the indeterminate form of the disease caused mild infection. The only TcVI sample, which displayed low values in all parameters evaluated, was also originated of an indeterminate case of Chagas disease. Response to nifurtimox was not associated to parasite genetic and biology, as well as to clinical aspects of human disease. Although few number of T. cruzi samples have been analyzed, a discreet correlation between parasite genetics, biological behavior in vitro and in vivo (murine model) and the clinical form of human disease from whom the samples were isolated was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How tight are beetle hugs? Attachment in mating leaf beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.

  8. Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) assay for detection of equine arteritis virus in equine semen and tissue samples using the POCKIT™ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Nam, Bora; Skillman, Ashley; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2016-08-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses. Most importantly, EAV induces abortion in pregnant mares and can establish persistent infection in up to 10-70% of the infected stallions, which will continue to shed the virus in their semen. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) for the detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples. The newly developed assay had a limit of detection of 10 RNA copies and a 10-fold higher sensitivity than a previously described real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Evaluation of 125 semen samples revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 98.46% and 100.00%, respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 100.00% and 98.33%, respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. Both assays had the same accuracy (99.2%, k=0.98) compared to virus isolation. Corresponding values derived from testing various tissue samples (n=122) collected from aborted fetuses, foals, and EAV carrier stallions are as follows: relative sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 88.14%, 96.83%, and 92.62% (k=0.85), respectively for the RT-qPCR assay, and 98.31%, 92.06%, and 95.08% (k=0.90), respectively for the RT-iiPCR assay. These results indicate that RT-iiPCR is a sensitive, specific, and a robust test enabling detection of EAV in semen and tissue samples with very considerable accuracy. Even though the RT-qPCR assay showed a sensitivity and specificity equal to virus isolation for semen samples, its diagnostic performance was somewhat limited for tissue samples. Thus, this new RT-iiPCR could be considered as an alternative tool in the implementation of EAV control and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mother-Child Attachment Representation and Relationships over Time in Mexican-Heritage Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Carollee; Vu, Jennifer A.; Hamilton, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Continuity and intergenerational transmission of representations of attachment were examined in a longitudinal sample of 88 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children who participated in the local intervention group of the Early Head Start Evaluation Study. The authors interviewed mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Parent…

  10. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  11. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  12. Changes in attachment security and mindfulness as predictors of changes in depression and general anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, David; Gillath, Omri; Deboeck, Pascal; Lang, K.M.; Kerr, Barb

    2017-01-01

    Two studies examined the role short-term changes in adult attachment and mindfulness play in depression and general anxiety. Study 1, using a sample of college students (n = 121) who were not engaged in any clinical intervention, showed that changes in attachment anxiety and security, but not in

  13. Attachment, Stress, Dyadic Coping, and Marital Satisfaction of Counseling Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenfhausen, Kerrie K.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 191 married students from 23 Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs-accredited programs participated in a survey designed to examine factors that affect the marital satisfaction of counseling graduate students. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and dyadic coping accounted…

  14. Examining Attachment to God and Health Risk-Taking Behaviors in College Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, J.; Horton, K.D.; Ellison, Ch.G.; Loukas, A.; Downey, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on insights from attachment theory, this study examined whether three types of attachment to God—secure, avoidant, and anxious—were associated with health-risk behaviors, over and above the effects of religious attendance, peer support, and demographic covariates, in a sample of 328

  15. College Student Binge Eating: Attachment, Psychological Needs Satisfaction, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…

  16. Adult Attachment, Parent Emotion, and Observed Parenting Behavior: Mediator and Moderator Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Tanaka, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In a middle-class sample of mothers of 2-year-olds, adult attachment classifications measured in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) were related to maternal self-reported emotional well-being and observed parenting behavior, and the potential mediating and moderating roles of maternal emotion were tested. Mothers classified as dismissing on the…

  17. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  18. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  19. Grief and growth of bereaved siblings as related to attachment style and flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Orit; Katz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attachment style, coping flexibility, military/non-military cause of death, levels of grief reactions and posttraumatic growth (PTG), in 150 bereaved adult siblings in Israel. Insecurely attached participants, 72% of the sample, reported more grief and less PTG than did securely attached ones. Highly avoidant individuals exhibited the least amount of PTG. Securely attached siblings were more flexible and flexibly coping participants reported less grief and higher PTG. Cause of death was not related to grief and PTG. Discussion of these findings yields conditions enabling PTG after a sibling loss.

  20. More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment: infant coping and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Marina; Santos, Pedro Lopes Dos; Beeghly, Marjorie; Tronick, Edward

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effect of a set of factors from multiple levels of influence: infant temperament, infant regulatory behavior, and maternal sensitivity on infant's attachment. Our sample consisted of 48 infants born prematurely and their mothers. At 1 and 3 months of age, mothers described their infants' behavior using the Escala de Temperamento do Bebé. At 3 months of age, infants' capacity to regulate stress was evaluated during Tronick's Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) paradigm. At 9 months of age, mothers' sensitivity was evaluated during free play using the CARE-Index. At 12 months of age, infants' attachment security was assessed during Ainsworth's Strange Situation. A total of 16 infants were classified as securely attached, 17 as insecure-avoidant, and 15 as insecure-resistant. Mothers of securely attached infants were more likely than mothers of insecure infants to describe their infants as less difficult and to be more sensitive to their infants in free play. In turn, secure infants exhibited more positive responses during the Still-Face. Infants classified as insecure-avoidant were more likely to self-comfort during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more controlling during free play. Insecure-resistant exhibited higher levels of negative arousal during the Still-Face and had mothers who were more unresponsive in free play. These findings show that attachment quality is influenced by multiple factors, including infant temperament, coping behavior, and maternal sensitivity.

