Shinozaki, Keiko; Kamada, Tomoari; Sugiu, Kuniaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Shiotani, Akiko; Hata, Jiro; Teramoto, Fusako; Haruma, Ken
To investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on corpus atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori was administered orally to 5-wk-old Mongolian gerbils; and the animals were then fed a control diet (Group C); a high-fat diet (Group F: 40% fat); a high-protein diet (Group P: 32% protein); or a high-fat, high-protein diet (Group FP: 40% fat, 32% protein) for 50 wk beginning at 7 wk of age. In uninfected animals, the mucosal thickness of the corpus was significantly greater in Group P and Group FP than in Group C (P diet suppresses corpus atrophic gastritis in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.
Full Text Available Artem Minalyan,1 Jihane N Benhammou,1 Aida Artashesyan,1 Michael S Lewis,2 Joseph R Pisegna1 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: At present there is no universally accepted classification for gastritis. The first successful classification (The Sydney System that is still commonly used by medical professionals was first introduced by Misiewicz et al in Sydney in 1990. In fact, it was the first detailed classification after the discovery of Helicobacter pylori by Warren and Marshall in 1982. In 1994, the Updated Sydney System was proposed during the International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis followed by the publication in The American Journal of Surgical Pathology by Dixon et al. Using the new classification, distinction between atrophic and nonatrophic gastritis was revised, and the visual scale grading was incorporated. According to the Updated Sydney System Classification, atrophic gastritis is categorized into multifocal (H. pylori, environmental factors, specific diet and corpus-predominant (autoimmune. Since metaplasia is a key histological characteristic in patients with atrophic gastritis, it has been recommended to use the word “metaplastic” in both variants of atrophic gastritis: autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG and environmental metaplastic atrophic gastritis. Although there are many overlaps in the course of the disease and distinction between those two entities may be challenging, the aim of this review article was to describe the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment in patients with AMAG. However, it is important to mention that H. pylori is the most common etiologic factor for the development of gastritis in the world. Keywords: autoimmune gastritis, pernicious anemia, gastric carcinoid
Ebule, I A; Longdoh, A N; Paloheimo, I L
Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis amongst dyspeptic patients and to compare the production of PGI and G-17 in the various atrophic stages. A total of 139 dyspeptic patients aged 46.68±15.50 years [females 106 aged47.23±15.51years, males 33 aged 44.48±14.62] were included during the one year period, March 2008-april 2009 at the district hospital Tombel. The degree of atrophy was determined by the levels of serum pepsinogen1, and gastrin-17 and the presence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies detected by an enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 79.82% and that for atrophic gastritis was 6.6%. A decrease in mean serum levels of gastin-17 along with increasing antral atrophy was observed; the mean serum levels of pepsinogen1 were reduced during progression of corpus atrophy. A weak reverse correlation(r =-0.036) was found between Gastrin-17 and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.
Background: Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. Objectives: To determine the ...
Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah; Laksmi, Lidya Imelda
Background: Chronic atrophic gastritis is a well-established precursor of gastric cancer. The development of atrophic chronic gastritis is multifactorial, involving the environment as well as host responses to the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence and risk factors of chronic atrophic gastritis.Method: The study was a cross sectional study on gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and P...
Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.
Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin
The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.
Comparison of the human gastric microbiota in hypochlorhydric states arising as a result of Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis and proton pump inhibitor use.
Bryony N Parsons
Full Text Available Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq. Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects.
Eccles, Richard; Duckworth, Carrie A.; Varro, Andrea
Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis) were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq). Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects. PMID:29095917
Minalyan,Artem; Benhammou,Jihane N; Artashesyan,Aida; Lewis,Michael; Pisegna,Joseph R
Artem Minalyan,1 Jihane N Benhammou,1 Aida Artashesyan,1 Michael S Lewis,2 Joseph R Pisegna1 1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: At present there is no universally accepted classification for gastritis. The first successful classification (The Sydney System) that is still commonly used by medical professionals was first introduced by Misiew...
Full Text Available Objective. Gastric acid plays an important part in the prevention of bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. If these bacteria have an ability of hydrogen (H2 fermentation, intraluminal H2 gas might be detected. We attempted to measure the intraluminal H2 concentrations to determine the bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods. Studies were performed in 647 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy. At the time of endoscopic examination, we intubated the stomach and the descending part of the duodenum without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intraluminal gas samples of both sites was collected through the biopsy channel. Intraluminal H2 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. Results. Intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas was detected in 566 (87.5% and 524 (81.0% patients, respectively. The mean values of intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas were 8.5±15.9 and 13.2±58.0 ppm, respectively. The intraduodenal H2 level was increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis, whereas the intragastric H2 level was the highest in patients without atrophic gastritis. Conclusions. The intraduodenal hydrogen levels were increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis. It is likely that the influence of hypochlorhydria on bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine is more pronounced, compared to that in the stomach.
Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Tanaka, Muhei; Kuroda, Masaaki; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Naito, Yuji; Hasegawa, Goji; Toda, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto
Atrophic gastritis is characterized by chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori infection and other factors. Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to coronary artery disease. To our knowledge, however, no reports are available on the relationship between atrophic gastritis and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis, which is diagnosed based on serum pepsinogen levels (pepsinogen I ≤ 70 ng/mL and pepsinog...
El-Serag, H; Sonnenberg, A; Jamal, M; Inadomi, J; Crooks, L; Feddersen, R
BACKGROUND—Gastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis. AIMS—To determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis. METHODS—Patients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis were graded a...
Multifocal tumors were observed in the setting of endocrine cell hyperplasia and atrophic gastritis. Investigations:CT scan,MRI, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, EGD, endoscopic ultrasonography and gastric analysis. Diagnosis: Carcinoids of the stomach and duodenum with atrophic gastritis and ZES accompanied by ...
Hye Won Kim
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Osteoporosis poses a great threat to the aging society. Hypochlorhydric or achlorhydric conditions are risk factors for osteoporosis. Atrophic gastritis also decreases gastric acid production; however, the role of atrophic gastritis as a related factor for osteoporosis is unclear. We investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women over 60 years of age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 401 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study, which was conducted during their medical check-ups. Bone mineral densitometry was measured using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Atrophic gastritis was defined endoscopically if gastric mucosa in the antrum and the body were found to be atrophied and thinned and submucosal vessels could be well visualized. RESULTS: The proportion of people with atrophic gastritis was higher in the osteoporotic group than in the group without osteoporosis. A linear relationship was observed in the proportion of atrophic gastritis according to the categories of normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (p for trend = 0.039 and femur (p for trend = 0.001. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of atrophic gastritis was associated with an increased odds of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 1.15-3.11. CONCLUSIONS: Atrophic gastritis is associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis in Korean elderly women.
Kim, Hye Won; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Gwang Seon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Lee, Anna; Ahn, Ji Yong; Ko, Byung Joon
Osteoporosis poses a great threat to the aging society. Hypochlorhydric or achlorhydric conditions are risk factors for osteoporosis. Atrophic gastritis also decreases gastric acid production; however, the role of atrophic gastritis as a related factor for osteoporosis is unclear. We investigated the relationship between atrophic gastritis and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women over 60 years of age. A total of 401 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study, which was conducted during their medical check-ups. Bone mineral densitometry was measured using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Atrophic gastritis was defined endoscopically if gastric mucosa in the antrum and the body were found to be atrophied and thinned and submucosal vessels could be well visualized. The proportion of people with atrophic gastritis was higher in the osteoporotic group than in the group without osteoporosis. A linear relationship was observed in the proportion of atrophic gastritis according to the categories of normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis at the lumbar spine (p for trend = 0.039) and femur (p for trend = 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of atrophic gastritis was associated with an increased odds of osteoporosis after adjusting for age, body mass index, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 1.15-3.11). Atrophic gastritis is associated with an increased likelihood of osteoporosis in Korean elderly women.
This thesis sheds light on the clinical utility of serum markers of gastric atrophy, pepsinogen and gastrin, in general practice in the Dutch province of Zeeland. The biomarkers were used in studies on atrophic corpus gastritis, as surrogate outcome of gastric cancer. Attention was paid to
Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Kamangar, Farin; Marcus, Pamela M; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z
Previous studies evaluating whether risk factors for gastric cancer are also associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown inconsistent results. We prospectively examined the association of atrophic gastritis, a pre-malignant condition for gastric cancer and long-term sequelae common to many exposure factors, and the risk of incident CRC. A total of 20,928 Finnish male smokers, aged 50-69, who were participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) had serum pepsinogen I (SPGI) levels measured. Participants with low SPGI levels (gastritis was histologically confirmed in 1,006 (95.0%) participants. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the risk of incident CRC. During a mean follow-up of 11.3 years (236,258 person-years), 425 incident CRCs were diagnosed. The incidence rates were 1.82, 1.48, and 1.82 per 1,000 person-years of follow-up for participants with normal SPGI (> or =25 microg/l), low SPGI, and histologically confirmed atrophic gastritis, respectively. Compared to subjects with normal SPGI, there was no increased risk of CRC among subjects with low SPGI (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.47-1.05) and among those with histologically confirmed atrophic gastritis (Adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). Atrophic gastritis is not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer among male smokers.
Discussion. Helicobacter pylori-infection -infection causes acute gastritis in most infected individuals. In a certain number of patients with persistent infection, chronic active gastritis develops, leading finally to glandular atrophy, a risk factor for gastric adenoma and cancer7 . Correa 19928 postulated the paradigm of gastric.
Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.
Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement.
Moreira,Letícia F; Barbosa, Alfredo J. A.
INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide mainly secreted by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, which is believed to have a modulating effect on cell growth. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of ghrelin and its precursor preproghrelin molecule in endocrine hyperplasias associated with atrophic body gastritis (ABG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies from 54 patients with ABG were processed for immunohistochemistry and specific antibodies against ghrelin, preproghrelin and ch...
Krasinski, S D; Russell, R M; Samloff, I M; Jacob, R A; Dallal, G E; McGandy, R B; Hartz, S C
The ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II in the circulation decreases progressively with increasing severity of atrophic gastritis of the fundic gland mucosa. Fasting blood was obtained from 359 free-living and institutionalized elderly people (age range, 60 to 99 years). A pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio less than 2.9, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 113 (31.5%) subjects. The prevalence of atrophic gastritis increased significantly with advancing age (P less than .05). Within the atrophic gastritis group, 84 had a pepsinogen I level greater than or equal to 20 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and 29 had a pepsinogen I level less than 20 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. A significant increase in the prevalences of elevated serum gastrin levels (P less than .005), low serum vitamin B12 levels (P less than .005), circulating intrinsic factor antibody (P less than .005), and anemia (P less than .025) was observed with stepwise increases in severity of atrophic gastritis. Subjects with atrophic gastritis exhibited a lower mean serum vitamin B12 level (P less than .05) and a higher mean folate level (P less than .05), but no difference was detected in mean hemoglobin levels or serum levels of iron, ferritin, retinol or alpha-tocopherol. It is concluded that serum pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels can be used to determine the prevalence and severity of atrophic gastritis, that atrophic gastritis is common in an elderly population, and that atrophic gastritis is associated with vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia. Further, higher folate levels in atrophic gastritis may be related to an accumulation of 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate in serum due to vitamin B12 deficiency and/or greater folate synthesis by the intestinal flora resulting from bacterial overgrowth secondary to hypo- or achlorhydria.
Campana, Davide; Ravizza, Davide; Ferolla, Piero; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Grimaldi, Franco; Albertelli, Manuela; Ricci, Claudio; Santini, Donatella; Brighi, Nicole; Fazio, Nicola; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Tomassetti, Paola
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the presence of risk factors for a type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia in a large cohort of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The study design consisted of an Italian multicentre, retrospective analysis. The study included all consecutive patients with chronic atrophic gastritis with or without type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasias followed at the participating centres. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were enroled at the participating centres. A total of 207 patients (154 female, 53 males, median age: 56.0 years) were included in the final analysis. One hundred and twenty-six patients had chronic atrophic gastritis without a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia and 81 had a chronic atrophic gastritis with type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia. The median Chromogranin A level, evaluated in 141 patients, was 52.0 U/L. At upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, atrophy of the gastric mucosa was mild/moderate in 137 patients and severe in 68. Intestinal metaplasia of the corpus was present in 168 patients. At histological examination, 81 patients had a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia (42 patients had a NET G1 and 33 a NET G2). The median Ki67 index was 2.0 %. At univariate and multivariate analysis, the risk factors for a gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia were: male gender, chromogranin A greater than 61 U/L, presence of intestinal metaplasia and age equal to or greater than 59 years. Chromogranin A greater than 61 U/L, the presence of intestinal metaplasia and male gender were independent risk factors for a type 1 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasia in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.
Lahner, Edith; Centanni, Marco; Agnello, Giacoma; Gargano, Lucilla; Vannella, Lucy; Iannoni, Carlo; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno
To investigate the occurrence of and risk factors for autoimmune thyroid disease in atrophic body gastritis patients. Cross-sectional study on 401 consecutive outpatients with atrophic body gastritis. Diagnostic work-up of thyroid disease was completed in 319 atrophic body gastritis patients (225 women, median age 55.5 years [range 17-95 years]). Data on anagraphics, lifestyle, family history, and biochemical and histological items were obtained at baseline, and associations between atrophic body gastritis and autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases were explored through descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Of the 319 atrophic body gastritis patients, 169 (53%) had an associated thyroid disorder, and 89 (52.7%) of these were unaware of it. The thyroid disease was autoimmune in 128 patients (75.7%) and nonautoimmune in 41 patients. Logistic regression showed that risk factors for having autoimmune thyroid disease in atrophic body gastritis patients were female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-12.1), presence of parietal cell antibodies (OR 2.5, 95% CI, 1.1-5.5), and presence of metaplastic atrophy (OR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.0-5.0). Autoimmune thyroid disease and atrophic body gastritis occur in a closely linked fashion, suggesting that atrophic body gastritis patients should be investigated for an occult autoimmune thyroid disease, in particular women and those with positive parietal cell antibodies.
Background and aims: The development of atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) is multifactorial, involving environment as well as host responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in ACG in a European dyspeptic population.
Vannella, L; Lahner, E; Osborn, J; Bordi, C; Miglione, M; Delle Fave, G; Annibale, B
Atrophic gastritis, involving the gastric body mucosa, predisposes to gastric neoplastic lesions (GNL). However, regular gastroscopic-histological follow-up for GNL is not recommended for patients with atrophic gastritis. To evaluate risk factors for the progression to GNL in a cohort of patients with atrophic gastritis. A total of 300 patients with atrophic gastritis [205 women, aged 54 (18-78) years] underwent gastroscopy with six gastric antrum and body biopsies. All patients had at least one follow-up gastroscopy/histology at an interval of at least 1 year after the atrophic gastritis diagnosis. Baseline clinical and histological features were analysed as risk factors for the development of GNL by Cox-regression. During a median follow-up of 4.3 (1-16.5) years, 15 GNL were detected in 14 of the 300 patients with atrophic gastritis: three were gastric cancer, whereas 12 were non-invasive neoplasia. The annual incidence for GNL was 1%. Cox-regression analysis identified the following risk factors: age over 50 years (HR 8.8, 95%CI 1.2-68.4), atrophic pangastritis (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-14.1) and severe intestinal metaplasia in the gastric body (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.3-11.8). Atrophic pangastritis, severe body intestinal metaplasia and/or age over 50 years increase the risk for developing GNL in patients with atrophic gastritis. In this subset of patients, an endoscopic-histological follow-up for GNL surveillance may be worthwhile.
Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; van Oijen, Martijn; Perez Perez, Guillermo; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph
Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach.
Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph
Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613
Full Text Available The clinical pathological characteristics of 3969 adult patients with chronic atrophic gastritis were retrospectively studied. The positivity of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in atrophic gastric specimens increased with age; however, H. pylori positivity and inflammatory activity decreased significantly with increased age. H. pylori infection was present in 21.01% of chronic atrophic gastritis patients, and 92.33% of the subjects with H. pylori infection were found to have simultaneous inflammatory activity. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity markedly increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. In conclusion, the incidence of H. pylori infection decreased with age and correlated significantly with inflammatory activity in atrophic gastritis patients. The intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia positivity notably increased as the degree of gastric atrophy increased. Large population-based prospective studies are needed to better understand the progression of CAG.
Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yanhong; Wu, Kai; Li, Dan [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The 309 Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China)
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a very common gastritis and one of the major precursor lesions of gastric cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism underlying CAG is unclear, but its elucidation is essential for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer and appropriate intervention. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used in the present study to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Samples from 21 patients (9 females and 12 males; mean age: 61.8 years) were used. We identified 18 differentially expressed proteins in CAG compared with matched normal mucosa. Eight proteins were up-regulated and 10 down-regulated in CAG when compared with the same amounts of proteins in individually matched normal gastric mucosa. Two novel proteins, proteasome activator subunit 1 (PSME1), which was down-regulated in CAG, and ribosomal protein S12 (RPS12), which was up-regulated in CAG, were further investigated. Their expression was validated by Western blot and RT-PCR in 15 CAG samples matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of RPS12 was significantly higher in CAG than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression level of PSME1 in CAG was significantly lower than in matched normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.05). This study clearly demonstrated that there are some changes in protein expression between CAG and normal mucosa. In these changes, down-regulation of PSME1 and up-regulation of RPS12 could be involved in the development of CAG. Thus, the differentially expressed proteins might play important roles in CAG as functional molecules.
Green, T J; Venn, B J; Skeaff, C M; Williams, S M
To determine the serum vitamin B(12) status of older New Zealanders and to assess the impact of atrophic gastritis on vitamin B(12) status. A cross-sectional nationally representative population-based survey. Serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were used to assess vitamin B(12) status. The presence and severity of atrophic gastritis was classified using serum pepsinogen I and II. A total of 466 noninstitutionalized urban and rural dwelling New Zealanders aged 65 y or older who participated in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey. The prevalence of deficient (gastritis was 6.7% (severe 3.1%, mild-moderate 3.6%). While atrophic gastritis increased the relative risk (RR, 95% CI) of having a deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentration by 21-fold (6-67) and five-fold (1-17), respectively, those who had atrophic gastritis made up only 33 and 6% of the participants with deficient or marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations. An intake of vitamin B(12) from food that exceeded the recommended dietary allowance (2.4 mug/day) did not protect against deficient (RR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2) or marginal (RR 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.7) serum vitamin B(12) status. Vitamin B(12) supplement users had a reduced risk of having deficient and marginal vitamin B(12) status (RR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There is a relatively high prevalence of deficient and marginal serum vitamin B(12) concentrations among older New Zealanders. However, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis was low in the New Zealand elderly compared with other surveys. Although atrophic gastritis was a risk factor for low vitamin B(12) status, it did not fully explain the prevalence of low serum vitamin B(12).
Cindoruk, Mehmet; Yetkin, Ilhan; Deger, Serpil Muge; Karakan, Tarkan; Kan, Erdal; Unal, Selahattin
AIM: To determine the association between H pylori infection and serum ghrelin levels in patients without atrophic gastritis. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (24 males and 26 females) with either H pylori-positive gastritis (n = 34) or H pylori-negative gastritis (n = 16) with normal gastric acid secretion determined by 24-h pHmetry and without atrophic gastritis in histopathology were enrolled in this study. Thirty-four H pylori-infected patients were treated with triple therapy consisting of a daily regimen of 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1 g amoxicillin bid and 500 mg clarithromycin bid for 14 d, followed by an additional 4 wk of 30 mg lansoprazol treatment. H pylori infection was eradicated in 23 of 34 (67.6%) patients. H pylori-positive patients were given eradication therapy. Gastric acidity was determined via intragastric pH catethers. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: There was no signifficant difference in plasma ghrelin levels between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative groups (81.10 ± 162.66 ng/L vs 76.51 ± 122.94 ng/L). In addition, there was no significant difference in plasma ghrelin levels and gastric acidity levels measured before and 3 mo after the eradication therapy. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection does not influence ghrelin secretion in patients with chronic gastritis without atrophic gastritis. PMID:17461454
Gashi, Zaim; Zekaj, Sadik; Haziri, Adem; Bakalli, Aurora
Chronic Gastritis is the most common manifestation of infection with Helicobacter pylori. Changes in the gastric mucosa have tendency to progress towards mucosal atrophy, most likely in patients with gastric ulcer. We have explored the frequency of the presence of atrophic gastritis in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers. We included 175 patients in a prospective study, 119 of whom were patients with duodenal ulcer and 56 suffered from gastric ulcer. The mean age of the patients with duodenal ulcer was 42.27 years, while patients with gastric ulcer had a mean age of 51.87 years. Biopsy was done on all patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer for histopathological examination, in order to confirm the presence of atrophic gastritis. All examined patients were positive for H. Pylori status. The presence of gastritis by type of ulcer, duodenal or gastric, was as follows: type without atrophy 20% and 0%, mild atrophy 61% and 14% and severe atrophy 22% and 86%, respectively. In patients with duodenal ulcers more often occurs mild atrophic gastritis (p < 0001). In the patients with gastric ulcers most often occur alterations with more pronounced gastric atrophy (p < 0.01).
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies about aquaporin 3 (AQP3 in the gastrointestinal tract were carried out on both in vivo and in vitro. The role of AQP3-mediated water transport in human gastrointestinal tract is still unclear. Our aim in this study was to explore the expression of AQP3 gene in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG atients and to determine its possible function in the development of gastritis.
METHODS: Twenty-two outpatients diagnosed as CSG and 12 outpatients diagnosed as CAG were selected randomly. Ten cases of healthy individuals were selected as normal control group. In all cases, AQP3 gene expression of gastric mucosa was detected by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR.
RESULTS: The AQP3 gene expression was significantly higher in gastric mucosa of CSG and healthy individuals than that in CAG (P<0.01. However, there was no significant difference in the AQP3 gene expression between helicobacter pylori positive patients and helicobacter pylori negative patients (P>0.05.
CONCLUSIONS: AQP3 expression might play certain role in the occurrence and development of gastritis.
KEY WORDS: Aquaporin 3, chronic superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis.
Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others
The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).
Nagy, Ferenc; Molnár, Tamás; F Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Tiszlavicz, László; Lonovics, János
Ulcerative colitis seldom associated with nutritive and/or salicylate allergy. Authors present a case of both allergic events at the course of the disease. In 1996 a 19-year-old girl was referred with a history of blood in stool as well as diarrhoea, suggesting ulcerative proctitis. Biopsy revealed ulcerative colitis of the rectum mucosa with eosinophilic infiltration and 20% peripheral eosinophilia was found. Allergic origin and worm infection were ruled out, and after tinidazol treatment, four year elapsed without any signs or symptoms. In December 2000 blood in stools and upper abdominal complaints developed without peripheral eosinophilia. Gastroscopy and biopsy showed a mild chronic gastritis. Olsalazine, budesonide enema and famotidin treatment were started, but then later changed to mesalazine and pantoprazol, because of the constant stomach complaints. The next five months passed without any symptoms. The patient had to break off her seashore journey in July 2000 because of stomach complaints, vomiting and exsiccosis. Peripheral eosinophilia (27.3%) was evident. Gastroscopy revealed erosive ulcers and the biopsy showed eosinophilic gastritis. Biopsies from the jejunum, duodenum and antrum as well as enteroscopy and biopsies from the rectum showed mild eosinophilic infiltration. An allergy test proved the presence of IgE against salicylate, egg protein, seafood protein and the lymphocyte transformation test was also positive against salicylate. Oral food challenges proved to be negative and the amino-salicylate treatment was stopped. After a temporary symptom free period, bloody stools reappeared in May 2003; the peripheral eosinophilia still existed, but had decreased (22.2%). Esomeprazol, and methyl-prednisolone containing enema (40 mg/day/2 weeks) followed by budesonide enema twice a week resulted in a symptom free period and peripheral eosinophilia became almost normalised (6.2%). The authors report a case having ulcerative proctitis first, than
Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Hayashida, Masaki; Shirabe, Susumu
Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is implicated in gastric and extra-gastric diseases. While gastritis-related chronic inflammation represents a known trigger of metabolic disturbances, whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) is affected by gastritis status remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the effect of HP-related gastritis on the risk of MetS. We retrospectively enrolled patients undergoing screening for MetS between 2014 and 2015. Investigations included HP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody assays to detect HP infection, and serum pepsinogen assays to evaluate atrophic gastritis status. The risk of MetS was evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses with two covariates: serum HP infection status (IgG levels) and atrophic gastritis status (two criteria were applied; pepsinogen I/II ratio risks of MetS. On the other hand, AG (defined in terms of serum PG I/II risk of MetS (OR of 2.52 [95% CI 1.05-7.52]). After stratification according to HP IgG concentration, patients with low HP infection status had the lowest MetS risk (defined as an odds ratio [OR] adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking and physical activity status). Taking this result as a reference, patients with negative, moderate, and high HP infection status had ORs (with 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of 2.15 (1.06-4.16), 3.69 (1.12-16.7), and 4.05 (1.05-26.8). HP-associated gastritis represents a risk factor for MetS. Research should determine why low and not negative HP infection status is associated with the lowest MetS risk.
Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Boer, W.A. de; Jansen, J.B.M.J.
BACKGROUND: A high level of gastric acid secretion is considered to be a risk factor for reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus. Corpus gastritis may have a protective effect on the oesophagus, because of decreased gastric acid output. AIM: To determine if corpus gastritis is associated with
Full Text Available Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA requires an aggressive approach since primary thrombotic microangiopathy syndromes such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP can progress rapidly to a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis can be challenging even for an experienced hematologist. We present a case of a 52-year-old male who presented with symptoms of mesenteric panniculitis and showed signs of MAHA. His condition was attributed to severe vitamin B12 deficiency secondary to chronic atrophic gastritis and initiation of appropriate therapy was met with complete resolution of symptoms and normalization of hematologic parameters.
Drobins'ka, O V; Gaĭda, L M; Dvorshchenko, K O; Tymoshenko, M O; Ostapchenko, L I
The lipid peroxidation state and the system functioning of antioxidant protection in parietal cells under rat chronic atrophic gastritis development was investigated. It was detected that the compensatory increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not affect the lipoperoxidation process and this resulted in accumulation of toxic TBA reactive substances and diene conjugates during the whole stages of the experimental pathology development. It was shown that the reserved power of the glutathione antioxidant system is sufficient to provide adoptable response in the acute period of the disease owing to increasing intracellular found of the reduced glutathione, but it is insufficient to prevent its decreasing in parietal cells in case of the chronic atrophic gastritis development. Our findings suggest that glutathione system is involved in processes of gastric atrophy. The obtained results testify about considerable system dysfunctions of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant protection in processes of the rat experimental atrophic gastritis development.
Li, Xiaozhou; Lin, Junxiu; Jia, Chunde; Wang, Rong
In this paper, we attempt to find a valid method to distinguish gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Auto-fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of laser induced (514.5 nm and 488.0 nm) was measured. The serum spectrum is different between normal and cancer. Average value of diagnosis parameter for normal serum, red shift is less than 12 nm and Raman relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 nm excited is stronger than that of 488.0 nm. To gastric cancer, its red shift of average is bigger than 12 nm and relative intensity of Raman peak C by 514.5 nm excited is weaker than that by 488.0 nm. To atrophic gastritis, the distribution state of Raman peaks is similar with normal serum and auto-fluorescence spectrum's shape is similar to that of gastric cancer. Its average Raman peak red shift is bigger than 12 nm and the relative intensity of peak C by 514.5 excited is stronger than that of by 488.0. We considered it as a criterion and got an accuracy of 85.6% for diagnosis of gastric cancer compared with the result of clinical diagnosis.
Sierra, Rafaela; Une, Clas; Ramírez, Vanessa; Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; González, María I; Ramírez, José A; de Mascarel, Antoine; Cuenca, Patricia; Pérez-Pérez, Guillermo; Mégraud, Francis
AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA+ infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA+ was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA+ status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population. PMID:19030199
Pittman, Meredith E; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Robertson, Scott A; Montgomery, Elizabeth A
Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis (AMAG) is a significant risk factor for pernicious anemia and gastric neoplasia. Still, the histologic features of AMAG are frequently overlooked, especially in the early stages of the disease. The purpose of our study, therefore, was to catalogue the progression of histologic changes that precede the development of AMAG in affected individuals. Over a 2-year period (2012 to 2014), the diagnosis of AMAG was rendered on material from 113 patients seen at Johns Hopkins Hospital (∼1.8% of "in house" gastric biopsies). Prior gastric body biopsies had been performed on 54 (48%) patients in the cohort, and the majority of these specimens had also shown AMAG. Eighteen of the previous biopsies, however, carried a diagnosis other than AMAG: 13 inactive chronic gastritis, 2 acute Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and 1 each of eosinophilic gastritis, iron pill gastritis, and proton-pump inhibitor-like effect. Upon review of these 18 biopsies, the most common histologic findings were heavy full-thickness or deep lamina propria chronic inflammation (12), inflammatory destruction of oxyntic glands (12), metaplasia (intestinal, pyloric, or pancreatic acinar) (10), prominent lamina propria eosinophils (8), and parietal cell pseudohypertrophy (4). At least 2 of these features were present in the majority (13, 72%) of the biopsies. In addition, 7 (58%) of these patients were also found to have another autoimmune or inflammatory disorder before the diagnosis of AMAG. Although subtle, histologic features of developing AMAG are identifiable in routine gastric body biopsies. When metaplasia, full-thickness chronic inflammation, and/or oxyntic destruction are seen, a note suggesting laboratory testing and/or close clinical follow-up in this subset of patients may be warranted.
Ahn, Su Young; Lee, Sun-Young; Hong, Sung Noh; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Jin, Choon Jo; Han, Hye Seung
Long-term Helicobacter pylori infection results in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with Cdx2 expression. We have tried to determine if there was a link between endoscopic and histological diagnosis of IM based on the status of aberrant Cdx2 expression. One hundred and one subjects agreed to upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination, with biopsy sampling for histology, Giemsa, and Cdx2 immunohistochemical staining before and after the treatment. On endoscopic examination, atrophic gastritis was defined as discoloration with blood vessel transparency, and was classified as either closed or open. Metaplastic gastritis was defined by the presence of whitish patches, whitish plaques, and/or homogeneous whitish discoloration. Histologic analysis was performed to determine H. pylori density, intensity of acute polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates and chronic mononuclear infiltrates, gastric atrophy, and IM as demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for cdx2. Cdx2 protein expression (P=0.018) and the prevalence of histologically detected IM (P=0.011) were higher in cases of endoscopically diagnosed open-type atrophic gastritis and metaplastic gastritis than in closed-type atrophic gastritis and nonatrophic/nonmetaplastic cases. The degree of activity (P=0.006) and inflammation (P=0.007) improved significantly after four weeks of successful H. pylori eradication treatment, whereas the degree of atrophy, metaplasia, and Cdx2 expression did not. Unlike endoscopic diagnosis of closed-type atrophic gastritis, that of open-type atrophic gastritis is highly correlated with the histological diagnosis of IM and Cdx2 expression. Endoscopically diagnosed open-type atrophic gastritis and endoscopically diagnosed metaplastic gastritis have similar histological features, which suggests that a high percentage of IM cases are diagnosed as open-type atrophic gastritis by endoscopic examination.
Martínez-López, Juan L.E.; Torres, Javier; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.
Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. PMID:24448220
Sierra, Rafaela; Une, Clas; Ramirez, Vanessa; Alpizar-Alpizar, Warner; Gonzalez, Maria-I; Ramirez, Jose-A; De Mascarel, Antoine; Cuenca, Patricia; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Megraud, Francis
To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA(+) infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA(+) was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA(+) status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcohol consumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcer was associated with CagA(+) (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) and smoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 microg/L as well as PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA(+). In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, H pylori CagA(+) is not associated with ABG, but it is a risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population.
Li, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Ying; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lu-Ying; Tian, Meng-Meng; Feng, Guo-Shuang; You, Wei-Cheng; Li, Ji-You
To investigate the effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene polymorphisms, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, on the risk of developing severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). A total of 372 cases were selected from a cohort study in Linqu County, a high risk area for gastric cancer (GC) in northern China. To obtain a sufficient group size, patients with normal or superficial gastritis were included. Based on an average follow-up period of 56 mo, the 372 cases were divided into no progression group (no histological progression from normal or superficial gastritis, n = 137), group I (progressed from normal or superficial gastritis to SCAG, n = 134) and group II (progressed from normal or superficial gastritis to IM, n = 101). IL-8, MIF gene polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and DNA sequencing. An increased risk of SCAG was found in subjects with IL-8-251 AA genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.23-5.72] or IL-8-251 A allele carriers (AA + AT) (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.09). An elevated risk of IM was found in subjects with IL-8-251 AT genotype (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.25-4.14) or IL-8-251 A allele carriers (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.16-3.69). An increased risk of SCAG was found in subjects with MIF-173 GC genotype (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.38-4.02) or MIF-173 C allele carriers (GC + CC) (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.21-3.55). An elevated risk of IM was found in subjects with MIF-173 CC genotype (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.16-4.46) or MIF-173 C allele carriers (OR = 3.84, 95% CI: 1.58-9.34). The risk of SCAG and IM was more evident in subjects carrying IL-8-251 A allele (OR = 6.70, 95% CI: 1.29-9.78) or MIF-173 C allele (OR = 6.54, 95% CI: 2.97-14.20) and positive for H. pylori infection. IL-8-251 and MIF-173 gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with the risk of SCAG and IM in a population with a high risk
Vannella, Lucy; Lahner, Edith; Annibale, Bruno
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an inflammatory condition characterized by the loss of gastric glandular structures which are replaced by connective tissue (non-metaplastic atrophy) or by glandular structures inappropriate for location (metaplastic atrophy). Epidemiological data suggest that CAG is associated with two different types of tumors: Intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) and type I gastric carcinoid (TIGC). The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to the development of these gastric tumors are different. It is accepted that a multistep process initiating from Helicobacter pylori-related chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa progresses to CAG, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and, finally, leads to the development of GC. The TIGC is a gastrin-dependent tumor and the chronic elevation of gastrin, which is associated with CAG, stimulates the growth of enterochromaffin-like cells with their hyperplasia leading to the development of TIGC. Thus, several events occur in the gastric mucosa before the development of intestinal-type GC and/or TIGC and these take several years. Knowledge of CAG incidence from superficial gastritis, its prevalence in different clinical settings and possible risk factors associated with the progression of this condition to gastric neoplasias are important issues. This editorial intends to provide a brief review of the main studies regarding incidence and prevalence of CAG and risk factors for the development of gastric neoplasias.
Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki
The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autoimmune atrophic fundic gastritis induces the pernicious anemia (PA, as well as the changes in both epithelium and endocrine cells of gastric mucosa. The most important complications are: achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia, gastric cancer and enterochromaffin-like ( ECL carcinoid. The aim of this study was to examine ECL carcinoid histogenesis in A-gastritis associated with PA. Methods. During the period from 2000−2006, 65 patients with PA and 30 patients of the control group were examined. Histopathological examination was done in endoscopical biopsies of gastric mucosa fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Paraffin sections were stained with classic hematoxylin-eosin (HE; histochemical AB-PAS (pH 2.5, cytochemical argyrophilic Servier-Munger′s and immunocytochemical PAP methods for G cell identification and chromogranin A antibodies - specific marker for neuroendocrine ECL cells. Both G and ECL cells were counted per 20 fields, of surface 0.0245312 mm2 by a field. Basal gastrin serum levels were also examined by using radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The obtained results were statisticaly calculated by using Student΄s t test. Results. Marked antral G cell hyperplasia associated with corporal ECL hyperplasia was found. ECL cell hyperplasia was of simplex, linear, adenomatoid type to the pattern of intramucous ECL cell carcinoid. An average number of G cells was statistically significant in the patients with PA as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 as well as an average number of ECL cells. Conclusion. We concluded that antral G cell hyperplasia accompanied by gastrinemia induces ECL hyperplasia and ECL corporal carcinoid in A-gastritis and that their histogenesis develops trough simple, linear and adenomatoide hyperplasia. .
Roman, Laslo D; Lukyanchuk, Ruslan; Sablin, Oleg A; Araslanova, Elena I; Eklund, Carita; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Syrjänen, Kari
Russian Federation is among the high-incidence countries for gastric cancer (GC), with the incidence being projected to continue increasing. Using a non-invasive blood test with four stomach-specific biomarkers (pepsinogen-I (PG-I) and -II (PG-II), amidated gastrin-17 (G-17) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) IgG antibodies) in a hospital-based screening setting, we aimed to determine the prevalence of GC risk conditions: HP-infection and atrophic gastritis (AG). A population-derived cohort of 918 asymptomatic subjects (646 women and 272 men) with a mean age of 51.8 years (range=26-83) was examined with the GastroPanel® (GP) test. GP results were verified by gastroscopy and biopsies (the Updated Sydney System (USS) classification for all test-positive AG cases and for random 5% test-negatives (n=263) to correct for the verification bias. Of the 918 subjects, only 199 (21.7%) tested completely normal, while 76.7% (704/918) had HP-infection. Altogether, in 99 subjects (10.8%), GP suggested AG: atrophic gastritis in the antrum (AGA) (n=21), atrophic gastritis in the corpus (AGC) (n=69) or atrophic pangastritis (AGpan) (n=9). The overall concordance between GP and USS classification was 82.5% (217/263) with weighted kappa intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.875 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.840-0.901). The sensitivity/specificity balance in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for PG-I as a marker of moderate/severe AGC (AGC2+) had area under the curve (AUC)=0.895 (95%CI=0.837-0.953). Using the AGC2+ end-point, verification bias-corrected specificity of PGI reached 96.4% (95%CI=94.7-97.9) and that of PGI/PGII ratio 94.6% (95%CI=92.6-96.3), with inevitable erosion in sensitivities. While capable of detecting the subjects at risk for GC (HP and/or AG), GP should be the cost-effective means to break the current ominous trend in GC incidence in Russian Federation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios
Boyce, Malcolm; Moore, Andrew R; Sagatun, Liv; Parsons, Bryony N; Varro, Andrea; Campbell, Fiona; Fossmark, Reidar; Waldum, Helge L; Pritchard, D Mark
Netazepide, a gastrin/cholecystokinin 2 receptor antagonist, once daily for 12 weeks reduced the number of tumours and size of the largest one in 16 patients with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), achlorhydria, hypergastrinaemia and multiple gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs), and normalized circulating chromogranin A (CgA) produced by enterochromaffin-like cells, the source of the tumours. The aim was to assess whether longer-term netazepide treatment can eradicate type 1 gastric NETs. After a mean 14 months off netazepide, 13 of the 16 patients took it for another 52 weeks. Assessments were: gastroscopy; gene-transcript expression in corpus biopsies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction; blood CgA and gastrin concentrations; and safety assessments. While off-treatment, the number of tumours, the size of the largest one, and CgA all increased again. Netazepide for 52 weeks: cleared all tumours in 5 patients; cleared all but one tumour in one patient; reduced the number of tumours and size of the largest one in the other patients; normalized CgA in all patients; and reduced mRNA abundances of CgA and histidine decarboxylase in biopsies. Gastrin did not increase further, confirming that the patients had achlorhydria. Netazepide was safe and well tolerated. A gastrin/cholecystokinin 2 receptor antagonist is a potential medical and targeted treatment for type 1 gastric NETs, and an alternative to regular gastroscopy or surgery. Treatment should be continuous because the tumours will regrow if it is stopped. Progress can be monitored by CgA in blood or biomarkers in mucosal biopsies. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.