  1. Does maternal prenatal attachment predict postnatal mother-infant interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A; Hägglöf, B

    2000-07-01

    The current study examined whether maternal prenatal attachment is associated with the mother-infant relationship. One hundred pregnant women and their infants at 12 weeks participated in the study. The sample was part of the Umeâ Child and Family Development project and was randomly recruited by midwives or health visitors. The expectant women completed a self-administered questionnaire, the PAI (the Prenatal Attachment Inventory) measuring prenatal attachment towards their unborn baby. At about 12 weeks postpartum, mothers and their infants were observed and videotaped during an en face interaction. The results revealed that maternal prenatal attachment towards the unborn baby is a good predictor of the early mother-infant relationship. Mothers who were high on the PAI-factor fantasy, for example, in general showed more involvement while interacting with their babies. Mothers rated highly on PAI-factors such as interaction and affection stimulated their infants by using more proximal stimulation, while those rated highly on differentiation of self with the unborn baby used more distal stimulation. Maternal responsive behaviour was only predicted by infant attentive behaviour. This study demonstrated that maternal prenatal attachment during the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with the postnatal maternal involvement, and can serve as an important diagnostic aid in identifying those women for whom the mother-child interaction is likely to be sub-optimal.

  2. Attachment styles and self-concept: basis for positive adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria S. Martínez Festorazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the primary bonds and attachment styles wwhich are established with parental figures and / or their surrogates in the first years of life, without doubt are one of the basis and models for later relationships. Intense changes will be produce particularly during adolescence in the parental bonds and the scenario, which defines and reinforces personal autonomy to be extended. In this way, self-concept is probably one of the most researched constructs in psychological tradition if we compare it with other psychological and contextual variables. Nevertheless, a few studies explore especially the relationship between attachment and self-concept in adolescents. The aim of this empirical study was to analyze the relationship between attachment styles and self-concept dimensions in adolescents, from a salutogenic approach in order to identify if certain attachment characteristics are associated with more positive aspects of self-concept. A sample of 583 adolescents aged 15- 18 years from public and private schools in Mar del Plata completed the AF5 and IPPA scales. Significant positive relationships were confirmed between secure attachment style and self- concept dimensions. These results provide empirical support to advance in the research about which characteristics are specifically related to positive and healthy development in adolescents. 

  3. Difference in place attachment between students in Helsinki and in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusinović Dubravka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Place attachment refers to the process of human-place bonding; the bonding process includes both physical and social ties formed within an environment. In the last two decades, place attachment has been the subject of many studies, but there have not been many cross-cultural studies. The aim of this study was to determine differences in global attachment to house, neighbourhood and city among young people in Belgrade and Helsinki, with consideration of social and physical dimensions of place attachment. Additionally, the effects of gender on all types of place attachments were tested. Data were collected using the Place Attachment Scale (Hidalgo & Hernandez, 2001 and the Questionnaire on residential and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. The instrument was translated into Serbian and Finnish, respecting the translation procedure for cross-cultural studies (Brislin, 1986 and administered to subjects in their native language. The study was conducted on the sample of two hundred students of psychology, comprising: 100 inhabitants of Belgrade, and 100 of Helsinki, balanced by gender (60% female, 40% male and age (average 24.4 years. The following results can be pointed out: 1 young people living in Belgrade show greater degree of global attachment to their city than young people living in Helsinki to their city, 2 young people from Belgrade also show greater social ties within their city and house, in relation to peers from Helsinki, 3 physical attachment to house and city is also significantly higher in young inhabitants of Belgrade. An interesting finding is 4 the existence of significant differences between men and women in the degree of global, social and physical attachment to house and physical attachment to city in the Serbian sample, and non-existence of differences in place attachment between men and women in the Finnish sample. The findings are interpreted within the Hofstede's five Cultural Dimensions.

  4. The relationship between women's attachment style and perinatal mood disturbance: implications for screening and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Catherine; Leight, Kristin L; Fang, Yixin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate women's attachment style in relation to risk for pregnancy-specific distress and perinatal depression. During the 2nd trimester, 186 women were evaluated for Axis I psychiatric disorders. In the 3rd trimester they self-reported: attachment style, pregnancy experience, current life stress, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. At 4 months post partum, a sub-sample of them (n = 56) repeated the self-report questionnaires. Wariness of attachments (high on fear dimension) was associated with greater 'hassles' compared to 'uplifts' in the assessment of pregnancy (r = 0.31, p attachment security was negatively related to this ratio (r = -0.31, p attachment fear (t = (150) -2.32, p attachment style on prenatal depressive symptoms (beta = 1.7, p attachment styles for postpartum depression (beta = -2.88, p attachment security uniquely contributed to the risk for postpartum depression, beyond depression during pregnancy (R2 change from 0.25 to 0.35). An approach to perinatal psychiatric disorders that includes psychological factors such as attachment could improve screening, and provide pregnant women with specifically-tailored psychosocial interventions focused on modifying attachment schemas.

  5. Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Deborah F; Ettinger, Anna K; Mendelson, Tamar; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2011-04-01

    Although maternal attachment is an important predictor of infant attachment security and other developmental outcomes, little is known about the formation of maternal attachment in the first few months of the infant's life, particularly among ethnic minority mothers. The current study examined the predictors of postpartum maternal attachment in a sample of 217 Latina women enrolled in a perinatal depression prevention trial. Mothers' attachment to their infants was measured at 6-8 weeks postpartum using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale. A variety of predictors of early attachment were explored including: depressive symptoms during pregnancy, pregnancy intention, feelings about the pregnancy, and the quality of the partner relationship. The strongest predictor of lower maternal attachment was depressive symptoms late in pregnancy; pregnancy intention was marginally predictive of attachment, with lower scores being associated with unwanted pregnancies. The study fills a critical gap in our understanding of the role of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in shaping mothers' early attachment to their infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment and parenting in adult patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother's care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions.

  7. Effect of hot water spray on broiler carcasses for reduction of loosely attached, intermediately attached, and tightly attached pathogenic (Salmonella and Campylobacter) and mesophilic aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Singh, P; Lee, H C; Kang, I

    2013-03-01

    Chickens are known to harbor many bacteria, including pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water spray (HWS, 71°C for 1 min) in reducing bacterial contamination of prechilled broiler carcasses. For each of 4 replications, skin samples from 5 broilers were collected at 3 processing stages: after bleeding (feathers removed manually), after evisceration (with/without HWS), and after water chilling. Broiler skin was quantitatively assessed for loosely attached (by rinsing the skin), intermediately attached (by stomaching the rinsed skin), and tightly attached (by grinding the rinsed/stomached skin) mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and Campylobacter as well as for the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter. Broiler skins possessed 6.4 to 6.6 log cfu/g, 3.8 to 4.1 log cfu/g, and 2.8 to 3.5 log cfu/g of MAB populations after bleeding, evisceration, and chilling, respectively. The HWS resulted in more than 1 log unit of reduction in MAB immediately after evisceration and immediately after chilling regardless of microbial sampling method. Compared with MAB, the contamination of Campylobacter was low (1.7 to 2.6 log cfu/g) after bleeding, but the level was not reduced throughout the processing steps regardless of HWS. The application of HWS reduced the prevalence of Salmonella after chilling, but not for Campylobacter except for loosely attached cells. After hot water exposure, a partially cooked appearance was seen on both broiler skin and skinless breast surface. More research is required to effectively eliminate pathogenic organisms during processing and suppress any recovery of bacteria regardless of attachment type after chilling.

  8. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Reyhani; Aliye Shojafar; Morteza Modares Gharavi; Saeed Vaghee; Toktam Kazemeini; Shadi Shayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients afte...

  9. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, alexithymia, and body esteem in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationships between adult attachment, theoretical orientation, and therapist-reported alliance quality among licensed psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Sari; Shorey, Hal S

    2016-01-01

    Attachment anxiety has been depicted as an undesirable therapist characteristic based on findings that preoccupied therapists, relative to those with other attachment styles, report more ruptures in the therapeutic alliance. What has not been considered, however, is the extent to which attachment dynamics are related to theoretical orientations and how attachment styles and theoretical orientations combine to predict therapists' perceptions of the quality of their alliances. The present surveyed 290 licensed psychologists nationally. Results revealed that even within a sample of primarily secure psychologists, higher 15 levels of attachment anxiety correlated positively with the endorsement of psychodynamic orientations, and negatively with the endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations and self-reported alliance quality. Endorsement of cognitive-behavioral orientations, in turn, correlated positively with therapist-reported alliance quality. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which attachment dimensions should be considered in therapists' understandings of their therapeutic alliances.

  11. Attachment style and its relationship to working alliance in the supervision of British clinical psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Joanne M; Moberly, Nicholas J; Marshall, Yehuda; Reilly, James

    2011-01-01

    Although the supervisory relationship is thought to be critical in training clinical psychologists, little is known about factors affecting the supervisory alliance. We conducted an Internet survey of British clinical doctoral trainees (N = 259) in which participants rated their supervisory working alliance, parental style during childhood, pathological adult attachment behaviours and attachment style for themselves and their supervisors. Trainees' ratings of the working alliance were associated with perceptions of supervisors' attachment style, but not with perceptions of trainees' own attachment styles. Path analysis supported a causal chain linking parental indifference, compulsive self-reliance, insecure supervisor attachment style and lower ratings of the working alliance. Our results broadly replicate data from a US sample and suggest that attachment theory is helpful in understanding clinical supervisory processes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Attachment to Parents, Peers and Siblings in the Involved and Noninvolved Adolescents in Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachment, and the Inventory of Siblings Attachment. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in attachment to parents, peers and siblings between involved adolescents in bulling and noninvolved ones (p>0/0001. Regarding the attachment to parents, peers and siblings, noninvolved group scored higher than the involved groups. Also, among involved groups, the bully and the victim- bully groups received higher scores in attachment to mother prior to the peer attachment. Finally, the attachment to siblings in both groups was the lowest scores of attachment.

  13. Validation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II) in Greek and its added value to the Short Form 36 (SF-36) in a sample of people with or without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenouli, Georgia; Xenoulis, Kostis; Sarafis, Pavlos; Niakas, Dimitris; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2016-07-01

    There is controversy and ongoing interest on the measurement of functionality in the personal and social level. (1) to validate the Greek version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO DAS II) and (2) to determine its added value to the physical and psychological health subscales of the Short Form 36 (SF-36). In a cross-sectional design, data were collected between December 2014 and March 2015 by using three questionnaires (WHO DAS II, SF-36, PSS-14) in a sample of people with disabilities (n = 101) and without disabilities (n = 109) in Athens, Greece. WHO DAS II internal consistency, construct and criterion-related validity were assessed by Cronbach alpha, exploratory factor analysis and correlations; its added value by multivariable linear regression. Cronbach Alpha's were satisfactory for the WHO DAS II, PSS-14 and SF-36 (0.85, 0.88 and 0.96 respectively). Exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of one or two factors in people with or without disabilities, respectively. WHO DAS II score showed significant negative correlation with the physical and mental health scale of SF-36 score, especially strong for physical health while was positively related to PSS-14 score. In multivariate analysis mental health appraisal was related to perceived stress in both groups. This study support the validity of the Greek version of WHO DAS II and warranted its use in assessment and follow up of people with disabilities, contributing to the development of suitable policies to cover their needs and providing comparable data with other surveys using the same instrument. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intergenerational transmission of attachment in abused and neglected mothers: the role of trauma-specific reflective functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Nicolas; Ensink, Karin; Bernazzani, Odette; Normandin, Lina; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There are still important gaps in our knowledge regarding the intergenerational transmission of attachment from mother to child, especially in mothers with childhood histories of abuse and neglect (CA&N). This study examined the contributions of reflective function concerning general attachment relationships, and specifically concerning trauma, as well as those of maternal attachment states of mind to the prediction of infant attachment disorganization in a sample of mothers with CA&N and their infants, using a 20-month follow-up design. Attachment and reflective functioning were assessed during pregnancy with the Adult Attachment Interview. Infant attachment was evaluated with the Strange Situation Procedure. The majority (83%) of infants of abused and neglected mothers were classified as insecure, and a significant proportion (44%) manifested attachment disorganization. There was a strong concordance between mother and child attachment, indicative of intergenerational transmission of attachment in parents with CA&N and their infants. Both unresolved trauma and trauma-specific reflective function made significant contributions to explaining variance in infant attachment disorganization. The findings of this study highlight the importance of trauma-specific mentalization in the intergenerational transmission of attachment by mothers with a history of childhood maltreatment, and provide new evidence of the importance of the absence of mentalization regarding trauma for infant attachment. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Stochasticity of bacterial attachment and its predictability by the extended derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Teck Wah R; Nguyen, Vu Tuan; McMeekin, Thomas; Fegan, Narelle; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial attachment onto materials has been suggested to be stochastic by some authors but nonstochastic and based on surface properties by others. We investigated this by attaching pairwise combinations of two Salmonella enterica serovar Sofia (S. Sofia) strains (with different physicochemical and attachment properties) with one strain each of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Infantis, or S. enterica serovar Virchow (all with similar physicochemical and attachment abilities) in ratios of 0.428, 1, and 2.333 onto glass, stainless steel, Teflon, and polysulfone. Attached bacterial cells were recovered and counted. If the ratio of attached cells of each Salmonella serovar pair recovered was the same as the initial inoculum ratio, the attachment process was deemed stochastic. Experimental outcomes from the study were compared to those predicted by the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. Significant differences (P attached ratios for serovar pairs containing S. Sofia S1296a for all different ratios were apparent for all materials. For S. Sofia S1635-containing pairs, 7 out of 12 combinations of serovar pairs and materials had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratio of 0.428. Five out of 12 and 10 out of 12 samples had attachment ratios not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the initial ratios of 1 and 2.333, respectively. These results demonstrate that bacterial attachment to different materials is likely to be nonstochastic only when the key physicochemical properties of the bacteria were significantly different (P theory could successfully predict the attachment of some individual isolates to particular materials but could not be used to predict the likelihood of stochasticity in pairwise attachment experiments.