Blinov, A A; Korepanov, A M; Pastukhov, L Iu; Bazhenov, E L
Therapy of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis using intragastric SMC-electrophoresis of cobamamide resulted in a marked clinical effect. Altogether 82 patients were investigated. Protein metabolism using I131-albumin and reparative regeneration (histochemical and electron microscopy methods) was studied in the course of treatment. A positive time course of protein metabolism determined by albumin and improvement of reparation of specialized epitheliocytes in the mucous membrane of the stomach were noted as a result of therapy.
Gao, Lei; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann
Abstract Background: Obesity and overweight have been positively related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It has been suggested, that this relation is due to an increased gastric acid reflux which is caused by an enhanced intra-abdominal pressure. Aim: We aimed to assess potential interaction of the association between body mass index (BMI) and GERD by chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) which goes along with reduced acid production. Methods: In the baseline examinat...
Chen, Ping; Cui, Yun; Fu, Qing Yan; Lu, You Yong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Chen, Xiao Yu
Gastric cancer (GC) is a typical type of inflammation-related tumor. The p42.3 gene is shown to be highly expressed in GC, but its association with gastritis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between gastric inflammation and p42.3 gene in vitro and in vivo. Normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Total cell mRNA and protein were extracted and collected, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to determine the relative expression of p42.3 gene. In total, 291 biopsy samples from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis were collected and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the p42.3 protein expression. The association between p42.3 protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Both H. pylori and TNF-α significantly enhanced the p42.3 protein expression in GES-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, p42.3 gene expression was positively associated with the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and H. pylori infection (P = 0.000). Its expression was significantly more common in severe gastric inflammation and in H. pylori-infected cases. p42.3 gene expression is associated with gastric mucosal inflammation that can be upregulated by TNF-α and H. pylori infection. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Cui, Jiajia; Liu, Yuetao; Hu, Yinghuan; Tong, Jiayu; Li, Aiping; Qu, Tingli; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is one of the most important pre-cancerous states with a high prevalence. Exploring of the underlying mechanism and potential biomarkers is of significant importance for CAG. In the present work, (1)H NMR-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to analyze the metabolic features of CAG. 19 plasma metabolites and 18 urine metabolites were enrolled to construct the circulatory and excretory metabolome of CAG, which was in response to alterations of energy metabolism, inflammation, immune dysfunction, as well as oxidative stress. 7 plasma biomarkers and 7 urine biomarkers were screened to elucidate the pathogenesis of CAG based on the further correlation analysis with biochemical indexes. Finally, 3 plasma biomarkers (arginine, succinate and 3-hydroxybutyrate) and 2 urine biomarkers (α-ketoglutarate and valine) highlighted the potential to indicate risks of CAG in virtue of correlation with pepsin activity and ROC analysis. Here, our results paved a way for elucidating the underlying mechanisms in the development of CAG, and provided new avenues for the diagnosis of CAG and presented potential drug targets for treatment of CAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin
A polysaccharide named EP-1 was found by screening cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus, which was extracted and subjected to precipitation with ethanol, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The polysaccharide has a molecular weight of approximately 3100Da and is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose, thus being a heteroglycan. EP-1 has a backbone of α-d-Glc(1→3) and β-d-Glc(1→3). The β-d-Glc(1→3) and α-d-Gal-(1→3) were regarded as branches attached to the C-4 position. The α-d-Man was regarded as a terminal residue. The anti-CAG activity was evaluated in experimental systems using a cell model for identification. The polysaccharide significantly inhibited the growth of MC cells obtained from human gastric mucosa epithelium (GES-1) cells transformed by MNNG, which were used as a chronic atrophic gastritis cell model. It also interfered with the MC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Thus, EP-1 shows potential for the development of new functional foods and drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken; Ito, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Hata, Jiro; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Sumii, Koji; Akiyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinji; Shiotani, Akiko; Graham, David Y
Helicobacter pylori infection produces progressive mucosal damage that may eventually result in gastric cancer. We studied the changes that occurred in the presence and severity of atrophic gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infection that occurred coincident with improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. The prevalence of H. pylori infection and histologic grades of gastric damage were retrospectively evaluated using gastric biopsy specimens obtained over a 40-year period. Gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were scored using the updated Sydney classification system. The prevalence of H. pylori and severity of atrophy were examined in 1381 patients including 289 patients examined in the 1970s (158 men; mean age, 44.9 years), 787 in the 1990s (430 men; 44.2 years), and 305 in the 2010s (163 men; 53.2 years). Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly from 74.7% (1970s) to 53% (1990s) and 35.1% (2010s) (p pylori infection. There has been a progressive and rapid decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection as well a fall in the rate of progression of gastric atrophy among H. pylori-infected Japanese coincident with the westernization and improvements in economic and hygienic conditions in Japan since World War II. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung
Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101
Full Text Available Objective. This aim is to evaluate the effect of Sijunzi decoction (SJZD treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. Methods. We performed searches in seven databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing SJZD with standard medical care or inactive intervention for CAG were enrolled. Combined therapy of SJZD plus conventional therapies compared with conventional therapies alone was also retrieved. The primary outcome included the incidence of gastric cancer and the improvement of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia based on the gastroscopy and pathology. The secondary outcomes were Helicobacter pylori clearance rate, quality of life, and adverse event/adverse drug reaction. Results. Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The research quality was low in the trials. For the overall effect rate, pooled analysis from 4 trials showed that modified SJZD plus conventional medications exhibited a significant improvement (OR = 4.86; 95% CI: 2.80 to 8.44; P < 0.00001 and without significant heterogeneity compared with the conventional medications alone. None reported the adverse effect. Conclusions. Modified SJZD combined with conventional western medicines appears to have benefits for CAG. Due to the limited number and methodological flaw, the beneficial and harmful effects of SJZD for CAG could not be identified. More high-quality clinical trials are needed to confirm the results.
Kim, Yoon Jae; Chung, Jun Won; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Ki Seok; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik
Key molecular players that link inflammation to carcinogenesis are prostaglandins, cytokines, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), chemokines, angiogenic growth factors, and free radicals, all of which lead to increased mutations and altered functions of important enzymes and proteins, for example, activation of oncogenic products and/or inhibition of tumor suppressor proteins, in inflamed tissues, thus contributing to multi-stage carcinogenesis process. Interpreted reversely, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk or optimal intervention of targeted drugs or agents during the inflammation-associated carcinogenic process could be a necessary basis for developing new strategy of cancer prevention at many sites. In this review, we discuss the possibilities for cancer prevention by controlling inflammation process in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated inflamed stomach with Korea red ginseng. Korea red ginseng is a good example of a natural herb that has ubiquitous properties that are conductive to stop inflammatory carcinogenesis that is un wanted outcome of H. pylori infection, rendering rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis.
Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hye Won; Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Soo; Koo, Ja Eun; Chung, Eun Ju; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik
Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for atrophic gastritis (AG) and gastric cancer. The correlation between H. pylori, AG and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) has only been examined in a limited number of studies, and findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection status, AG and advanced CRN. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, AG, and advanced CRN in 6,351 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who underwent a screening colonoscopy. A total of 316 participants (5.0%) had advanced CRN. H. pylori seropositivity was 61.3%. In a univariate analysis, the presence of H. pylori infection was associated with advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.91; p=0.001). H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of advanced CRN after adjusting for clinically relevant confounders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.72; p=0.023). H. pylori-related AG was significantly associated with the risk of advanced CRN (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; p=0.030), whereas H. pylori infection without AG was not. H. pylori infection increased the risk of advanced CRN, especially when it was combined with AG. Strict colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be warranted in those with H. pylori-positive AG.
Full Text Available Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has long been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TCM syndrome characteristics of CAG and its core pathogenesis so as to promote optimization of treatment strategies. Methods. This study was based on a participant survey conducted in 4 hospitals in China. Patients diagnosed with CAG were recruited by simple random sampling. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on syndrome extraction. Results. Common factors extracted were assigned to six syndrome patterns: qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency. Distribution frequency of all syndrome patterns showed that qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, and heat excess were higher (76.7%–84.2% compared with yang deficiency (42.5%. Distribution of main syndrome patterns showed that frequencies of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency were higher (15.8%–20.8% compared with blood stasis (8.3%. Conclusions. The core pathogenesis of CAG is combination of qi deficiency, qi stagnation, blood stasis, phlegm turbidity, heat, and yang deficiency. Therefore, treatment strategy of herbal prescriptions for CAG should include herbs that regulate qi, activate blood, resolve turbidity, clear heat, remove toxin, and warm yang.
Furuta, Takahisa; El-Omar, Emad M; Xiao, Fang; Shirai, Naohito; Takashima, Misako; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Sugimurra, Haruhiko
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in whites. This study aimed to examine effects of these polymorphisms on gastric acid secretion, atrophic gastritis, and risk of peptic ulcer in Japan. We determined IL-1B-511/-31 and IL-1RN genotypes and measured gastric juice pH, serum pepsinogen (PG) I and II levels, and gastritis and atrophy scores in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with gastritis only, gastric ulcers, or duodenal ulcers (DUs), and H. pylori-negative controls. In the H. pylori-positive group, subjects with the proinflammatory IL-1B-511 T/T genotype had the highest atrophy and gastritis scores, the highest median gastric juice pH, and the lowest median serum PG I/PG II ratios. Although gastric juice pH significantly increased and serum PG I and PG I/PG II ratios significantly decreased in the IL-1B-511 T/T genotype group with age, no such age-dependent changes were observed in the C/C genotype group. Changes in the C/T genotype group were intermediate. In the H. pylori-negative group, the IL-1 loci had no effect on any of the physiologic or morphologic parameters. Carriage of IL-1RN allele 2 significantly protected against DU disease while the IL-1B-511 T/T genotype significantly protected against DU recurrence in patients older than 60 years. Proinflammatory IL-1beta polymorphisms are associated with hypochlorhydria and atrophic gastritis in Japan. The effects are dependent on H. pylori infection and become more significant with advancing age. This may explain the high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan and also the age-dependent decrease in DU recurrence in infected subjects.
... Digestive System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Gastritis On this page: What is gastritis? What causes ... Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Clinical Trials What is gastritis? Gastritis is a condition in which the stomach ...
Xu, Qian; Chen, Tie-Jun; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Jing-Wei; Yuan, Yuan
MiR-27a rs895819 is a loop-stem structure single nucleotide polymorphism affecting mature miR-27a function. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis about the association of rs895819 with gastric cancer risk and prognosis, atrophic gastritis risk, as well as the interactions with environmental factors. A total of 939 gastric cancer patients, 1,067 atrophic gastritis patients and 1,166 healthy controls were screened by direct sequencing and MALDI-TOF-MS. The association of rs895819 with clinical pathological parameters and prognostic survival in 357 gastric cancer patients was also been analyzed. The rs895819 variant genotype increased the risk for atrophic gastritis (1.58-fold) and gastric cancer (1.24-fold). While in stratified analysis, the risk effect was demonstrated more significantly in the female, age >60y, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative and non-drinker subgroups. Rs895819 and H. pylori showed an interaction effect for atrophic gastritis risk. In the survival analysis, the rs895819 AG heterozygosis was associated with better survival than the AA wild-type in the TNM stage I-II subgroup. In vitro study by overexpressing miR-27a, cells carrying polymorphic-type G allele expressed lower miR-27a than wild-type A allele. In conclusion, miR-27a rs895819 is implicated as a biomarker for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk, and interacts with H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.
Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Vazquez-Jimenez, Flor; Medrano-Guzman, Rafael; Mantilla, Alejandra; Torres, Javier
We aimed to characterize microbiota of the gastric mucosa as it progress to intestinal type of cancer. Study included five patients each of non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC). Gastric tissue was obtained and DNA extracted for microbiota analyses using the microarray G3 PhyloChip. Bacterial diversity ranged from 8 to 57, and steadily decreased from NAG to IM to GC (p = 0.004). A significant microbiota difference was observed between NAG and GC based on Unifrac-presence/absence and weighted-Unifrac-abundance metrics of 283 taxa (p gastric microbiota profile from NAG to IM to GC.
Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahão; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva
To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population. A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients' age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions. Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression. There was an association by univariate conditional logistic regression between AG
Liu, Jingwei; Sun, Liping; Xu, Qian; Tu, Huakang; He, Caiyun; Xing, Chengzhong; Yuan, Yuan
Polymorphisms of NER genes could change NER ability, thereby altering individual susceptibility to GC. We systematically analyzed 39 SNPs of 8 key genes of NER pathway in 2686 subjects including 898 gastric cancer (GC), 851 atrophic gastritis (AG) and 937 controls (CON) in northern Chinese. SNP genotyping were performed using Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The results demonstrated that DDB2 rs830083 GG genotype was significantly associated with increased GC risk compared with wild-type CC (OR=2.32, P= 6.62 × 10-9); XPC rs2607775 CG genotype conferred a 1.73 increased odds of GC risk than non-cancer subjects compared with wild-type CC (OR=1.73, P= 3.04 × 10-4). The combined detection of these two polymorphisms demonstrated even higher GC risk (OR=3.05). Haplotype analysis suggested that DDB2 rs2029298-rs326222-rs3781619-rs830083 GTAG haplotype was significantly associated with disease risk in each step of CON→AG→GC development (AG vs. CON: OR=2.88, P= 7.51 × 10-7; GC vs. AG: OR=2.90, P=5.68 × 10-15; GC vs. CON: OR=8.42, P=2.22 × 10-15); DDB2 GTAC haplotype was associated with reduced risk of GC compared with CON (OR=0.63, P= 8.31 × 10-12). XPC rs1870134-rs2228000-rs2228001-rs2470352-rs2607775 GCAAG haplotype conferred increased risk of GC compared with AG (OR=1.88, P= 6.98 × 10-4). XPA rs2808668 and drinking, DDB2 rs326222, rs3781619, rs830083 and smoking demonstrated significant interactions in AG; XPC rs2607775 had significant interaction with smoking in GC. In conclusion, NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors. The detection of NER pathway polymorphisms such as DDB2 and XPC might be applied in the prediction of GC risk and personalized prevention in the future. NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors, which might be applied in the
Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.
BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for
Zagari, R M; Rabitti, S; Greenwood, D C; Eusebi, L H; Vestito, A; Bazzoli, F
The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays (panel test) is a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. However, the diagnostic reliability of this test is still uncertain. To assess the diagnostic performance of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. Medline via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases and abstracts of international conferences proceedings were searched from January 1995 to December 2016 using the primary keywords "pepsinogens," "gastrin," "atrophic gastritis," "gastric precancerous lesions." Studies were included if they assessed the accuracy of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis using histology according to the updated Sydney System as reference standard. Twenty studies with a total of 4241 subjects assessed the performance of serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis regardless of the site in the stomach. The summary sensitivity was 74.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 62.0-84.3) and the specificity was 95.6% (95%CI, 92.6-97.4). With a prevalence of atrophic gastritis of 27% (median prevalence across the studies), the negative predictive value was 91%. Few studies with small sample size assessed the performance of the test in detecting the site of atrophic gastritis. The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays appears to be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. This test may be used for screening subjects or populations at high risk of gastric cancer for atrophic gastritis; however, a cost-effectiveness analysis is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Myint, Thein; Shiota, Seiji; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ni, New; Aye, Than Than; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio
To survey the detailed analyses for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric mucosal status in Myanmar. A total of 252 volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms (155 female and 97 male; mean age of 43.6 ± 14.2 years) was participated in Yangon and Mandalay. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on 5 different tests including rapid urease test, culture, histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Histological scores were evaluated according to the update Sydney system and the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment system. Pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.0%. There was no relationship between age and infection rate. Even in young group (less than 29 years old), the H. pylori infection rate was relatively high (41.9%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in Yangon than that of Mandalay. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. All 7 subjects with peptic ulcer were infected with H. pylori. Although H. pylori-positive subjects showed stronger gastritis than H. pylori-negative subjects, most cases had mild gastritis. We revealed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar. The H. pylori infection was a risk factor for peptic ulcer and stronger gastritis.
Sipponen, Pentti; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid
Prevalence of chronic gastritis has markedly declined in developed populations during the past decades. However, chronic gastritis is still one of the most common serious pandemic infections with such severe killing sequelae as peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Globally, on average, even more than half of people may have a chronic gastritis at present. Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood is the main cause of chronic gastritis, which microbial origin is the key for the understanding of the bizarre epidemiology and course of the disease. A life-long and aggressive inflammation in gastritis results in destruction (atrophic gastritis) of stomach mucosa with time (years and decades). The progressive worsening of atrophic gastritis results subsequently in dysfunctions of stomach mucosa. Atrophic gastritis will finally end up in a permanently acid-free stomach in the most extreme cases. Severe atrophic gastritis and acid-free stomach are the highest independent risk conditions for gastric cancer known so far. In addition to the risks of malignancy and peptic ulcer, acid-free stomach and severe forms of atrophic gastritis may associate with failures in absorption of essential vitamins, like vitamin B12, micronutrients (like iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc), diet and medicines.
Background The best sites for biopsy-based tests to evaluate H. pylori infection in gastritis with atrophy are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the site and sensitivity of biopsy-based tests in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Methods One hundred and sixty-four (164) uninvestigated dyspepsia patients were enrolled. Biopsy-based tests (i.e., culture, histology Giemsa stain and rapid urease test) and non-invasive tests (anti-H. pylori IgG) were performed. The gold standard of H. pylori infection was defined according to previous criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive rate and negative predictive rate of biopsy-based tests at the gastric antrum and body were calculated in terms of degree of gastritis with atrophy. Results The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in the 164 patients was 63.4%. Gastritis with atrophy was significantly higher at the antrum than at the body (76% vs. 31%; pgastritis with atrophy increased regardless of biopsy site (for normal, mild, moderate, and severe gastritis with atrophy, the sensitivity of histology Giemsa stain was 100%, 100%, 88%, and 66%, respectively, and 100%, 97%, 91%, and 66%, respectively, for rapid urease test). In moderate to severe antrum or body gastritis with atrophy, additional corpus biopsy resulted in increased sensitivity to 16.67% compare to single antrum biopsy. Conclusions In moderate to severe gastritis with atrophy, biopsy-based test should include the corpus for avoiding false negative results. PMID:23272897
Rau, T T; Sonst, A; Rogler, A; Burnat, G; Neumann, H; Oeckl, K; Neuhuber, W; Dimmler, A; Faller, G; Brzozowski, T; Hartmann, A; Konturek, P C
The gastric hormone ghrelin is known as an important factor for energy homeostasis, appetite regulation and control of body weight. So far, ghrelin has mainly been examined as a serological marker for gastrointestinal diseases, and only a few publications have highlighted its role in local effects like mucus secretion. Ghrelin can be regarded as a gastroprotective factor, but little is known about the distribution and activity of ghrelin cells in pathologically modified tissues. We aimed to examine the morphological changes in ghrelin expression under several inflammatory, metaplastic and carcinogenic conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In particular, autoimmune gastritis showed interesting remodeling effects in terms of ghrelin expression within neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia by immunohistochemistry. Using confocal laser microscopy, the gastrin/cholecystokinin receptor (CCKB) could be detected on normal ghrelin cells as well as in autoimmune gastritis. Functionally, we found evidence for a physiological interaction between gastrin and ghrelin in a primary rodent cell culture model. Additionally, we gathered serological data from patients with different basic gastrin levels due to long-term autoimmune gastritis or short-term proton pump inhibitor treatment with slightly reactive plasma gastrin elevations. Total ghrelin plasma levels showed a significantly inverse correlation with gastrin under long-term conditions. Autoimmune gastritis as a relevant condition within gastric carcinogenesis therefore has two effects on ghrelin-positive cells due to hypergastrinemia. On the one hand, gastrin stimulates the proliferation of ghrelinpositive cells as integral part of neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, while on the other hand, plasma ghrelin is reduced by gastrin and lost in pseudopyloric and intestinal metaplastic areas. Ghrelin is necessary for the maintenance of the mucosal barrier and might play a role in gastric carcinogenesis, if altered under these pre
Jing, Jing-Jing; Sun, Li-Ping; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan
Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) plays a critical role in DNA repair. Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC8 may contribute to the risk of cancer development. We selected tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in Chinese patients from the HapMap database to investigate associations with gastric cancer and its precursors. Genomic DNA was extracted from 394 controls, 394 atrophic gastritis, and 394 gastric cancer cases in northern Chinese patients, and genotypes were identified using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. We found that the ERCC8 rs158572 GG+GA genotype showed a 1.651-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.109-2.457, P = 0.013) increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the AA genotype, especially in diffuse type. Stratified analysis comparing the common genotype revealed significantly increased gastric cancer risk in males and individuals older than 50 years with rs158572 GA/GG/GG+GA genotypes, while individuals older than 50 years with rs158916 CT/CC+CT genotypes were less susceptible to atrophic gastritis. Haplotype analysis showed that the G-T haplotype was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Statistically significant interactions between the two ERCC8 tagSNPs and Helicobacter pylori infection were observed for gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risk (P factors, might be associated with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis susceptibility. Further validation of our results in larger populations along with additional studies evaluating the underlying molecular function is required.
Dai, Yun-Kai; Zhang, Yun-Zhan; Li, Dan-Yan; Ye, Jin-Tong; Zeng, Ling-Feng; Wang, Qi; Hu, Ling
Jianpi Yiqi therapy (JYT) is a classical therapy in treating chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), but the clinical effects of it are still contentious. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of JYT for CAG. Seven electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Springer Link, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), VIP (Chinese Scientific Journals Database), Wan-fang database, and CBM (Chinese Biomedicine Database) were searched from their inception to November 1, 2016. 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 1119 participants were identified for analysis. Meta-analyses demonstrated that both JYT (RR 1.41; 95% CI 1.27, 1.57; P < 0.00001) and JYT + western medicine (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.17, 1.38; P < 0.00001) were more efficacious than only western medicine. Furthermore, JYT had potential improvement on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms scores such as stomachache, stomach distention, belching, fatigue, et al. In addition, no serious adverse events were reported in the selected trials. The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool was evaluated for the weaknesses of methodological quality, while the quality level of Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence classification indicated "Very low". This meta-analysis indicates that JYT may have potential effects on the treatment of patients with CAG. However, due to limitations of methodological quality and small sample size of the included studies, further standardized research of rigorous design should be needed.
Zhao, Xia; Wu, Menglian; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Yaoyao; Yang, Yang; Xie, Hui; Su, Yonggang; Jia, Jihui; Zhang, Shuhong
The current study aims to investigate the prevalence of depression and the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, coping styles and depression in patients with Chronic Atrophic Gastritis (CAG), and explore the mediating role of coping styles between interpersonal sensitivity and depression. A cross-sectional survey of 101 patients diagnosed with CAG aged 33 to 83 years. All the participants were surveyed face to face and given the informed consent. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the interpersonal sensitivity dimension of the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and Hospital Depression Scale were measured. A descriptive analysis and a correlation matrix were used to illuminate the characteristics of subjects and bivariate correlations, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis and bootstrapping method were used to test the mediating effect of coping styles between interpersonal sensitivity and depression. The prevalence of depression among patients with CAG was 54.50%. The regression analysis revealed that interpersonal sensitivity was positively related to depression. The effect of interpersonal sensitivity on depression was partial mediated by coping styles, including positive coping and negative coping. Depression was highly prevalent in patients with CAG. Coping styles played a mediating role between interpersonal sensitivity and depression, which had important clinical implications for physicians and nurses. Patients who are at high risk of depression should be identified and applicable targets should be made for prevention and intervention, in consideration of mental health of patients with CAG. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Joo, Young-Eun; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Myung, Dae-Seong; Baik, Gwang-Ho; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Geom-Seog; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Nayoung
Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are premalignant gastric lesions. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of endoscopic AG and IM and to document the risk factors for these lesions. In total, 4,023 subjects were enrolled at eight hospitals in Korea. AG and IM were diagnosed by endoscopy. Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured. The prevalences of endoscopic AG and IM were 40.7% and 12.5%. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for AG were age groups of 40 to 59 years and >60 years, male sex, positive H. pylori serology, IM, and education below the college level (odds ratio [OR], 2.55, 5.00, 1.38, 1.41, 4.29, and 1.35, respectively). The risk factors for IM were age groups of 40 to 59 years and >60 years, male sex, positive H. pylori serology, AG, having relatives with gastric cancer, education below the college level and consumption of dairy products (OR, 3.16, 3.25, 1.88, 2.17, 3.68, 1.48, 1.47, and 1.40, respectively). A nationwide survey regarding the prevalence of endoscopic AG and IM and their risk factors in Korea supports the hypothesis that endoscopic diagnosis of these premalignant lesions could be helpful to describe a group at high risk for gastric cancer.
Lahner, Edith; Hassan, Cesare; Esposito, Gianluca; Carabotti, Marilia; Zullo, Angelo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mario; Annibale, Bruno
Atrophic gastritis (AG) is at increased risk of gastric neoplasia, thus surveillance gastroscopy has been proposed. To assess cost of detecting gastric neoplasias by surveillance endoscopy according to identified risk factors in Italy. Post-hoc analysis of a cohort study including 200 AG-patients from Italy followed up for a mean of 7.5 (4-23.4) years was done. Considered risk factors were: age >50years, extensive atrophy, pernicious anaemia, OLGA-OLGIM scores 3-4 at diagnosis. The number of 4-year-surveillance endoscopies needed to be performed to detect one gastric neoplasia (NNS) was calculated. In 19 patients neoplasias (4 gastric cancers, 8 type 1 gastric carcinoids, 7 dysplasias) were detected at the 361 surveillance gastroscopies, corresponding to NNS of 19 and a cost per gastric neoplastic lesion of €2945. By restricting surveillance to pernicious anaemia patients, reduction of NNS and cost per neoplasia to 13.8 and €2139 may be obtained still detecting 74% of neoplasias. By limiting the surveillance to pernicious anaemia patients and OLGA 3-4, 5 (26.3%) neoplasias would have been detected with a corresponding NNS of 5.4 and a cost per lesion of €837. Risk factors may allow an efficient allocation of financial and medical resources for endoscopic surveillance in AG in a low risk country. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Capurso, G; Carnuccio, A; Lahner, E; Panzuto, F; Baccini, F; Delle Fave, G; Annibale, B
Urea breath test sensitivity seems affected by increased intragastric acidity during therapy with antisecretory drugs. Intragastric pH is increased in patients with corpus gastritis with/without atrophy. To test the hypothesis that urea breath test results may also be affected by this gastritis phenotype. 123 untreated patients underwent gastroscopy plus biopsies and intragastric pH measurement. The study included 82 endoscopically proven Helicobacter pylori-positive patients who were offered urea breath test with an acidic meal. Histological findings, urea breath test results and intragastric pH were compared in 66 of the subjects. 21 of 66 (31.8%) patients had a false-negative urea breath test. In these patients corpus-predominant gastritis (85.7% vs. 37.7%; P = 0.0004) and fundic atrophy (66.6% vs. 17.7%; P = 0.0001) were more frequent than in patients with true-positive urea breath test. Intragastric pH was higher in false-negative patients (mean 6.3 vs. 4.4; P = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, the only risk factor for a false-negative urea breath test was the presence of corpus-predominant gastritis (OR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.1-27). There was a negative correlation between the intragastric pH and the delta over baseline values (r = -0.378; P = 0.0023). Our results support the hypothesis that the pattern of gastritis can affect the sensitivity of urea breath test, and suggest that patients with corpus-predominant gastritis have a high risk of false-negative urea breath test results.
... of bile into the stomach (bile reflux) Cocaine abuse Eating or drinking caustic or corrosive substances (such ... Nexium), iansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (AcipHex), and pantoprazole (Protonix) Antibiotics may be used to treat chronic gastritis caused ...
Isajevs, Sergejs; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Janciauskas, Dainius; Moisejevs, Georgijs; Putnins, Viesturs; Funka, Konrads; Kikuste, Ilze; Vanags, Aigars; Tolmanis, Ivars; Leja, Marcis
Atrophic gastritis remains a difficult histopathological diagnosis with low interobserver agreement. The aim of our study was to compare gastritis staging and interobserver agreement between general and expert gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists using Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM). We enrolled 835 patients undergoing upper endoscopy in the study. Two general and two expert gastrointestinal pathologists graded biopsy specimens according to the Sydney classification, and the stage of gastritis was assessed by OLGA and OLGIM system. Using OLGA, 280 (33.4 %) patients had gastritis (stage I-IV), whereas with OLGIM this was 167 (19.9 %). OLGA stage III- IV gastritis was observed in 25 patients, whereas by OLGIM stage III-IV was found in 23 patients. Interobserver agreement between expert GI pathologists for atrophy in the antrum, incisura angularis, and corpus was moderate (kappa = 0.53, 0.57 and 0.41, respectively, p gastritis.
Chen, Li-Wei; Chang, Liang-Che; Hua, Chung-Ching; Hsieh, Bor-Jen; Chen, Shuo-Wei; Chien, Rong-Nan
Gastric epithelial hyper-proliferation was reported in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia (IM) changes. In patients with gastric ulcer (GU) and IM, the GU may have a different healing rate in comparison to patients without IM. This study aimed to compare the difference in GU healing between H. pylori-infected patients with IM and those without IM. We retrospectively analyzed patients at the Keelung Chung Gung Memorial Hospital during the period from March 2005 to January 2011. The inclusion criteria were: 1) endoscopic findings of GU and biopsy histological examination plus rapid urease test indicating H. pylori infection; 2) gastric IM adjacent to a GU but with no atrophic gastritis changes; 3) patients receiving H. pylori eradication triple therapy and 8 weeks of maintenance therapy with a proton pump inhibitor; and 4) patients receiving follow-up endoscopy within the 3(rd) and the 4(th) months after treatment. In total, 327 patients with GU and H. pylori infection (136 with IM and 191 without IM) were included. Patients with IM had a higher GU healing rate than those without IM (91.9% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.040). Multivariate logistical regression analysis revealed that failure of H. pylori eradication (Odds = 4.013, 95% CI: 1.840-8.951, P gastric IM (Odds = 0.369, 95% CI: 0.168-0.812, P = 0.013) were the predictors of non-healing GU following treatment. Patient with gastric IM change may have a higher GU healing rate than those without gastric IM. However, successful H. pylori eradication is a more important factor for GU healing than gastric IM.
Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho
Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH ＜3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH ＜3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH ＜3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with pepsinogen C (PGC and excision repair cross complementing group 6 (ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and its association with the risks of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. We hoped to identify miRNA polymorphism or a combination of several polymorphisms that could serve as biomarkers for predicting the risk of gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases. METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G → A, PGC rs4711690 C → G, PGC rs6458238 G → A, PGC rs9471643 G → C, and ERCC6 rs1917799 in 471 gastric cancer patients, 645 atrophic gastritis patients and 717 controls. RESULTS: An interaction effect of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism was observed for the risk of gastric cancer (P interaction = 0.026; and interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with PGC rs6458238 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.012 and PGC rs9471643 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.039 were observed for the risk of atrophic gastritis. CONCLUSION: The combination of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and ERCC6 and PGC polymorphisms could provide a greater prediction potential than a single polymorphism on its own. Large-scale studies and molecular mechanism research are needed to confirm our findings.
Full Text Available Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR is one of the most widely conducted gastric cancer screening methods. It has been executed to find gastric cancer, but has not been usually executed to detect premalignant atrophic mucosa of stomach. To understand the meaning of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis, we analyzed its association with several causative factors including Helicobacter pylori (HP infection.We evaluated 6,901 healthy adults in Japan. UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was diagnosed based on the irregular shape of areae gastricae and its expansion in the stomach.Of the 6,433 subjects with no history of HP eradication and free from gastric acid suppressants, 1,936 were diagnosed as UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (mild: 234, moderate: 822, severe: 880. These were univariately associated with serum HP IgG and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio with statistical significance. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β and odds ratio (OR demonstrated that serum HP IgG (β = 1.499, OR = 4.48, current smoking (β = 0.526, OR = 1.69, age (β = 0.401, OR = 1.49, low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio (β = 0.339, OR = 1.40, and male gender (β = 0.306, OR = 1.36 showed significant positive association with UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis whereas drinking and body mass index did not. Among the age/sex/smoking/drinking-matched 227 pairs derived from chronically HP-infected and successfully HP-eradicated subjects, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 99.1% of the former but in only 59.5% of the latter subjects (p<0.0001. Contrastively, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 13 of 14 HP-positive proton pump inhibitor users (92.9% and 33 of 34 HP-positive histamine H2-receptor antagonist users (97.1%, which are not significantly different from gastric acid suppressant-free subjects.The presence of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis is positively
Xu, Qian; Chen, Mo-Ye; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan
The polymorphisms in trefoil factor (TFF) gene family that protect gastrointestinal epithelium might influence individual vulnerability to gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY platform to identify the genotypes of TFF2 rs3814896 and TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphisms in 478 GC patients, 652 atrophic gastritis patients, and 724 controls. For the TFF2 rs3814896 polymorphism, in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years, we found that AG+GG genotypes were associated with a 0.746-fold decreased risk of atrophic gastritis [p=0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.580-0.960], a 0.626-fold decreased risk of GC (p=0.005, 95% CI=0.451-0.868), and a 0.663-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC (p=0.034, 95% CI=0.452-0.970) compared with the common AA genotype. For the TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphism, in the male subgroup, individuals with variant AG+AA genotype were associated with a 0.761-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC compared with the common GG genotype (p=0.043, 95% CI=0.584-0.992). Additionally, we found that in subjects aged ≤ 50 years compared with common AA genotype, TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes were associated with increased TFF2 mRNA levels in the total gastric cancer specimens and in the diffuse-type gastric cancer specimens; and in males aged ≤ 50 years compared with common GG genotype, TFF3 rs9981660 AA+AG genotypes were associated with TFF3 mRNA levels in diffuse-type gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between the TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes and decreased risks of GC, diffuse-type GC, and atrophic gastritis in younger people aged ≤ 50 years, and an association between TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotype and decreased risk of diffuse-type GC in men. Moreover, we found that TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes in people aged ≤ 50 years and TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotypes in younger males with diffuse-type GC were associated with higher levels of
Full Text Available Background and aims: atrophic gastritis (AG and dysplasia are precancerous lesions, with which early surveillance of disease progression is particularly important for patients. The present study aimed to explore potential alarming signals for atrophic gastritis progression towards dysplasia. Methods: clinical data for patients with AG in the Digestive Endoscopy Center of Guangzhou Nanfang Hospital between 2001 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis, dichotomous logistic regression analysis and rank correlation analysis were carried out. Results: in 234 patients with atrophic gastritis, after follow up of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 years, the occurrence rates of dysplasia were respectively 2.3, 4.4, 9.6, 19.3, and 42.4%. Patients with AG combined with antral ulcer or gastric angle ulcer, had a higher risk for dysplasia than patients with simple AG (OR = 2.427, 95%Cl 1.069 ~ 5.511, p = 0.034; OR = 2.961, 95%Cl 1.336 ~ 6.564, p = 0.008. The constituent ratios of moderate to severe dysplasia were respectively 8.6, 2.7 and 1.2% (p = 0.000 in three patient groups: AG combined with antral ulcer/gastric angle ulcer (n = 255, antral ulcer/gastric angle ulcer alone (n = 1,389, and AG alone (n = 3,106. The Spearman correlation coefficients between a Hp infection; and b atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were -0.114 (p = 0.078, -0.169 (p = 0.009 and 0.064 (p > 0.05, respectively. Conclusions: long follow-up interval and gastric ulcer may be alarming signals for the progression of AG to dysplasia. But in patients with atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia, Hp infection may not be a risk factor for these lesions aggravated, further studies are required to confirm it.