  16. In vitro retention loss of attachment-retained removable partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gülsen; Özmumcu, Baransel; Altinci, Pinar

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the importance of attachment types on the retention loss of extracoronal attachment-retained removable partial dentures depending on the usage period. In order to observe the retention loss of 5 different attachments (OT Strategy, OT Strategy-metal protected, Vario-stud-snap and Vario-soft 3 and ERA-RV) over time, attachment-retained partial dentures representing Kennedy II mod. I case were placed in a custom-made, retention test machine. For each minute, eight separating and joining movements were performed and retention values (Newton) of the attachments were recorded by computer. The retention tests implemented in 540,1080 and 2160 cycles. The data were evaluated statistically according to the two-way ANOVA and Tukey parametrical tests. The slide type attachment providing the best retention force was observed to be the most worn out by this process (p dentures were affected by the specific type of precision attachment as well as the usage period. Precision attachments with ball-type plastic matrices may be recommended for the clinical use due to their retention stability over time.

  17. Attachment and problem behavior of adolescents during residential treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, M.A.M.; Schuengel, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Attachment theory suggests that representations of previous attachment experiences may explain differences in psychosocial functioning. However, the nature of the association in clinical populations is unclear. Attachment representations were classified on the basis of Adult Attachment Interviews

  18. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  19. Sulphate radical generation through interaction of peroxymonosulphate with Co(II) for in-line sample preparation aiming at spectrophotometric flow-based determination of phosphate and phosphite in fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Carla C; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Ferreira, José R; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-09-01

    An advanced oxidative process relying on the interaction of peroxymonosulphate and cobalt(II) was implemented for generating the sulphate radicals in flow analysis, in order to accomplish in-line sample preparation thus improving the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate and phosphite in liquid foliar fertilizers. To this end, a flow-batch system with a heated chamber was designed. The sample was handled twice, with and without the step of phosphite oxidation to phosphate, and the formed orthophosphate was quantified after interaction with the vanadate-molybdate reagent. Phosphite was determined as the difference in analytical signals corresponding to sample handling with and without the oxidation step. Influence of Co(II) on the peroxymonosulphate activation, reagent concentrations and added volumes, acidity, temperature and heating time were investigated like aiming at to improve analytical recovery and measurement repeatability, as well as the and system ruggedness. The 6.6-20.0mgL(-1) P2O5 standards were in-line prepared from a single stock solution. Detection limits were estimated as 0.8 and 0.1mgL(-1) for P2O5 and P-PO4. Twenty-four samples are were run per hour, and results are were in agreement with those obtained by the official procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. History of perinatal loss and maternal-fetal attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Pegah; Simbar, Masumeh; Shams, Jamal; Ramezani-Tehrani, Fahimeh; Nasiri, Navideh

    2013-09-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) is an important requirement for optimal maternal-infant adaptation. Current studies showed conflicting findings about whether a history of perinatal loss (fetal/neonatal death) affects maternal attachment in pregnancy. "Does a history of perinatal loss affect maternal-fetal attachment behaviors?" One hundred women with and without a history of PL were recruited using a convenience method of sampling, from prenatal care services affiliated to Shahid Behesti University of Medical Sciences. Data collected by questionnaires from a convenience sample of multiparous women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy with no surviving children were compared with data from a selected cohort of primigravid women. The two groups of women were matched for health and literacy. The data collected included demographic characteristics and responses to 24 questions in five groups of behaviors on the Persian version of Cranly's Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13 and using t, ANOVA, Chi square, Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney tests. Finding showed that total score of MFA for women with a history of PL (68.95±9.20%) is not significantly different from this score for women without such a history (71.22±11.75%; pattachment behaviors related to "differentiation of self from fetus" in a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...... styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have...

  2. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  3. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......Objective: Psychological theories have postulated an association between insecure attachment and ADHD. The objective of this study is to investigate possible association between insecure attachment and ADHD in children and adults. Method: Review of literature was performed using the Psyc......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  4. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  5. Synergistic extraction and spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) using 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol: analysis of alloys, pharmaceuticals and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Ganesh S; Kolekar, Sanjay S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2011-05-01

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of copper(II) with 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] as a chromogenic reagent. The procedure was based on the synergistic extraction of copper(II) with 2',4'-dinitro APTPT in the presence of 0.5 mol L(-1) pyridine to give green colored ternary complex of a molar ratio 1:2:2 (M:L:Py) in the pH range 8.7-10.5. It exhibits a maximum absorption of colored complex at 445 nm and 645 nm in chloroform against the reagent blank. Beer's law was followed in the concentration range 10-80 μg mL(-1) of copper(II) and optimum range of 20-70 μg mL(-1) the metal as evaluated from Ringbom's plot. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of copper(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex in chloroform are 0.87×10(3) L mol(-1)c m(-1) and 0.072 μg cm(-2), respectively. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied, and use of suitable masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The proposed method is rapid, reproducible and successfully applied for the determination of copper(II) in binary and synthetic mixtures, alloys, pharmaceutical formulations, environmental and fertilizer samples. Comparison of the results with those obtained using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer also tested the validity of the method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  8. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  9. Ethnic group moderates the association between attachment and well-being in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Consedine, Nathan S

    2012-10-01

    Attachment styles are associated with well-being across the life span. Particularly in later life, when individuals face declining health and increasing dependency, patterns of attachment may relate to affective outcomes. However, few studies have empirically examined the attachment-well-being link at the end of the life span or considered whether ethnic group membership may moderate attachment-well-being links. Data from a sample of older adults (N = 1,116) were used to investigate how secure, dismissive, and fearful/avoidant styles predicted well-being in 4 ethnic groups; African Americans, European Americans, Eastern European immigrants, and English-speaking Caribbean immigrants. As expected, both secure and dismissive attachment dimensions were related to greater well-being, whereas fearful/avoidant attachment was associated with less. This positive impact of a secure attachment style of relating to others on well-being was stronger among African Americans and English-speaking Caribbeans compared with the European American and Eastern European immigrant groups. The negative impact of a fearful/avoidant attachment style of relating on well-being was buffered by being an English-speaking Caribbean but not for the other 3 groups. Results are interpreted in light of general and culture-specific premises of attachment. The article concludes with some implications and suggestions for future work.

  10. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent–child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:25120507

  11. The mediating role of mentalizing capacity between parents and peer attachment and adolescent borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emma; Sharp, Carla; Poulsen, Stig; Bo, Sune; Pedersen, Jesper; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment is a precursor and correlate of borderline personality disorder. According to the mentalization-based theory of borderline personality disorder, the presence of insecure attachment derails the development of the capacity to mentalize, potentially resulting in borderline pathology. While one prior study found support for this notion in adolescents, it neglected a focus on peer attachment. Separation from primary caregivers and formation of stronger bonds to peers are key developmental achievements during adolescence and peer attachment warrants attention as a separate concept. In a cross-sectional study, female outpatients (M age 15.78=, SD = 1.04) who fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for BPD ( N  = 106) or met at least 4 BPD criteria ( N  = 4) completed self-reports on attachment to parents and peers, mentalizing capacity (reflective function) and borderline personality features. Our findings suggest that in a simple mediational model, mentalizing capacity mediated the relation between attachment to peers and borderline features. In the case of attachment to parents, the mediational model was not significant. The current study is the first to evaluate this mediational model with parent and peer attachment as separate concepts and the first to do so in a sample of adolescents who meet full or sub-threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder. Findings incrementally support that mentalizing capacity and attachment insecurity, also in relation to peers, are important concepts in theoretical approaches to the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  12. The role of both parents’ attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children’s obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents’ attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers’ and fathers’. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father’s attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  13. The role of both parents' attachment pattern in understanding childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Laghezza, Loredana; Radi, Giulia; Battistini, Dalila; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2014-01-01

    Within the research area on the determinants of childhood obesity, a relatively new approach is the use of attachment theory to explore the mechanisms underlying children's obesity risk, especially considered as emotion regulation strategies in parent-child relationship. Few are the empirical researches that have addressed this issue. The empirical investigations have used self-report measures to assess adult attachment. In attachment studies, the use of interview methods and/or performance-based instruments is advised to evaluate the entire range of possible adult attachment patterns and comprehensively explain the emotional strategies, correlates, and consequences of individual differences in attachment system functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which both parents' attachment patterns serve as self-regulative mechanisms related to childhood overweight/obesity by the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) in a sample of 44 mothers and fathers of children referred for obesity. Insecure attachment was found as a risk factor both for mothers and fathers. Also unresolved/disorganization was found to play a significant role in childhood obesity. The role of father's attachment was explored and findings suggested considering it in etiology and treatment of childhood obesity.

  14. [The Relationship Between Attachment Representations of Foster Parents and Foster Children and the Role of the Child's Sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Katja; Kliewer-Neumann, Josephine; Bovenschen, Ina; Lang, Katrin; Zimmermann, Janin; Spangler, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Children who have been placed in foster care after having experienced difficult family situations need to experience secure relationships. The development of a secure attachment model is regarded as a key protective factor for a healthy development. The present study examines predictors of attachment representations in a sample of 37 foster children aged three to eight years. Children's attachment representations were assessed using the Attachment Story Completion Task, and foster parents' attachment representations with the Adult Attachment Interview. Female foster children scored higher in secure attachment representations than males. Attachment representations of male foster children were positively influenced by a secure attachment representation of their primary foster parent and slightly by the duration of placement in the foster family as well as their age of placement but differently than expected. These results suggest that male foster children may be more vulnerable in their development of attachment representations and that foster parents' state of mind regarding attachment as well as the duration of the placement seem to have an impact on the development of attachment patterns in their foster children. This should be considered in the choice and counseling of foster parents.

  15. The formation of secure new attachments by children who were maltreated: an observational study of adolescents in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michelle A; O'Connor, Thomas G; Briskman, Jacqueline A; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Stephen

    2014-02-01

    Children who were maltreated and enter foster care are at risk for maladjustment and relationship disturbances with foster carers. A popular hypothesis is that prior attachment relationships with abusive birth parents are internalized and carried forward to impair the child's subsequent attachment relationships. However, the empirical base for this model is limited, especially in adolescence. We examined the attachment patterns of 62 adolescents with their birth parents and their foster parents; we compared them to a comparison sample of 50 adolescents in normal-risk families. Attachment was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview; adolescent-parent interaction quality was assessed from direct observation; disruptive behavior symptoms were assessed from multiple informants. Whereas nearly all of the adolescents in foster families exhibited insecure attachments to their birth mothers (90%) and birth fathers (100%), nearly one-half were classified as having a secure attachment with their foster mother (46%) and father (49%); rates of secure attachment toward foster parents did not differ significantly from the rate in comparison families. Within the foster care sample, attachment security to the foster mother was predicted from current observed relationship quality and the duration of current placement. In addition, attachment quality in foster adolescents was associated with fewer disruptive behavior symptoms, and this association was equally strong in foster and comparison families. Our findings demonstrate that there is substantial potential for maltreated children to change and develop subsequent secure attachments in adolescence.