Sharma, Piyush Kumar; Suri, Tejas Menon; Venigalla, Pratap Mouli; Garg, Sushil Kumar; Mohammad, Ghulam; Das, Prasenjit; Sood, Seema; Saraya, Anoop; Ahuja, Vineet
Dyspepsia is a common symptom in residents of Leh, a high-altitude region in Ladakh, India. Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a common cause of such symptoms. However data regarding this association at high altitudes is sparse. To investigate the demographic, endoscopic and histopathology findings in patients presenting with dyspeptic symptoms in the high-altitude region of Leh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in 84 patients with dyspeptic symptoms, attending the outpatient department of local government hospital in Leh. Demographic details, endoscopy, histopathology of upper gastrointestinal biopsies and microbiology culture of gastric/duodenal aspirates were studied. The mean age was 38.4 years with 42% being males. Indigenous foods with high-salt content were consumed by 75% of patients. Epigastric pain was the most frequent symptom (in 96%) and pain radiating to the back was another peculiar symptom seen in 49% of patients. The predominant finding on endoscopy was antral gastritis in 71% of patients. Nodular gastritis was seen in 18% of patients. H. pylori was documented in 93% and histopathology revealed mild-to-moderate inflammation in 93% and mild-to-moderate atrophy in 90% of patients. Colonization with Gram-negative bacilli was observed in gastric/duodenal aspirate cultures. Dyspepsia at high-altitude commonly presents as pain radiating to the back with a very high (90%) prevalence of H. pylori, endoscopic findings of antral gastritis and nodular gastritis, and atrophic gastritis in biopsies. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these observations are related to the high-altitude or the high-salt content in their diet and also whether these further translate to carcinogenesis.
Massarrat, Sadegh; Haj-Sheykholeslami, Arghavan
Serum pepsinogen I and II are considered as indicators of changes in gastric morphology. Important publications from the last decades are reviewed with regard to the serum level of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of normal gastric mucosa, diffuse gastritis and its change to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Due to the low sensitivity of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of gastric cancer, especially at its early stage and the poor prognosis of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, its prevention by eradication of H. pylori remains the mandatory strategy. On the other hand, the severity of regression and non-reversibility of precancerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa through eradication of H. pylori make it necessary to diagnose diffuse gastritis at its early stage. Increased serum pepsinogen II compared to normal serum pepsinogen I seems to indicate the presence of diffuse gastritis without precancerous lesions suitable for eradication of H. pylori infection, when it is serologically positive. A diagram illustrates the strategy of this therapeutic measure depending on the age of people and the level of serum biomarkers in areas with high gastric cancer prevalence.
INOUE, IZUMI; KATO, JUN; YOSHIMURA, NORIKO; MAEDA, YOSHIMASA; MORIBATA, KOSAKU; SHINGAKI, NAOKI; DEGUCHI, HISANOBU; ENOMOTO, SHOTARO; MAEKITA, TAKAO; UEDA, KAZUKI; IGUCHI, MIKITAKA; TAMAI, HIDEYUKI; FUJISHIRO, MITSUHIRO; YAMAMICHI, NOBUTAKE; TAKESHITA, TATSUYA; ICHINOSE, MASAO
In a previous population-based case-control study, we demonstrated an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasia with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The present study investigated the effects of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis on the development of colorectal neoplasia by analyzing the recurrence of colorectal neoplasia subsequent to endoscopic resection. Ninety-nine patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of colorectal neoplasia were monitored under colonoscopy, and the recurrence of colorectal neoplasia was prospectively investigated. The stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis in each subject was evaluated using a combination of two serum tests: H. pylori antibody and pepsinogen. In the present cohort, colorectal neoplasia recurred at a rate of 15,296/100,000 person-years during the study period. After adjusting for the confounding factors, chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) was identified as an independent risk factor [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.33–5.57], while H. pylori-infected non-atrophic gastritis was not identified as an independent risk factor for recurrent colorectal neoplasia. Colorectal neoplasia recurred earlier and was significantly more frequent in patients with CAG (22,573/100,000 person-years) compared to patients without CAG (11,089/100,000 person-years; P=0.029, log-rank test). Patients with more extensive CAG showed a higher risk of recurrence. These results demonstrated a significant elevation of the risk of recurrent colorectal neoplasia with the establishment and progression of CAG, indicating the involvement of H. pylori infection in the development of colorectal neoplasia. The two serum tests were useful clinical markers for noninvasively evaluating the risk of each individual for recurrent colorectal neoplasia subsequent to endoscopic resection. PMID:24649126
Lahner, Edith; Brigatti, Cristina; Marzinotto, Ilaria; Carabotti, Marilia; Scalese, Giulia; Davidson, Howard W; Wenzlau, Janet M; Bosi, Emanuele; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Lampasona, Vito
Objectives: Circulating autoantibodies targeting the H+/K+-ATPase proton pump of gastric parietal cells are considered markers of autoimmune gastritis, whose diagnostic accuracy in atrophic body gastritis, the pathological lesion of autoimmune gastritis, remains unknown. This study aimed to assess autoantibodies against ATP4A and ATP4B subunits of parietal cells H+, K+-ATPase in atrophic body gastritis patients and controls. Methods: One-hundred and four cases with atrophic body gastritis and 205 controls were assessed for serological autoantibodies specific for ATP4A or ATP4B subunits using luminescent immunoprecipitation system (LIPS). Recombinant luciferase-reporter-fused-antigens were expressed by in vitro transcription-translation (ATP4A) or after transfection in Expi293F cells (ATP4B), incubated with test sera, and immune complexes recovered using protein-A-sepharose. LIPS assays were compared with a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for parietal cell autoantibodies. Results: ATP4A and ATP4B autoantibody titers were higher in cases compared to controls (Pgastritis. Both assays had the highest sensitivity, at the cost of diagnostic accuracy (89 and 90% specificity), outperforming traditional EIA. Once validated, these LIPS assays should be valuable screening tools for detecting biomarkers of damaged atrophic oxyntic mucosa. PMID:28102858
Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography are useful to predict future gastric cancer development based on the 3-year prospective observation.
Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Ichinose, Masao; Takahashi, Yu; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Nakayama, Chiemi; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Niimi, Keiko; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Kataoka, Yosuke; Saito, Itaru; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kaikimoto, Hikaru; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko
Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is the standard gastric cancer screening method in Japan. Atrophic gastritis and enlarged gastric folds are considered the two major features of Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic gastritis, but the clinical meaning of evaluating them by UGI-XR has not been elucidated. We analyzed healthy UGI-XR examinees without a history of gastrectomy, previous Helicobacter pylori eradication and usage of gastric acid suppressants. Of the 6433 subjects, 1936 (30.1 %) had atrophic gastritis and 1253 (19.5 %) had enlarged gastric folds. During the 3-year prospective observational follow-up, gastric cancer developed in seven subjects, six of whom (85.7 %) had atrophic gastritis with H. pylori infection and five of whom (71.4 %) had enlarged gastric folds with H. pylori infection. The Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank testing revealed that both UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (p = 0.0011) and enlarged gastric folds (p = 0.0003) are significant predictors for future gastric cancer incidence.
Kim, Nayoung; Park, Young Soo; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Hye Seung; Choe, Gheeyoung; Kim, In Wook; Won, Yoo-Deok; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung
The prevalence of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection is unacceptably high in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) and to identify their risk factors with respect to H. pylori virulence factors, and environmental and host factors, in Korean population without significant gastroduodenal disease. The study cohort consisted of 389 subjects (> or = 16 years). AG and IM were scored histologically using the Sydney classification in the antrum and body, respectively. Prevalences and bacterial factors (i.e. cagA, vacA m1, and oipA), environmental factors (i.e. smoking and alcohol), and host factors (i.e. genetic polymorphisms of IL-1B-511, IL-1RN, TNF-A-308, IL-10-592, IL-10-819, IL-10-1082, IL-8-251, IL-6-572, GSTP1, p53 codon 72, and ALDH2) were evaluated. Prevalences of AG in the antrum and body were 42.5% and 20.1%, and those of IM were 28.6% and 21.2%, respectively. The presences of AG and IM were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive than in the H. pylori-negative subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for AG were H. pylori infection, age > or = 61 years, and cagA and vacA m1 positivity. For IM the risk factors were H. pylori infection, age > or = 61 years, a smoking history (rather than current smoking), strong spicy food, occupation (unemployed or nonprofessional vs. professional), and the presence of IL10-592 C/A as opposed to A/A. In addition, IL6-572 G carrier was found to have a protective effect against IM development as compared with C/C. H. pylori infection was most important risk factor of AG and IM. Bacterial factors were found to be important risk factor for AG but environmental and host factors were more important for IM.
Yamamichi, Nobutake; Hirano, Chigaya; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Yu; Nakayama, Chiemi; Matsuda, Rie; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Konno-Shimizu, Maki; Kato, Jun; Kodashima, Shinya; Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Tsuji, Yosuke; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Ichinose, Masao; Koike, Kazuhiko
Background Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is one of the most widely conducted gastric cancer screening methods. It has been executed to find gastric cancer, but has not been usually executed to detect premalignant atrophic mucosa of stomach. To understand the meaning of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis, we analyzed its association with several causative factors including Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Methods We evaluated 6,901 healthy adults in Japan. UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was diagnosed based on the irregular shape of areae gastricae and its expansion in the stomach. Results Of the 6,433 subjects with no history of HP eradication and free from gastric acid suppressants, 1,936 were diagnosed as UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis (mild: 234, moderate: 822, severe: 880). These were univariately associated with serum HP IgG and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio with statistical significance. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β) and odds ratio (OR) demonstrated that serum HP IgG (β = 1.499, OR = 4.48), current smoking (β = 0.526, OR = 1.69), age (β = 0.401, OR = 1.49), low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio (β = 0.339, OR = 1.40), and male gender (β = 0.306, OR = 1.36) showed significant positive association with UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis whereas drinking and body mass index did not. Among the age/sex/smoking/drinking-matched 227 pairs derived from chronically HP-infected and successfully HP-eradicated subjects, UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis was detected in 99.1% of the former but in only 59.5% of the latter subjects (pgastritis was detected in 13 of 14 HP-positive proton pump inhibitor users (92.9%) and 33 of 34 HP-positive histamine H2-receptor antagonist users (97.1%), which are not significantly different from gastric acid suppressant-free subjects. Conclusions The presence of UGI-XR-based atrophic gastritis is positively associated with
van Grieken, N. C.; Weiss, M. M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Lindeman, J.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Baak, J. P.; Kuipers, E. J.
Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation
Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann
Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is a well-established precursor of intestinal gastric cancer. However, data on incidence of CAG are rare, especially from population-based studies. The aim of this analysis was to estimate the incidence of CAG in a large population-based study among older adults from Germany and to identify major risk factors associated with its development. In the baseline and 5-year follow-up examinations of the ESTHER study, serological measurements of pepsinogen (PG) I and II and Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed in 5,229 women and men, aged 50-74 years at baseline. Information on additional potential risk factors was obtained by questionnaire. CAG was defined by PGI risk factors for the development of CAG. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo
Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.
Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.
Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik
As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p < .05). After the 36 weeks, scattered nodular masses with some central ulcers and thin gastric surface were noted in the control stomach, whereas no tumorous lesion and milder atrophic changes were observed in all MP, GT, and MPGT groups except ES group (p < .05). On molecular analysis, increased expressions of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, lipid peroxide, and activated STAT3 relevant to H. pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p < .01), whereas HSP70 was significantly increased. PGDH expressions, core tumor suppressor involved in carcinogenesis, were significantly decreased with H. pylori infection (p < .05), but significantly increased in MPGT group (p < .05). Increased mucosal apoptotic index noted in the control group was significantly decreased with MP and/or GT along with significantly preserved gastric gastroprotective mediators (p < .01) such as mucins, HSP27, and HSP70. H. pylori-induced serum
Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco
Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cohen, H; Weinstein, W M; Carmel, R
The common but incompletely understood entity of malabsorption of food bound cobalamin is generally presumed to arise from gastritis and/or achlorhydria. To conduct a systematic comparative examination of gastric histology and function. Nineteen volunteers, either healthy or with low cobalamin levels, were prospectively studied without prior knowledge of their absorption or gastric status. All subjects underwent prospective assessment of food cobalamin absorption by the egg yolk cobalamin absorption test, endoscopy, histological grading of biopsies from six gastric sites, measurement of gastric secretory function, assay for serum gastrin and antiparietal cell antibodies, and direct tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. The six subjects with severe malabsorption (group I) had worse histological scores overall and lower acid and pepsin secretion than the eight subjects with normal absorption (group III) or the five subjects with mild malabsorption (group II). However, histological findings, and acid and pepsin secretion overlapped considerably between individual subjects in group I and group III. Two distinct subgroups of three subjects each emerged within group I. One subgroup (IA) had severe gastric atrophy and achlorhydria. The other subgroup (IB) had little atrophy and only mild hypochlorhydria; the gastric findings were indistinguishable from those in many subjects with normal absorption. Absorption improved in the two subjects in subgroup IB and in one subject in group II who received antibiotics, along with evidence of clearing of H pylori. None of the subjects in group IA responded to antibiotics. Food cobalamin malabsorption arises in at least two different gastric settings, one of which involves neither gastric atrophy nor achlorhydria. Malabsorption can respond to antibiotics, but only in some patients. Food cobalamin malabsorption is not always synonymous with atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria does not always guarantee food
Montalban-Arques, Ana; Wurm, Philipp; Trajanoski, Slave; Schauer, Silvia; Kienesberger, Sabine; Halwachs, Bettina; Högenauer, Christoph; Langner, Cord; Gorkiewicz, Gregor
Corpus-dominant lymphocytic gastritis (LyG) is characterized by CD8 + T-cell infiltration of the stomach epithelium by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Although Helicobacter pylori is typically undetectable in LyG, patients respond to H. pylori antibiotic eradication therapy, suggesting a non-H. pylori microbial trigger for the disease. Comparative microbiota analysis of specimens from LyG, H. pylori gastritis and healthy controls precluded involvement of H. pylori in LyG but identified Propionibacterium acnes as a possible disease trigger. In addition, the natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) system and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-15 are significantly upregulated in the gastric mucosa of LyG patients, and gastric epithelial cells respond to microbe-derived stimuli, including live P. acnes and the microbial products short-chain fatty acids, with induction of NKG2D ligands. In contrast, H. pylori infection does not activate or even repress NKG2D ligands. Together, our findings identify P. acnes as a possible causative agent for LyG, which is dependent on the NKG2D system and IL-15 activation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
Autoimmune gastritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with destruction of parietal cells of the corpus and fundus of the stomach. The known consequence is vitamin B12 deficiency and, consequently, pernicious anemia. However, loss of parietal cells reduces secretion of gastric acid which is also required for absorption of inorganic iron; thus, iron deficiency is commonly found in patients with autoimmune gastritis. This usually precedes vitamin B12 deficiency and is found mainly in young women. Patients with chronic iron deficiency, especially those refractory to oral iron therapy, should therefore be evaluated for the presence of autoimmune gastritis.
Netazepide, a gastrin receptor antagonist, normalises tumour biomarkers and causes regression of type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumours in a nonrandomised trial of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis.
Andrew R Moore
Full Text Available Autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG causes hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinaemia, which can lead to enterochromaffin-like (ECL cell hyperplasia and gastric neuroendocrine tumours (type 1 gastric NETs. Most behave indolently, but some larger tumours metastasise. Antrectomy, which removes the source of the hypergastrinaemia, usually causes tumour regression. Non-clinical and healthy-subject studies have shown that netazepide (YF476 is a potent, highly selective and orally-active gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist. Also, it is effective in animal models of ECL-cell tumours induced by hypergastrinaemia.To assess the effect of netazepide on tumour biomarkers, number and size in patients with type I gastric NETs.We studied 8 patients with multiple tumours and raised circulating gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA concentrations in an open trial of oral netazepide for 12 weeks, with follow-up 12 weeks later. At 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, we carried out gastroscopy, counted and measured tumours, and took biopsies to assess abundances of several ECL-cell constituents. At 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks, we measured circulating gastrin and CgA and assessed safety and tolerability.Netazepide was safe and well tolerated. Abundances of CgA (p<0.05, histidine decarboxylase (p<0.05 and matrix metalloproteinase-7(p<0.10 were reduced at 6 and 12 weeks, but were raised again at follow-up. Likewise, plasma CgA was reduced at 3 weeks (p<0.01, remained so until 12 weeks, but was raised again at follow-up. Tumours were fewer and the size of the largest one was smaller (p<0.05 at 12 weeks, and remained so at follow-up. Serum gastrin was unaffected.The reduction in abundances, plasma CgA, and tumour number and size by netazepide show that type 1 NETs are gastrin-dependent tumours. Failure of netazepide to increase serum gastrin further is consistent with achlorhydria. Netazepide is a potential new treatment for type 1 NETs. Longer, controlled trials are justified
Hellström, Per M; Hendolin, Panu; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Millerhovf, Anders; Paloheimo, Lea; Sundelin, Heidi; Syrjänen, Kari; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Salaspuro, Mikko
Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design. On separate days, patients randomly received 200 mg slow-release L-cysteine or placebo with intragastric instillation of 15% (0.3 g/kg) ethanol. After intake, gastric concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, L-cysteine and MTCA were analysed. Administration of L-cysteine increased MTCA (p food items. After gastric ethanol instillation, slow-release L-cysteine eliminates acetaldehyde to form inactive MTCA, which remains in gastric juice for up to 3 h. High acetaldehyde levels indicate a marked gastric first-pass metabolism of ethanol resulting in gastric accumulation of carcinogenic acetaldehyde. Local exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde can be mitigated by slow-release L-cysteine capsules.
Jin, Xiaoyi; Koike, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Takashi; Kondo, Yutaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Imatani, Akira; Watanabe, Mika; Shirane, Akio; Shimosegawa, Tooru
In the present paper, we report a case of rare collagenous gastritis. The patient was a 25-year-old man who had experienced nausea, abdominal distention and epigastralgia since 2005. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) carried out at initial examination by the patient's local doctor revealed an extensively discolored depression from the upper gastric body to the lower gastric body, mainly including the greater curvature, accompanied by residual mucosa with multiple islands and nodularity with a cobblestone appearance. Initial biopsies sampled from the nodules and accompanying atrophic mucosa were diagnosed as chronic gastritis. In August, 2011, the patient was referred to Tohoku University Hospital for observation and treatment. EGD at our hospital showed the same findings as those by the patient's local doctor. Pathological findings included a membranous collagen band in the superficial layer area of the gastric mucosa, which led to a diagnosis of collagenous gastritis. Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, but it is important to recognize its characteristic endoscopic findings to make a diagnosis. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo
Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling. PMID:26576102
Letícia F Moreira
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide mainly secreted by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, which is believed to have a modulating effect on cell growth. OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of ghrelin and its precursor preproghrelin molecule in endocrine hyperplasias associated with atrophic body gastritis (ABG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies from 54 patients with ABG were processed for immunohistochemistry and specific antibodies against ghrelin, preproghrelin and chromogranin were applied. We assessed the immunoreactive cells in endocrine hyperplasia from the atrophic mucosa and intestinal and pseudo-antral metaplasia areas. RESULTS: There was ghrelin expression in a variable number of hyperplastic endocrine cells from all patients studied. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of hyperplastic nodules with more than 50% immunostained cells for chromogranin and ghrelin and for chromogranin and preproghrelin. The mean number of hyperplastic nodules identified by chromogranin was 8.6 per patient. Most nodules were immunoreactive to ghrelin and preproghrelin. The presence of ghrelin and preproghrelin expression was uncommon in glands showing intestinal metaplasia: four (9.5% and nine (21.4% cases, respectively. In contrast, they were relatively frequent in pseudo-antral metaplasia areas: 37 (72.5% and 26 (50.9% cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ghrelin- and preproghrelin-immunoreactive cells are frequently present in endocrine hyperplasias associated with ABG. However, further studies are required to determine to what extent these hormones act as modulators of hyperplastic nodular growth and evolution.INTRODUÇÃO: Grelina é um peptídeo de 28 aminoácidos secretado principalmente pelas células endócrinas da mucosa gástrica, acreditando-se que apresente ação moduladora relacionada com o crescimento celular. OBJETIVO: Estudar a presença de grelina e da molécula precursora preprogrelina na
Tsai, Y-C; Hsiao, W-H; Yang, H-B; Cheng, H-C; Chang, W-L; Lu, C-C; Sheu, B-S
To eradicate Helicobacter pylori before the occurrence of precancerous changes is important to prevent gastric carcinogenesis. To validate whether the corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI) can serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at risk of gastric carcinogenesis. This study enrolled 188 subjects, including 43 noncardiac gastric cancer patients, 63 of their first-degree relatives and 82 sex- and age-matched duodenal ulcer patients as controls. All received endoscopy to provide topographic gastric specimens to test for H. pylori infection and its related histological features, translated into the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA), operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages, and the presence of CGI. Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining of trefoil factor 2. Gastric cancer patients had higher prevalence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, but not OLGA stage II-IV, than the controls (P = 0.001, OR = 3.4[95% CI: 1.4-8.1] for CGI; OR = 5.0[95% CI: 2.0-12.8] for OLGIM). In patients with the combined presence of CGI and OLGIM stage II-IV, the risk of gastric cancer increased to 9.8 (P risk of SPEM (P = 0.003, OR = 5.5[95% CI: 1.8-17.0]). The corpus-predominant gastritis index, which is highly correlated to SPEM, may serve as an early marker to identify the H. pylori-infected patients at a higher risk of gastric cancer. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro
Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.
Full Text Available Human pepsinogens are considered promising serological biomarkers for the screening of atrophic gastritis (AG and gastric cancer (GC. However, there has been controversy in the literature with respect to the validity of serum pepsinogen (SPG for the detection of GC and AG. Consequently, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of SPG in GC and AG detection.We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI for correlative original studies published up to September 30, 2014. The summary sensitivity, specificity, positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR+, negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR-, area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR were used to evaluate SPG in GC and AG screening based on bivariate random effects models. The inter-study heterogeneity was evaluated by the I2 statistics and publication bias was assessed using Begg and Mazumdar's test. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to explore study heterogeneity.In total, 31 studies involving 1,520 GC patients and 2,265 AG patients were included in the meta-analysis. The summary sensitivity, specificity, DLR+, DLR-, AUC and DOR for GC screening using SPG were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.60-0.76, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62-0.82, 2.57 (95% CI: 1.82-3.62, and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.34-0.54, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.72-0.80 and 6.01 (95% CI: 3.69-9.79, respectively. For AG screening, the summary sensitivity, specificity, DLR+, DLR-, AUC and DOR were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55-0.80, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-0.94, 5.80 (95% CI: 3.06-10.99, and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.24-0.51, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.82-0.88 and 16.50 (95% CI: 8.18-33.28, respectively. In subgroup analysis, the use of combination of concentration of PGI and the ratio of PGI:PGII as measurement of SPG for GC screening yielded sensitivity of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75, specificity of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.79-0.80, DOR of 6.92 (95% CI: 4.36-11.00, and
Scholl, Gerd; Berger, Gerald; Freytag, Elisabeth
Sustainable consumption has become an increasingly important topic on the European political agenda. At the same time, for many years now European researchers have been exploring ways towards greener consumption and produced sound evidence with potential to serve as a basis for policy......-making on sustainable consumption. Yet this huge body of research has, up until now, been underutilized. The purpose of the CORPUS project has been to explore innovative modalities for enhancing the connectivity between policy-making and research in the area of sustainable consumption. In this chapter we describe our...... experience with a knowledge brokerage system comprised of two intertwined building blocks, a series of “policy meets research” workshops which attracted almost 300 professionals from all over Europe, and a web platform named “SCP Knowledge Hub” which evolved into a major knowledge repository for almost 900...
Chen, Xin-Zu; Schöttker, Ben; Castro, Felipe Andres; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Yan; Holleczek, Bernd; Brenner, Hermann
To assess the association of H. pylori and chronic atrophic gastritis (AG) with colonic, pancreatic and gastric cancer in a population-based prospective cohort. Serum antibodies against H. pylori in general and specific to cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), as well as serum pepsinogen I and II were analyzed in 9,506 men and women, aged 50-75 years in a cohort study from Saarland, Germany. Incident cases of colonic, pancreatic and gastric cancer were ascertained by record linkage with data from the Saarland Cancer Registry. During an average follow-up of 10.6 years, 108 colonic, 46 pancreatic and 27 gastric incident cancers were recorded. There was no association between H. pylori infection and colonic cancer (HR = 1.07; 95% CI 0.73-1.56) or pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.32; 0.73-2.39), regardless of either CagA seropositivity or AG status. In contrast, CagA+ infection was associated with a strongly increased risk of gastric cancer, especially non-cardia gastric cancer, and this association was particularly pronounced in the presence of AG. Compared to people without AG and without CagA+ infection, people with both risk factors had a significantly increased risk of non-cardia gastric cancer (HR = 32.4; 7.6-137.6). This large cohort study did not observe an association of H. pylori infection or AG with colonic or pancreatic cancer, but underlines that the vast majority of non-cardia gastric cancers arise from AG and infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains.
Full Text Available Acupuncture has been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for centuries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36, Zhongwan (CV12, and Pishu (BL20 acupoints on weight changes of rats, histological changes of gastric glands, and expressions changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65, microRNA- (miR- 155, miR-21, and miR-146a in CAG rats induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG combined with irregular diet. Consequently, we found that acupuncture treatment elevated body weight of rats significantly when compared to the model group. By observing histological changes, we found that the acupuncture group showed better improvement of gastric mucosa injury than the model group. Our results also demonstrated upregulation of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 in gastric tissue of CAG rats and a positive correlation between miR-155 and miR-21. Relatively, expression of miR-146a was downregulated and negative correlation relationships between miR-146a and miR-155/miR-21 in CAG rats were observed. Additionally, expressions of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 were downregulated and miR-146a was upregulated after acupuncture treatment. Taken together, our data imply that acupuncture can downregulate NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and upregulate miR-146a expression in CAG rats. NF-κB p65, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-146a may play important roles in therapeutic effect of acupuncture in treating CAG.
Du, Yiqi; Bai, Yu; Xie, Pei; Fang, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaozhong; Hou, Xiaohua; Tian, Dean; Wang, Chengdang; Liu, Yandi; Sha, Weihong; Wang, Bangmao; Li, Yanqing; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Yan; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Jianming; Li, Youming; Huang, Minghe; Han, Shengxi; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xu; Xie, Pengyan; Wang, Zhangliu; Cui, Lihong; Sheng, Jianqiu; Luo, Hesheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dai, Ning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zou, Yiyou; Xia, Bing; Fan, Zhining; Chen, Zhitan; Lin, Sanren; Li, Zhao-Shen
Chronic gastritis is one of the most common findings at upper endoscopy in the general population, and chronic atrophic gastritis is epidemiologically associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer. However, the current status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic gastritis in China is unclear. A multi-center national study was performed; all patients who underwent diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms from 33 centers were enrolled. Data including sex, age, symptoms and endoscopic findings were prospectively recorded. Totally 8892 patients were included. At endoscopy, 4389, 3760 and 1573 patients were diagnosed to have superficial gastritis, erosive gastritis, and atrophic gastritis, respectively. After pathologic examination, it is found that atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were prevalent, which accounted for 25.8%, 23.6% and 7.3% of this patient population. Endoscopic features were useful for predicting pathologic atrophy (PLR = 4.78), but it was not useful for predicting erosive gastritis. Mucosal-protective agents and PPI were most commonly used medications for chronic gastritis. The present study suggests non-atrophic gastritis is the most common endoscopic finding in Chinese patients with upper GI symptoms. Precancerous lesions, including atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia are prevalent in Chinese patients with chronic gastritis, and endoscopic features are useful for predicting pathologic atrophy.
Mihály, Emese; Micsik, Tamás; Juhász, Márk; Herszényi, László; Tulassay, Zsolt
Alterations of the stomach mucosa in response to different adverse effects result in various morphological and clinical symptoms. Gastric mucosa alterations can be classified on the bases of diverse viewpoints. It makes this overview difficult, that identical toxic effects may cause different mucosal changes and different toxic agents may produce similar mucosal appearance. The more accurate understanding of the pathological processes which develop in the stomach mucosa needs reconsideration. The authors make an attempt to define gastritis and gastropathy in order to classify and present their features. Gastritis is a histological definition indicating mucosal inflammation. Acute gastritis is caused by infections. The two most important forms of chronic gastritis are metaplastic atrophic gastritis with an autoimmune origin and Helicobacter pylori inflammation. Gastropathy is the name of different structural alterations of the mucosa. Its most important feature is the paucity of inflammatory signs. Gastropathies can be divided into 4 categories based on the nature of the underlying pathological effect, on its morphological appearance and the way of the development. Differential diagnosis is an important pathological and clinical task because different treatment methods and prognosis.
Gonçalves, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Emília; Palha, Ana M; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela; Lopes, Ana Isabel
corpus atrophic gastritis with lymphocytic infiltration (5/5), patchy oxyntic gland mononuclear cell infiltration (5/5), intestinal and/or pseudo-pyloric metaplasia in corpus mucosa (4/5), and enterochromaffin cell hyperplasia (4/5). Immunochemistry for gastrin on corpus biopsies was negative in all cases. Duodenal histology was normal. All biopsies were negative for H. pylori (Giemsa staining and cultural examination). We highlight autoimmune gastritis as a diagnosis to be considered when investigating refractory iron deficiency anemia in children, particularly in the setting of a personal/familial history of autoimmune disease, as well as the diagnostic contribution of a careful immunohistological evaluation.
Saka, Akiko; Yagi, Kazuyoshi; Nimura, Satoshi
As atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia as a result of Helicobacter pylori are considered risk factors for gastric cancer, it is important to assess their severity. In the West, the operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) and operative link for gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) staging systems based on biopsy have been widely adopted. In Japan, however, narrow-band imaging (NBI)-magnifying endoscopic diagnosis of gastric mucosal inflammation, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia has been reported to be fairly accurate. Therefore, we investigated the practicality of NBI-magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) for gastritis staging. We enrolled 55 patients, in whom NBI-ME was used to score the lesser curvature of the antrum (antrum) and the lesser curvature of the lower body (corpus). The NBI-ME score classification was established from images obtained beforehand, and then biopsy specimens taken from the observed areas were scored according to histological findings. The NBI-ME and histology scores were then compared. Furthermore, we assessed the NBI-ME and histology stages using a combination of scores for the antrum and corpus, and divided the stages into two risk groups: low and high. The degree to which the stage assessed by NBI-ME approximated that assessed by histology was then ascertained. Degree of correspondence between the NBI-ME and histology scores was 69.1% for the antrum and 72.7% for the corpus, and that between the high- and low-risk groups was 89.1%. Staging of gastritis using NBI-ME approximates that based on histology, and would be a practical alternative to the latter. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L
Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.
Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y
Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.
Cirurgia laparoscópica no diagnóstico de gastrite crônica atrófica seguida de tratamento clínico em cadela: relato de caso Laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis in a dog followed by clinical treatment: case report
Full Text Available Descrevem-se o diagnóstico e o tratamento de um caso de gastrite atrófica crônica, em uma cadela sem raça definida, de dois anos de idade. A paciente apresentava como principal sintomatologia vômito crônico. O hemograma, a urinálise e as avaliações bioquímicas séricas não revelaram alterações significativas. Os exames radiológicos e ultra-sonográficos abdominais também não foram sugestivos de alterações. Realizaram-se inspeção da cavidade peritoneal, gastrotomia, gastroscopia, gastrectomia para biopsia e gastrorrafia intracorpórea videolaparoscópicas. Constatou-se ausência de rugosidades estomacais. Ao exame histológico, observou-se atrofia das células principais e parietais da mucosa gástrica. O quadro clínico permitiu o diagnóstico de gastrite crônica atrófica. O animal foi medicado com terapia imunossupressora e apresentou remissão completa dos sinais clínicos.This report describes a case of chronic atrophic gastritis. A two-year-old female mongrel dog showed chronic emesis. The complete blood count serum chemistry and urinalysis values were within the normal limits. Radiographs revealed no alterations. Abdominal evaluation, gastrotomy, gastroscopy, gastrectomy and intracorporeal stomach suture were done by laparoscopic approach. Absence of gastric villous was noticed through laparoscopic biopsy. The microscopic analysis reveled parietal and principal gastric mucosal cells atrophy, which, associated with clinical signs, allowed the chronic atrophic gastritis diagnosis. The animal was treated and clinical signs complete remission was observed.
Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C
Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.
Full Text Available In recent years, the importance of the histological diagnosis of gastritis on the basis of routinely obtained antral and corpus biopsies has increased enormously, which is owed not least of all to the discovery of Helicobacter pylori. The introduction of the Sydney system made it possible, for the first time, to grade histological parameters, identify topographical distribution and, finally, make a statement about the etiopathogenesis of the gastritis. Of pathogenetic importance is, in the first instance, the differentiation between gastritis with and gastritis without H pylori infection. The group of H pylori-associated gastritis can be further subdivided into forms of gastritis whose morphological distribution patterns usually identify them as sequelae of H pylori infection, while the group of gastritis unassociated with H pylori, can be differentiated into autoimmune, chemically induced reactive gastritis, ex-H pylori gastritis, Helicobacter heilmannii gastritis, Crohn's gastritis and a number of special forms of gastritis.
Background: Chinese herbal decoction (CHD) has been extensively used in the treatment of atrophic gastritis (AG) in China and other Far Eastern countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy and safety of CHD in AG. Materials and Methods: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane central ...
Polydorides, Alexandros D
The histologic finding of chronic inflammation in an endoscopic mucosal biopsy of the stomach (chronic gastritis) is very common and usually reflects the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, infectious organisms are not always present in biopsy material, and some cases of chronic gastritis do not result from H. pylori infection. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this finding is an important one for pathologists to keep in mind. This review presents the three most common and clinically significant causes of chronic, noninfectious gastritis, namely, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, lymphocytic gastritis, and gastric involvement in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn disease. For each entity, a brief discussion of its etiology and pathogenesis, a review of the clinical and endoscopic features, and a description of the microscopic findings are presented in the context of the differential diagnosis of chronic gastritis with emphasis on helpful histopathologic hints and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freeman, Hugh J.; Piercy, James R.A.; Raine, Robert J.
A 54-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting and weight loss associated with impaired gastric emptying necessitating institution of parenteral nutrition. Subsequent studies revealed an unusual gastric mucosa! inflammatory process characterized by unique subepithelial collagenous deposits. Collagenous gastritis appears to be a distinct, possibly immune-mediated, chronic disorder, pathologically reminiscent of collagenous sprue and collagenous colitis.
Yamada, Masayoshi; Kushima, Ryoji; Oda, Ichiro; Mojtahed, Kaveh; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Matsubara, Akiko; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka; Shimoda, Tadakazu
Although many gastric cancers arise in chronic gastritis, the association between adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction and the status of background gastritis remains unclear. We aim to investigate the histological status of gastritis in the background fundic gland mucosa of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. The present study included 121 consecutive patients with superficial adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction obtained by surgical and/or endoscopic resection. We re-evaluated the histogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, including the background fundic gland mucosa using the Updated Sydney System. The prevalence of histologic atrophic gastric mucosa with gastritis (positive gastritis), non-atrophic gastric mucosa without gastritis (negative gastritis) and Barrett's adenocarcinoma was examined. Histologic-positive gastritis was found in 67 (55%) of all patients, in 24 (38%) of 63 Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients and in 43 (74%) of 58 non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients (P gastritis patients `and younger age in non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma without gastritis patients were shown. There were no differences in clinicopathological features related to the gastritis status in Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. Reflux esophagitis was observed in most (81%) of all patients, and 32 (74%) of the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma with gastritis patients. In the 67 positive gastritis patients, the mean Updated Sydney System scores of glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia were 1.45 and 1.10, respectively, and these scores were higher in the non-Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients than in the Barrett's adenocarcinoma patients. This study suggests that about half of the patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction harbor histological gastritis. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is considered to be a heterogeneous entity, including Barrett's esophagus-related, positive gastritis-related, and
L. V. Matveeva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the features of immune response for main subpopulations of peripheral blood lymphocytes during exacerbation of chronic gastritis, depending on the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy. A comprehensive survey of 122 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis was performed. The patients with chronic focal-atrophic and atrophic gastritis in acute stage were characterized by increased numbers of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ cell populations, decreased CD19+ lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood. During exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, an increase of CD4+ and CD16+ cell counts was associated with a decrease in the CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes. A concomitant increase in CD4+ cell numbers, as well as elevated IL-2 and IFNγ levels in peripheral blood of patients may reflect activation of cellular immunity, which could be induced by the dysplasia of gastric mucosa and co-infection with Helicobacter/herpesvirus. Domination of increased IL-2 and IFNγ over IL-4 and IL-10 levels suggests the Th1-profile of cellular immune response. Upon exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, the immunoregulatory index exceeded the values of clinically healthy subjects and those of patients with atrophic gastritis. We observed statistically significant differences for CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ lymphocytes, immunoregulatory index, and serum levels of IL-2, depending on presence and severity of gastric mucosal atrophy.
Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.
OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524
Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B
Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.
Ghrelin and pre-proghrelin immunoreactive cells in gastric neuroendocrine tumors associated with atrophic body gastritis Grelina e pré-progrelina em tumores neuroendócrinos do estômago associados à gastrite atrófica do corpo
Letícia Figueiredo Moreira
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide secreted mainly by endocrine cells present in the gastric mucosa and acknowledged as an endogenous releaser of growth hormone. The immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin has been described in neuroendocrine tumors, and it is believed that may exert modulating action related to the growth of these tumors. OBJECTIVE: To study the presence of ghrelin and preproghrelin immunoreactive cells in gastric neuroendocrine tumors associated with atrophic body gastritis. METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies from 15 patients with neuroendocrine tumor of the gastric mucosa associated with atrophic body gastritis were performed for immunohistochemistry, and specific chromogranin, ghrelin and preproghrelin antibodies were applied. The immunohistochemical expression was assessed in tumor cells and endocrine micronodular hyperplasia present in mucosa adjacent to the tumor, and it was classified in relation to the number of stained cells. RESULTS: Chromogranin was positive in 14 out of 15 tumors. Ghrelin and preproghrelin immunoreactive cells were detected in 11 (73% and 13 (87% tumors, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemical results of both antigen expressions (kappa = 81%. Ghrelin and preproghrelin expression was detected in hyperplastic nodules present in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor in seven and eight cases, respectively. There was no correlation between these results and those observed in neoplastic cells. CONCLUSION: Ghrelin and preproghrelin immunoreactive cells may be found in variable number in Type I neuroendocrine gastric tumors and in hyperplastic nodules associated with these tumors. However, it remains unclear what role these peptides play on the development of these tumors.INTRODUÇÃO: Grelina é um peptídeo de 28 aminoácidos, reconhecido como liberador endógeno do hormônio do crescimento, sendo secretado principalmente por células endócrinas da mucosa g
African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...
Imagawa, Shinobu; Yoshihara, Masaharu; Ito, Masanori; Yoshida, Shigeto; Wada, Yoshihiro; Tatsugami, Masana; Takamura, Akemi; Tanaka, Shinji; Haruma, Ken; Chayama, Kazuaki
We evaluated the topography of histological gastritis, which may be risk factors for gastric cancer (GCa). A total of 530 Helicobacter pylori-positive patients underwent diagnostic upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum and body to assess the grade of gastritis. Subjects were divided into four groups by the topography of active gastritis (antrum predominant gastritis, AP; pan-gastritis with or without corpus atrophy, Pan-1 and Pan-2; and corpus predominant gastritis, CP). A higher prevalence of GCa followed the order of Pan 2-->CP-->Pan 1-->AP. The age of patients decreased in the same order. When we set Pan 2 and CP as a high-risk group, the sensitivity and specificity for GCa detection were 77.3 and 54.7%, which were superior to the serum criteria using pepsinogens. These suggest that topography of histologic gastritis is an important marker to identify the high-risk group.
Hee Kyong Na
Full Text Available In patients with adenoma, assessing premalignant changes in the surrounding mucosa is important for surveillance. This study evaluated atrophic and metaplastic progression in the background mucosa of adenoma or early gastric cancer (EGC cases.Among 146 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection for intestinal-type gastric neoplasia, the adenoma group included 56 patients with low-grade dysplasia and the ECG group included 90 patients with high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. For histology, 3 paired biopsies were obtained from the antrum, corpus lesser curvature (CLC, and corpus greater curvature (CGC. Serological atrophy was determined based on pepsinogen A (PGA, progastricsin (PGC, gastrin-17, and total ghrelin levels. Topographic progression of atrophy and/or metaplasia was staged using the operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA and operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM systems.Rates of moderate-to-marked histological atrophy/metaplasia in patients with adenoma were 52.7%/78.2% at the antrum (vs. 58.8%/76.4% in EGC group, 63.5%/75.0% at the CLC (vs. 60.2%/69.7% in EGC group, and 10.9%/17.9% at the CGC (vs. 5.6%/7.8% in EGC group. Serological atrophy indicated by PGA and PGC occurred in 23.2% and 15.6% of cases in the adenoma and ECG groups, respectively (p = 0.25. Mean serum gastrin-17 concentrations of the adenoma group and EGC group were 10.4 and 9.0 pmol/L, respectively (p = 0.54. Mean serum total ghrelin levels were 216.6 and 209.5 pg/mL, respectively (p = 0.71. Additionally, between group rates of stage III-IV OLGA and OLGIM were similar (25.9% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.90; 41.8% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.71, respectively.Atrophic and metaplastic progression is extensive and severe in gastric adenoma patients. A surveillance strategy for metachronous tumors should be applied similarly for patients with adenoma or EGC.
Ben Slama, Sana; Ben Ghachem, Dorra; Dhaoui, Amen; Jomni, Mohamed Taieb; Dougui, Mohamed Hédi; Bellil, Khadija
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis presents a risk of cancer related to atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Two recent classifications OLGA (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) and OLGIM (Operative Link on Gastritic Intestinal Metaplasia assessment) have been proposed to identify high-risk forms (stages III and IV). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in H pylori gastritis. A descriptive study of 100 cases of chronic H pylori gastritis was performed. The revaluation of Sydney System parameters of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, of gastric antrum and corpus, allowed identifying respectively the stages of OLGA and OLGIM systems. The progressive risk of our H pylori gastritis was 6% according to OLGA staging and 7% according to OLGIM staging. Significant correlation was revealed between age and OLGA staging. High-risk gastritis according to OLGIM staging was significantly associated with moderate to severe atrophy. High-risk forms according to OLGA staging were associated in 80% of the cases to intestinal metaplasia. OLGA and OLGIM systems showed a highly significant positive correlation between them with a mismatch at 5% for H pylori gastritis. The OLGA and OLGIM staging systems in addition to Sydney System, allow selection of high risk forms of chronic gastritis requiring accurate observation.
Belkovets, A V; Kurilovich, S A; Reshetnikov, O; Ragino, Yu I; Scherbakova, L V
The analysis of noninvasive diagnostics of a phenotype of gastritis among 1050 people aged from 18 till 80 years which consistently addressed to policlinic is presented in the article. The instrument of diagnostics was a , including a complex of biomarkers - so-called (pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, gastrin-17 and IgG- antibodies to Helicobacter Pylori). High frequency of different variants of atrophic gastritis (25%) with a gastric cancer risk and conditions with a risk of erosive and ulcer damages of the stomach mucous (26 %) was shown. Clinical and economical expediency of noninvasive screening of a phenotype of gastritis is postulated.
Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao
To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.
Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao
To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation. PMID:24587623
Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim
Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835
Varbanova, Mariya; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Malfertheiner, Peter
Helicobacter pylori is the main aetiologic factor for chronic gastritis worldwide. The degree of inflammation and the evolution of this form of chronic gastritis can vary largely depending on bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility factors and environmental conditions. Autoimmune gastritis is another cause of chronic inflammation in the stomach, which can occur in all age groups. This disease presents typically with vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anaemia. The presence of anti-parietal cell antibodies is highly specific for the diagnosis. The role of H. pylori as a trigger for autoimmune gastritis remains uncertain. Other rare conditions for chronic gastritis are chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or on the background of lymphocytic or collagenous gastroenteropathies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vere, C C; Cazacu, S; Comănescu, Violeta; Mogoantă, L; Rogoveanu, I; Ciurea, T
(5.22%), gastric atrophy in 12 cases (5.22%), petechiaes in five cases (2.17%), intestinal metaplasia one case (0.43%) and gastric polyp one case (0.43%). The histologic alterations observed from tissues collected during endoscopic examination were: chronic inflammation in 75 cases (84.06%), foveolar hyperplasia in 36 cases (40.44%), intestinal metaplasia in 31 cases (34.83%), acute inflammation in 16 cases (16.08%), Helicobacter pylori infection in 16 cases (16.08%), chronic atrophic gastritis in 12 cases (13.46%), gastric polyps in 12 cases (13.46%), dysplasia in 10 cases (11.23%), benign ulcerations in seven cases (3.04%), edema in six cases (6.74%) and neoplasia two cases (2.24%). Conclusions. Bile reflux gastritis was more frequent to male gender. The most frequent risk factors for alkaline reflux gastritis were gastric and biliary surgery. Reflux gastritis after gastric resection, pyloroplasty and gastroenteric-anastomosis were more frequent to male gender, while cholecystectomy and biliary anastomosis were predominantly to female gender. The average time interval from original operation to the discovery of the bile reflux gastritis was similar after gastric and biliary surgery. The commonest endoscopic alterations were: erythema of the gastric mucosa, the presence of bile into the stomach, thickens of gastric folds, erosions, gastric atrophy, petechiaes, intestinal metaplasia and gastric polyp. Acute inflammation, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric polyps and benign ulcerations were more frequent in patients with bile reflux gastritis after gastric surgery, while edema and dysplasia were increased after biliary surgery.
For article are studied questions of maintenance protection of the rights and freedom of the person in criminal legal proceedings by means of instructions habeas corpus. The author investigates historical aspects of formation of instructions habeas corpus and their value now.
Full Text Available Sebagian besar masyarakat menganggap bahwa penyakit sistem pencernaan (gastritis adalah dikarenakan pola makan yang salah atau tidak teratur. Untuk memperbaiki pola makan maka diperlukan pengetahuan yang baik dan perilaku yang positif karena akan mempengaruhi bagaimana seseorang melakukan tindakan pencegahan agar gastritis tidak terjadi. Tujuanan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara pengetahuan tentang penyebab gastritis dengan perilaku pencegahan gastritis pada Mahasiswa S.1 Keperawatan Universitas Muhamadiyah Banjarmasin. Subjek yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa S.1 Keperawatan dengan sampel sebanyak 277 responden yang diambil menggunakan tehnik accidental sampling dan uji statistik menggunakan Spearman Rank. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah ada hubungan antara pengetahuan tentang penyebab gastritis dengan perilaku pencegahan gastritis dengan nilai P = 0,000 < Î± 0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diharapkan masyarakat dan khususnya mahasiswa dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan penyebab gastritis.
Aline de Lima Benevides
ABSTRACT:The present paper presents the task of compiling a linguistic corpus of Brazilian Portuguese, which was undertaken by the authors. It is called ABG Corpus, and this article is also about the computational tools developed for the task. Our main goal is to reunite a large amount of texts, both from spoken and written language to, in the best way possible, represent the Brazilian language in a way that we could use it as a database for our researches, Guide (2016 and Benevides (2017. The ABG corpus has 3.616.625 word tokens and 92.602 types of words, being that 1.938.805 of those tokens are from spoken language corpora and 1.676.820 tokens come from written corpora. Based on the corpus linguistics framework and through the use of computational tools developed using Python, this article shows and provides access to the ABG Corpus, the computational tools (stress marker, phonological structure identifier, syllabifier, as well as some phonological information (stress and syllable related, already present on the corpus. We end by inviting the community to further expand our findings and explore this new tool.
Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Enyime, Félicien Ntoné; Ndjollé, Carole Menzy; Djapa, Roger Nsenga; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Njoya, Oudou; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap
The study aimed at determining the different types of precancerous conditions of the stomach and searches the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in these lesions in patients with chronic antral gastritis in Yaounde, Cameroon. Five gastric biopsies were performed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for pathology and fixed in formol 10% before being coated in paraffin. Both the modified Giemsa and Periodic acid of Shift - Alkaline blue stains were used for the histological diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Hematoxylyn and eosin stain was used to determine the activity of gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in accordance to the Sydney's classification of gastritis. Data were analysed using both the Epi info 6.04 and Excel 2007 softwares. Means and their standard deviations, medians and their interquartiles (IQR) were calculated. Proportions were established for qualitative variables and chi square analysis done in this study with a p value set at 0.05. Seventy-nine patients with chronic antral gastritis were enrolled, of which 43 (54.4%) were male, median age: 43 years (range from 21 to 70 years). The rate of atrophic gastritis was 74.7% (59/79). The activity of atrophic gastritis was mild in 47.5% (28/59) of cases, moderate in 47.5% (28/59) and severe in 5% (5/59). Intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis were present in 6.3% (5/79), and 10.1% (8/79), respectively. Concerning Helicobacter pylori infection, 71.2% (42/59) of patients with atrophic gastritis tested positive against 28.8% (17/59) who tested negative (p=0.00003). Helicobacter pylori infection was related to the severity of gastric atrophy (p=0.0001). Among patients with intestinal metaplasia and follicular gastritis, the proportion of those who tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection was 80% (4/5), and 75% (6/8), respectively. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of atrophic gastritis according to age groups (p=0.908). This study concludes
Sánchez-Fayos Calabuig, Paloma; Martín Relloso, M Jesús; Porres Cubero, Juan Carlos
There are several causes of damage and regeneration of the gastric epithelium (erosive gastropathy) and/or histological inflammation of the gastric mucosa (acute or chronic gastritis). After outlining the usual morphology of chronic gastritis, the authors attempt to identify the biological profile of the main pathogenic models. The first, and by far the most frequent, is the model associated with Helicobacter pylori, which, without crossing the mucosal epithelium, provokes an immune reaction. Although incapable of eradicating this bacterium, this immune reaction contributes to the inflammatory lesion provoked by H. pylori in the mucosa. The second -and much less frequent- model is that causing progressive atrophic gastritis through a humoral and cellular autoimmune mechanism. In third place are a group of models defined by a peculiar cytohistologic pattern of inflammation (granulomatous, lymphocytic or eosinophilic gastritis), suggesting similar pathogenic mechanisms for each of these rare morphological forms of gastritis. Lastly, there is a model barely fitting within the scope of this review, which is that provoking chemical gastropathies (bile reflux, NSAIDs, etc.) with minimal cellular inflammation, i.e., minimal gastritis. To aid understanding of the article, the authors provide a brief outline of the functional histology of the gastric wall and the mechanisms defending its integrity in physiological conditions.
Full Text Available Aim. To assess the predictive value for chronic autoimmune gastritis (AIG of the combined assay of anti-parietal-cell antibodies (PCA, anti-intrinsic-factor antibodies (IFA, anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp antibodies, and measurement of blood gastrin. Methods. We studied 181 consecutive patients with anemia, due to iron deficiency resistant to oral replacement therapy or to vitamin B12 deficiency. Results. 83 patients (45.8% tested positive for PCA and underwent gastroscopy with multiple gastric biopsies. On the basis of the histological diagnosis, PCA-positive patients were divided into 4 groups: (1 30 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis; they had high concentrations of PCA and gastrin and no detectable IFA; (2 14 subjects with metaplastic gastric atrophy; they had high PCA, IFA, and gastrin; (3 18 patients with nonspecific lymphocytic inflammation with increased PCA, normal gastrin levels, and absence of IFA; (4 21 patients with multifocal atrophic gastritis with “borderline” PCA, normal gastrin, absence of IFA and presence of anti-Hp in 100% of the cases. Conclusions. The assay of four serological markers proved particularly effective in the diagnostic classification of gastritis and highly correlated with the histological profile. As such, this laboratory diagnostic profile may be considered an authentic “serological biopsy.”
Qvist, N; Rasmussen, L; Axelsson, C K
Twenty-five patients with dyspepsia were included. In 19 patients with a median age of 48 (range, 20-72) years endoscopy and histologic examination of biopsy specimens from the antrum and corpus of the stomach showed Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis as the only pathologic finding. In six...... patients with a median age of 42 (range, 32-56) years H. pylori-negative gastritis was found. After an overnight fast the patients underwent an ambulatory duodenal motility study for 6-8 h. Twenty-five young healthy men served as the control group. In patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis the duration...... (22-89 min) in the control group. The duration of phase III and the whole MMC cycle was similar in the two groups. However, in the patients with H. pylori-negative gastritis the values of the duration of the different phases of the MMC were similar to those of the patients with H. pylori...
Full Text Available In the article the data on the study of the etiological factors of various types of chronic gastritis in children are presented. Based on revealing of the auto antibodies to parietal gastric cells in 40,0% of children autoimmune gastritis (a type gastritis is diagnosed. Helicobacterr pylori infection is revealed in 44,8% of children. In 27,6% of children type c gastritis is diagnosed. Autoimmune gastritis in children has been linked to the active phase of chronic epsteinbbarr virus infection. the etiological factors of nonautoimmune gastritis are Helicobacter pylori infection (type b gastritis and multiple duodenogastric refluxes (type c gastritis.Key words: children, chronic gastritis, etiological factors, autoimmune gastritis, nonautoimmune gastritis, active phase of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, Helicobacter pylori infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a rare case of diffuse macroscopic discoloration and chemical gastritis due to chronic bromazepam intake. The chemical composition of pharmaceuticals has to be considered at endoscopy and it is evident that some chemical substances damage the epithelial tissue and lead to clinical symptoms. Case Presentation Endoscopy was performed in an 82-year-old patient due to gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and epigastric pain. Gastroscopy showed a hiatal hernia and a scarred duodenal bulb. More striking was the yellow-brownish discoloration of the gastric and the duodenal mucosa. The gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb showed local discoloration that could not be rinsed off. The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. The histopathological findings showed appearances of chemical gastritis. Within the lamina propria and on the epithelial surface there were granules. There was no foreign body reaction to these granules. Corpus mucosa showed a mild chronic gastritis. Conclusions If discoloration of the mucosa at endoscopy is seen, a careful drug history must be sought. This is the first case in literature that shows a chemical gastritis after bromazepam intake.
Kotynia, Justyna; Kordek, Radzislaw; Kozlowska, Alicja; Malecka-Panas, Ewa
The intestinal type of gastric cancer is thought to originate from cancer precursor lesions, progressing from H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, to intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia. Tyrosine kinases (tyr-k) represent the family of proteins that are widely expressed during cell metabolism and are considered as secondary markers for cellular proliferation and malignant transformation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between gastric mucosal histopathologic changes, total tyrosine kinases, and proliferative activities in patients with H. pylori infection. Biopsy specimens from the gastric mucosa of 94 patients were assessed for H. pylori infection, histopathology (according to the Sydney classification), proliferative activity [Ki-67 immunohistochemistry with labeling index (LI) estimation], and total tyr-k activities (ELISA assay kit). Total tyr-k activities and Ki-67 LI were significantly higher in H. pylori (+) than H. pylori (-) group (728.1 +/- 175.3 vs 360.1 +/- 44.4 pmol P/mg/min. p <0,01 and 20.0 +/- 5.8 vs 10.9 +/- 1.3 %, respectively). A significant correlation has been observed between the Ki-67 LI and total tyr-k activities in patients with and without H. pylori infection. In cases of gastritis accompanied with atrophic changes or intestinal metaplasia in H. pylori (+) patients, Ki-67 LI and total tyr-k activities were particularly high compared to chronic gastritis without atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. Those results suggest that tyrosine kinases may play an important role in the development of gastric mucosal hyperproliferation in H. pylori-induced gastritis and possibly in early phase of gastric carcinogenesis.
NazvanCapabilities of non-atrofic antral helicobacter-associated gastritis diagnostics at the patients suffering from a duodenal ulcer combnined with bronchial asthma when examining Gastropanel test system
G. V. Maksimenko
Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained by the investigation of morphological condition of a gastric mucosa and serum concentration of pepsinogen-I, pepsinogen-II, and gastrin-17, as well as H. pylori IgG antibodies using «Gastropanel» test system when examining patients suffering from a duodenal ulcer combined with bronchial asthma. It was reveled that the level of serum concentration is in close relation to gastritis activity and Helicjbacter pylori bacterization in the gastric mucosa, thus expanding the «Gastropanel» test system application for diagnosing not only atrophic gastritis, but also for helicobacter gastritis without evidence of atrophy.
Bloodworth, L. L.; Stevens, P E; Bury, R. F.; Arm, J P; Rainford, D J
A case of emphysematous gastritis associated with extensive gastric infarction after acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure is described. This complication was diagnosed on a plain abdominal radiograph and confirmed endoscopically. Extensive gastric and hepatic infarction was seen at necropsy.
Venerito, Marino; Varbanova, Mariya; Röhl, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Reinhold, Dirk; Frauenschläger, Katrin; Jechorek, Doerthe; Weigt, Jochen; Link, Alexander; Malfertheiner, Peter
To assess characteristics of oxyntic gastric atrophy (OGA) in autoimmune gastritis (AIG) compared with OGA as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients undergoing oesophagogastroduodenoscopy from July 2011 to October 2014 were prospectively included (N=452). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histology and H. pylori testing. Serum gastrin-17 (G17), pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII and antibodies against H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein were determined in all patients. Antibodies against parietal cells and intrinsic factor were determined in patients with advanced (moderate to severe) OGA. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated for serum biomarkers and compared with histology. Overall, 34 patients (8.9%) had advanced OGA by histology (22 women, age 61±15 years). Current or past H. pylori infection and AIG were present in 14/34 and 22/34 patients, respectively. H. pylori-negative AIG patients (N=18) were more likely to have another autoimmune disease (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.3 to 29.8), severe corpus atrophy (OR 10.1; 95% CI 1.9 to 54.1) and corpus intestinal metaplasia (OR 26.9; 95% CI 5.3 to 136.5) compared with H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA. Antrum atrophy was present in 39% of H. pylori-negative AIG patients. The diagnostic performance of G17, PG I and PGI/II was excellent for AIG patients (AUC=0.83, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively), but limited for H. pylori-positive patients with advanced OGA (AUC=0.62, 0.75 and 0.67, respectively). H. pylori-negative AIG has a distinct clinical, morphological and serological phenotype compared with advanced OGA in H. pylori gastritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is an inflammatory condition of the gastric mucosa, which may include glandular alterations. It is most frequently caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori, a smaller proportion is related to chemical agents and autoimmune mechanisms. Chronic gastritis may lead to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma, depending on environmental factors, bacterial strain and host immune response. The vast majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are the final step in a complex cascade process of cancerogenesis involving sequential steps of precancerous lesions – atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.The process of cancerogenesis is associated with progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations, these being more frequent in dysplasia than in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Despite extensive research of gastric cancerogenesis, there are no molecular markers to be used for detecting patients at risk for cancer development.Biopsy remains among the most reliable ways of detecting gastric precancerous lesions. Apart from the correct histologic diagnosis, the assessment of topography is important. Biopsies must be taken according to the updated Sydney protocol. For further classifying patients at risk for gastric cancer, two systems have been developed: OLGA (Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment and OLGIM (Operative Link for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment.Slovenian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Slovenian Society for Pathology and Forensic Medicine have accepted guidelines for endoscopic and histologic management of patients with gastric precancerosis. The aim of these recommendations is to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage and to improve survival of patients with gastric cancer in Slovenia.
Villablanca, Pedro A; Sukhal, Shashvat; Ansari, Asimul; Mohammed, Dergham
A 50-year-old lady presented with epigastralgia, electrocardiogram (ECG) showed T-wave inversions and the echocardiogram low ejection fraction (EF) with apical ballooning. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed gastritis. She recovered with proton pump inhibitors treatment. This is the first case that describes gastritis-induced stress cardiomyopathy. Clinicians should be aware of Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy (TCM) as a possible complication of gastritis.
Harry Hok Yee Yu
Full Text Available Emphysematous gastritis is a rare variant of phlegmonous gastritis due to invasion of stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. It is characterised by abnormal presence of gas in the stomach by imaging, in association with clinical sepsis. Patients suffering from this condition usually present with an underlying pathology. We are reporting a middle-aged Chinese male with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma. He underwent partial hepatectomy and was diagnosed with emphysematous gastritis 4 days after index operation. Emergency laparotomy, including upper endoscopy, was performed. He was managed with antibiotics and discharged 18 days after second operation. This paper shows a review of the literature about the disease, with particular attention to pathology, clinical features, and management.
Kwak, Ji Eun; Chang, Sun Hee; Kim, Hanseong; Chi, Je G.; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yang, Jeon Ho; Lee, June Sung; Moon, Young-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee
The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of Helicobacter heilmannii-associated gastritis and to compare H. heilmannii-associated gastritis with H. pylori-associated gastritis. We reviewed 5,985 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens. All cases of chronic gastritis with Helicobacter infection were evaluated with the Updated Sydney System, and the grades of all gastritis variables were compared between H. heilmannii-associated gastritis and H. pylori-associated gastritis groups. There were 10 cases of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis (0.17%) and 3,285 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis (54.9%). The organisms were superficially located within the mucous layer without adhesion to epithelial cells. Interestingly, in one case many intracytoplasmic H. heilmannii organisms were observed in parietal cells with cell damage. A case of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma concomitant with H. heilmannii infection was detected. Compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis, H. heilmannii-associated gastritis showed less severe neutrophilic activity (pgastritis devoid of erosion or ulcer (p=0.0309). In conclusion, we present the detailed clinicopathologic findings of H. heilmannii-associated gastritis compared to H. pylori-associated gastritis. H. heilmannii-associated gastritis is uncommon and milder than H. pylori-associated gastritis, however it may be noteworthy with respect to the development of MALT lymphoma. PMID:17297253
Švagelj, Dražen; Terzić, Velimir; Dovhanj, Jasna; Švagelj, Marija; Cvrković, Mirta; Švagelj, Ivan
Human gastric diseases have shown significant changes in the activity and expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. The aim of this study was to detect Mn-SOD activity and expression in the tissue of gastric mucosa, primarily in chronic gastritis (immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis, without other pathohistological changes) and to evaluate their possible connection with pathohistological diagnosis. We examined 51 consecutive outpatients undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were classified based on their histopathological examinations and divided into three groups: 51 patients (archive samples between 2004-2009) with chronic immunohistochemical Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis (mononuclear cells infiltration were graded as absent, moderate, severe) divided into three groups. Severity of gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Gastric tissue samples were used to determine the expression of Mn-SOD with anti-Mn-SOD Ab immunohistochemically. The Mn-SOD expression was more frequently present in specimens with severe and moderate inflammation of gastric mucosa than in those with normal mucosa. In patients with normal histological finding, positive immunoreactivity of Mn-SOD was not found. Our results determine the changes in Mn-SOD expression occurring in the normal gastric mucosa that had undergone changes in the intensity of chronic inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized histologically by the presence of a thick subepithelial collagen band associated with an inflammatory infiltrate of gastric mucosa. A 40-year-old male presented with a history of chronic intermittent abdominal pain for about 6 months. Physical examination was unremarkable, and biological tests were within normal range. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy which showed a nodular mucosa of the stomach. Biopsies of the duodenum and colon were unremarkable. However, biopsies of the gastric fundus revealed a mild chronic gastritis characterized by lymphocytic and plasma cell infiltration of deep mucosa, without lymphoid follicle formation or active inflammation. No microorganisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin or Giemsa-stained sections. Subepithelial collagen in the gastric biopsies was thickened and showed entrapped capillaries. Subepithelial collagen was highlighted by Masson's trichrome staining and was negative for amyloid by Congo Red. In the areas containing thickened collagen, there were no intraepithelial lymphocytes. The final pathological diagnosis was collagenous gastritis. Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, but it is important to recognize its characteristic endoscopic and pathologic findings to make a correct diagnosis. Specific therapy for this rare entity has not yet been established. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 68-70
plain abdominal X-rays, fluoroscopy (water-soluble contrast meal), and on an abdominal CT scan. Introduction. Gastric pneumatosis (also known as gastric emphysema) and emphy- sematous gastritis are terms describing air in the wall of the stomach. Intramural gastric air is a rare clinical condition. It was first described.
Hnatyszyn, Andrzej; Wielgus, Karolina; Kaczmarek-Rys, Marta; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Mikolajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Dziuba, Ireneusz; Mikstacki, Adam; Slomski, Ryszard
Epidemiological investigations indicated association of the Helicobacter pylori infections with the occurrence of inflammatory conditions of the gastric mucosa and development of chronic gastritis and intestinal type of gastric cancer. IL1A and IL1B genes have been proposed as key factors in determining risk of gastritis and malignant transformation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and intestinal type of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. Patients subjected to analysis represent group of 144 consecutive cases that suffered from dyspepsia with coexisting infection of H. pylori and chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or gastric cancer. Molecular studies involved analysis of -889C>T polymorphism of IL1A gene and +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene. Statistical analysis of association of polymorphism -889C>T of gene IL1A with changes in gastric mucosa showed lack of significance, whereas +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene showed significant association. Frequency of allele T of +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene was higher in group of patients with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or intestinal type of gastric cancer (32.1 %) as compared with population group (23 %), χ(2) = 4.61 and p = 0.03. This corresponds to odds ratio: 1.58, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.4. Our results indicate that +3954C>T polymorphism of IL1B gene increase susceptibility to inflammatory response of gastric mucosa H. pylori-infected patients and plays a significant role in the development of chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and the initiation of carcinogenesis.
Institut Universitari de Lingstica Aplicada; Institut Universitari de Lingüística Aplicada
Corpus 92. Este CD-Rom constituye el soporte digital del libro “El Corpus PAAU 1992: estudios descriptivos, textos y vocabulario”. En él se incluyen tanto los textos que han sido objeto de análisis en este proyecto como los listados del vocabulario que conforma el Corpus 92.
Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward
Abstract Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables. One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications. Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP. There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results. PMID:28422853
Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.
Jorge, A D; Picatoste, R; del Valle, A; Díaz Flores, L
A study of gastric biopsies with optical and electronical microscope from patients with gastritis in different stages of evolution was realized. The ultraestructural results consist in phenomenal alterations at the epitelium level, apparition of bodies of mielinic aspects in the inside of the Oxintcs cells, reduction of the number of this and the peptic cells and even the disappearance of the last. There is an increase of the mucous cells with mitotic changes, notable hyperplasia of the arget cells and intestinal metaplasia in the advanced cases. In the stroma is demonstrative the infiltration of plasmatic cells having a endoplasmatic reticule in different stages of activity, linphocytes and macrophagous full of primary and secondary lysosomas. A very important fact is the increase of the argentofilous cells and its probably relation with the appearing of the gastritis. The presence of the plasma cells and lynphocyts mark the role that takes the immunitary reaction in this process.
María Paola Yumbay Yallica
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar como los estilos de vida inciden en la gastritis de los estudiantes de Segundo Semestre de Enfermería de la Facultad Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Material y métodos: El estudio es no experimental con un diseño descriptivo de corte transversal, se relacionan con las variables involucradas, además es de corta duración en un periodo corto de tiempo, el instrumento utilizado fueron dos encuestas a treinta personas, la primera encuesta sobre la variable independiente refiriéndonos a los estilos de vida con diez preguntas y la segunda encuesta sobre la variable dependiente que es la gastritis con diez preguntas. Resultados: Se obtuvo como resultados que no tienen horarios fijos de alimentación por lo cual producirán o tendrán el riesgo de contraer no solo la gastritis sino también otras patologías que dañaran su organismo y producirán su muerte. Conclusión: La mala nutrición puesto a que es el proceso mediante el cual los seres vivos incorporan, modifican y eliminan sustancias procedentes del exterior, absorbidas durante el proceso digestivo. La gastritis es la inflamación del revestimiento del estómago, puede ser de tipo agudo, de aparición rápida y resolución en pocos días, o de tipo crónico, en cuyo caso puede persistir durante años y producir úlcera péptica. En algunos casos, ésta puede llevar a la formación de úlceras y aumentar el padecer cáncer de estómago.
RATH-WOLFSON, LEA; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward
Abstract Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables. One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications...
Pedro A Villablanca; Sukhal, Shashvat; Ansari, Asimul; Mohammed, Dergham
Key Clinical Message A 50-year-old lady presented with epigastralgia, electrocardiogram (ECG) showed T-wave inversions and the echocardiogram low ejection fraction (EF) with apical ballooning. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed gastritis. She recovered with proton pump inhibitors treatment. This is the first case that describes gastritis-induced stress cardiomyopathy. Clinicians should be aware of Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy (TCM) as a possible complication of gastritis.
Inoue, Izumi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Yoshimura, Noriko; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Arii, Kenji; Oka, Masashi; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Iwane, Masataka; Mohara, Osamu; Ichinose, Masao
This study investigated correlations between Helicobacter pylori infection or chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and risk of colorectal adenoma in a population-based case-control study. Subjects comprised asymptomatic, middle-aged, male Japanese factory workers who participated in an annual health check-up program, including cancer screening with colonoscopy. We selected 239 colorectal adenoma cases based on histological evaluation and 239 age-matched adenoma-free controls, and evaluated colorectal adenoma risk according to stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum tests for H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen. Subjects with colorectal adenoma were more likely to be smokers and have hypercholesterolemia. H. pylori infection was a risk factor for adenoma as a whole (crude odds ratio [OR]: 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44-3.55). Analysis of distal adenoma cases showed that adenoma risk was significantly increased in the presence of H. pylori infection, but there was no further increase in risk with CAG. In contrast, proximal adenoma risk increased stepwise with the presence and progression of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis and showed a maximal and significant increase with CAG (crude OR: 4.51, 95% CI: 1.43-14.2). Subjects with more extensive and severe gastritis showed still higher risk not only for proximal but also for distal adenoma. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is likely to be involved in the development of colorectal neoplasms, and its progression appears to increase the risk, particularly for proximal adenomas. Knowing the H. pylori-related chronic gastritis stage will probably be useful for evaluation of risk for colorectal neoplasia. Copyright © 2011 UICC.
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah
Given the high prevalence of dementia and its devastating consequences, identifying risk factors for dementia is a public health priority. The present study aims to assess whether gastritis increases the odds of dementia. The data for this study, consisting of 2926 community-dwelling older adults, were obtained from the National survey entitled "Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians." Dementia was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer-Assisted Taxonomy. Prevalence of dementia was considerably higher among older adults with gastritis (29.5%) compared to those without gastritis (13.2%). After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, educational attainment, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes, gastritis was significantly associated with more than twice odds of dementia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.42, P gastritis may increase the risk of dementia provide avenue for further inquiries into dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ugras, Meltem; Vitrinel, Ayca; Yilmaz, Gulden; Midilli, Kenan; Ozkan, Ferda
The varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a very rare cause of gastritis. Gastritis caused by VZV can be presented as abdominal pain, vomiting. Most of the cases reported with varicella gastritis in the literature are immunocompromised patients with various kinds of malignancy, and most of these patients are adults. Here we report an adolescent girl with acute abdominal pain. The girl was immunocompetent. Her endoscopically taken biopsy material revealed varicella, and her gastritis was healed with acyclovir therapy. This is a very rare condition and not frequently reported in the literature. The authors want to drive attention to the fact that varicella gastritis can be seen in immunocompetent children, the presentation can be nausea, vomiting and/or (severe) abdominal pain. Serological studies may be less helpful than tissue studies, so interventional procedures should be done. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
María Paola Yumbay Yallica; Freddy Bayardo Iza Anguisaca; Tatiana Rivera
Objetivo: Determinar como los estilos de vida inciden en la gastritis de los estudiantes de Segundo Semestre de Enfermería de la Facultad Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato. Material y métodos: El estudio es no experimental con un diseño descriptivo de corte transversal, se relacionan con las variables involucradas, además es de corta duración en un periodo corto de tiempo, el instrumento utilizado fueron dos encuestas a treinta personas, la primera encuesta sobre la var...
Herrington, J. Lynwood; Sawyers, John L.; Whitehead, William A.
Reflux gastritis is now recognized with increasing frequency as a complication following operations on the stomach which either remove, alter, or bypass the pyloric phincter mechanism. The entity may occasionally occur as a result of sphincter dysfunction in the patient who has not undergone prior gastric surgery. The diagnosis is made on the basis of symptoms (postprandial pain, bilious vomiting and weight loss), gastroscopic examination with biopsy and persistent hypochlorhydria. Remedial operation for correction of reflux is indicated in the presence of persistent symptoms when conservative measures fail. Only operative procedures which divert duodenal contents from the stomach or gastric remnant are effective. Both the isoperistaltic jejunal segment (Henley loop) and the Roux-en-Y diversion have been effective as remedial operations for reflux gastritis and merit greater awareness by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Our choice is the Roux-en-Y because of its technical simplicity and lower morbidity rate. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16. PMID:4415996
Jonkman, MF; DeJong, MCJM; Heeres, K; Steijlen, PM; Owaribe, K; Kuster, W; Meurer, M; GeddeDahl, T; Sonnenberg, A; BrucknerTuderman, L
Background: Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa (GABEB) is a form of nonlethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa, clinically characterized by generalized blistering after birth, atrophic healing, and incomplete universal atrophic alopecia nith onset in childhood. Recently, we discovered
V R Balaji
Full Text Available Replacement of missing teeth in the posterior maxilla is always a challenge for the treating implant surgeon as the posterior maxilla has several obstacles in the form of quality, quantity, the anatomy of the maxillary sinus, and inaccessibility. To overcome these deficiencies, several surgical procedures such as sinus lift, bone augmentation, tilted implants, short implants, and zygomatic implants were tried. Since these procedures have their own limitations, pterygomaxillary region provides us an excellent place for placement of implant and rehabilitation of posterior maxilla. This case report describes the usage of the pterygomaxillary region for placement of the implant to restore atrophic posterior maxilla, without any additional surgical procedures.
Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40 of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.
Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.
Universidade de Vigo. Grupo de investigación TALG
The CLUVI Corpus of the University of Vigo is an open collection of parallel text corpora developed under the direction of Xavier Gómez Guinovart (2003-2012) that covers specific areas of the contemporary Galician language. With 23 million words, the CLUVI Corpus comprises six main parallel corpora belonging to five specialised registers or domains (fiction, computing, popular science, law and administration) and involving five different language combinations (Galician-Spanish bilingual trans...
Shim, Joo Eun; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Cho, So Yeon [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica profunda is an uncommon benign mass that usually occurs on the gastric side of the site of a gastroenterostomy, but has also been known to develop in which has not been operated on. We report the case of stomach a 51-years-old man with pathologically proven gastritis cystica profunda. This patient had not undergone gastric surgery CT showed a well-defined, 3cm sized, cystic mass at the gastric antrum.
Gonzalo López Escobar
Full Text Available
* Resumen del trabajo de ingreso a la Academia.
Según Bockus "se considera la Gastritis como un proceso inflamatorio, de variable etiología, que afecta particularmente la mucosa". La GASTRITIS POR REFLUJO suele presentarse cuando hay una disfunción del esfínter pilórico, generalmente disminución de la presión. En pacientes con estómago completo existen factores predisponentes como colecisto, pancreato o colopatías, parasitismo intestinal; o puede estar asociada a úlcera péptica, esofagitis por reflujo, ingestión de medicamentos (corticoides, analgésicos, antirreumáticos o agentes tóxicos como el alcohol; pero es, sin duda, una complicación frecuente en gastrectomizados tipo Billroth II y tras vagotomía con piloroplastia. El síndrome ha recibido también los nombres de: Gastritis biliar, Gastritis por reflujo biliar, Gastritis alcalina, Gastritis post-operatoria por reflujo alcalino, o Gastritis por reflujo alcalino postoperatorio.
Fue observada por primera vez por Beaumont, en 1833, en su paciente Alexis St. Martin; y por Anton Wolfler, en 1881, después de una gastroentero-anastomosis. Descrita por primera vez, en 1962, por DuPlessis; y más tarde, en 1968, por Bartlett y Burrinton.
El término de Gastritis por reflujo alcalino, fue usado por Mix, en 1922; y por Van-Heerden y colaboradores, en la Clínica Mayo, en 1969. Después de una resección gástrica, la frecuencia varía entre 5 y 350/0, según diferentes autores...