  16. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students? Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  17. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  18. Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. II: Sampling Efficiency and Half-Life Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Doornenbal, P.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Landman, W.J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Using uranine as a physical tracer, this study assessed the sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all glass impinger “AGI-30,” OMNI-3000, and Airport MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria

  19. Simplistic Attachment and Multispectral Imaging with Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Becker-Catania

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in spectral deconvolution technologies are rapidly enabling researchers to replace or enhance traditional epifluorescence microscopes with instruments capable of detecting numerous markers simultaneously in a multiplexed fashion. While significantly expediting sample throughput and elucidating sample information, this technology is limited by the spectral width of common fluorescence reporters. Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s are very bright, narrow band fluorescence emitters with great potential for multiplexed fluorescence detection, however the availability of NC’s with facile attachment chemistries to targeting molecules has been a severe limitation to the advancement of NC technology in applications such as immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Here we report the development of simple, yet novel attachment chemistries for antibodies onto NC’s and demonstrate how spectral deconvolution technology enables the multiplexed detection of 5 distinct NC-antibody conjugates with fluorescence emission wavelengths separated by as little as 20 nm.

  20. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  1. Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder: theoretical perspectives and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2007-02-01

    Attachment theory and reactive attachment disorder (RAD). To highlight current perspectives on attachment theory, RAD, and treatment implications using a case study of an 8-year-old patient with RAD. Selected multidisciplinary literature related to attachment theory and RAD. The literature provides a body of work that substantiates the importance of early attachment relationships to human development and highlights gaps in our knowledge related to treatment of children with RAD. The quality of early attachment relationships is correlated with future personality and brain development. Attachment disturbances are associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. Although evidence for the effective treatment of children with attachment disorders is minimal and inconclusive, the two major perspectives, developmental psychology and neuropsychoanalysis, offer guidelines for practice.

  2. Attachment and the Child in School. Part I: Attachment Theory and the 'Dependent' Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Heather

    2003-01-01

    This article uses the framework of attachment theory to describe a behavior pattern, the anxious resistant/ambivalent attachment pattern. Examples from educational practice illustrate the condition. Possible intervention approaches are suggested. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  3. Smartphone attachment for stethoscope recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    With the ubiquity of smartphones and the rising technology of 3D printing, novel devices can be developed that leverage the "computer in your pocket" and rapid prototyping technologies toward scientific, medical, engineering, and creative purposes. This paper describes such a device: a simple 3D-printed extension for Apple's iPhone that allows the sound from an off-the-shelf acoustic stethoscope to be recorded using the phone's built-in microphone. The attachment's digital 3D files can be easily shared, modified for similar phones and devices capable of recording audio, and in combination with 3D printing technology allow for fabrication of a durable device without need for an entire factory of expensive and specialized machining tools. It is hoped that by releasing this device as an open source set of printable files that can be downloaded and reproduced cheaply, others can make use of these developments where access to cost-prohibitive, specialized medical instruments are not available. Coupled with specialized smartphone software ("apps"), more sophisticated and automated diagnostics may also be possible on-site.

  4. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  5. Parent attachment, childrearing behaviour, and child attachment: Mediated effect that predict externalizing behaviour in preschoolers.

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6 clinically referred for EB and their parents from a middle-high income population. Child attachment was measured with the Attachment Q-set; parent's rememb...

  6. The influence of the number and the type of magnetic attachment on the retention of mandibular mini implant overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjee; Shin, Soo-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the retention of mini implant overdenture by the number, the type of magnetic attachment, and the directions of applied dislodging force. The experimental groups were designed by the number and type of magnetic attachment. Twenty samples were tested with Magden implants. Each attachment was composed of the magnet assembly in overdenture sample and the abutment keeper in a mandibular model. Dislodging forces were applied to the overdenture samples (50.0 mm/min) in 3 directions. The loading was repeated 10 times in each direction. The values of dislodging force were analyzed statistically using SPSS at 95% level of confidence. The retentive force of group 2 was greater than that of group 1 in both types of attachment in every direction (P type magnetic attachment was higher than that of cushion type attachment in both groups (P types (P types of attachment showed the lowest retentive force with anteriorposterior direction of dislodging force (P type of magnetic attachment. In both types of magnetic attachment, the greater retentive force was attained with more implants. Oblique retentive force of flat type magnetic attachment was greater than that of cushion type. Among all subgroups, anterior-posterior retentive force was the lowest among three different directions of dislodging force.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer-sol-gel tablet toward micro-solid phase extraction: II. Determination of amphetamine in human urine samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beqqali, Aziza; Andersson, Lars I; Jeppsson, Amin Dadoun; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2017-09-15

    Amphetamine selective molecularly imprinted sol-gel polymer tablets, MIP-tablets, for solid-phase microextraction of biofluid samples were prepared. An acetonitrile solution of deuterated amphetamine template and silane precursor, 3-(propylmethacrylate) trimethoxysilane, was soaked into the pores of polyethylene tablet substrates and polymerized by an acid-catalysed sol-gel process. Application of the resultant MIP-tablets to extract amphetamine from human urine samples followed by LC-MS/MS analysis was investigated. The extraction protocol was optimised with respect to pH of sample, addition of sodium chloride, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The final analysis method determined amphetamine in human urine with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0ng/mL and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 5ng/mL. Validation demonstrated accuracy of the method was 91.0-104.0% and inter-assay precision was 4.8-8.5% (RSD). Extraction recovery was 80%. The MIP-tablets could be re-used and the same tablet could be employed for more than twenty extractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  9. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  10. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  11. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  12. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  13. Attachment style, family and romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P G; Salter, K; Purves, D G

    2001-06-01

    In 1987 Hazan and Shaver showed that patterns of romantic love reflected attachment styles. In an extension of that study with 39 men and 33 women in college (ages 18-36 years), this research shows that family relationships may also affect romantic relationships indirectly through their association with attachment styles.