Breuer, W; Hermanns, W
Gastritis in cats is caused, among other things, by infectious agents, like bacteria, metazoic parasites or viruses. Herpesvirus-gastritis has not as yet been documented in cats. Therefore in this paper such a case will be described. In this case the mucous membrane of the stomach shows multifocal acute necroses with evidence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells of the gastric glands. By means of electron microscopy the causative virus can be specified as herpesvirus.
Rodríguez, Cecilia; Medici, Marta; Mozzi, Fernanda; de Valdez, Graciela Font
AIM: To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. METHODS: Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric inflammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and inflammation score, number of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ (INFγ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokine-producing cells in the gastric mucosa, and thickness of the mucus layer. RESULTS: Animals receiving treatment with the EPS-producing S. thermophilus CRL 1190 fermented milk showed a conserved gastric mucosa structure similar to that of healthy animals. Inflammation scores of the fermented milk-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the gastritis group (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 2.0 ± 0.6, P < 0.05). A marked decrease in INFγ+ (15 ± 1.0 vs 28 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and TNF-α+ (16 ± 3.0 vs 33 ± 3.0, P < 0.05) cells and an increase in IL-10+ (28 ± 1.5 vs 14 ± 1.3, P < 0.05) cells compared to the gastritis group, was observed. Also, an increase in the thickness of the mucus gel layer (2.2 ± 0.6 vs 1.0 ± 0.3; 5.1 ± 0.8 vs 1.5 ± 0.4 in the corpus and antrum mucosa, respectively, P < 0.05) compared with the gastritis group was noted. A milk suspension of the purified EPS from S. thermophilus CRL1190 was also effective as therapy for gastritis. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that fermented milk with S. thermophilus CRL 1190 and/or its EPS could be used in novel functional foods as an alternative natural therapy for chronic gastritis induced by ASA. PMID:20355240
Gutierrez, O.; Lehy, T.; Rene, E.; Gres, L.; Bonfils, S.
Epithelial cell proliferation in the fundic and antral mucosae was studied in 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 11 patients having undergone fundic superselective vagotomy for duodenal ulcer, and 10 controls. This was achieved through in vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine in mucosal biopsies and radioautography. Except for increased fundic mucosal height, duodenal ulcer patients did not differ from controls for all parameters studied. In vagotomized patients, as compared to the other two groups, the labeling index was significantly enhanced in the innervated antral mucosa where atrophic gastritis developed, but there was no change in the labeling index and no worsening of mucosal inflammation in the denervated fundic mucosa. The only abnormality in the latter was a striking expansion, towards the surface, of the proliferative area within the fundic pit. The labeling indices and the degree of gastritis in gastric mucosae are significantly correlated in control and duodenal ulcer patients. If findings in antral mucosa, after superselective vagotomy, seemed related to gastritis lesions, those in fundic mucosa were not and may indicate an alteration due to the vagotomy per se.
... November 2012 Print this issue Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Send us your comments ... protective response to injury or infection. is called gastritis, and it can cause long-term problems. Some ...
Full Text Available Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10, the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14 and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14. Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005 and the control group (p < 0.005. Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003 and the HPG group (p < 0.01. We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.
Feb 1, 2012 ... of stomach mucosa, with minimal or no inflammatory cell infiltration. Both gastritis and gastropathy may be clinically asymptomatic. Acute gastritis is an acute mucosal inflammatory process, usually of transient nature, while chronic gastritis refers to chronic inflammatory changes which may eventually lead to ...
Objective: Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach causes chronic active gastritis. The pattern of gastritis is related to the disease outcome. This study aimed to determine the predominant gastritis pattern in Nigerian dyspeptic patients with a view to predicting gastroduodenal disease outcomes. Methods: Patients referred ...
Brants, T; Brants, Thorsten; Samuelsson, Christer
Experiments were carried out comparing the Swedish Teleman and the English Susanne corpora using an HMM-based and a novel reductionistic statistical part-of-speech tagger. They indicate that tagging the Teleman corpus is the more difficult task, and that the performance of the two different taggers is comparable.
Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Mahachai, Varocha
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an established cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to identify H. pylori genotypes and to examine their associations with geographical regions and gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010--March 2012 were enrolled. Two biopsy specimens (one each from the antrum and corpus) were obtained for CLO testing and only CLO test-positive gastric tissue were used to extract DNA. PCR and sequencing were identified for variants of the cagA and vacA genotypes. Some 119 Laos patients (36.2%) were found to be infected with H. pylori including 83 with gastritis, 13 with gastric ulcers (GU), 20 with duodenal ulcers (DU) and 3 with gastric cancer. cagA was detected in 99.2%. East-Asian-type cagA (62%) and vacA s1c (64.7%) were predominant genotypes in Laos. vacA s1c-m1b was significantly higher in GU than gastritis (53.8% vs. 24.1%; P-value=0.04) whereas vacA s1a-m2 was significantly higher in DU than gastritis (40.0% vs. 16.9%; P-value=0.03). East-Asian-type cagA and vacA s1c were significantly higher in highland than lowland Lao (100% vs. 55.8%; P-value=0.001 and 88.2% vs. 61.5%, P-value=0.03 respectively). H. pylori is a common infection in Laos, as in other countries in Southeast Asia. The cagA gene was demonstrated in nearly all Laos patients, cagA and vacA genotypes being possible important factors in explaining H. pylori infection and disease outcomes in Laos.
Full Text Available This paper seeks to describe some crucial importance of corpus and text processing. Corpus is a projection of how language is used by its speakers. Technology support has improved corpus for easier maintenance, made it space-saving, and it may electronically structure its data. The latest offers much freedom for corpus users to access and exploit it for language teaching, analysis or other specified tasks. This paper will demonstrate how to use open-access corpus on internet such as Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and British National Corpus (BNC. Besides how to use a corpus, another crucial importance that this paper seeks to describe is how to build a corpus. In this paper, the writer will use UNITEX, a corpus (text-based processing software. This software will demonstrate steps of corpus building, ranging from text collection, annotation, electronic dictionary application to some natural language based operations ranging from pattern matching, concordance, to simple extraction. It will show how graph technology may outperform regular expression, a retrieval method exploited by other corpus processor, in terms of writing output.
Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…
Xing, Jie; Min, Li; Zhu, Shengtao; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yu; Li, Hengcun; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Shutian
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of death in China and other Asian countries. Recently, gastric endoscopy has become the main approach for GC screening, but the identification of high-risk individuals remains a challenge in GC screening programs. There were 7,302 patients with chronic gastritis involved in this study. Endoscopic examinations were performed, and their demographic characteristics and lifestyle data were collected. Each possible associated factor of GC/premalignant and precursor lesions was evaluated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Nomograms were used for visualization of those models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to present the predictive accuracy. We detected 8 (0.11%) gastric adenocarcinomas, 17 (0.23%) dysplasia cases, 14 (0.19%) hyperplasia cases, 52 (0.71%) intestinal metaplasia cases, 217 (2.97%) inflammatory lesions, 141 (1.93%) gastric ulcers, 10 (0.14%) atrophic gastritis cases, 1,365 (18.69%) erosive gastritis cases, and 5,957 (81.58%) superficial gastritis cases in 7,302 patients. The age (Pfactors of GC/premalignant lesions possibility. The corresponding nomogram exhibited an area under the curve (AUC) [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] of 0.82 (0.74-0.89) for the modeling group and 0.80 (0.75-0.85) for the validation group. The age (P=0.002), gender (P=0.024), smoking (P=0.002) and leek food intake (P=0.039) were independent predictive factors of precursor lesions possibility. The corresponding nomogram exhibited an AUC (95% CI) of 0.62 (0.60-0.65) for the modeling group and 0.61 (0.59-0.63) for the validation group. We identified several potential associated factors and provided a preclinical nomogram with the potential to predict the possibility of GC/premalignant and precursor lesions.
Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Jong Min; Han, Young Min; Ko, Weon Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik
As a commensal or a pathogen, Helicobacter pylori can change the balance of a complex interaction that exists among gastric epithelial cells, microbes, and their environment. Therefore, unraveling this complex relationship of these mixtures can be expected to help prevent cancer as well as troublesome unmet medical needs of H. pylori infection. Though gastric carcinogenesis is a multi-step process, precancerous lesion can be reversible in the early phase of mucosal damage before reaching the stage of no return. However, biomarkers to predict rejuvenation of precancerous atrophic gastritis have not been identified yet and gastric cancer prevention is still regarded as an impregnable fortress. However, when we take the journey from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer, it provides us with the clue for prevention since there are two main preventive strategies: eradication and anti-inflammation. The evidence supporting the former strategy is now ongoing in Japan through a nation-wide effort to eradicate H. pylori in patients with chronic gastritis, but suboptimal apprehension to increasing H. pylori resistance to antibiotics and patient non-compliance still exists. The latter strategy has been continued in the author'sresearch center under siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignant lesion) strategy. By focusing on the role of inflammation in the development of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, this review is intended to explain the connection between inflammation and gastric cancer. Strategies on H. pylori eradication, removal of inflammation, and reverting preneoplastic lesion will also be introduced. In the end, we expect to be able to prevent gastric cancer by take a detour from the unpleasant journey, i.e. from H. pylori-associated gastritis to gastric cancer.
Yang, Yao-Jong; Wu, Chung-Tai; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, Chin-Han; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang
Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled as controls. The male as well as total T2DM patients had higher acute/chronic inflammatory and lymphoid follicle scores in the corpus than non-diabetic controls (p H. pylori-infected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation than non-diabetic controls. Moreover, male gender and non-insulin users of T2DM patients were predisposed to have corpus-predominant gastritis after H. pylori infection. ClinicalTrial: NCT02466919 , retrospectively registered may 17, 2015.
Wasay, Mohammad; Jafri, Wasim; Khealani, Bhojo; Azam, Iqbal; Hussaini, Akber
To identify the association between H. Pylori gastritis and stroke. Patients with biopsy proven H. Pylori gastritis and non H. Pylori gastritis were enrolled. Patients were followed for a period of two years. A total of 326 patients were included in the study. 162 patients were with H. Pylori gastritis. There was no significance difference in age, sex and duration of symptoms in the two groups. Three patients in H. Pylori group had stroke or TIA as compared to one in non H. Pylori group. Patients with H. Pylori gastritis were more likely to die or have cardiac and or neurological event as compared to Non H. pylori gastritis (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.89-1.67). This relationship was not significant after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.45-1.31). H. Pylori gastritis is not independently associated with increased risk for stroke. Larger, randomized studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno
Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728
Feng, Jiexiong; Weng, Yizhen; Yuan, Jiyan; Li, Naping; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Peng
The authors present a case of acute phlegmonous gastritis occurring in an 11-month-old infant in whom the diagnosis was made by microscopic examination after surgery for perforation of the stomach. The patient recovered uneventfully. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment in this inflammatory process are discussed.
distribution unlimited. iii Contents List of Tables iiv 1 Introduction 1 2 Data 1 2.1 Collection Set-Up 1 2.2 Audio Data Specifications 1 2.3...6 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 1 1 Introduction The Yaounde French Speech (YFS) corpus contains speech...94. Have you ever had any broken bones? 95. What bones have you broken? 96. Do you have worms? 97. Do you have malaria ? 98. Do you have
Arismendi-Morillo, G; Hernández, I; Mengual, E; Abreu, N; Molero, N; Fuenmayor, A; Romero, G; Lizarzábal, M
Severity of chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection (CGAHpI) could play a role in evaluating the potential risk to develop gastric cancer. Our aim was to estimate the risk for gastric cancer in a clinical setting, according to histopathologic criteria, by applying the gastric cancer risk index (GCRI) METHODS: Histopathologic study of the gastric biopsies (corpus-antrum) from consecutive adult patients that underwent gastroesophageal duodenoscopy was carried out, and the GCRI was applied in patients presenting with CGAHpI. One hundred eleven patients (77% female) with a mean age of 38.6±13.1 years were included. Active Helicobacter pylori infection (aHpi) was diagnosed in 77 cases (69.40%). In 45% of the cases with aHpi, pangastritis (23%) or corpus-predominant gastritis (22%) was diagnosed. Nine cases were diagnosed with intestinal metaplasia (8%), 7 of which (77.70%) were in the aHpi group. Twenty one percent of the patients with aHpi had a GCRI of 2 (18.10%) or 3 (2.50%) points (high risk index), while 79.10% accumulated a GCRI of 0 or 1 points (low risk index). Of the patients with no aHpi, none of them had 3 points (p=0.001). Of the 18 patients that accumulated 2 or 3 points, 6 (33.30%) presented with intestinal metaplasia (all with pangastritis and corpus-predominant gastritis), of which 4 cases (66.60%) had aHpi. The estimated gastric cancer risk in patients with CGAHpI in the clinical setting studied was relatively low and 5% of the patients had a histopathologic phenotype associated with an elevated risk for developing gastric cancer. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Ernst, P B; Erickson, L D; Loo, W M; Scott, K G; Wiznerowicz, E B; Brown, C C; Torres-Velez, F J; Alam, M S; Black, S G; McDuffie, M; Feldman, S H; Wallace, J L; McKnight, G W; Padol, I T; Hunt, R H; Tung, K S
SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4(+) T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract.
Erickson, L. D.; Loo, W. M.; Scott, K. G.; Wiznerowicz, E. B.; Brown, C. C.; Torres-Velez, F. J.; Alam, M. S.; Black, S. G.; McDuffie, M.; Feldman, S. H.; Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, G. W.; Padol, I. T.; Hunt, R. H.; Tung, K. S.
SAMP1/YitFcs mice serve as a model of Crohn's disease, and we have used them to assess gastritis. Gastritis was compared in SAMP1/YitFcs, AKR, and C57BL/6 mice by histology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Gastric acid secretion was measured in ligated stomachs, while anti-parietal cell antibodies were assayed by immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay. SAMP1/YitFcs mice display a corpus-dominant, chronic gastritis with multifocal aggregates of mononuclear cells consisting of T and B lymphocytes. Relatively few aggregates were observed elsewhere in the stomach. The infiltrates in the oxyntic mucosa were associated with the loss of parietal cell mass. AKR mice, the founder strain of the SAMP1/YitFcs, also have gastritis, although they do not develop ileitis. Genetic studies using SAMP1/YitFcs-C57BL/6 congenic mice showed that the genetic regions regulating ileitis had comparable effects on gastritis. The majority of the cells in the aggregates expressed the T cell marker CD3 or the B cell marker B220. Adoptive transfer of SAMP1/YitFcs CD4+ T helper cells, with or without B cells, into immunodeficient recipients induced a pangastritis and duodenitis. SAMP1/YitFcs and AKR mice manifest hypochlorhydria and anti-parietal cell antibodies. These data suggest that common genetic factors controlling gastroenteric disease in SAMP1/YitFcs mice regulate distinct pathogenic mechanisms causing inflammation in separate sites within the digestive tract. PMID:21921286
Fei, BY; Xia, B; Deng, CS; Xia, XQ; Xie, M.; Crusius, J.B.A.; Pena, A.S.
0.05). However, TNF-beta Ncol*1/2 and d2/d6 genotypes did not relate to age, gender, grade of differentiation and clinicopathologic stage in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. The frequency of TNFa6b5c1 haplotype homozygote was significantly lower in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than in
Full Text Available Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.
Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Watabe, Kenji; Takehara, Tetsuo
Obesity has become a major concern among gastroenterologists due to its large influence on gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases: reflux esophagitis, pancreatitis, gallstone disease, liver fibrosis, and neoplastic tumors of the esophagus, pancreas, and colon. Studies of morbid obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery have revealed that obesity is related with an increased prevalence of endoscopic and histologic gastritis. A recent study of health check-up subjects demonstrated an association of obesity with endoscopic gastritis and gastric ulcers. We recently investigated the underlying mechanisms of the effects of obesity on endoscopic gastritis in subjects undergoing health check-up examination, and demonstrated that adiponectin, a bioactive molecule released from visceral fat, could be a protective factor of endoscopic gastritis. We would like to propose a new category of gastritis, obesity-related gastritis, which could become dominant in the near future. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The World Wide Web constitutes the largest existing source of texts written in a great variety of languages. A feasible and sound way of exploiting this data for linguistic research is to compile a static corpus for a given language. There are several adavantages of this approach: (i) Working with such corpora obviates the problems encountered when using Internet search engines in quantitative linguistic research (such as non-transparent ranking algorithms). (ii) Creating a corpus from web data is virtually free. (iii) The size of corpora compiled from the WWW may exceed by several orders of magnitudes the size of language resources offered elsewhere. (iv) The data is locally available to the user, and it can be linguistically post-processed and queried with the tools preferred by her/him. This book addresses the main practical tasks in the creation of web corpora up to giga-token size. Among these tasks are the sampling process (i.e., web crawling) and the usual cleanups including boilerplate removal and rem...
Al-Hamoudi, Waleed K; Alpert, Lesley; Szilagyi, Andrew
Helicobacter heilmannii is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped organism predominantly associated with zoonotic infection. Human pathology has also been described, but acute symptoms with complete resolution have been infrequently reported. We present a 50-year-old man in whom H. heilmannii gastritis presented as an acute febrile illness and was successfully treated with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases are reviewed.
Watanabe, Shinya; Sasahara, Teppei; Arai, Naoshi; Sasaki, Kazumasa; Aiba, Yoshifumi; Sato?o, Yusuke; Cui, Longzhu
Acute phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon endogenous bacterial gastritis presenting with a high mortality rate. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes strain, JMUB1235, which is the causative agent of acute phlegmonous gastritis.
Kim, Min Jeong; Eom, Dae Woon; Park, Kieyoung
Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is a rare subtype of chronic gastritis. It is defined as dense proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) more than 25 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells. The known major causes of LG are celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori associated LG (HpLG) has more enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic tendencies than chronic H. pylori gastritis. A 12-year-old girl with postprandial epigastric pain was diagnosed HpLG on endoscopic biopsy. After the...
Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A few select procedures that may be incorporated into a general dermatology practice are reviewed in greater detail, including filler injections, skin needling, and the punch excision. PMID:21909457
Alvarado-Lezama, Julio; Espinosa-González, Omar; García-Cano, Eugenio; Sánchez-Córdova, Gabriela
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria. We report the case of a trauma patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis complicated with gastric mucormycosis associated with emphysematous gastritis. A male aged 32 who is involved in a car accident, who suffered head trauma, is admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting diabetic ketoacidosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopy was performed and an erosive esophagitis Class C, ischemia and gastric necrosis was found. A computed tomography scan showed emphysematous gastritis and gastric necrosis. He underwent total gastrectomy with a histopathology report of gastric mucormycosis. After the surgical procedure the patient died because of sepsis secondary to pulmonary mucormycosis Mucormycosis is a rare fungical disease which infrequently affects the gastrointestinal tract, being the stomach the most affected site. The mortality is high if the diagnosis is not done promptly and appropriate treatment is given. Suspecting its existence is necessary in patients with immunocompromised status to diagnose and provide timely treatment to increase survival, because of its high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S
The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.
Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio
AIM: To compare Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal histological features of gastric ulcer patients with chronic gastritis patients in different age groups and from different biopsy sites. METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of gastric ulcer and chronic gastritis patients. Giemsa staining, improved Toluidine-blue staining and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of activity of H pylori infection, mucosal inflammation, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System. RESULTS: Total rate of H pylori infection, mucosal inflammation, activity of H pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in 3839 gastric ulcer patients (78.5%, 97.4%, 82.1%, 61.1% and 64.2%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in 4102 chronic gastritis patients (55.0%, 90.3%, 56.2%, 36.8%, and 37.0%, respectively, Pgastritis in 70 years age groups in antrum was 33.3%, 41.7%, 53.6%, 57.3%, 50.7%, 43.5%, respectively; in corpus, it was 32.6%, 41.9%, 53.8%, 60.2%, 58.0%, 54.8%, respectively; in angulus, it was 32.4%, 42.1%, 51.6%, 54.5%, 49.7%, 43.5%, respectively. The rate of H pylori colonization of gastric ulcer in 70 years age groups in antrum was 60.5%, 79.9%, 80.9%, 66.8%, 59.6%, 45.6%, respectively; in corpus, it was 59.7%, 79.6%, 83.6%, 80.1%, 70.6%, 59.1%, respectively; in angulus, it was 61.3%, 77.8%, 75.3%, 68.8%, 59.7%, 45.8%, respectively. The rate of H pylori colonization at antrum was similar to corpus and angulus in patients, below 50 years, with chronic gastritis and in patients, below 40 years, with gastric ulcer. In the other age- groups, the rate of H pylori colonization was highest in corpus, lower in antrum and lowest in angulus (all Pgastritis patients, the rate of
This paper outlines how corpus linguistics--and more specifically the corpus-assisted discourse studies approach--can add useful dimensions to studies of language ideology. First, it is argued that the identification of words of high, low, and statistically significant frequency can help in the identification and exploration of language ideologies…
Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan
The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…
Scherfig, Erik Christian Høegh
oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma......oftalmology, biopsy, choroid, corpus vitreum, retina, malignant melanoma, biopsy technic, retinoblastoma...
Gontar A Siregar
Full Text Available Aim: to investigate the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-8, VEGF in Helicobacter pylori infection, and their association with the degrees of gastritis histopathology. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done on 80 consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from July-December 2014. The Rapid Urease test was used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The severity of chronic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were assessed. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating TNF-α, IL-8, and VEGF. Univariate and bivariate analysis (chi square, fisher’s exact, and mann-whitney test were done using SPSS version-22. Results: there were 41.25% of 80 patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. Serum TNF-α and VEGF levels in the infected group were significantly higher compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no significant differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative. There were significant associations between serum level of TNF-α and IL-8 with degree of chronic inflammation, and also between serum level of IL-8 and degree of neutrophil infiltration. There were significant associations between serum level of VEGF and degree of atrophy, and also between serum level of VEGF and degree of intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: High levels of TNF-α were associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation, high levels of IL-8 associated with severe degree of chronic inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and high levels of VEGF associated with severe degree of premalignant gastric lesion. Key words: cytokine, neoangiogenesis, Helicobacter pylori, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia.
van der Mark, E.L.; Bierenbroodspot, F.; Baas, E.M.; de Lange, J.
We have evaluated the survival of dental implants in extremely atrophic edentulous maxillas after autogenous bone grafting. We compared two techniques: the Le Fort I down-grafting procedure and conventional raising of the sinus floor with onlay bone grafting. Twenty-seven consecutive patients had
Ayer, J; Ahmed, A; Duncan-Parry, E; Beck, P; Griffiths, T W; Watson, R E B; Griffiths, C E M
Photonumeric scales have consistently shown superiority over descriptive equivalents. They have the advantage of providing a consistent visual frame of reference by minimising variability in perception and subjectivity. A photonumeric scale to assess hypertrophic facial photodamage already exists. However, there is currently no objective measure for atrophic facial photodamage. To address this, we have devised a nine-point photonumeric standardised scale. To design, test and validate a photonumeric scale for the assessment of atrophic facial photodamage against a descriptive scale for the same indication. A pool of 393 facial photographs (en face and 45º oblique) from 131 individuals with atrophic facial photodamage was created. Five photographic standards were selected and assigned grades 0 through 8, where 0 is no photodamage and 8 is severe atrophic photodamage, thus making a nine-point scale. Twenty photographs spanning the entire range of values were selected to test the scale. Testing was performed alongside a descriptive equivalent. A panel of 10 dermatologists, 10 non-dermatology clinicians and 14 dermatology scientists marked the two scales; marking was repeated one week later. There was a significantly greater agreement between the graders using the photonumeric scale than the descriptive scale (kappa values 0.71 and 0.37 with standardised errors of 0.57 and 0.17 respectively) with no significant difference in repeatability between the two methods (p copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Diemen, van P.M.
Progressive atrophic rhinitis (AR) is a complex of disease symptoms caused by infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida . Environmental and animal factors contribute to the severity of the disease. Their impact and relationship with severity of disease are
METHOD: We report a series of two cases of atrophic nonunions of long bones resulting from long periods of limb immobilization in traditional splints successfully treated by Ilizarov compression technique. RESULT: Long periods of limb immobilization in traditional fracture treatment often result to regional osteoporosis and ...
Yin, Guang-yao; Zhang, Wu-ning; Shen, Xiao-jing; He, Xue-fen; Chen, Yi
Spleen in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is not actually the spleen in the anatomic sense designated in western medicine because its functions basically belong to the physiological category of digestive system in modern medicine, and it represents a macroscopic concept of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. Spleen deficiency syndrome refers to the clinical phenomena such as hypofunction of digestion, absorption and nutrition metabolism. By integrating TCM with modern medicine, this paper is intended to explore the pathological basis of classification of spleen deficiency in chronic gastritis. By means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and histochemical staining, we conducted histopathological and subcellular ultrastructural (nuclei and mitochondrial) analysis of gastric mucosa of 188 patients of spleen deficiency, and that of 42 voluntary blood donors without clinical symptoms. The gastric mucosa of patients with spleen Qi deficiency (SQD) and spleen yang deficiency (SyangD) could either be affected by organic lesion (type G-occurring on the basis of chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG)) or unaffected (type F-chiefly belonging to functional indigestion); spleen yin deficiency (SyinD) and spleen deficiency with Qi stagnation (SDQS) both occurred on the basis of CSG and CAG; and the degree of mucosa inflammatory cells infiltration, the degree of decrease in glands propria, and the incidence of IMIIb in CSG and CAG were more serious than those of G-SQD and G-SyangD, P < 0.05 - 0.01. Spleen deficiency syndrome is likely to occur on the basis of organic lesion of gastric mucosa (disease with symptoms of both CSG or CAG and spleen deficiency symptoms), as well as on the basis of inorganic lesion of gastric mucosa (nondisease with symptoms, which is, despite spleen deficiency symptoms, there is no CSG or CAG). Besides, the clinical phenomenon of disease without
Appelman, Marly H; de Meij, Tim G J; Neefjes-Borst, E Andra; Kneepkens, C M F
Collagenous gastritis is an extremely rare disease, both in children and adults. Symptoms vary depending on the extent of collagenous changes in the bowel. In most of the children, iron deficiency anemia and abdominal pain are the presenting symptoms. We present a 15-year-old boy with acute abdomen due to gastric perforation the cause of which was collagenous gastritis.
Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala
Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological features of primary bile reflux gastritis(BRG.Methods Endoscopy,Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori detection,and histopathologic examination were performed in 218 patients with primary BRG(observed group and 236 patients with simple chronic gastritis(SCG,control group as identified by gastroscope in order to analyze the endoscopic abnormalities,the frequency of H.pylori infection,pathological features and scores of inflammation.Results The frequency of H.pylori infection was 39.0%(85/218 in the observed group,which was significantly lower than that in the control group [52.1%(123/236].The topographic abnormalities of the antral mucosa as detected by gastroscopy,i.e.,congestion,hemorrhagic spots,erosion were not significantly different between BRG and SCG patients(P > 0.05.The scores of chronic and active inflammation were higher in patients when H.pylori infection was present than in patients without H.pylori infection in both groups(P < 0.05.The scores of inflammation,the detection rates of the antral intestinal metaplasia,antral atrophy and atypical hyperplasia were all higher in observed group than in control group(P < 0.05.The incidence of lengthening of gastric pits,telangiectasis or interstitial edema in BRG patients was also significantly higher than those in SCG patients(P < 0.05.Conclusions Primary BRG shows features of chemical gastritis with a higher tendency toward mucosal atrophy,intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia.Gastropic examination and biopsy should be emphasized.
Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the “point of no return” and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions. PMID:24833876
Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.
Morphological findings of different areas of gastric mucosa in patients with achlorhydria, extreme hypochlorhydria, normochlorhydria and their relationship to serum gastrin levels: evidence for two different types of gastritis.
Massarrat, S; Schmitz-Moormann, P; Fritsch, W P; Hausamen, T U; Kappert, J
The morphological changes of gastric mucosa taken from different areas has been studied in patients of approximately the same age with achlorhydria, extreme hypochlorhydria and normochlorhydria. The serum gastrin level and parietal cell antibodies were determined in the achlorhydric parietal cell antibodies were determined in the achlorhydric patients. In the latter the diffuse gastritis was localized in the corpus-fundic area, while the changes in the antral region were few and occurred mostly in the superficial zone. In normochlorhydric patients however, the diffuse gastritis was localized in the antral region, with only few changes at the corpus-fundic area. In patients with extreme hypochlorhydira either the fundic or the antral region was involved. Besides the diffuse gastritis intestinal metaplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and atrophy of mucosa were also observed, although much less commonly. The increase of gastrin level could not be related to a definite morphological pattern in the gastric mucosa. It can be assumed that each of the two types of gastritis has a different natural history; the antral site of gastrititis cannot be transformed into the fundic site, nor can the fundic site be transformed into the antral site.
Bungeroth, Jan; Stein, Daniel; Dreuw, Philippe; Ney, Hermann; Morrissey, Sara; Way, Andy; van Zijl, Lynette
Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate data. We therefore present the ATIS sign language corpus that is based on the domain of air travel information. It is available for five languages, English, German, Irish sign language, German sign language and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical translation and automatic sign language recognition and it allows the specific modelling of spatial references in sign...
Toyoda, Takeshi; Shi, Liang; Takasu, Shinji; Cho, Young-Man; Kiriyama, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Tatematsu, Masae; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya
Spices have been used for thousands of years, and recent studies suggest that certain spices confer beneficial effects on gastric disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible chemopreventive effects of spice-derived compounds on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. We examined the inhibitory effects of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on H. pylori in vitro by determining the colony-forming units and real-time RT-PCR in H. pylori stimulated AGS gastric cancer cells. For in vivo analysis, 6-week-old SPF male Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori, fed diets containing 5000 ppm curcumin, 100 ppm capsaicin, or 100 ppm piperine, and sacrificed after 13 weeks. All three compounds inhibited in vitro proliferation of H. pylori, with curcumin being the most effective. Infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was suppressed by piperine both in the antrum and corpus of H. pylori-infected gerbils. Capsaicin also decreased neutrophils in the antrum and corpus and mononuclear cell infiltration and heterotopic proliferative glands in the corpus. mRNA expression of Tnf-α and formation of phospho-IκB-α in the antrum were reduced by both capsaicin and piperine. In addition, piperine suppressed expression of Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Il-6, and iNos, while H. pylori UreA and other virulence factors were not significantly attenuated by any compounds. These results suggest that capsaicin and piperine have anti-inflammatory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in gerbils independent of direct antibacterial effects and may thus have potential for use in the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
It is proposed that primary atrophic rhinitis belongs to a group of conditions under the heading 'Reflex Sympathetic Distrophy Syndrome'. This leads to decalcification of the turbinals, as in Sudeck's atrophy. Collapse of the decalcified turbinals is brought about by the impact of the inspiratory stream, and this is followed by atrophic changes. Based on this hypothesis, a new operation ('Vestibuloplasty') has been devised in order to direct the stream away from the turbinals and to dissipate the force of the stream so that its impact on the turbinals is minimized. Following this operation, 92 per cent of the cases have benefitted; this is comparable to the result following Young's or a modified Young's operation. After vestibuloplasty the patient can breathe through the nose and clean the nose as normal persons do; a second-stage procedure for reopening the nostril is not necessary and the chances of recurrence are negligible as compared to those following Young's operation.
Full Text Available Background: Atrophic facial scars are always a challenge to treat, especially the ones that are deep-seated and/or involve much of the face. Microneedling or dermaroller therapy is a new addition to the treatment armamentarium for such scars that offers a simple and reportedly effective management of these scars. Aims: The aim of the present study was to perform an objective evaluation of the efficacy of dermaroller treatment in atrophic facial scars of varying etiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven patients of atrophic facial scarring were offered multiple sittings of microneedling (dermaroller treatment and their scars were evaluated and graded clinically and by serial photography at the start as well as at two months after the conclusion of the treatment protocol. Any change in the grading of scars after the end of treatment and follow-up period was noted down. The patients were also asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment received on a 1-10 point scale. The efficacy of dermaroller treatment was thus assessed both subjectively by the patients as well as objectively by a single observer. Results: Overall 36 out of the total of 37 patients completed the treatment schedule and were evaluated for its efficacy. Out of these 36 patients, 34 achieved a reduction in the severity of their scarring by one or two grades. More than 80% of patients assessed their treatment as ′excellent′ on a 10-point scale. No significant adverse effects were noted in any patient. Conclusions: Microneedling therapy seems to be a simple and effective treatment option for the management of atrophic facial scars.
Full Text Available Background: Atrophic acne scars are difficult to treat. The demand for less invasive but highly effective treatment for scars is growing. Objective: To assess the efficacy of combination therapy using subcision, microneedling and 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA peel in the management of atrophic scars. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with atrophic acne scars were graded using Goodman and Baron Qualitative grading. After subcision, dermaroller and 15% TCA peel were performed alternatively at 2-weeks interval for a total of 6 sessions of each. Grading of acne scar photographs was done pretreatment and 1 month after last procedure. Patients own evaluation of improvement was assessed. Results: Out of 16 patients with Grade 4 scars, 10 (62.5% patients improved to Grade 2 and 6 (37.5% patients improved to Grade 3 scars. Out of 22 patients with Grade 3 scars, 5 (22.7% patients were left with no scars, 2 (9.1% patients improved to Grade 1and 15 (68.2% patients improved to Grade 2. All 11 (100% patients with Grade 2 scars were left with no scars. There was high level of patient satisfaction. Conclusion: This combination has shown good results in treating not only Grade 2 but also severe Grade 4 and 3 scars.
Kwak, Soon Hyuk; Bae, Il Hun; Park, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee; Cho, Bum Sang; Kamg, Min Ho [Dept. of Radilogy, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dong Hee [Dept. of Surergy, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Chang [Dept. of Pathology, College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica polyposa is an uncommon benign lesion that normally occurs on the gastric side of a gastroenterostomy site but is rarely found in patients without a prior history of stomach surgery. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with gastrodeuodenal intussusception due to gastritis cystica polyposa that developed in an unoperated stomach. CT revealed gastroduodenal intussusception and a cystic and solid mass with fat density in the second portion of the duodenum. Surgery and a pathologic examination confirmed gastritis cystica polyposa.
Full Text Available Background: Many recent studies have examined potential risk factors of H. pylori gastritis to improve our understanding of the early events in gastric carcinogenesis. We evaluated the extent and topography of chronic gastritis in a high risk area for gastric cardia cancer and investigated the critical role of H.pylori, risk index and age in its pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: During a national population-based endoscopic survey, we enrolled 508 participants aged ≥40 from urban and rural areas of Meshkin-Shahr, Ardebil province of Iran. After informed consent, all underwent complete upper GI endoscopy. At least one mucosal biopsy was obtained from 6 standard sites: three of antrum (sites 1, 2, 3, two of corpus (sites 4, 5 and one of cardia (site 6. Severity, activity and combined inflammatory scores (CIS of chronic gastritis and H.pylori infection status were assessed according to modified Sydney Classification of Gastritis. Statistical effects of H.pylori, age, gender, and residency place on mean gastritis severity, activity and CIS were separately calculated in each site. Results: Total of 508 participants with mean age (±SD of 54.6(±SD were enrolled. 234(46.1% were male and 274(53.9% were female. Histologically 80.5% of cases were H.pylori positive. Mean activity scores of all sites except for site 5 are significantly (P<0.01 higher in H.pylori + cases. Mean CIS of all sites was significantly (P<0.01 higher in H.pylori + patients. In 44% of infected subjects, CIS of the corpus was at least equally as severe as that in antrum. Also in 54% of H.pylori + cases, cardia’s CIS was ≥ than antral CIS. Age had a significant (P<0.01 negative relationship with CIS of antral site, but this relationship in cardia was positive and more potent. Conclusion: H.pylori is the main cause of gastritis activity in all sites of stomach; this causality is more potent in antrum and cardia. Continuous cardia inflammation in advanced age may contribute to
A. J. A. Barbosa
Full Text Available Patients with the digestive form of Chagas'disease frequently present chronic gastritis. As the microorganism Helicobacter pylori is now accepted as the most common cause of human chronic gastritis, the present work was undertaken to verify a possible relationship between the presence of this bacterium and inflammatory changes of antral mucosa in chagasic patients. Seventeen chagasics, with megaesophagus and or megacolon were studied. Fragments from two different regions of antral mucosa were obtained by endoscopy, fixed in 4% neutral formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained by haematoxylin and eosin for histology analysis, and by carbolfuchsin for H. pylori identification. H. pylori was found in 16 (94.1% chagasic patients, all of them presenting chronic gastritis. Superficial gastritis was seen in 9 (52.9% while atrophic gastritis was present in 8 (47.1% patients. H. pylori was present on gastric mucosa of 8 (100% patients with atrophic gastritis and of 8 (88.8% patients with superficial gastritis. We concluded that the microorganism H. pylori should be considered a possible factor connected with the etiopathogenesis of chronic superficial and atrophic gastritis frequently observed in patients with the digestive form of Chagas' disease.Pacientes com a forma digestiva da doença de Chagas frequentemente apresentam gastrite crônica. Tendo em vista que o microrganismo Helicobacter pylori é hoje considerado a causa mais comum de gastrite crônica no homem, propôs-se a realização deste trabalho para se verificar a possibilidade de esta bactéria estar também associada com as alterações inflamatórias da mucosa gástrica em pacientes com a forma digestiva da doença de Chagas. Fragmentos de duas regiões diferentes da mucosa antral foram obtidos endoscopicamente de 17 pacientes chagásicos com megaesôfago e ou megacolon. Os fragmentos foram processados rotineiramente para inclusão em parafina e cortes de 5 |im de
Full Text Available Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.
Full Text Available Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable software is available. Apart from software itself, data formats are also of great importance for text processing. But again, many practitioners are not very aware of the options available to them, and thus idiosyncratic text formats often make sharing of resources difficult if not impossible. This article discusses some issues relating to both data and processing which should aid researchers to become more aware of the choices available to them when it comes to using computers in linguistic research. It also describes an easy way towards automating some common text processing tasks that can easily be acquired without knowledge of actual computer programming.