  14. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  15. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  16. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  17. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  18. Attachment Parenting: A Style That Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of attachment parenting, which emphasizes parental commitment, a low-stress pregnancy, childbirth preparation, breast-feeding with child-led weaning, prompt response to the baby's crying, flexible sleeping arrangements, close-knit father-mother-baby functioning, and the avoidance of detachment parenting. Attachment parenting…

  19. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  1. Argument Status and PP-Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Julie E.; Blodgett, Allison

    2006-01-01

    Prepositional phrase attachment was investigated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. Both attachment site (noun phrase or verb phrase) and argument status (argument or adjunct) were manipulated to test the hypothesis that arguments are processed differently than adjuncts. Contrary to this hypothesis, some previous research suggested that arguments…

  2. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment,

  3. Relationship of Attachment Styles and Emotional Intelligence With Marital Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Abbasi, Amir Reza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Aghamohammadiyan Sharbaf, Hamidreza; Karshki, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The early relationships between infant and care takers are significant and the emotional interactions of these relationships play an important role in forming personality and adulthood relationships. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship of attachment styles (AS) and emotional intelligence (EI) with marital satisfaction (MS). In this cross-sectional research, 450 married people (226 male, 224 female) were selected using multistage sampling method in Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Subjects completed the attachment styles questionnaire (ASQ), Bar-On emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire. The results indicated that secure attachment style has positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction (r = 0.609, P emotional intelligence and its components have positive significant relationship with marital satisfaction; thus, emotional intelligence and intrapersonal, adaptability and general mood components can significantly predict marital satisfaction (P stress management components cannot significantly predict marital satisfaction (P > 0.05). According to the obtained results, attachment styles and emotional intelligence are the key factors in marital satisfaction that decrease marital disagreement and increase the positive interactions of the couples.

  4. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  5. The Effect of Parenting Styles on Children Attachment Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علي زينالي

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of parenting style on prediction of children's attachment style. To achieve this aim, the study investigates whether different parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful Leads to shaping various attachment styles (secure, fearful, preoccupied and dismissing in children? 508 high school adolescent boys and girls with the age range of 14-19 participated in this study and were selected through Stratified Random Sampling method. Data were gathered through Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ and Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ. In order to analyze the data, the researcher used Multiple Regression statistics. The results showed, Authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles have positive and significant relationships with secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing attachment in children respectively and are considered as direct and significant predictor of them in children. The present study, with emphasize on fundamental role of parenting styles, recommend learning of authoritative parenting style and correction of authoritarian, neglectful and permissive parenting styles to parents in family setting.

  6. Attachment and family functioning in patients with internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenormancı, Ömer; Şenormancı, Güliz; Güçlü, Oya; Konkan, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Although the Internet is used effectively in many areas of life, some users experience problems because of over-use due to a lack of control. The diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction include disruptions in family relationships, but adequate data on the attachment styles and family functioning associated with this condition are limited. This study aimed to investigate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. The sample included 30 male patients consecutively admitted to the Bakırköy Mental Health and Research Hospital Internet Addiction Outpatient Clinic, who were diagnosed in clinical interviews as having Internet addiction according to Young's (1998) criteria. Thirty healthy males who were matched with the experimental group in terms of sociodemographic characteristics were included as control subjects. Both groups provided sociodemographic data and completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire-r (ECR-r) and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Patients with Internet addiction had higher BDI scores (PInternet addiction evaluated their family functioning as more negative and reported problems in every aspect addressed by the FAD. Scores on the FAD behaviour control, affective responsiveness, and problem-solving subscales (PInternet addiction have more anxious attachment styles as well as prominent disruptions in family functioning. Thus, it may be important to evaluate the attachment styles and family functioning of patients with Internet addiction. Indeed, comprehensive treatment approaches including other family members may make important contributions to treatment success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  8. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; Bosmans, Guy; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years) completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  9. Attachment and Autism: Parental Attachment Representations and Relational Behaviors in the Parent-Child Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seskin, Lynn; Feliciano, Eileen; Tippy, Gil; Yedloutschnig, Ruby; Sossin, K. Mark; Yasik, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    While attachment research has demonstrated that parents' internal working models of attachment relationships tend to be transmitted to their children, affecting children's developmental trajectories, this study specifically examines associations between adult attachment status and observable parent, child, and dyadic behaviors among children with…

  10. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  11. A sample of mJy radio sources at 1.4 GHz in the Lynx and Hercules fields - II. Cosmic evolution of the space density of FR I radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, E. E.; Best, P. N.; Snellen, I. A. G.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper the cosmic evolution of the space density of Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR I) radio sources is investigated out to z ~ 1, in order to understand the origin of the differences between these and the more powerful FR IIs. High-resolution radio images are presented of the best high-redshift FR I candidate galaxies, drawn from two fields of the Leiden-Berkeley Deep Survey, and previously defined by Rigby, Snellen & Best in Paper 1. Together with lower resolution radio observations (both previously published in Paper 1 and, for a subset of sources, also presented here) these are used to morphologically classify the sample. Sources which are clearly resolved are classified by morphology alone, whereas barely or unresolved sources were classified using a combination of morphology and flux density loss in the higher resolution data, indicative of resolved-out extended emission. The space densities of the FR Is are then calculated as a function of redshift, and compared to both measurements of the local value and the behaviour of the more powerful FR IIs. The space density of FR I radio sources with luminosities (at 1.4 GHz) > 1025 WHz-1 is enhanced by a factor of 5-9 by z ~ 1, implying moderately strong evolution of this population; this enhancement is in good agreement with models of FR II evolution at the same luminosity. There are also indications that the evolution is luminosity dependent, with the lower powered sources evolving less strongly.