Ocepek, A; Skok, P; Virag, M; Kamenik, B; Horvat, M
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of phlegmonous gastritis caused by invasion of the stomach wall by gas-forming bacteria. This clinical entity was first described by Fraenkel in 1889. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure under treatment with hemodialysis for the past year. He was admitted on account of pain in the lower abdomen. During the diagnostic procedure, emphysematous gastritis and acute cholecystitis were confirmed. An acute abdomen developed and an emergency laparotomy was performed. During the procedure, the necrotic gallbladder was removed. The patient died on the following day due to multiorgan failure and septic shock. According to the literature, emphysematous gastritis is generally a fatal disease. Air in the wall of the stomach is a rare finding with a broad differential diagnosis.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigation of basal gastrin serum level and its relationships at chronic reflux gastritis. It has been established that gastrin level was increased in 100 % of patients. It was directly dependent on the biliary acid concentration in gastric acid, H.pylori-infection, stomach alkalization. Thus, duodenogastrical reflux causes hypergastrinemia that can result in chronic gastritis development.
Lebwohl, B; Green, P H R; Genta, R M
Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is an uncommon entity with varying symptoms and endoscopic appearances. This condition, as well as two forms of H. pylori-negative gastritis [chronic active gastritis (CAG) and chronic inactive gastritis (CIG)], appears to be more common in patients with coeliac disease (CD) based on single-centred studies. To compare the prevalence of LG, CAG and CIG among those with normal duodenal histology (or nonspecific duodenitis) and those with CD, as defined by villous atrophy (Marsh 3). We analysed all concurrent gastric and duodenal biopsy specimens submitted to a national pathology laboratory during a 6-year period. We performed multiple logistic regression to identify independent predictors of each gastritis subtype. Among patients who underwent concurrent gastric and duodenal biopsy (n = 287,503), the mean age was 52 and the majority (67%) were female. Compared to patients with normal duodenal histology, LG was more common in partial villous atrophy (OR: 37.66; 95% CI: 30.16-47.03), and subtotal/total villous atrophy (OR: 78.57; 95% CI: 65.37-94.44). CD was also more common in CAG (OR for partial villous atrophy 1.93; 95% CI: 1.49-2.51, OR for subtotal/total villous atrophy 2.42; 95% CI: 1.90-3.09) and was similarly associated with CIG (OR for partial villous atrophy 2.04; 95% CI: 1.76-2.35, OR for subtotal/total villous atrophy 2.96; 95% CI: 2.60-3.38). Lymphocytic gastritis is strongly associated with coeliac disease, with increasing prevalence correlating with more advanced villous atrophy. Chronic active gastritis and chronic inactive gastritis are also significantly associated with coeliac disease. Future research should measure the natural history of these conditions after treatment with a gluten-free diet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D
Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.
As a result, even today the language has no corpus which is balanced or representative owing to the fact that almost all of the available corpora are compiled from the written standard language and the written dialects. The majority of the Northern Sotho dialects do not have written orthographies, and the few dialects which ...
Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A
This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.
Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra
Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
Liew, Phui-Ly; Lee, Wei-Jei; Lee, Yi-Chih; Chen, Wei-Yu
Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen of stomach. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach, and it plays a role in the coordination of eating behavior, and facilitates fat storage and weight regulation. The effects of H. pylori infection on gastric ghrelin production are still not well known. Recent exciting studies linked H. pylori infection to ghrelin, then to obesity. The aim of the present study is to investigate gastric ghrelin immunoreactivity associated with H. pylori infection, chronic gastritis and the clinical correlation in obese patients. The histologic findings of stomach were examined in 156 patients who were undergoing laparoscopic vertical-banded gastroplasty for obesity. Ghrelin immunoreactivity was evaluated immunohistochemically with an anti-ghrelin antibody, and the density of ghrelin-positive cells determined per total glands of the gastric mucosa. Relationship between density of ghrelin-positive cells, histopathology of chronic gastritis scored by the Sydney system and clinical correlation was analyzed. H. pylori was present in 62 (39.7%) out of 156 patients. The density of ghrelin-positive cells was significantly lower for H. pylori-infected patients. There was a significant stepwise decrease in density of ghrelin-positive cells, with progression of histological severity of chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity and glandular atrophy in the corpus. Obese patients positive for H. pylori were associated with older age and abnormal plasma triglyceride level, but not with sex, body mass index, liver function tests or glucose level. There was no relationship between density of gastric ghrelin-positive cells and body mass index. H. pylori infection has a negative impact on density of gastric ghrelin-positive cells in obese patients. Impaired density of gastric ghrelin-positive cells is associated with neutrophil activity, chronic inflammation and glandular atrophy induced by H. pylori infection. The potential role of H. pylori infection and
Plecháč, Petr; Kolár, Robert
Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 107-118 ISSN 2346-6901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1825 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech poetry * versification * corpus linguistics * theory of verse Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision
Background: H.pylori plays an important role to gastritis and paptic ulcer, 70%-90% occur in developing countries. Acute gastritis chronic gastritis inflammatory response occurs activating and cytokines that cause inflammation of the mucosa where mucosal levels of IL-8 incresed in H.pylori- infected patiens with dyspepsia. Aim: To identify the characteristic of patients gastritis H.pylori and non H.pylori gastritis, the levels of IL-8 in patients with H.pylori gastritis and non H.pylori an...
In the fields of Corpus Linguistics and Teacher Education, there is a substantial body of research relating to corpus applications in the classroom. However, the majority of such work relates to teacher training in tertiary education. In this article, a research project is described in which corpus training was included as part of a Certificate in…
Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel
We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post court-martial...
Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter
To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Shrikant C. Raut
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005, as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 mmol/L; P=0.037 and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017, than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171 no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology.
Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter
Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502
Full Text Available When the posterior maxilla is atrophic, the reference standard of care would be to perform sinus augmentation with an autologous bone graft through the lateral approach and delayed implant placement. However, placement of short implants with the osteotome sinus floor elevation technique and without graft can be proposed for an efficient treatment of clinical cases with a maxillary residual bone height of 4 to 8 mm. The use of grafting material is recommended only when the residual bone height is ≤4 mm. Indications of the lateral sinus floor elevation are limited to cases with a residual bone height ≤ 2 mm and fused corticals, uncompleted healing of the edentulous site, and absence of flat cortical bone crest or when the patient wishes to wear a removable prosthesis during the healing period. The presented case report illustrates osteotome sinus floor elevation with and without grafting and simultaneous implant placement in extreme conditions: atrophic maxilla, short implant placement, reduced healing time, and single crown rehabilitation. After 6 years, all placed implants were functional with an endosinus bone gain.
Min, Sun Young; Kim, Yong Ho; Park, Won Seo
Here, we report on a case of acute phlegmonous gastritis (PG) complicated by delayed perforation. A 51-year-old woman presented with severe abdominal pain and septic shock symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall and distention with peritoneal fluid. Although we did not find definite evidence of free air on the computed tomography (CT) scan, the patient's clinical condition suggested diffuse peritonitis requiring surgical intervention. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a thickened gastric wall with suppurative intraperitoneal fluid in which Streptococcus pyogenes grew. There was no evidence of gastric or duodenal perforation. No further operation was performed at that time. The patient was conservatively treated with antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, and her condition improved. However, she experienced abdominal and flank pain again on postoperative day 10. CT and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer with perforation. Unfortunately, although the CT showed further improvement in the thickening of the stomach and the mucosal defect, the patient's condition did not recover until a week later, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy taken on postoperative day 30 showed suspected gastric submucosal dissection. We performed total gastrectomy as a second operation, and the patient recovered without major complications. A pathological examination revealed a multifocal ulceration and necrosis from the mucosa to the serosa with perforation.
Naylor, Gregory; Axon, Anthony
Gastric bacteria can either be ingested or ascend from the distal bowel; however, their survival is usually limited by gastric acidity and motility. A reduction in gastric acid can result in bacterial overgrowth in the stomach and proximal small bowel, and the number of organisms rises as the intragastric pH rises. The increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer seen in patients with hypochlorhydria may be explained by an excess of nitrites and N-nitroso compounds (NOCs). These compounds are found in the diet of populations with a high gastric cancer risk, but can also be produced by the organisms that exist in the hypochlorhydria stomach. It has long been hypothesized that nitrites and NOCs act as one of the triggers in the atrophy-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma path. However, although indirect data have linked the premalignant changes of metaplasia and dysplasia to NOCs, direct measurement of gastric nitrites and NOCs has not confirmed such a link. The role of Helicobacter pylori in bacterial overgrowth is mainly as a cause of hypochlorhydria resulting from atrophic gastritis, leading to a reduction in the parietal cell mass. Acid-suppressing drugs can result in bacterial overgrowth and increased nitrites and NOCs, although there is no current evidence for an increased risk of gastric cancer in patients taking them. One explanation is that the stomach appears to be colonized by different organisms than those in patients with hypochlorhydria for other reasons. There is some evidence that bacterial overgrowth per se can cause gastric inflammation in mice; however, although in humans the degree of gastric inflammation is greater when overgrowth is more prominent this may simply reflect the greater degree of hypochlorhydria in patients with a more severe H pylori-induced inflammation.
Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J.; Tytgat, K. M.; Jalali, S.; Goodacre, R. L.; Hunt, R. H.
We carried out a review of the literature on Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) to determine whether or not symptoms related to these conditions can be measured reliably and whether or not any study to date has shown that treatment alters symptoms. Search
Islek, Ali; Yilmaz, Aygen; Elpek, Gulsum Ozlem; Erin, Nuray
To investigate the roles of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in chronic gastritis and duodenitis in children. Biopsy samples from the gastric and duodenal mucosa of 52 patients and 30 control subjects were obtained. Samples were taken for pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme activity measurements and quantitative measurements of tissue peptide levels. We observed differential effects of the disease on peptide levels, which were somewhat different from previously reported changes in chronic gastritis in adults. Specifically, SP was increased and CGRP and VIP were decreased in patients with gastritis. The changes were more prominent at sites where gastritis was severe, but significant changes were also observed in neighboring areas where gastritis was less severe. Furthermore, the degree of changes was correlated with the pathological grade of the disease. The expression of CD10, the enzyme primarily involved in SP hydrolysis, was also decreased in patients with duodenitis. Based on these findings, we propose that decreased levels of VIP and CGRP and increased levels of SP contribute to pathological changes in gastric mucosa. Hence, new treatments targeting these molecules may have therapeutic and preventive effects.
Hill, I D; Sinclair-Smith, C.; Lastovica, A J; Bowie, M. D.; Emms, M
Three children presented with acute protein losing enteropathy and were found to have acute gastritis associated with Campylobacter pylori infection. Recovery from protein losing enteropathy was accompanied by resolution of the gastritis and the disappearance of C pylori from the gastric mucosa. Their clinical course suggested that the C pylori had caused the gastritis and the protein losing enteropathy. The association between gastritis caused by C pylori and protein losing enteropathy in ch...
Lim, Su-Lin; Canavarro, Claudia; Zaw, Min-Htet; Zhu, Feng; Loke, Wai-Chiong; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Yeoh, Khay-Guan
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is associated with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and more than half of the world's population is chronically infected. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether an irregular meal pattern is associated with increased risk of gastritis and HP infection. The study involved 323 subjects, divided into three groups as follows: subjects with HP infection and gastritis, subjects with gastritis, and a control group. Subjects were interviewed on eat...
Watanabe, Shinya; Sasahara, Teppei; Arai, Naoshi; Sasaki, Kazumasa; Aiba, Yoshifumi; Sato'o, Yusuke; Cui, Longzhu
Acute phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon endogenous bacterial gastritis presenting with a high mortality rate. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes strain, JMUB1235, which is the causative agent of acute phlegmonous gastritis. Copyright © 2016 Watanabe et al.
Luke, Steven G; Christianson, Kiel
This article presents the Provo Corpus, a corpus of eye-tracking data with accompanying predictability norms. The predictability norms for the Provo Corpus differ from those of other corpora. In addition to traditional cloze scores that estimate the predictability of the full orthographic form of each word, the Provo Corpus also includes measures of the predictability of the morpho-syntactic and semantic information for each word. This makes the Provo Corpus ideal for studying predictive processes in reading. Some analyses using these data have previously been reported elsewhere (Luke & Christianson, 2016). The Provo Corpus is available for download on the Open Science Framework, at https://osf.io/sjefs .
Full Text Available The article is devoted to recurring adaptation effect on energy metabolism of atrophic shin muscles. The purpose: Investigation of markers of activity of muscular fibers of gravitation-dependent muscles in condition of early posthypoki-netic readaptation. Materials. Muscles-antagonists have been taken from the shin area of hind limbs of a rat. Methods. Immunohistochemical dyeing of myofibrils of different type (I and II on glycogen and triglycerides have been used. Results. We have revealed dynamic changes of the endocellular contents of researched energy substrata on different terms of the period of posthypokinetic restoration. Conclusion. Investigated substrata my serve as adequate functional markers of muscles in the conditions under the study
Pi Urgell, Joan; Revilla Gutiérrez, Verónica; Gay Escoda, Cosme Gay
Zygomatic implants are a good rehabilitation alternative for upper maxilla with severe bone reabsorption. These implants reduce the need for onlay-type bone grafting in the posterior sectors and for maxillary sinus lift procedures - limiting the use of bone grafts to the anterior zone of the upper jaw in those cases where grafting is considered necessary. To evaluate the survival of 101 zygomatic implants placed in upper maxilla presenting important bone reabsorption, with a follow-up of 1-72 months. A retrospective study was made of 101 Zygoma(R) implants (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden) placed in 54 patients with totally edentulous and atrophic upper maxilla, in the period between 1998-2004. There were 35 women and 19 men, subjected to rehabilitation in the form of fixed prostheses and overdentures using 1-2 zygomatic implants and 2-7 implants in the anterior maxillary zone. The principal study variables were smoking, a history of sinusitis, the degree of bone reabsorption, and peri-implant bone loss, among others. The descriptive analysis of the 101 zygomatic implants placed in 54 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range 38-75) yielded a percentage survival of 96.04%, with four failed implants that were removed (two before and two after prosthetic loading). Nine patients were smokers, and none of the 54 subjects reported a history of sinus disorders. Zygomatic implants are designed for use in compromised upper maxilla. They allow the clinician to shorten the treatment time, affording an interesting alternative for fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This study confirms that zygomatic bone offers predictable anchorage and acceptable support function for prostheses in atrophic jaws. However, these implants are not without complications. Longer-term evaluations are needed of zygomatic implant survival in order to establish a correct clinical prognosis.
Full Text Available The reconstruction of the atrophic alveolar ridges for implant placement is today a common procedure in dentistry daily practice. The surgical reconstruction provides for the optimization of the supporting bone for the implants and a restoration of the amount of keratinized gingiva for esthetic and functional reasons. In the past, tissue regeneration has been performed with autogenous bone and free gingival or connective tissue grafts. Nowadays, bone substitutes and specific collagen matrix allow for a complete restoration of the atrophic ridge without invasive harvesting procedures. A maxillary reconstruction of an atrophic ridge by means of tissue substitutes and its histological features are then presented.
ECOLE MATERNELLE, NIVEAU 1 (4 ANS - 4 ANS 1/2) 1 Galope galope galopeGalope dans la campagnePour chercer à manger Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Aurore 4 ans 2 Mon petit pingouinVa voir son amiPetit poisson Audrey 4 ans 1/2 3 Ma mamie MargueriteLucky LuckTacatackTapipi Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Sophie 4 ans 1/2 4 Poupée fleurEn pelucheEn pelucheUne tableEn pelucheQui s'appelle FleurOn pourraitAppeler TagadaFleur Audrey 4 ans 1/2, Aurore 4 ans 5 Mon petit lion va voir mon ami lionVa voir perroquetSon petit perroqu...
Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf
The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter fiber bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain. It is thought to be essential for interhemispheric transfer of information. The motor CC is that part of the CC which connects the primary motor cortices. Relatively little is known, in particular in humans, about where these fibers are located in the CC, what their function is, and how the structure of the motor CC relates to its function. This review surveys current knowledge about the human motor CC, with a focus on recent studies which assessed the motor CC by multimodal advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques.
Zhang, Lin; Hou, Yan-Hong; Wu, Kai; Zhai, Jun-Shan; Lin, Nan
AIM: To investigate and elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying varioliform gastritis for early detection, prevention and intervention of gastric cancer. METHODS: A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to detect the differentially expressed proteins between varioliform gastritis and matched normal mucosa. The selected proteins were confirmed by Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in additional samples and the function of some proteins in varioliform gastritis was analyzed by bio-method preliminarily. RESULTS: We identified 21 differentially expressed proteins in varioliform gastritis, and compared them with matched normal mucosa. Eleven proteins were upregulated and ten downregulated in varioliform gastritis when compared with the same proteins in individual-matched normal gastric mucosa. These proteins are related to metabolism, oxidation, cytoskeleton, apoptosis, signal transduction and other aspects of cells. Two novel proteins, thioredoxin domain-containing protein 5 (TXNDC5) upregulated in varioliform gastritis, and neuropolypeptide h3 [phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1)] downregulated in varioliform gastritis, were further investigated. Their expressions were validated by Western blotting and RT-PCR in 12 cases of varioliform gastritis which was matched with normal mucosa. The expression level of PEBP1 in varioliform gastritis was significantly lower (P gastritis. Downregulation of PEBP1 and upregulation of TXNDC5 are involved in the development of varioliform gastritis. PMID:20677338
Shimizu, Takahiro; Choi, Eunyoung; Petersen, Christine P; Noto, Jennifer M; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, Maria B; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Goldenring, James R
Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia are considered neoplastic precursors of gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Loss of parietal cells causes the development of SPEM in the gastric corpus and then chronic inflammation drives SPEM toward a more proliferative lineage. Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori develop chronic gastritis and metaplasia, mimicking aspects of human gastritis with H. pylori infection. We therefore examined metaplastic lineages in the gastric corpus mucosa of gerbils infected by H. pylori strain 7.13, which produces rapid onset of severe inflammation. Six weeks following H. pylori infection, Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSII)-positive SPEM developed in the base of oxyntic glands in association with parietal cell loss and inflammation. In association with severe inflammation, SPEM glands evolved into aberrant phenotypes, including branched lesions, dilated lesions, and penetrating invasive glands. Mucin 4 (MUC4) was up-regulated in SPEM and progressive SPEM. Clusterin was expressed in the tips of branched and dilated lesions and throughout regions of invasive glands. Intriguingly, clusterin-positive regions in these lesions expressed Ki67 and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7). These same regions were also positive for expression of phospho-IkBα, suggestive of activated NFkB signalling. These findings suggest that clusterin-positive regions in progressive phenotypes of SPEM have invasive characteristics. Thus, H. pylori infection in gerbils induces SPEM, which then can progress to further aberrant and invasive metaplastic phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Togo, Ren; Ishihara, Kenta; Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki
Since technical knowledge and a high degree of experience are necessary for diagnosis of chronic gastritis, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems that analyze gastric X-ray images are desirable in the field of medicine. Therefore, a new method that estimates salient regions related to chronic gastritis/non-gastritis for supporting diagnosis is presented in this paper. In order to estimate salient regions related to chronic gastritis/non-gastritis, the proposed method monitors the distance between a target image feature and Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based hyperplane for its classification. Furthermore, our method realizes removal of the influence of regions outside the stomach by using positional relationships between the stomach and other organs. Consequently, since the proposed method successfully estimates salient regions of gastric X-ray images for which chronic gastritis and non-gastritis are unknown, visual support for inexperienced clinicians becomes feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
K. Sugano (Kentaro); J. Tack (Jan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); D.Y. Graham (David Y.); E. El-Omar; S. Miura (Soichiro); K. Haruma (Ken); M. Asaka (Masahiro); N. Uemura (Naomi); P. Malfertheiner
textabstractObjective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate
Background: Inflammation of the gastric mucosa is a common finding in the general population. It is also common in clinical practice for Endoscopists to make an impression of gastritis on the basis of the general endoscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa. This concept of “endoscopic gastritis” was further given credibility ...
of gastritis by a group of international experts in Sydney, Australia. This system combines topographical, morphological and aetiological information into a scheme that helps generate a reproducible and clinically useful diagnosis. Four years later this system was updated and subsequently modified to improve the criteria for.
Kavalar, Rajko; Skok, Pavel; Kramberger, Kristina Gornik
Phlegmonous gastritis is an acute infection of the stomach wall by pyogenic bacteria. It represents an extremely rare disease with a fulminating course and a high mortality rate. A precise lifetime diagnosis is generally unsuccessful. The inflammation, most often caused by alpha-hemolytic streptococci, is most frequently expressed in patients who are more susceptible to infection. Among these are elderly patients, women, patients with chronic gastritis, chronic peptic ulcer, hepatic cirrhosis and decreased immune tolerance, T-cell leukemia, patients with a low socio-economic status and alcoholics. In our paper we are describing the case of a 66-year old female patient, who had received many years of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. She died due to phlegmonous gastritis, which was only established post-mortem. The authors share the opinion that the occurrence of the phlegmonous form of gastritis was influenced significantly by the treatment with nonsteroidal antirheumatics and corticosteroids, which she had received for many years and also immediately prior to the complication.
Gastritis and gastropathy: More than meets the eye. This paper discusses the different types of gastritides and gastropathies, focusing on their wide range of aetiologies. ..... 6. Thomas L. Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics. Use and Assessment of Clinical. Laboratory Results. 1st ed. Frankfurt: TH-Books Verlagsgesellschaft.
Gomes, Alexandre; Skare, Thelma Larocca; Prestes, Manoel Alberto; Costa, Maiza da Silva; Petisco, Roberta Dombroski; Ramos, Gabriela Piovezani
Studies with latest technologies such as endoscopy with magnification and chromoendoscopy showed that various endoscopic aspects are clearly related to infection by Helicobacter pylori (HP). The description of different patterns of erythema in gastric body under magnification of images revived interest in identifying these patterns by standard endoscopy. To validate the morphologic features of gastric mucosa related to H. pylori infection gastritis allowing predictability of their diagnosis as well as proper targeting biopsies. Prospective study of 339 consecutive patients with the standard videoendoscope image analysis were obtained, recorded and stored in a program database. These images were studied with respect to the presence or absence of H. pylori, diagnosed by rapid urease test and/or by histological analysis. Were studied: a) normal mucosa appearance; b) mucosal nodularity; c) diffuse nonspecific erythema or redness (with or without edema of folds and exudate) of antrum and body; d) mosaic pattern with focal area of hyperemia; e) erythema in streaks or bands (red streak); f) elevated (raised) erosion; g) flat erosions; h) fundic gland polyps. The main exclusion criteria were the use of drugs, HP pre-treatment and other entities that could affect results. Applying the exclusion criteria, were included 170 of the 339 patients, of which 52 (30.58%) were positive for HP and 118 negative. On the positive findings, the most associated with infection were: nodularity in the antrum (26.92%); presence of raised erosion (15.38%) and mosaic mucosa in the body (21.15%). On the negative group the normal appearance of the mucosa was 66.94%; erythema in streaks or bands in 9.32%; flat erosions 11.86%; and fundic gland polyps 11.86%. Endoscopic findings are useful in the predictability of the result and in directing biopsies. The most representative form of HP related gastritis was the nodularity of the antral mucosa. The raised erosion and mucosa in mosaic in the body
Schupper, Aviv; Konen, Osnat; Halevy, Ayelet; Cohen, Rony; Aharoni, Sharon; Shuper, Avinoam
A thick corpus callosum (TCC) can be associated with a very grave outcome in fetuses, but its clinical presentation in older children seems to be markedly different. The corpus callosum (CC) was defined as thick based on observations and impressions. We reviewed cases of children who were diagnosed as TCC based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The pertinent clinical data of these children were collected, and their CCs were measured. Out of 2,552 brain MRI images, those of 37 children were initially considered as showing a TCC. Those initial imaging were reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist, who confirmed the diagnosis in 34 children (1.3%): 13 had neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1), 9 had epilepsy, 3 had macrocephaly capillary malformation (MCM) syndrome, 3 had autistic spectrum disorder, 1 had a Chiari-1 malformation, and 1 had increased head circumference. No specific neurologic disorder could be defined in seven children. The measured thickness of the CC in these children was comparable to those published in the literature for adults. A TCC is a rare brain malformation that can be found in neuropathologies with apparently diverse pathognomonic mechanisms, such as NF-1 and MCM. It is not necessarily associated with life-threatening conditions, instead being a relatively benign finding, different in nature from that reported in fetuses.
Sean M. Wrenn
Conclusions: Atrophic visceral neuropathy is a rare cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. While often presenting with chronic obstruction in younger populations, we present a rare late-onset acute presentation that may have been secondary to underlying hypothyroidism.
Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar
In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.
Shichijo, Satoki; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Niikura, Ryota; Hayakawa, Yoku; Yamada, Atsuo; Koike, Kazuhiko
Histological gastritis is associated with gastric cancer, but its diagnosis requires biopsy. Many classifications of endoscopic gastritis are available, but not all are useful for risk stratification of gastric cancer. The Kyoto Classification of Gastritis was proposed at the 85th Congress of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society. This cross-sectional study evaluated the usefulness of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis for risk stratification of gastric cancer. From August 2013 to September 2014, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and the gastric findings evaluated according to the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in a total of 4062 patients. The following five endoscopic findings were selected based on previous reports: atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. A total of 3392 patients (1746 [51%] men and 1646 [49%] women) were analyzed. Among them, 107 gastric cancers were diagnosed. Atrophy was found in 2585 (78%) and intestinal metaplasia in 924 (27%). Enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness were found in 197 (5.8%), 22 (0.6%), and 573 (17%), respectively. In univariate analyses, the severity of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, diffuse redness, age, and male sex were associated with gastric cancer. In a multivariate analysis, atrophy and male sex were found to be independent risk factors. Younger age and severe atrophy were determined to be associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer. Endoscopic detection of atrophy was associated with the risk of gastric cancer. Thus, patients with severe atrophy should be examined carefully and may require intensive follow-up. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Sun, Xiaoming; Cai, Hongxing; Li, Zhouru; Li, Shanshan; Yin, Wenjiang; Dong, Guokai; Kuai, Jinxia; He, Yihui; Jia, Jing
Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the human stomach regularly leads to chronic gastric inflammation. The cytokine gene interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in influencing the pathology of inflammation induced by H. pylori infection. Currently, several studies have been carried out to investigate the association of IL-1β-511 (rs16944) and IL-1β-31 (rs1143627) polymorphisms with gastritis risk; however, the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. To assess the effect of IL-1β polymorphisms on gastritis susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis. Methods: Up to March 15, 2016, 2205 cases and 2289 controls were collected from 12 published case–control studies. Summarized odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IL-1β-511 and IL-1β-31 polymorphisms and gastritis risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses and logistic meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results: The results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β-31 might be associated with the gastritis risk, especially in the Caucasian population, while SNPs in the IL-1β-511 might not be. Conclusion: Our studies may be helpful in supplementing the disease monitoring of gastritis in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanisms might inspire interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups. PMID:28151895
Larauche, Muriel; Anton, Pauline M; Garcia-Villar, Rafaël; Theodorou, Vassilia; Frexinos, Jacques; Buéno, Lionel; Fioramonti, Jean
Nitrates have long been considered as harmful dietary components and judged responsible for deleterious effects on human health, leading to stringent regulations concerning their levels in food and water. However, recent studies demonstrate that dietary nitrate may have a major role in human health as a non-immune mechanism for host defence, through its metabolism to NO in the stomach. NO is a versatile molecule and although evidence exists showing that administration of low doses of exogenous NO protects against gastrointestinal inflammation, higher NO doses have been shown to exacerbate injury. So, the effect of an ingestion of nitrates in doses corresponding to a normal diet in human consumers on an experimental gastritis induced by iodoacetamide in rats was investigated. During gastritis one of the following compounds was given orally: water; KNO3; the NO donor sodium nitroprusside; the NO scavenger haemoglobin given with either water or KNO3. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor, was administered with either water, iodoacetamide alone, or combined with KNO3. After killing, the stomach was resected and microscopic damage scores, myeloperoxidase and NO synthase activities were determined. Iodoacetamide-induced gastritis was significantly reduced by KNO3 administration, an effect which was reproduced by sodium nitroprusside and reversed by haemoglobin. l-NAME induced gastric mucosal damage in itself, and KNO3 did not prevent the gastritis induced by iodoacetamide associated with l-NAME. In conclusion, dietary nitrate exerts a protective effect against an experimental gastritis in rats by releasing NO in the stomach but such an effect requires the production of endogenous NO.
Imran Majid; Saher Imran
Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Material...
Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Kuroki, Hideyuki; Higashi, Takaaki; Takeyama, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Naomi; Okabe, Hirohisa; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Beppu, Toru; Takamori, Hiroshi; Baba, Hideo
Liver is an amazing organ that can undergo regenerative and atrophic changes inversely, depending on blood flow conditions. Although the regenerative mechanism has been extensively studied, the atrophic mechanism remains to be elucidated. To assess the molecular mechanism of liver atrophy due to reduced portal blood flow, we analyzed the gene expressions between atrophic and hypertrophic livers induced by portal vein embolization in three human liver tissues using microarray analyses. Thrombospondin (TSP)-1 is an extracellular protein and a negative regulator of liver regeneration through its activation of the transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling pathway. TSP-1 was extracted as the most upregulated gene in atrophic liver compared to hypertrophic liver due to portal flow obstruction in human. Liver atrophic and hypertrophic changes were confirmed by HE and proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling. In an in vivo model with portal ligation, TSP-1 and phosphorylated Smad2 expression were continuously induced at 6 h and thereafter in the portal ligated liver, whereas the induction was transient at 6 h in the portal non-ligated liver. Indeed, while cell proliferation represented by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression at 48 h was induced in the portal ligated liver, the sinusoidal dilatation and hepatocyte cell death with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling was detectable at 48 h in the portal ligated liver. Obstructed portal flow induces persistent TSP-1 expression and transforming growth factor-β/Smad signal activation in atrophic liver. Thrombospondin-1 may be implicated in the liver atrophic change due to obstructed portal flow as a pro-atrophic factor. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
Hain, Jüri, 1941-
Leonhard Lapini, Sirje Runge, Andres Toltsi ja Mare Vindi 1960ndate lõpu ja 1970ndate alguse tööde näitusest "Corpus in spe" Deco galeriis ning nimetatud kunstnike ja Urmo Rausi uudisloomingu näitusest "Corpus" Tallinna Linnagaleriis
Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…
Genta, R M; Sonnenberg, A
Helicobacter-negative gastritis is diagnosed when no organisms are detected in a gastric mucosa with typical features of Helicobacter gastritis (Hp-gastritis). If Helicobacter-negative gastritis consisted mostly of 'missed' Helicobacter infections, its prevalence should represent a constant percentage of these infections in a population, and their clinico-epidemiological features would overlap. To compare the epidemiologic patterns of Hp-positive and Hp-negative gastritis. From a pathology database, we extracted demographic, clinical and histopathological data from patients with gastric biopsies (1.2008-12.2013). We allocated patients to high (≥12%) and low (≤6%) H. pylori prevalence regions defined by ZIP code-based data. The prevalence of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis by sex, age and state were expressed as a per cent of the total study population stratified accordingly. Of 895 323 patients, 10.6% had Hp-gastritis and 1.5% Helicobacter-negative gastritis. Hp-gastritis, but not Helicobacter-negative gastritis, was more common in males than females (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.16-1.19). While Hp-gastritis was more prevalent in high than in low-prevalence areas (OR 3.65, 95% CI: 3.57-3.74), Helicobacter-negative gastritis was only minimally affected by the underlying H. pylori prevalence (1.7% vs. 1.5%). The age-specific prevalence of Hp-gastritis peaked in the 4th to 5th decades; Helicobacter-negative gastritis exhibited a low and relatively flat pattern. The geographic distribution of H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis showed no significant correlation. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 13.0% of patients with Hp-gastritis and in 6.1% of those with Helicobacter-negative gastritis (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.40-0.47). These data suggest that Helicobacter-negative gastritis is, in the vast majority of cases, a nosologically and epidemiologically distinct entity that deserves further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rath-Wolfson, Lea; Varona, Roy; Bubis, Golan; Tatarov, Alexander; Koren, Rumelia; Ram, Edward
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a therapeutic option in severely obese patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) gastritis and non-Helicobacter gastritis in the gastrectomy specimens, and its association to other variables.One hundred six sleeve gastrectomy specimens were examined histopathologically for the presence of gastritis and its relation to other factors like ethnicity, glycemic control, and postoperative complications.Twelve patients had HP gastritis, 39 had non-HP gastritis, and 55 had normal mucosa. There was a statistical difference between the Arab and Jewish Israeli patients in our study. Twenty-eight of the Arab patients had HP gastritis and 48% had non-HP gastritis. In the Jewish population 6% had HP gastritis and 34% had non-HP gastritis. The preoperative glycemic control was worse in the gastritis group with a mean HbA1c of 8.344% while in the normal mucosa group the mean HbA1c was 6.55. After operation the glycemic control reverted to normal in most the diabetic patients. There were few postoperative complications however, they were not related to HP.There is a high incidence of gastritis in obese patients. The incidence of gastritis in the Arab population in our study was higher than that in the Jewish population. The glycemic control before surgery was worse in patients with gastritis than in the normal mucosa group. HP bares no risk for postoperative complications after LSG and does not affect weight loss. However a larger cohort of patients must be studied to arrive at conclusive results.
Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord
Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcián, P.; Borák, L.; Valášek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Florian, Z.; Wolff, J.
The first aim of this study was to assess displacements and micro-strain induced on different grades of atrophic cortical and trabecular mandibular bone by axially loaded dental implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The second aim was to assess the micro-strain induced by different implant
Marcian, P.; Borak, L.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Florian, Z.; Wolff, J.E.H.
The first aim of this study was to assess displacements and micro-strain induced on different grades of atrophic cortical and trabecular mandibular bone by axially loaded dental implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The second aim was to assess the micro-strain induced by different implant
Kim, Sung Hyo; Um, Seung In; Nam, Yoonjin; Park, Sun Young; Dong, Je Hyun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Sang Joon
The effects of ceremide analogues on esophagitis and gastritis in rats were examined. Gastritis induced by indomethacin was significantly reduced after CY3325 and CY3723 treatment, whereas other analogues had no effect. The amount of malondialdehyde in gastritis was significantly reduced by CY3325 or CY 3723. CY3325 or CY 3723 decreased the glutathione levels in gastritis. The myeloperoxidase level in gastritis is increased, and its increment was decreased by CY3325 and CY3723. In reflux esophagitis, the ulceration was decreased by CY3325, CY3723. The gastric volume and acid output are reduced, whereas the pH value is increased by CY3325 or CY3723 after esophagitis. These results suggest that ceramide analogues, CY3325 and CY3723, can prevent the development of gastritis and reflux esophagitis in rats.
Kitamura, Shinji; Yasuda, Mitsugi; Muguruma, Naoki; Okamoto, Koichi; Takeuchi, Hisashi; Bando, Yoshimi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Okahisa, Toshiya; Yano, Mitsuyasu; Torisu, Ryusuke; Takayama, Tetsuji
Nodular gastritis (NG) is defined as antral gastritis with endoscopic findings usually characterized by a miliary pattern resembling "goose flesh." There is a possible association between NG and gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether there are some differences between young and elderly people in incidence and characteristics of NG and estimate potential risk factors for gastric cancer in adults with NG. Patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for abdominal symptoms or cancer screening. Incidence rates and relationship between an elderly group (40 years or older) and young group (risk of gastric cancer in patients with NG was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 0.3-15.3) in the elderly group. NG in the elderly was also suggested to be a risk factor for gastric cancer as well as in the young. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Janet; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A
Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year-old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits. © 2014 The Author(s).
Choi, Soonami; Lim, Yun Jeong; Park, Sue Kyung
AIM: To conduct a retrospective study to determine the risk factors for development of metaplastic gastritis in Korean population. METHODS: The database of 113 449 subjects who underwent a gastroscopy for the purpose of a regular check-up at center for health promotion, Samsung medical center during 5 years was collected and retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 5 847 subjects who had endoscopically diagnosed as a metaplastic gastritis or 10 076 normal as well as answered to questionnaire were included for present study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups; Group I, normal and Group II, metaplastic gastritis. Age, gender, Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) seropositivity, body mass index (BMI), family history of cancer, smoking, alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating) were retrieved from questionnaire or electronic medical record and compared between group I and group II. RESULTS: The prevalence of group II was 11% (13 578/113 449) increasing its prevalence with age (P = 0.000). But, there was no significant association between 2 groups in BMI, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, total daily calories, folate and salt intake and dietary habit (out-eating, overeating, irregular eating). Old age (P = 0.000), male gender (P = 0.000), H pylori seropositivity (P = 0.010) and current smoker (P = 0.000) were significantly more common in group II at multiple logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that old age, male gender, H pylori seropositivity and smoking were risk factors for metaplastic gastritis, precancerous lesion of gastric cancer. PMID:16688806
Ramos Jiménez, F A; Arocena Cedrón, M G; Goikoetxea Artola, J M; Lázaro Aramburu, S; Múgica Barreiros, P
The authors present a case of phlegmonous gastritis in a 65 year old patient. The diagnosis was made in the operating room and the treatment was conservative; no gastric resection was done. This clinical entity is interesting because it is a least frequent pathology, the pathogenic bacteria which was the cause (Pseudomona aeruginosa) has at this time not been reported in the literature, including the favorable outcome of the patient without gastric resection.