  12. Highly sensitive and specific determination of mercury(II) ion in water, food and cosmetic samples with an ELISA based on a novel monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzhen; Li, Yuan [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Yang, Hong [Soochow University, College of Pharmacy, Suzhou (China); Pschenitza, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar [Technical University Munich, Chair for Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chemical Balneology, Munich (Germany); Deng, Anping [Sichuan University, College of Chemistry, Chengdu (China); Soochow University, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Suzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the environment. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of Hg{sup 2+} was developed. A new bifunctional ligand, 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (MNA), which contains a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic group and a mercapto group, was selected for the preparation of immunogen. After immunization of mice and performing the hybridoma technique, the obtained mAb was characterized for its binding affinity and selectivity for Hg{sup 2+}. Based on this novel mAb, an ELISA was established. At optimal experimental conditions, the standard curve of the ELISA for Hg{sup 2+} was constructed in concentration range of 0.1-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The values of IC{sub 50} and LOD of the assay were found to be 1.12 and 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The cross-reactivity was lower than 2 % with MNA, CH{sub 3}Hg, and CH{sub 3}Hg-MNA and was 11.5 % and 4.4 % for Hg{sup +} and Au{sup 3+}, respectively. No cross-reactivity was found with other metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, and anions such as Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3} {sup -}, NO{sub 2} {sup -}, HCO{sub 3} {sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4} {sup 2-}, indicating that the assay displays not only high sensitivity but also high selectivity. Different kinds of samples including water, milk, green vegetable, kelp, facial cleanser, and night cream were spiked with Hg{sup 2+} and the extracts were analyzed by ELISA. Acceptable recovery rates of 80.0-113.0 % and coefficients of variation of 1.9-18.6 % were obtained. A linear relationship between ELISA and cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS) as indicated by a correlation coefficient of 0.97 for liquid samples (water samples) and 0.98 for other samples was obtained. The proposed mAb-based ELISA provides a

  13. Attachment anxiety predicts IL-6 and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between adult attachment and health are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, inflammation, and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. 167 CABG patients completed an attachment questionnaire prior to surgery, and blood samples were taken before and after surgery to assess inflammatory activity. We found that attachment anxiety predicted higher plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration, and this association was mediated by self-reported sleep quality. Anxious attachment also predicted longer hospital stays following CABG surgery, even after controlling for demographic and clinical factors. These data suggest that increased levels of IL-6 may be a process linking adult attachment anxiety with health outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Manganese binding to the 23 kDa extrinsic protein of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarava, Natallia; Un, Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2007-06-01

    The recombinant form of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein (psbP) of Photosystem II (PSII) was studied with respect to its capability to bind Mn. The stoichiometry was determined to be one manganese bound per protein. A very high binding constant, K(A)=10(-17) M(-1), was determined by dialysis of the Mn containing protein against increasing EDTA concentration. High Field EPR spectroscopy was used to distinguish between specific symmetrically ligated Mn(II) from those non-specifically Mn(II) attached to the protein surface. Upon Mn binding PsbP exhibited fluorescence emission with maxima at 415 and 435 nm when tryptophan residues were excited. The yield of this blue fluorescence was variable from sample to sample. It was likely that different conformational states of the protein were responsible for this variability. The importance of Mn binding to PsbP in the context of photoactivation of PSII is discussed.

  15. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  16. Perceived parental attachment and achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, M; Baruss, Imants

    2011-12-01

    A significant amount of research in attachment theory has been devoted to factors affecting academic achievement, but less attention has been given to the role of attachment in the relation between academic achievement and achievement motivation. The current preliminary study examined the role of perceived parental attachment in achievement motivation. Self-report data obtained from the Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Achievement Goals Questionnaire, and the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory were collected from 50 university students with a mean age of 18.8 yr. Correlation and regression analyses indicated that parental facilitation of independence correlated significantly and negatively with fear of failure. Results yielded partial support for the hypothesis that performance-oriented goals are related to a fear of failure, whereas mastery-oriented goals are not. The results also suggest that high parental attachment in the case of high-frequency religious practitioners is related to an increased chance of acquiring a more avoidance-oriented achievement motivation.

  17. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  18. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-01-31

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  19. Adult attachment, couple attachment, and children's adaptation to school: an integrated attachment template and family risk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Mehta, Neera

    2009-01-01

    Most attachment theorists assume that parenting style is the central mechanism linking the quality of parents' attachment with their parents and adaptation in their children. Outside the attachment tradition, family risk models assume that many family factors affect children's adaptation, chief among them being couple relationship quality. The present study tests an integrated model that considers both theoretical and empirical links between attachment theory and family risk research. Seventy-three fathers and mothers whose first child was about to make the transition to elementary school were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and a new Couple Attachment Interview. The parents were also observed in separate visits during kindergarten year in interaction with each other and with their child. At the end of first grade, we obtained children's academic achievement test results and teachers' checklist observations of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Structural equations revealed that a family risk model that includes information from working models of attachment and observations of couple interaction predicts substantial variation in children's adaptation to elementary school.

  20. Insightfulness and later infant attachment in clinically depressed and nonclinical mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Lotzin, Annett; Quitmann, Julia H; Becker-Stoll, Fabienne; Tharner, Anne; Romer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal insightfulness and sensitivity and subsequent infant attachment security and disorganization in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant groups. Nineteen depressed mothers with infants ages 3 to 11 months participated in this study. Twenty nonclinical mother-infant dyads were matched to the clinical sample according to infant sex and age. Maternal depression was assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1994), insightfulness using the Insightfulness Assessment (IA), and sensitivity using the Maternal Sensitivity Scales (M.D.S. Ainsworth, 1969). IA classifications and subscales were considered separately. Later infant attachment was assessed by the Strange Situation Procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M.C. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). Depressed mothers tended to have less securely attached children than did nonclinical mothers. Within the clinical sample, the insightfulness categories correlated slightly moderately with attachment security, but were not related to attachment disorganization. Within the nonclinical sample, the IA categories were slightly moderately associated with attachment security and with disorganization. On IA subscales, relationship patterns differed in clinically depressed and nonclinical mother-infant dyads. These findings provide the first evidence of the predictive power of the IA categorization and subscales on subsequent infant attachment. They also may allow the development of different foci of intervention for enhancing insightful caregiving. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.