Pielaciński, Konrad; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Dedecjus, Marek; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szczepanik, Andrzej B
One extremely rare complication of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies that is burdened with a high mortality rate (50%-80%) is necrotizing gastritis and gastric gangrene as result of poor clinical outcome of neutropenic gastritis (NG). We present a unique case of a neutropenic patient with necrotizing full thickness gastritis due to bacterial and fungal infection. Up to date only few such cases have been reported in world literature. A 28-year-old patient was subjected to dose-escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone), (chemotherapy regimen) for Hodgkin lymphoma. In neutropenic patient abdominal pain, bleeding from the alimentary tract was observed. Hemorrhagic gastritis was recognized at endoscopy and CT demonstrated marked gastric wall thickness. Following NG diagnosis intensive treatment was initiated. On day 2 the patient's condition deteriorated (septic shock, multiple organ failure). Repeat endoscopy revealed gastric necrosis and laparotomy was performed. As consequence of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation the surgical procedure was limited to total gastrectomy, feeding jejustomy and esophageal drainage through nasoesophageal catherization. Roux-loop esophagojejunostomy was performed on day 22 and supplemented 4 days later by endoscopic placement of covered self-expandable stent due to anastomosis leak. The procedure proved successful and oral feeding was well-tolerated. The patient was discharged in 32 days following recognition of gastric necrosis. Chemotherapy complications in neutropenic patients are life-threatening conditions. Immediate pharmacological treatment usually leads to improvement. Surgical management usually the resection of necrotic zones is restricted to cases of poor prognosis or deterioration of patient's condition and complications.
Kato, Kunihiro; Tominaga, Kazunari; Sugimori, Satoshi; Nagami, Yasuaki; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo
A 64-year-old man presented with epigastralgia and nausea after an acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed remarkable thickening of the gastric wall and intramural hypodense areas. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a large gastric ulcer surrounded by an edematous mucosa and mucopus. The results of a culture from a biopsy of the lesion indicated phlegmonous gastritis. The patient was successfully treated with an antibiotic without gastrectomy.
Nasser, Soumana C; Slim, Mahmoud; Nassif, Jeanette G; Nasser, Selim M
To investigate the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exposure on the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Chronic PPI use is associated with masking of H. pylori infection. Patients with H. pylori infection are predisposed to gastric and duodenal ulcers, and long-term infection with this organism has been associated with gastric mucosal atrophy and serious long-term complications, such as gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Three hundred patients diagnosed with gastritis between January 2008 and April 2010 were included in our study. The computerized medical database of these patients was reviewed retrospectively in order to assess whether the type of gastritis diagnosed (H. pylori vs non-H. pylori gastritis) is influenced by PPI exposure. H. pylori density was graded as low, if corresponding to mild density following the Updated Sydney System, or high, if corresponding to moderate or severe densities in the Updated Sydney System. Patients were equally distributed between males and females with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 50 years old (range: 20-87). The histological types of gastritis were classified as H. pylori gastritis (n = 156, 52%) and non-H. pylori gastritis (n = 144, 48%). All patients with non-H. pylori gastritis had inactive chronic gastritis. Patients with no previous PPI exposure were more likely to be diagnosed with H. pylori gastritis than those with previous PPI exposure (71% vs 34.2%, P gastritis and leads to a significant drop in H. pylori densities and to an increased risk of intestinal metaplasia. The use of PPIs masks H. pylori infection, promotes the diagnosis of non-H. pylori inactive chronic gastritis diagnosis, and increases the incidence of intestinal metaplasia.
Nair, Rajesh; Agrawal, Saurabh; Nayal, Bhavna
Emphysematous gastritis secondary to vaso-occlusive disease is a surgical emergency. It is a rare yet severe form of widespread phlegmonous gastritis. It is caused by corrosive ingestion, alcohol abuse, and on rare occasions, infections. The clinical presentation is diagnostic with supportive information from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen and gastroduodenoscopy. Here, we describe a case of emphysematous gastritis with spontaneous vaso-occlusive disease that was s...
Мар'яна Миколаївна Курбан; Роман Ярославович Дутка; Зоряна Романівна Леонт’єва
Aim: The work deals with special features of chronic gastritis clinical course with comorbid arterial hypertension.Methods: 96 patients underwent complex examination: 62 patients with combined clinical course of arterial hypertension and chronic gastritis and 34 ones with isolated chronic gastritis. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination.Result: At analysis of results it was established that in the 1 group of patients took place the more heavy clinical course...
Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun
Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found ...
Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease Malignant atrophic papulosis (MAP, described independently by Köhlmeier and Degos et al., is a rare, chronic, thrombo-obliterative vasculopathy characterized by papular skin lesions with central porcelain-white atrophy and surrounding teleangiectatic rim. Epidemiology Less than 200 cases have been described in the literature. The first manifestation of MAP usually occurs between the 20th and 50th year of life. Clinical description The cutaneous clinical picture is almost pathognomonic. The histology is not consistent but in most cases it shows a wedge-shaped connective tissue necrosis in the deep corium due to a thrombotic occlusion of the small arteries. In the systemic variant, manifestations mostly occur at the intestine and central nervous system. Etiology The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, a genetic predisposition may occur. Vasculitis, coagulopathy or primary dysfunction of the endothelial cells have been implicated. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is only based on the characteristic skin lesions. Differrential diagnosis It depends on the clinical presentation of MAP, but systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases need to be considered. Management No effective treatment exists for the systemic manifestations, while compounds that facilitate blood perfusion have achieved a partial regression of the skin lesions in single cases. Prognosis An apparently idiopathic, monosymptomatic, cutaneous, benign variant and a progressive, visceral one with approx. 50% lethality within 2–3 years have been reported. Systemic manifestations can develop years after the occurrence of skin lesions leading to bowel perforation and peritonitis, thrombosis of the cerebral arteries or massive intracerebral hemorrhage, meningitis, encephalitis, radiculopathy, myelitis.
Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong
To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P gastritis by inhibiting the inflammatory response in gastric epithelial cells.
Odai, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Takenori
Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a nonspecific suppurative inflammation disease arising from the submucosal layer, and extending to the full thickness of the stomach. We herein report on a case of acute PG which was diagnosed with abdominal ultrasonography. A 64-year-old man presented at a hospital after having recently undergone pacemaker implantation for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. He was admitted as an emergency due to a fever of 39 degrees C. He showed anorexia, epigastralgia, vomiting of coffee-ground emesis on the second hospital day, and abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) performed on the third hospital day showed the disappearance of the normal laminated structure and hypoechoic thickening of the stomach walls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed significant hyperplasia of the stomach walls, an erythrogenic mucosa, and poor extension. On the fourth hospital day, computed tomography revealed concentric thickening of the stomach walls. Streptococcus pyogenes was cultured from his blood sample. Based on those findings, the patient was diagnosed as having acute phlegmonous gastritis. His clinical symptoms improved and the abnormal ultrasonographic examination findings thereafter returned to normal following the administration of antibiotics. PG should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with acute abdomen. We experienced a rare case of acute phlegmonous gastritis and AUS was useful for making an early diagnosis.
E. R. Dobrushina
Full Text Available The article describes the current state of work on the Corpus of Church Slavonic within the Russian National Corpus. The Corpus is different from the collection of texts by the presence of a special markup (grammatical, structural, metatextual and the possibility to search by this markup. The article considers the content, describes the main genre headings, according to which the texts included in the Corpus are distributed, describes the principles of the metamarkup that differ from those used in other Corpuses within the Russian National Corpus. Where necessary, the historical information, on the basis of which a certain decision was made, is provided. Since typing search queries on the keyboard presents certain difficulties for Church Slavonic texts, we offer several options for simplified spelling transmission, which enable a person to enter a query with limited capabilities of a standard keyboard. Finally, the article describes the frequency grammar vocabulary created during the work on the project.
Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young
Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization.
Lim, Su-Lin; Canavarro, Claudia; Zaw, Min-Htet; Zhu, Feng; Loke, Wai-Chiong; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Yeoh, Khay-Guan
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is associated with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and more than half of the world's population is chronically infected. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether an irregular meal pattern is associated with increased risk of gastritis and HP infection. The study involved 323 subjects, divided into three groups as follows: subjects with HP infection and gastritis, subjects with gastritis, and a control group. Subjects were interviewed on eating habits and meal timing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare groups. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were derived controlling for gender, age, stress, and probiotic consumption. Subjects who deviated from their regular meals by 2 hours or more had a significantly higher incidence of HP infection with gastritis (adjusted OR = 13.3; 95% CI 5.3-33.3; P gastritis (adjusted OR = 6.1; 95% CI 2.5-15.0; P gastritis (95% CI 2.6-15.2; P gastritis (95% CI 1.5-8.5; P gastritis.
Semino, Elena; Short, M. H.
This book represents a new direction at the interface between the fields of stylistics and corpus linguistics, namely the use of a corpus methodology to investigate the ways in which people's words and thoughts are presented in written narratives. A 260,000 word electronic corpus of late 20th century written texts, including fiction, news reports and (auto)biographies is analysed by the authors, providing a detailed account of new theoretical insights, comparisons between different text types...
The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.
Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi
Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…
While in academic circles the benefits of using a corpus as a means of undertaking language analysis are increasing widely appreciated, this has not led to the widespread use of corpora by language teachers, or materials producers, in making teaching materials. This paper, based on the making of a set of corpus-based exercises and their evaluation by ESL students, considers why this may be and suggests how the various obstacles to their use may be overcome.
Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Watabe, Kenji; Tsutsui, Shusaku; Kiso, Shinichi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Kato, Motohiko; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yuichi; Kihara, Shinji; Umeda, Miyuki; Furubayashi, Aiko; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Kishida, Osamu; Fujimoto, Takashi; Yamada, Akira; Tsukamoto, Yoshifumi; Hayashi, Norio; Matsuzawa, Yuji
Obesity is recently known as a risk factor for endoscopic gastritis. Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory cytokine secreted from fat tissue, and its serum concentrations are reduced in obesity. The relation between adiponectin and gastritis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether lower serum adiponectin level is associated with the risk of endoscopic gastritis. We analyzed medical records of participants of a routine health check-up examination. Association among endoscopic findings, serum adiponectin level, and other clinical factors including age, sex, alcohol habit, smoking habit, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin were investigated. Endoscopic erosive gastritis was defined as a flat or minimally depressed white spot surrounded by a reddish area or small elevation with central umbilications mimicking octopus' suckers. A total of 2,400 participants were enrolled. BMI was significantly higher in gastritis-positive participants than in gastritis-negative participants. Serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower in gastritis-positive participants than in gastritis-negative participants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower serum adiponectin level (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93-0.99), smoking (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.30-0.80), higher blood pressure (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03), and duodenitis (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.00-3.09) were significantly associated with endoscopic erosive gastritis. Lower serum level of adiponectin may increase the risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis, independently of BMI. Our findings facilitate further study to clarify the role of hypoadiponectinemia in erosive gastritis.
Kurnaz, Erdal; Savaş-Erdeve, Şenay; Keskin, Melikşah; Doğan, Vehbi; Çetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra
The most common reason of acquired hypothyroidism is autoimmune (Hashimoto) thyroiditis. Autoimmune thyroiditis can be atrophic or goitrogenic. Atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis (ATT) related acquired hypothyroidism causes interruption of growth, obesity, and bone age retardation in early ages while goitrogenic thyroiditis has a higher incidence rate and mostly presents with diffuse goiter. We discuss the effects of hypothyroidism on various systems through a case found to have pericardial effusion during the echocardiography performed after cardiac murmur was detected and later diagnosed with ATT related hypothyroidism.
Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.
c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.
Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir
Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of chronic gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori. Identifying the relationship between intensities of colonization and activity of gastritis helps the clinician in more effective treatment and posttreatment follow-ups. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, endoscopic gastric biopsy samples of 544 patients who complained symptoms of dyspepsia for more than three months referring to the laboratory were studied. To determine the colonization rate of H. pylori and other pathological findings, Giemsa and H&E stains were, respectively, used. Results. Among 544 subjects, 47 (8.64% patients had no gastritis, 203 (37.32% had mild gastritis, 278 (10.51% suffered moderate gastritis, and 16 (2.94% had severe gastritis. In this study, patients with mild H. pylori colonization rates had the highest level of mild activity (33.52%; in contrast, those with severe H. pylori colonization had the highest level of severe activity (43.75%. 93.96% of people with severe H. pylori colonization suffered from moderate and severe chronic gastritis. There is a significant statistical relationship between the intensity of H. pylori colonization and histopathological findings including intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, and lymphoid follicle formation. Conclusions. According to the present study, with increasing intensity of H. pylori colonization, chronicity and activity of gastritis and its complications increase.
Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.
Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.
Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.
Shabestari, A S L Ali; Mohammadi, Marjan; Jamshidi, Shahram; Sasani, Farhang; Bahadori, Ali; Oghalaie, Akbar
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of chronic gastritis in pet dogs, to determine the histopathologic changes of gastric mucosa and, to determine its relationship with canine gastric Helicobacter infection. Sixty percent (n = 18), 27% (n = 8) and 13% (n = 4) of the examined stomachs showed normal, congested and erosive gastric mucosa respectively. Histopathologic examination was confirmed the presence of chronic gastritis in 40% of dogs (n = 12). Lymphocytic-plasmacytic gastritis was the most common type of chronic gastritis. Gastric Helicobacter was detected in cytological examination of 26 out of 30 dogs (86.6%) but in the PCR analysis, 93% of gastric samples were positive for GHLO. There was no significant relation between the presence of Helicobacters and chronic gastritis (p>0.05). Follicular gastritis was detected in 12 cases (40%) and there was also no significant correlation between its presence and GHLO's infection (p>0.05). In conclusion, chronic gastritis can be considered as a prevalent disease especially in dogs. Nutritional and environmental factors as well as individual immune response may have role in induction of chronic gastritis, but the clinical significance of these histopathologic changes should be evaluated.
Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew
Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.
Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching
AIM: To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups. PMID:22228968
Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching
To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25(+) and Foxp3(+) cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, lymphoid follicle number, and Helicobacter pylori infection. The number of CD4(+), CD25(+) and Foxp3(+) cells, and the ratio of CD25(+)/CD4(+) and Foxp3(+)/CD4(+) cells, were negatively associated with intestinal metaplasia among gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups.
Dehesa, M; Dooley, C P; Cohen, H; Fitzgibbons, P L; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J
In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in 58 asymptomatic Hispanic adult volunteers (mean age, 41 years; 59% male) by endoscopic biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Forty-six subjects (79%) were found to harbor H. pylori in gastric biopsies, and all had histologic gastritis. Four other subjects were found to have gastritis in the absence of H. pylori. Similar prevalences of H. pylori and gastritis were noted in all age groups and also in American-born and immigrant Hispanics. Biopsy data and serologic studies of H. pylori antibodies correlated well. We conclude that H. pylori infection is an almost universal finding in the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic adult Hispanics, regardless of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown, but we speculate that H. pylori and its associated gastritis could have a role in the high incidence of gastric carcinoma in Hispanic populations.
Ddine, Lissa Chamse; Ddine, Charif Chamse; Rodrigues, Cíntia Corte Real; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Colpo, Elisângela
Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach mucosa, which is considered its main etiological factor the Helicobacter pylori. To observe the differences in patients with chronic gastritis as well as the presence and absence of H. pylori, to obtain a better understanding of the etiological factors, clinical, dietary and lifestyle habits and associated diseases. This was a descriptive study, retrospective medical records of patients with chronic gastritis treated as outpatients. Endoscopy and research of H. pylori was used in the diagnosis of chronic gastritis. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire to ascertain the risk factors for chronic gastritis and the clinical manifestations of disease, dietary and lifestyle habits, family history of the disease, weight changes and medications. For statistical analysis was used Spearman coefficient. Data were considered statistically significant pnutrition, interact to the onset of clinical manifestations, and the presence and absence of H. pylori did not show significant changes in patient clinical status.
Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Young-Min; Na, Duk L; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Manho
Neuropathologic changes in Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) involve variable brain structures. Corpus callosum involvement in WE, however, is largely unknown. The authors investigated the degree and the pattern of corpus callosum changes in WE according to the etiologies. Nineteen patients with WE (between 34 and 81 years) and 19 age- and sex-matched control participants were included. The total cross-sectional callosal area and 5 callosal subregions (C1-C5) were measured by tracing outer margins in the midsagittal sections. Subregions were determined by placing radial dividers with 10 rays. The pixel numbers for corpus callosums were calculated, and the values obtained were adjusted for head size variations. The causes of WE were alcoholism (10), intestinal surgery (5), anorexia (3), and hyperemesis gravidarum (1). The mean size of the total corpus callosum was significantly reduced in alcoholic WE (P< .001; 527.8 +/- 70.8 mm2 for alcoholic WE; 664.6 +/- 58.1 mm2 for the corresponding controls), but not in nonalcoholic WE. In subregion analysis, prefrontal callosum (C2) atrophy was the most prominent in alcoholic WE. In contrast, only splenium (C5) was atrophied in nonalcoholic WE. The degree of atrophy did not change throughout the follow-up period (mean 5.3 weeks). This study suggests that the extent and location of corpus callosum atrophy differs between alcoholic WE and nonalcoholic WE, implying separate contribution of alcohol neurotoxicity and nutritional deficiency.
Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.
Liu, Guo-Ping; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zheng, Wu; Zhong, Tao; Lu, Xiong; Qian, Peng
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), most of the algorithms used to solve problems of syndrome diagnosis are superficial structure algorithms and not considering the cognitive perspective from the brain. However, in clinical practice, there is complex and nonlinear relationship between symptoms (signs) and syndrome. So we employed deep leaning and multilabel learning to construct the syndrome diagnostic model for chronic gastritis (CG) in TCM. The results showed that deep learning could improve the accuracy of syndrome recognition. Moreover, the studies will provide a reference for constructing syndrome diagnostic models and guide clinical practice. PMID:24734118
Morimoto, Masaya; Tamura, Shinobu; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Nakamoto, Chiaki; Nakamoto, Hiromichi; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Nakano, Yoshio; Fujimoto, Tokuzo
Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a rare, acute, severe infectious disease of the gastric wall that is often fatal due to Streptococcus spp. A 77-year-old man with diabetes and a gastric ulcer was urgently admitted due to prolonged nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed widespread diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, and PG was suspected. The patient expired less than 9 hours after admission despite intensive treatments. Later, an analysis of the blood and gastric juice revealed group A streptococcus (GAS) and virulence factors associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS). We herein diagnosed a patient with an extremely aggressive course of PG caused by GAS TSS.
Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522
Mohammad Quamrul Hasan
Full Text Available Background: Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a recognized cause of peptic ulcer and gastritis. Persistence of infection is a definite risk factor for gastric malignancy. Healing of gastritis after eradication of H. pylori reduces the risks of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. Objectives: To find out the relationship of H. pylori with erosive and nonerosive gastritis, the effect of anti-H. pylori therapy and to compare the effects of anti-H. pylori therapy between two types of gastritis. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was done in the Gastroenterology department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from June 2008 to May 2009. One hundred eighty dyspeptic patients were enrolled for the study. Patients with gastritis diagnosed by endoscopy underwent rapid urease test (RUT. RUT positive patients were considered to have H. pylori infection and were treated with triple therapy (omeprazole, amoxycillin and metronidiazole for 14 days. Treatment responses were assessed by clinical history and also by endoscopic biopsy and RUT. Results of endoscopic findings and RUT after treatment were compared with pretreatment status. Results: Seventy patients completed the treatment and finally could be assessed. Endoscopic findings of 70 patients revealed that 56 (80% patients had erosive gastritis and 14 (20% patients had nonerosive gastritis. After treatment, 47 (67.1% lesions became normal, 16 (22.9% remained erosive and 7 (10% non-erosive as before. Out of 14 non-erosive diseases, 7 became normal, while out of 56 erosive diseases 40 became normal. The erosive group responded significantly better than the non-erosive group (c2=32.766, p<0.001. Fifty nine (84.3% patients with gastritis showed negative urease test after treatment. Conclusion: Strong relation between H. pylori infection and gastritis was found. Majority were antral erosive gastritis. Erosive group responded better than non-erosive group.
Ko, Joshua Ka-Shun; Cho, Chi-Hin; Lam, Shiu-Kum
To assess the mechanisms of protective action by different mild irritants through maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity and modulation of mucosal nitric oxide (NO) in experimental gastritis rats. Either 200 mL/L ethanol, 50 g/L NaCl or 0.3 mol/L HCl was pretreated to normal or 800 mL/L ethanol-induced acute gastritis Sprague-Dawley rats before a subsequent challenge with 500 mL/L ethanol. Both macroscopic lesion areas and histological damage scores were determined in the gastric mucosa of each group of animals. Besides, gastric mucosal activities of NO synthase isoforms and of superoxide dismutase, along with mucosal level of leukotriene (LT)C4 were measured. Macroscopic mucosal damages were protected by 200 mL/L ethanol and 50 g/L NaCl in gastritis rats. However, although 200 mL/L ethanol could protect the surface layers of mucosal cells in normal animals (protection attenuated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester), no cytoprotection against deeper histological damages was found in gastritis rats. Besides, inducible NO synthase activity was increased in the mucosa of gastritis animals and unaltered by mild irritants. Nevertheless, the elevation in mucosal LTC4 level following 500 mL/L ethanol administration and under gastritis condition was significantly reduced by pretreatment of all three mild irritants in both normal and gastritis animals. These findings suggest that the aggravated 500 mL/L ethanol-evoked mucosal damages under gastritis condition could be due to increased inducible NO and LTC4 production in the gastric mucosa. Only 200 mL/L ethanol is truly "cytoprotective" at the surface glandular level of non-gastritis mucosa. Furthermore, the macroscopic protection of the three mild irritants involves reduction of LTC4 level in both normal and gastritis mucosa, implicating preservation of the vasculature. Copyright 2004 The WJG Press ISSN
Full Text Available Les membres du Corpus Troporum, animé depuis des années par Gunilla Iversen (Stockholm, sont invités en résidence au Centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre. Ce court séjour est destiné à mettre au point la publication du projet Sapientia- eloquentia. Il a été demandé au groupe d’organiser une journée sur les séquences et tropes de dédicace d’église (dimanche 23 octobre 2005.Presentation of the research project Corpus TroporumThe research project Corpus Troporum (formerly “Projektet Troper” h...
Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils
The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol....... In this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the serialized...
Barikbin, Behrooz; Akbari, Zahra; Yousefi, Maryam; Dowlati, Yahya
Subcision is the mainstay of atrophic acne scar treatment but the efficacy and safety of the procedure is controversial. To improve the efficacy of the subcision procedure, a blunt subcision blade was designed and evaluated. Eighteen patients with bilateral atrophic acne scars considered eligible for subcision were enrolled. Before subcision, a tumescent solution was injected subdermally to anesthetize the treatment area and aid the dissection of the dermal-subcutaneous tissue. Patients underwent treatment using the blunt subcision blade, a long metal blade with gradually narrowing edges, and a rounded blunt tip. Early postoperative complications, overall aesthetic improvement and persistent discoloration, or lumpiness were assessed 7 days after subcision and at a 6-month follow-up visit. Moderate to marked improvement of atrophic scars was observed in 15 cases (83.3%). Mild to moderate tenderness, periorbital ecchymoses, and swelling were reported by some patients, but resolved completely within 1 week after the procedure. No cases of persistent discoloration or lumpiness were observed at the final visit. The blunt blade subcision procedure is suggested as an effective method for the treatment of atrophic acne scars.
Full Text Available Syed Nazim Hussain,1 Greg J Goodman,2,3 Eqram Rahman4 1Royal Lush Skin Hair & Laser Clinic, Saket, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Primary Care, Monash University, Clayton, 3Skin and Cancer Foundation Inc, Carlton, VIC, Australia; 4Faculty of Medical Science, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK Background: Hyaluronic acid filler has been documented in the treatment of atrophic depressed acne scars relatively frequently in the literature but rarely in chronic depressed traumatic atrophic facial scars.Methods: This case report discusses the use of hyaluronic acid fillers in the correction of a post-traumatic facial atrophic scar on the right cheek.Results: The right cheek scar was substantially corrected with one session of two different hyaluronic acids injected in a deep and superficial plane.Conclusion: Relatively accurate, simple and effective correction of this atrophic traumatic scar may suggest that fillers are a suitable alternative to surgery for such scars. Keywords: scarring, scar correction, filler, hyaluronic acid, facial scar
Perdijk, F.B.T.; Meijer, G.J.; Krenkel, C.h.; Koole, R.A.
To allow for implant placement in severe atrophic edentulous mandibles, distraction osteogenesis can be used to gain sufficient bone height. The efficacy of extra-osseous and intra-osseous devices is evaluated. In this retrospective study, 45 patients treated with an extra-osseous device (EOD) were
Full Text Available In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a semester-long apprenticeship in corpus use which does not demand of them the high level of language proficiency, attention to detail in observation, and logical rigour that we consider necessary for rewarding work in the learner-as-researcher role. Instead, we introduce a corpus initially as an aid to the imagination in writing, and then to achieving accuracy through specific grammatical problem solving. We see this as the groundwork for subsequent development of the students’ research skills with corpus data. This paper describes the approach we have adopted to the corpus apprenticeship and reports on an evaluation of its effectiveness through case studies of three students and their use of a corpus and bilingual dictionary as reference resources when writing. Drawing on insights from the case studies, we outline a working definition of corpus-consultation literacy for our learning context and identify some refinements to be made to our apprenticeship.
Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.
This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.
Nomura, Kosuke; Iizuka, Toshiro; Yamashita, Satoshi; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Toba, Takahito; Yamada, Akihiro; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Hoteya, Shu; Inoshita, Naoko; Kaise, Mitsuru
We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery.
Full Text Available We herein report a case of phlegmonous gastritis secondary to superior mesenteric artery syndrome. An 80-year-old woman visited the hospital emergency department with the chief complaints of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was hospitalized urgently following the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome based on abdominal computed tomography findings. Conservative therapy was not effective, and phlegmonous gastritis was diagnosed based on the findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy performed on the 12th day of the disease. Undernutrition and reduced physical activity were observed on hospital admission, and proactive nutritional therapy with enteral nutrition was started. An upper gastrointestinal series, performed approximately 1 month later, confirmed the persistence of strictures and impaired gastric emptying. Because conservative therapy was unlikely to improve oral food intake, open total gastrectomy was performed on the 94th day of the disease. Examination of surgically resected specimens revealed marked inflammation and fibrosis, especially in the body of the stomach. Following a good postoperative recovery, the patient was able to commence oral intake and left our hospital on foot approximately 1 month after surgery.
Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan
Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.
Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ban, Hiromitsu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Sahara, Shu; Otsuka, Taketo; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Furuta, Takahisa; Andoh, Akira
Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer. Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, pgastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all pgastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Porowska, Barbara; Colacci, Enzo; Trentino, Paolo; Annibale, Bruno; Severi, Carola
Outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection is different according to gastritis extension (i.e. antrum-restricted gastritis or pangastritis). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether different gastritis patterns are associated with specific gastrointestinal symptoms or clinical signs that could be suggestive of the topography of gastritis. 236 consecutive symptomatic outpatients were recruited in two tertiary centers. They filled in a validated and self-administered Rome III modular symptomatic questionnaire, and underwent gastroscopy with histological sampling. 154 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were included. Clinical presentation did not differ between antrum-restricted gastritis and pangastritis, gastro-esophageal reflux disease being present in 48.2 and 54.1 % of patients and dyspepsia in 51.8 and 45.9 %, respectively. However, pangastritis statistically differed from antrum-restricted gastritis in that the presence of clinical signs (p gastritis pattern whereas their association with signs, accurately detected, is indicative for the presence of pangastritis.
Toyoshima, Osamu; Tanikawa, Chizu; Yamamoto, Ryuta; Watanabe, Hidenobu; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Sakitani, Kosuke; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Kubo, Michiaki; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Seto, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Koichi
SNP rs2294008 in Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) and decreased PSCA expression are associated with gastric cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of rs2294008 and PSCA expression in the gastritis-gastric cancer carcinogenic pathway. We conducted a case-control association study of H. pylori-infected gastritis and gastric cancer. rs2294008 was associated with the progression to chronic active gastritis (P = 9.4 × 10–5; odds ratio = 3.88, TT + TC vs CC genotype), but not with H. pylori infection per se nor with the progression from active gastritis to gastric cancer. We also assessed the association of rs2294008 with PSCA mRNA expression in the gastric mucosa at various disease stages and found that rs2294008 was associated with PSCA expression (P = 1.3 × 10–12). H. pylori infection (P = 5.1 × 10–8) and eradication therapy (P gastritis compared with mild gastritis only among T allele carriers. Our findings revealed the regulation of PSCA expression by host genetic variation and bacterial infection might contribute to gastritis progression after H. pylori infection. PMID:29423095
Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou
Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.
Kulmambetova, Gulmira Nigmetzhanovna; Imanbekova, Meruert Kuatbekovna; Logvinenko, Andrey Alexeevich; Sukashev, Adilbek Temirzhanovich; Filipenko, Maxim Leonidovich; Ramanculov, Erlan Mirhaidarovich
Gastritis and gastric cancer are the most common diseases in the Kazakh population. Polymorphisms in genes coding of cytokines have been played important role with gastric disease risk. The risk alleles of cytokines in patients with gastritis can predict the risk of developing gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine gene polymorphisms as risk factors for the development of gastritis in a case-control study with gastritis patients and healthy individuals from the Kazakh ethnic group, living in North Kazakhstan. The polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing were used for detection of two functional polymorphisms in the IL1 gene family, and TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay Sets were applied for three potentially functional polymorphisms in the IL10 gene, and one in the TNFA promoter. Association analysis of studied allelic variants and the development of gastritis in H. pylori- positive patients showed that IL1B -31C/C, IL1B -511T/T and IL1RN -2/2 allelic variants were associated with development of gastritis (OR=1.8 (1.07-3.16), p=0.025; OR=1.7 (1.04-2.99), p=0.035, and OR=4.92 (2.45-9.85), prisk of gastritis in the Kazakh population. That genotype combination might be a factor increasing the risk of developing gastric cancer.
Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Mi-Hyun
Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found in age, height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure between the two groups. Daily energy intakes were 1900.6 kcal for the chronic gastritis patient group, and 1931.8 kcal for the normal control group without significant difference. No significant difference was found between the two groups in all nutrient intakes except for cholesterol. The chronic gastritis patients consumed lower amount of sugars and sweeteners but greater amount of starchy food groups such as potatoes and legumes than subjects of control group consumed. Also the chronic gastritis patients showed higher serum triglyceride concentration than the normal subjects. These results indicate that the dietary pattern of chronic gastritis patients may have relation to a change in the serum lipid level; however, more systematic research with a larger samples size is required.
This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the Google Scholar search engine. These resources (Google Scholar virtual corpus) are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. Google Scholar,
Full Text Available Medecine of V and IV centuries B.C. attested in the Corpus Hippocraticum ascribes all diseases to the rheuma, i.e. the flux of humours into the body. This flux produces not only the rise of cold, hoarsness, cough, reddenings, dropsy, but also arthritis, sciatica, gout.
Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie
A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…
Mohamad, Alif Fairus Nor; Jin, Ng Yu
English for Specific Purposes (ESP) educators often face dilemma in deciding what lexical items to teach their students. In the field of English for Nursing Purposes (ENP), there is no exception on this issue as well. Only by analyzing the nursing corpus made up of essential core textbooks that can provide better insights and guide to both nursing…
Beek, Leonoor Johanneke van der
In this dissertation, corpus data is applied in various kinds of linguistic analyses. The data serves as a source of examples and counterexamples in a theoretical linguistic analysis of the Dutch cleft construction, as the source of quantitative data in a probabilistic account of the dative
Christopher William White
Full Text Available The Yale-Classical Archives Corpus (YCAC contains harmonic and rhythmic information for a dataset of Western European Classical art music. This corpus is based on data from classicalarchives.com, a repository of thousands of user-generated MIDI representations of pieces from several periods of Western European music history. The YCAC makes available metadata for each MIDI file, as well as a list of pitch simultaneities ("salami slices" in the MIDI file. Metadata include the piece's composer, the composer's country of origin, date of composition, genre (e.g., symphony, piano sonata, nocturne, etc., instrumentation, meter, and key. The processing step groups the file's pitches into vertical slices each time a pitch is added or subtracted from the texture, recording the slice's offset (measured in the number of quarter notes separating the event from the file's beginning, highest pitch, lowest pitch, prime form, scale-degrees in relation to the global key (as determined by experts, and local key information (as determined by a windowed key-profile analysis. The corpus contains 13,769 MIDI files by 571 composers yielding over 14,051,144 vertical slices. This paper outlines several properties of this corpus, along with a representative study using this dataset.
useful in the compilation of a dictionary. Thus, a brief survey of some of the major steps of dic- tionary compilation is presented here, supplemented by the original Czech data, analyzed in their raw, though semiotically classified form. Keywords: MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, CORPUS LEXICOGRAPHY, SYNTAG-.
Jiang, X. G.; Wijkstra, H.; Meuleman, E. J. H.; Wagner, G.
Objective: The methodology of corpus cavernosum electromyography (CC-EMG) was revisited, in order to overcome current methodological difficulties that hinder its clinical application. Materials and methods: Using an 8-channel device, CC-EMG was performed in 12 healthy volunteers. Surface electrodes
lingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business lan- guages used in Hong Kong. .... or "sublanguages". A sublanguage in the definition of Grishman and Kittredge. (1986: ix) is a ... materials from companies, government institutions and library on-line data- bases. The bilingual ...
Regadas, Rommel P.; Maria E. A. Moraes; Mesquita,Francisco J. C.; Joao B. G. Cerqueira; Gonzaga-Silva,Lucio F.
PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra) was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Th...
Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang
Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.
Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)
We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)
José I. Montaño; Ximena Dossman; Julián A. Herrera; Arnoldo Bromet; Carlos H. Moreno
Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de Helicobacter pylori y el estrés psicosocial en pacientes con síntomas digestivos recidivantes y diagnóstico previo de gastritis crónica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio piloto de casos y controles donde el grupo de estudio fueron pacientes con gastritis crónica e infección por H. pylori y el grupo control, enfermos con gastritis crónica sin infección. Los pacientes se evaluaron en el Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV) y en la Fundación Clínica Valle...
M. Naci KAYAOĞLU
Full Text Available Problem Statement: Using corpora is still in its infancy in foreign language classes in spite of its great benefits and potential to offer solutions to the various challenges in foreign language instruction both for teachers and learners. This partly stems from a lack of interest and practical knowledge about the pedagogic role that the corpora can play. There is a pressing need to convince teachers of the great benefits of corpora with empirical data.Purpose of Study: This research aims to explore the feasibility of using a corpus to help students differentiate between close synonyms which have similar meanings but cannot be substituted one for the other.Method: This is quasi-experimental research based on a pre and post-test (one shot design design. To this end, participants were introduced to the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA and asked to refer to the corpus when deciding the appropriate close synonym in the 50 sentences given. Participants were also interviewed upon completion of the task with the COCA about their use of corpus.Findings and Results: The t-test showed that the use of corpus for deciding on close synonyms proved to be very effective as there was a statistically significant difference in participants‟ performance on the vocabulary portion of the pretest and post-test.Conclusion and Recommendations: The present paper suggests that corpora can be a very rich and effective source of empirical data both for teachers and students to make foreign language learning more meaningful and enjoyable. Providing learners more exposure to authentic examples, corpora can be utilized for pedagogic purposes from syllabus design to materials development. Yet, it needs to be integrated into language courses. Teachersshould be made fully aware of what corpora offer for language teaching.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released. Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens, our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection, the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are
As this proves the invaluable status of a corpus, the article assesses the processing of the Shona corpus and discusses how some aspects of the processing may impact negatively on its quality. Keywords: corpus, standardisation, data, headword, lexicography, retrieve, transcribe, tagging, encoding, parsing, divergent ...
languages of the world. This article, however, focuses on lesser-resourced languages for ... number of printed material such as many of the African languages, a corpus of. 10 million words can be regarded as a "big corpus". ... compilation versus increasing the corpus size. Macrostructural compilation mainly concerns the ...
Janne Bondi Johannessen
Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.
The use of corpora and corpus linguistic methods in language testing research is increasing at an accelerated pace. The growing body of language testing research that uses corpus linguistic data is a testament to their utility in test development and validation. Although there are many reasons to be optimistic about the future of using corpus data…
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Su, Yunwen
This study compares the effect of using corpus-based materials and activities for the instruction of pragmatic routines under two conditions: implementing direct corpus searches by learners during classroom instruction and working with teacher-developed corpus-based materials. The outcome is compared to a repeated-test control group. Pragmatic…
In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be employed ...
tion of some vital aspects of the corpus. One of the acclaimed advantages of a corpus is that it allows research to be done on natural language. An ideal corpus should be a body of texts com- bined in a principled way to become a reliable language bank from which researchers retrieve data for various research purposes.
Abstract: In this article the integrated corpus query functionality of the dictionary compilation software TshwaneLex is analysed. Attention is given to the handling of both raw corpus data and annotated corpus data. With regard to the latter it is shown how, with a minimum of human effort, machine learning techniques can be ...
Lee, Inchul; Lee, Hojung; Kim, Mijung; Fukumoto, Manabu; Sawada, Shinji; Jakate, Shriram; Gould, Victor E
To investigate the clinicopathological factors underlying the ethnic differences of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and cancer. We analyzed clinicopathological parameters of gastric biopsies having H pylori infection that were randomly selected from different ethnic populations including 147 Americans, 149 Japanese, and 181 Koreans. Males were predominant in Japanese and Korean populations (77.9 and 67.4% respectively) in comparison with Americans (48.3%) (Pgastritis in Koreans and Japanese was characterized by the predominant antral involvement. In the antrum, neutrophilic infiltration into the proliferative zone of pit, i.e. acute foveolitis, was more frequent in Koreans (82%) than in Japanese (71%) (Pacute foveolitis was not significantly different among the populations while chronic interstitial inflammation and lymphoid follicles were more pronounced in the body of Americans than in the body of others (Pgastritis in Koreans and Japanese is compatible with the pattern of sex and topographical distribution of gastric cancer incidence. Our data suggest that persistent acute foveolitis at the proliferative zone is a crucial step in the gastric carcinogenesis.
Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Kountouras, Jannis; Paroutoglou, George; Beltsis, Athanasios; Mimidis, Kostas; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Zavos, Christos
A 92-year-old woman presented with severe acute haemorrhagic gastritis due to abuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). She was treated with instillation of 150 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) every 2 h via a nasogastric tube. The copious amount of bright red blood through the nasogastric tube started to decline substantially after the first administration of H2O2 and continued to reveal clear material during the second and third instillation of H2O2. The total amount of H2O2 administered was 600 ml. No rebleeding and only a few flame-shaped intramucosal haemorrhages were observed on the following four consecutive daily endoscopic evaluations. These are promising observations which will have to be confirmed with respect to the safety and efficacy of H2O2 treatment by further controlled studies.
The article, "Split Face Comparative Study of Microneedling with PRP Versus Microneedling with Vitamin C in Treating Atrophic Post Acne Scars", which appeared in the pages 209-212 Issue 4, Vol 7...
Jankowski, M; Spużak, J; Kubiak, K; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Biernat, M
The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the prevalence of gastric Helicobacter in the saliva of dogs with gastritis. The study was carried out on 30 dogs of different breeds, genders and ages, which were diagnosed with gastritis. The nested-PCR method was used to detect Helicobacter spp. in saliva. Helicobacter bacteria were found in the saliva samples of 23 (76.6%) dogs. Helicobacter heilmannii was the most commonly detected species of gastric Helicobacter spp. in canine saliva, and was found in 22 (73.3%) cases. The results indicate that gastric Helicobacter spp. occurs relatively frequently in dogs with gastritis. Moreover, the saliva of dogs with gastritis may be a source of Helicobacter spp. infection for humans and other animals. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding as the PCR method does not distinguish active from inactive infections.
Chumpitaz Conde; Gutiérrez Manay; Córdova Acosta; Sánchez Medina; Vásquez Valverde; Rivadeira Málaga; Beteta Del Carpio; Solano Mendoza; Marocho Chahuayo; Pareja Cuadros; Huamán Reyes; Valencia Bazalar
OBJETIVO: Detectar la presencia de Helicobater pylori en sarro dentario de pacientes con gastritis del Hospital Angamos ESSALUD diagnosticados por biopsia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: tipo de estudio: Observacional analítico. Población...
Agarwal, Nitin; Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Mriganka Sekhar; Agrawal, Ritesh; Joshi, Mohit
Emphysematous gastritis is a rapidly fatal and rare type of infectious gastritis. It may lead to involvement of esophagus, and organ necrosis, in its severe form. A 16-year-old, previously healthy, boy presenting with acute abdomen was diagnosed to have emphysematous gastritis on CT scan. During laparotomy, there was complete necrosis of the stomach, with patchy esophageal involvement. Aggressive management in the form of total gastrectomy, and later, transthoracic esophagectomy was done. However, it failed to alter the course of the illness, and the patient succumbed to the illness. Emphysematous gastritis is rare in young patients without known risk factors. Also, only two previous cases have been reported with esophageal involvement. We have presented this case with a brief review of literature.
Guo, Juan; Young, Scott K; Lorenzo, Cynthia R; Lee, Cassie M K L; Kanel, Gary C; Brynes, Russell K; Chandrasoma, Parakrama; Naritoku, Wesley Y
Phlegmonous gastritis is a rare acute bacterial infection of the gastric wall with an extremely high mortality rate. Early diagnosis is crucial for immediate treatment that could improve the outcomes. Here we report a case in which a patient with underlying chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was diagnosed with phlegmonous gastritis on biopsy. This 57-year-old man presented with shortness of breath and intermittent upper quadrant abdominal pain for 4 days. Laboratory tests showed markedly increased white blood cell. A diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was made based on a peripheral blood smear and flow cytometry. Gastric biopsy showed suppurative inflammation in the submucosal region, prompting the diagnosis of phlegmonous gastritis. The patient was given empirical antibiotic treatment, and the white blood cell decreased dramatically. Surgical intervention was discussed but deferred. Despite continued antibiotics treatment, the patient died. The limited autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of phlegmonous gastritis. Immunohistochemical studies further revealed the occurrence of myeloid sarcoma that involved the gastrointestinal tract.
Alghamdi, Khalid M
Cutaneous leishmaniasis can lead to unsightly atrophic scars, which have limited treatment options. There is a scarcity of literature on its treatment modalities. Fractional lasers have been successfully used in treating a variety of skin conditions with minimal downtime and side effects. We report a successful treatment of a 25-year-old female patient with an atrophic scar from cutaneous leishmaniasis on the nose with a fractional laser (Fraxel Re:store SR 1500). Ten treatment sessions were performed at a pulse energy of 45 to 70 mJ. The treatment response was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment clinical photographs. After three sessions, the patient observed 40% improvement. More than 90% improvement was noticed after the tenth session. No significant adverse effects were noted. The improvement was persistent at the 3-month follow-up. The excellent improvement in this patient should encourage further studies to achieve more efficacy and optimize the treatment parameters.
Oliveira, Leandro Benetti de; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio Pereira
The objective of this article is to present options of rehabilitation with dental implants in two cases of severely atrophic mandibles (flapless guided implants in the anterior mandible and an immediate protocol prosthesis. The second patient received a tent pole iliac crest autogenous graft after 2 years of fracture treatment and immediate implants. After 5 months, a protocol prosthesis was installed in the second patient. In both cases, the internal fixation followed AO principles for load-bearing osteosynthesis. Both prosthetic devices were Branemark protocol prosthesis. The mandibular reconstruction plates were not removed. Both patients are rehabilitated without complications and satisfied with esthetic and functional results. With the current techniques of internal fixation, grafting, and guided implants, the treatment of atrophic mandible fractures can achieve very good results, which were previously not possible.
Huang, Y; Sun, J; Wang, X; Tao, X; Wang, H; Tan, W
Digestive disorders represent the most common metformin side effects for type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of these metformin side effects is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether asymptomatic chronic gastritis could influence metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Demographic, anthropometric, ultrasound and laboratory data were obtained from 144 metformin naïve patients with diabetes. The diagnosis of chronic gastritis was based on endoscopic and histopathological examination, and H. pylori infection was assessed based on (13) C urea breath test (UBT). All subjects started metformin at 500 mg/day and increasing progressively to 1500 mg/day over 4 weeks. A score of gastrointestinal side effects (abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, bloating and anorexia) was assessed each week, and metformin dose was adjusted as appropriate. Based on endoscopy, 64 patients were categorized as non-gastritis subjects and 80 as chronic gastritis subjects. At baseline, there is no statistical difference in gastrointestinal symptoms between two groups. With metformin, the mean scores for gastrointestinal symptoms in the non-gastritis and gastritis subjects were 1·02 ± 1·71 vs. 2·18 ± 2·05 (P = 0·001), 0·20 ± 0·65 vs. 0·50 ± 0·89 (P = 0·022), 0 vs. 0·06 ± 0·24 (P = 0·024) and 1·08 ± 1·03 vs. 1·71 ± 1·66 (P = 0·028). The mean final metformin dose used by gastritis subjects was 706·24 ± 568·90 mg, significantly less than the mean dose used by non-gastritis subjects (1101·56 ± 578·58 mg, P = 0·001). After adjustment for age and sex, the odds ratio (OR) for a final metformin dose of less than 1500 mg/day was found to be 2·76 (95% CI 1·38-5·53, P = 0·004) for chronic gastritis subjects. The OR for a final metformin dose of less than 1000 mg/day was found to be 3·98 (95% CI 1·91-8·27, P = 0·001) for chronic gastritis subjects. Our data suggest that pre-existing non-symptomatic gastritis was associated with metformin
Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Krychman, Michael L
Vaginal atrophy results from a decrease in circulating estrogen and is experienced by approximately 50% of postmenopausal women. Its symptoms affect multiple dimensions of genitopelvic health, sexuality, and overall quality of life. Nonhormonal over-the-counter treatments may provide temporary symptom relief, but the condition is progressive, and hormonal treatment may be warranted. The study aims to review the literature and discuss the impact of atrophic vaginitis and various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy for atrophic vaginitis. This article also aims to provide a greater awareness of the condition and the difficulties in communicating effectively with patients, and to provide strategies to help healthcare professionals acquire effective communication skills to initiate a candid dialogue with patients who may be suffering in silence and may benefit from therapy. This review was based on peer-reviewed publications on the topic of atrophic vaginitis and local estrogen therapy identified from key word searches of PubMed, in addition to landmark studies/surveys and treatment guidelines/recommendations on menopause available in the literature and on the Internet. The main outcomes are the impact of atrophic vaginitis and the various treatment options, including the resistance and barriers to the use of local estrogen therapy. Minimally absorbed local vaginal estrogen therapy enables administration of estrogen doses much lower than systemic doses used for vasomotor symptoms. Local therapy is also the first-line pharmacologic treatment recommended by the North American Menopause and International Menopause Societies. Despite treatment options, the sensitive nature of the condition and embarrassment may prohibit or limit many women from openly discussing symptoms with healthcare professionals. Many are hesitant to initiate hormonal treatment because of safety concerns. Healthcare professionals should
Gray, Brian M.; Fontaine, Clinton A.; Poe, Sara A.
Disease due to the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori varies in severity from asymptomatic to peptic ulcer disease and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that one source of this variation is an abnormal host response. The goal of this study was to use a mouse model of H. pylori gastritis to investigate the roles of regulatory T cells (Treg) as well as proinflammatory T cells (Th1 and Th17) in gastritis, gastric T cell engraftment, and gastric cytokine production. Our results support published data indicating that severe gastritis in T cell recipient mice is due to failure of Treg engraftment, that Treg ameliorate gastritis, and that the proinflammatory response is attributable to interactions between several cell subsets and cytokines. We confirmed that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for induction of gastritis but showed that IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells are not necessary. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) also contributed to gastritis, but to a lesser extent than IFN-γ. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-17F were also elevated in association with disease. These results indicate that while H. pylori-specific CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ are both essential for induction of gastritis due to H. pylori, IFN-γ production by T cells is not essential. It is likely that other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17F and TNF-α, shown to be elevated in this model, also contribute to the induction of disease. We suggest that gastritis due to H. pylori is associated with loss of immunoregulation and alteration of several cytokines and cell subsets and cannot be attributed to a single immune pathway. PMID:23264048
Sumin Oh; Sejong Oh
Gastritis is a major disease that has the potential to grow as gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a very common cancer, and it is related to a very high mortality rate in Korea. This disease is known to have various reasons, including infection with Helicobacter pylori, dietary habits, tobacco, and alcohol. The incidence rate of gastritis has reported to differ between age, population, and gender. However, unlike other factors, there has been no analysis based on gender. So, we examined the hi...
Eskandari, Amir; Mahmoudpour, Ali; Abolfazl, Nader; Lafzi, Ardeshir
Objectives: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) accounts for gastritis, peptic ulcer and is a probable cause of gastric cancer. Since its detection in the oral cavity, concerns have been raised about dental plaque as a reservoir for reinfection. The aim of this study was to detect the organism in the dental plaque and to determine the association, if any, between H. pylori gastritis and dental plaque contamination causing H. pylori. Study design: A polymerase chain reaction-based method was u...
Al-Refai, Abdel-Nasser M.; Fathalla, Sami E.; Nagamani, Rambhala; Al-Momen, Sami
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was identified in dental plaque, raising the possibility of future gastritis and peptic ulceration. Objective: This trial was to study the association between presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and in the stomachs of patients with gastritis; the effect of oral hygiene and periodontal condition on the stomach. Patients and Methods: Seventy-five Saudi adult dyspeptic patients, together with 60 healthy persons as control. Two samples of dental plaq...
Gastritis is inflammation of the mucuos that occurs because of the reaction of getting high stress, irregular eating pattern, and infection caused by bacteria, the effect of some food also the medicines. The purpose of this to identify the diet description that suffered by the nuns at Saint Maria Foundation. The description of the diet itself incudes kinds of food, the frequency of eating, the time, and the portion. The defense is done to avoid the gastritis by having regular eating pattern a...
Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...
Tania M. G. Shepherd
Full Text Available This article has two main purposes. The first is to provide a short panorama of existing trends within computer-assisted stylistics. The second is to analyse a prize winning novel by English writer Julian Barnes, by resorting to the tenets and working tools of one of the newest branch of Stylistics, the so-called Corpus stylistics. To this end, the article starts by looking at various attempts at defining what style is and their implications to the definition of the discipline known as Stylistics. Then the paper presents recent work within the field of Corpus stylistics, as it describes the uses of computational tools as part of the stylistician tool kit. Finally, the paper provides a variety of ways with which a literary work may be approached digitally with a view to showing how computational tools can aid the stylistician in acts of interpretation.
Full Text Available Information technologies have now matured to the point of enabling researchers to create a repository of language resources, especially for those languages facing the crisis of endangerment. The development of an online platform of corpora, made possible by recent advances in data storage, character-encoding and web technology, has profound consequences for the accessibility, quantity, quality and interoperability of linguistic field data. This is of particular significance for Formosan languages in Taiwan, many of which are on the verge of extinction. As a response to the recognition of this burgeoning problem, the key objectives of the establishment of the NTU Corpus of Formosan Languages aim to document and thus preserve valuable linguistic data, as well as relevant ethnological and cultural information. This paper will introduce some of the theoretical bases behind this initiative, as well as the procedures, transcription conventions, database normalization, in-house system and three special features in the creation of this corpus.
Majid, Imran; Imran, Saher
While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as 'excellent' if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar scars with minimal adverse effects.
Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Eltatawy, Rania A; Ghaly, Nahla R; Abd El-Naby, Naeim M; Abou El Fetouh, Heba M; Abd Elateef, Amal E; Abdou, Said; Tahaa, Ateef; El Afandy, Mohamed
Acne scar is a very distressing and difficult problem for physicians and patients. Management of cutaneous scarring from acne can be challenging and confusing. The available modalities may be effective, having considerable morbidity and long downtime. Besides, they may not have the same efficacy in different skin types or acne scar types. To evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow (BM) stem cells (SCs) in treating atrophic acne scars. Fourteen patients with moderate to severe atrophic acne scars were included. All patients were subjected to single session of autologous BMSCs therapy. Each patient received 5 μg/kg/day granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a single subcutaneous dose for 2 successive days before BM aspiration. The SC-containing solution was injected under each scar intradermally. The scars of the patients were clinically assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively before and after 6 months. The patients were given a preformed questionnaire Cardiff acne disability index (CADI) before and after treatment. After 6 months of the injection, there was significant improvement in the qualitative grading, quantitative grading and CADI scores. All types of scars showed significant improvement. No significant adverse effects were reported in any patient. Autologous BMSCs seem to be a safe and effective treatment option for the management of all types of atrophic facial acne scars.
Agarwal, Nidheesh; Gupta, Lalit K; Khare, Ashok Kumar; Kuldeep, C M; Mittal, Asit
Acne scarring is a common sequela of acne for which no single treatment method is uniformly effective. The chemical reconstruction of skin scars (CROSS) therapy using high-concentration trichloroacetic acid (TCA) has shown promise as a cheap, safe, and effective modality of treatment in acne scars. To assess the therapeutic response of 70% TCA CROSS on atrophic acne scars and to evaluate the adverse effects of this therapy. Fifty-three patients with postacne atrophic scars were treated with 70% of TCA focal application every 2 weeks by the CROSS technique and results evaluated on 3 parameters: physician assessment, patient assessment, and satisfaction level of patients, after a follow-up of 3 months. Good or excellent improvement (>50%) was seen in 66% of patients on physician and patient assessments. The patients were either very satisfied or satisfied in 81.1% of cases. Patients with predominantly boxcar scars and higher pretreatment scar severity were associated with better treatment outcomes. Age, sex, duration of scars, or type of skin did not significantly influence the treatment outcome and adverse effects. The study showed that 70% of TCA is a safe and effective treatment option in all types of atrophic acne scars, especially in severe boxcar scars.
Khalifa, Salam; Habash, Nizar; Abdulrahim, Dana; Hassan, Sara
International audience; Most Arabic natural language processing tools and resources are developed to serve Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is the official written language in the Arab World. Some Dialectal Arabic varieties, notably Egyptian Arabic, have received some attention lately and have a growing collection of resources that include annotated corpora and morphological analyzers and taggers. Gulf Arabic, however, lags behind in that respect. In this paper, we present the Gumar Corpus...
Ángel Gómez Moreno
Full Text Available More than an article-review about Margit Frenk’s Nuevo corpus, this is a real laus to an entire life, more than half a century of devoted research. On top of a highly positive assesment of this two thousand and two hundred pages book, this note provides some new materials (lyrical ballads, songs for dances, children playsongs, etc., obtained mainly from one source: Rosario Moreno Montoro, the author’s mother
Carlos Alberto dos Santos Dutra
Full Text Available A festa religiosa de Corpus Christi, data da instituição da Eucaristia, neste ano foi comemorada no dia 15 de junho. Neste sacramento, entende a Igreja católica, o próprio Cristo se comunica para nutrir e salvar o homem. Expressão e síntese do cristianismo, é a identificação do sacrifício de Cristo com o sacrifício do homem.
Carlos Alberto dos Santos Dutra
Full Text Available A festa religiosa de Corpus Christi, data da instituição da Eucaristia, neste ano foi comemorada no dia 15 de junho. Neste sacramento, entende a Igreja católica, o próprio Cristo se comunica para nutrir e salvar o homem. Expressão e síntese do cristianismo, é a identificação do sacrifício de Cristo com o sacrifício do homem.
Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.
Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...
Full Text Available Gastritis is a major disease that has the potential to grow as gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is a very common cancer, and it is related to a very high mortality rate in Korea. This disease is known to have various reasons, including infection with Helicobacter pylori, dietary habits, tobacco, and alcohol. The incidence rate of gastritis has reported to differ between age, population, and gender. However, unlike other factors, there has been no analysis based on gender. So, we examined the high risk factors of gastritis in each gender in the Korean population by focusing on sex. We performed an analysis of 120 clinical characteristics and genome-wide association studies (GWAS using 349,184 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the results of Anseong and Ansan cohort study in the Korea Association Resource (KARE project. As the result, we could not prove a strong relation with these factors and gastritis or gastric ulcer in the GWAS. However, we confirmed several already-known risk factors and also found some differences of clinical characteristics in each gender using logistic regression. As a result of the logistic regression, a relation with hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia therapy, hypotensive or antihypotensive drug, diastolic blood pressure, and gastritis was seen in males; the results of this study suggest that vascular disease has a potential association with gastritis in males.
McKeag, Sean; McInnes, Elizabeth F
Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis is a concern for toxicological pathologists reading preclinical, non-human primate toxicity studies because subtle gastric changes which could be treatment-related may be masked and gastritis lesions may be confused with treatment-related effects and thus a gastric finding may be incorrectly assigned as a treatment-related lesion. This paper discusses the incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys at a contract research organization. The incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in the fundus and antrum of control cynomolgus monkeys on 18 non-gastric compound studies, was scored. The average fundus score ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 and the average antral score ranged from 0.9 to 3.5 in the cynomolgus monkey stomachs examined. The number of affected control animals in a study ranged from 0 to 5 control animals. No correlation between the route of vehicle administration and the severity or incidence of the lesions was noted. The percentage incidence of affected animals ranged from 0 to 100%. An increased incidence lymphoplasmatic gastritis from 2000 to 2004 was noted. The implications of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys used for acute toxicity studies are discussed.
Bauditz, J; Ortner, M; Bierbaum, M; Niedobitek, G; Lochs, H; Schreiber, S
Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8, has been demonstrated in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosal inflammation. IL-12, a newly characterized cytokine, is thought to be a key mediator in host responses to bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in cytokine patterns between H. pylori-positive and -negative gastritis and normal mucosa. Secretion of IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 was measured in 176 patients with chronic gastritis in whole biopsy cultures. Gastritis was graded for chronic inflammation or acute inflammatory activity, respectively, according to the Sydney system. Biopsies with similar scores were matched for analysis from H. pylori-infected and non-infected patients. Secretion of IL-12 was significantly increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis in comparison with H. pylori-negative gastritis (P gastritis by impairing clearance of the pathogen. PMID:10444264
Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford
We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.
Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa.
Lúcia Pacheco de Oliveira
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma visão geral da Linguística de Corpus, caracterizando-a como uma área do conhecimento; levando em consideração sua interface com outras áreas; e ilustrando suas aplicações, com foco mais específico no português do Brasil. Para atingir este objetivo, este artigo discute características da Linguística de Corpus que a distinguem de outras áreas, tais como: (1 a perspectiva de linguagem que adota e a forma de fazer pesquisas empíricas, com auxílio de ferramentas computacionais e com base em evidências linguísticas extraídas de corpora; (2 a possibilidade de trazer contribuições teóricas para os estudos da linguagem, através de novas descrições de diferentes usos da língua; (3 as interfaces de pesquisa com outras áreas, tais como Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional, Linguística Aplicada e Linguística Computacional; (4 o desenvolvimento da área, inclusive no Brasil, devido às novas perspectivas que possibilita em relação à lexicografia, léxico-gramática, estudos da variação linguística em gêneros discursivos e estudos interculturais. Através da discussão dos pontos acima, espera-se indicar que a Linguística de Corpus é uma área que permite o aprofundamento sobre o conhecimento empírico de diferentes línguas estudadas, levando a novas concepções teóricas sobre a linguagem, não podendo ser considerada, portanto, apenas como uma metodologia de análise. No final do trabalho, serão brevemente apresentadas três pesquisas que incluem dados da língua portuguesa, visando exemplificar aplicações da Linguística de Corpus para o estudo do uso do português. Esses trabalhos foram desenvolvidos a partir do CORPOBRAS PUC-Rio, compilado com o objetivo de ser um corpus representativo do português do Brasil1 .
Drs. Oktoruddin Harun
Full Text Available Gastritis is usually regarded as a thing paltry but gastritis was the beginning of a a disease that can be big problem for us. Based on the previous research at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District were found scene gastritis from 10 patients 7 had less knowledgeable 1 respondents had knowledge cased and 2 respondents had good of knowledge. It is suspected that the incidence of gastritis has to do with knowledge and education level of the patients. The purpose of this research is to identify corelation betwen knowledge and education level of the patients outpatient with the gastritis at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District. Research methodology used survey analytic correlative with design cross sectional .Data analyzed by univariat and bivariat with statistics chi square test. Population in this research were out patients Public Health Center sindangbarag. The sample 120 respondents with total of sampling. The results of the study were corelation knowledge of to gastritis incident based on the analysis of bivariat by using test chi-square computerized the results of statistical corel tests obtained p value 0.013 0.05 so H0 rejected. While relations education level with the gastritis incident based on the results of the analysis bivariat test chi-square use computerized obtained the results of statistical tests obtained p value 0.0001 0.05 so H0 rejected it could be concluded a significant between knowledge and the level of education with the gastritis incident corelation at Public Health Center sindangbarang cianjur District it is advised that need to effort to promotional and preventive especially with regard to knowledge of gastritis as information about gastritis and counseling on a preventive manner gastritis that can reduce or prevent disease gastritis.
Hyun-hwan Jeong; Kyung-Ah Sohn
Gastritis is a common but a serious disease with a potential risk of developing carcinoma. Helicobacter pylori infection is reported as the most common cause of gastritis, but other genetic and genomic factors exist, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association studies between SNPs and gastritis disease are important, but results on epistatic interactions from multiple SNPs are rarely found in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies. In this study, we performed comput...
Yakut, Mustafa; Ustün, Yusuf; Kutlay, Sim; Ongun, Aydan; Kabaçam, Gökhan; Boynueğri, Recai; Soykan, Irfan
Patients with autoimmune gastritis might have accelerated atherosclerosis due to autoimmunity and chronic inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction often precedes manifest atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk factors of early atherosclerosis by using several different techniques. A total of 99 patients with autoimmune gastritis were compared to 42 healthy age sex-matched subjects. Patients with a known risk factor for atherosclerosis were excluded. Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery, pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery were measured. Clinical data and laboratory parameters (serum gastrin, antiparietal cell antibody, anti-Hp IgG, serum vitamin B(12) and lipid profile) were also determined. Intima-media thickness (mm) of the carotid artery was significantly higher in autoimmune gastritis (0.062 ± 0.031 vs. 0.042 ± 0.007, P gastritis compared to control group (13.91 ± 6.68% vs. 20.37 ± 7.80%, P = 0.021) and there was a significant increase in pulse wave velocity (m/s) in autoimmune gastritis patients compared to controls (9.25 ± 3.42 vs. 6.40 ± 0.91, P = 0.001). Antiparietal cell antibody positivity (P = 0.05), low vitamin B(12) level (P = 0.05), and age (P = 0.002) were the predictors of high pulse wave velocity (>14 m/s). Patients with autoimmune gastritis may have an increased risk for the development of early atherosclerosis. As early preventive treatment for accelerated atherosclerosis is available, it is important to detect those patients with autoimmune gastritis who would benefit from such treatment.
Full Text Available The Georgian Dialect Corpus (GDC has been created within the framework of the project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”. It was the first attempt to create a structured corpus of Georgian dialects. The work of this project includes building the technical framework for a corpus, collecting the corpus (text data of Georgian dialects including the lexicographic data (dictionaries, their linguistic processing, digitizing, developing annotation framework, making decision on the morphosyntactic annotation. Currently, the Georgian Dialect Corpus is a platform consisting of the dialect corpus, the text library, the lexicographical database/online dialect dictionaries. For the purposes of developing the lexicographical database and dialect dictionaries, we have created a new program – the Lexicographic Editor. It allows us to structure and improve the dictionaries with multiple linguistic and lexicographic information. The lexicographic concept of the GDC has been developed taking into consideration linguistic and social features of the Georgian dialects.
Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of views on the diagnosis of chronic gastritis with highlighting the issue of diagnosis as an integral part of the set of measures concerning the timely detection of preneoplastic changes in the gastric mucosa. The main views on the development of carcinogenesis are presented based on current knowledge about the factors influencing the course of this process. Among known measures to prevent the development of precancerous changes, today the most important ones are the reliable stratification of risk groups in terms of their development and the strategy for identifying and eliminating Helicobacter pylori as a recognized factor of carcinogenesis. The development of bacterial resistance to basic medications recommended in the schemes of eradication therapy causes a further search of ways to enhance their effectiveness. As shown in a number of studies, the results of which are presented in the article, the most reliable is the inclusion of bismuth subcitrate (De-Nol in the schemes of eradication.
Hugh James Freeman
Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.
Ahmed, Abuzaid; Harsha, Tella Sri; Hamza, Tantoush; Allen, Ameri; Mohamed, Elkhashab
Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade can develop in patients with virtually any condition that affects the pericardium. A high index of suspicion with proper diagnostic scheme can lessen the concomitant morbidity and mortality. Although cardiac tamponade mimics many medical conditions, internists and primary care physicians should be aware of the physiological and clinical aspects of the disease spectrum. A 31-year-old Caucasian man, with no significant past medical history, presented to our emergency room with acute upper abdominal heaviness of 2 hours' duration after drinking excessive amounts of alcohol in a short period of time (binge drinking). The coexistence of recent alcohol binge drinking and nonspecific abdominal complaints usually presume a diagnosis of gastritis in our daily encounters in the absence of hepatic, biliary or pancreatic derangements. We present a case in which the presenting abdominal pain turned out to be related to cardiac tamponade. Cardiac tamponade is a sort of cardiogenic shock and is a medical emergency. Clinicians should understand the cardiac tamponade physiology, especially in cases without large pericardial effusion, and correlate the signs of clinical tamponade together with the echocardiographic findings. Drainage of cardiac tamponade is life-saving. A high index of suspicion with proper diagnostic arcades lessens the concomitant morbidity and mortality.
Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M
Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.
The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.
Bernd, Julia; Borth, Damian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Friedland, Gerald; Gallagher, Heather; Gottlieb, Luke; Janin, Adam; Karabashlieva, Sara; Takahashi, Jocelyn; Won, Jennifer
The YLI Multimedia Event Detection corpus is a public-domain index of videos with annotations and computed features, specialized for research in multimedia event detection (MED), i.e., automatically identifying what's happening in a video by analyzing the audio and visual content. The videos indexed in the YLI-MED corpus are a subset of the larger YLI feature corpus, which is being developed by the International Computer Science Institute and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory based on th...
Fantinuoli, Claudio; Zanettin, Federico; Rapp, Reinhard; Hansen-Schirra, Silvia; Čulo, Oliver
Corpus-based translation studies has become a major paradigm and research methodology and has investigated a wide variety of topics in the last two decades. The contributions to this volume add to the range of corpus-based studies by providing examples of some less explored applications of corpus analysis methods to translation research. They show that the area keeps evolving as it constantly opens up to different frameworks and approaches, from appraisal theory to process-oriented analysis, ...
Zanettin, Federico; Doms, Steven; Fantinuoli, Claudio; Fotopoulou, Angeliki; Lapshinova-Koltunski, Ekaterina; Mouka, Effie; Neumann,Stella; Niemietz, Paula; Pontrandolfo, Gianluca; Sanz, Zuriñe; SARIDAKIS, IOANNIS E.; Serbina, Tatiana; Uribarri, Ibon; Zanettin, Frederico; Zubillaga, Naroa
Corpus-based translation studies has become a major paradigm and research methodology and has investigated a wide variety of topics in the last two decades. The contributions to this volume add to the range of corpus-based studies by providing examples of some less explored applications of corpus analysis methods to translation research. They show that the area keeps evolving as it constantly opens up to different frameworks and approaches, from appraisal theory to process-oriented analysis, ...
Pestian, John P; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle
This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research.
Gabrielatos, Costas; Sarmento, Simone
This paper will examine the frequency and distribution of central modals (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) in aviation manuals, using a corpus-based, and predominantly quantitative, approach. For that purpose, a corpus consisting of three manuals for the BOEING 737 was compiled. The study will also explore the extent to which a mostly automated quantitative analysis of an unannotated corpus can yield helpful insights into the frequency and distribution of central moda...
Kim Ebensgaard Jensen
Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...
Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M
The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
S. J. Botha
Full Text Available The Corpus Christianum in the Middle Ages. The origin and development of the idea of Christianity as a single society in the Roman Empire under the leadership of the state or emperor and the Church or pope is investigated. The idea developed differently in the East and the West. In the East it developed into Caeseropapismand in the West, although linked to a notion of theocracy, it developed into eccesiocracy or papalcracy: both being caricatures.
Hernández Sacristán, Carlos; Serra Alegre, Enric; Veyrat Rigat, Montserrat
Se ofrece en este estudio una muestra representativa de lenguaje conversacional integrada por siete conversaciones mantenidas por otros tantos sujetos afásicos con interlocutores que son familiares próximos y/o miembros del Grupo de Investigación en Neurolingüística y Lingüística Clínica de la Universitat de València. El conjunto se integra en el Corpus PerLA (ISBN obra completa 978-84-370-6250-1, del año 2005) que viene elaborando el referido equipo de investigación desde el año 2000 para da...
Furui, Tatsuro; Imai, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Sato, Eriko; Tamaya, Teruhiko
A rare case of giant uterine lymphangioma was experienced. A 44-year-old female noted a rapidly grown abdominal tumor and its accompanied symptoms, progressive abdominal distension, lumbago, and developed leg edema. Ultrasonography made a possible diagnosis of a huge ovarian tumor; postoperative diagnosis was cavernous lymphangioma arising from the uterus. According to the literature, lymphangioma itself is a rare tumor, and giant lymphangioma arising from uterine corpus is extremely rare. We experienced an extremely rare case of uterine lymphangioma and ultrasound tomography better imaged the tumor inside.
Cure of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with reflux oesophagitis treated with long term omeprazole reverses gastritis without exacerbation of reflux disease: results of a randomised controlled trial
E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); N. Havu; A. Walan; M. Lamm; G.F. Nelis; E.C. Klinkenberg-Knol; P. Snel; D. Goldfain; J.J. Kolkman (Jeroen); H.P. Festen; J. Dent; P. Zeitoun
textabstractBACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori gastritis may progress to glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, conditions that predispose to gastric cancer. Profound suppression of gastric acid is associated with increased severity of H pylori gastritis. This prospective
Full Text Available Chronic gastritis is characterized by gastric mucosal inflammation due to autoimmune responses or infection, frequently with Helicobacter pylori. Gastritis with H. pylori background can cause gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L, which sometimes further transforms into diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. However, gastric DLBCL can also be initiated de novo. The mechanisms underlying transformation into DLBCL are not completely understood. We analyzed immunoglobulin repertoires and clonal trees to investigate whether and how immunoglobulin gene repertoires, clonal diversification and selection in gastritis, gastric MALT-L and DLBCL differ from each other and from normal responses. The two gastritis types (positive or negative for H. pylori had similarly diverse repertoires. MALT-L dominant clones presented higher diversification and longer mutational histories compared with all other conditions. DLBCL dominant clones displayed lower clonal diversification, suggesting the transforming events are triggered by similar responses in different patients. These results are surprising, as we expected to find similarities between the dominant clones of gastritis and MALT-L and between those of MALT-L and DLBCL.
Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kami, Masahiro; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka; Kim, Sung-Won; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mori, Shin-ichiro; Shimoda, Tadakazu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Saito, Daizo
AIM: To clarify the endoscopic and clinical findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). METHODS: Between 1999 and 2005, 523 patients underwent allo-SCT at our hospital, and 115 of these patients with gastrointestinal symptoms underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. RESULTS: CMV gastritis was diagnosed pathologically in seven patients (1.3%) with the other 108 patients serving as controls. Six of the seven patients developed positive CMV antigenemia, and five complained of abdominal pain. Development of abdominal pain preceded CMV antigenemia in four of the five patients. Endoscopic examination showed oozing (n = 2), erosion (n = 6), and redness (n = 5) in the seven patients with CMV gastritis, while the control patients showed oozing (n = 3), erosion (n = 24), and redness (n = 100). Erosion and oozing were more frequently documented in patients with CMV gastritis compared with the controls, and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.0012 and 0.029, respectively). CMV inclusion bodies were documented in 12 of 14 biopsy specimens obtained from erosive lesions, while they were identified in 4 of 15 biopsy specimens obtained from lesions other than erosions (P = 0.0025). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that erosion and oozing, as well as abdominal pain, are useful indicators in the diagnosis of CMV gastritis following allo-SCT. PMID:20556837
Wang, Peng; Ji, Rui; Yu, Tao; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Cheng-Jun; Li, Chang-Qing; Li, Zhen; Li, Yan-Qing
AIM: To classify the histological severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis by confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE). METHODS: Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms or individuals who were screened for gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. Histological severity of H. pylori infection-associated gastritis was graded according to the established CLE criteria. Diagnostic value of CLE for histological gastritis was investigated and compared with that of white light endoscopy (WLE). Targeted biopsies from the sites observed by CLE were performed. RESULTS: A total of 118 consecutive patients with H. pylori infection-associated gastritis were enrolled in this study. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of CLE were 82.9% and 90.9% for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, 94.6% and 97.4% for predicting gastric normal mucosa, 98.5% and 94.6% for predicting histological active inflammation, 92.9% and 95.2% for predicting glandular atrophy, 98.6% and 100% for diagnosing intestinal metaplasia, respectively. Post-CLE image analysis showed that goblet cells and absorptive cells were the two most common parameters on the CLE-diagnosed intestinal metaplasia (IM) images (P gastritis. Mapping IM by CLE has a rather good diagnostic accuracy. PMID:21049554
Jung, Kiwon; Chin, Young-Won; Chung, Yoon Hee; Park, Yang Hae; Yoo, Hunseung; Min, Dong Sun; Lee, Bongyong; Kim, Jinwoong
Momordicae Semen, Momordica cochinchinensis Springer (Cucurbitaceae), has long been known to effectively relieve boils, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. In this study, we investigated whether Momordicae Semen extract (MSE) has anti-gastritis effects in various rodent models and also explored possible mechanisms for the gastroprotective effects of MSE. MSE provided remarkable protective effects, comparable to those of rebamipide, in ethanol- and diclofenac-induced acute gastritis. In addition, it has demonstrated protective effect in a Helicobacter pylori-insulted chronic gastritis model. MSE also showed wound healing effect on cutaneous injury of mice and stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin receptors, which may be related to its anti-gastritis effects. In a single oral dose toxicity study, the approximate lethal dose of MSE was determined at >2000 mg/kg/day. The NOAEL was set to be 2000 mg/kg/day from the repeated oral dose toxicity study. Moreover, momordica saponin I, a major ingredient of MSE, treatment decreased gastric mucosa damage indices in the ethanol- and diclofenac-induced acute gastritis models. The results suggest that MSE could be a promising gastroprotective herbal medicine and momordica saponin I might be used as an active marker compound for MSE.
Nomura, H; Miyake, K; Kashiwagi, S; Sugiyama, T; Asaka, M
Acute gastritis, caused by an initial infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), may resolve spontaneously, but the infection sometimes becomes chronic. We examined the efficacy of a short-term H. pylori eradication therapy on acute gastritis. Among the 15 patients with hemorrhagic acute gastritis who were randomly allocated to group A (eradication therapy) or group B (Lansoprazole, LPZ), 10 of them started to receive treatment within 1 day after the disease onset. The other five patients began the eradication therapy 4-6 days after disease onset (group C). Eradication therapy consisted of a daily oral administration of each of 30 mg lansoprazole (LPZ), once a day; 400 mg clarithromycin, twice a day; 1000 mg amoxicillin, twice a day; and 300 mg rebamipide, three times a day, for one week. If the endoscopy was normal, medication was stopped for the following 4 weeks before gastric endoscopy was performed again in order to assess H. pylori eradication. All group A patients were cured after the 1-week treatment and therefore, they became H. pylori negative. Group B and C patients had erosions or ulcers after the 1-week treatment and so received an additional 3-week administration of LPZ. Four weeks later, their gastritis was cured and except for one group B patient, they became H. pylori-negative. In patients with acute gastritis, caused by an initial H. pylori infection, eradication therapy was efficacious in achieving early healing. This therapy should be started as soon as possible after disease onset.
Full Text Available Background. A trial of empirical acid-suppressive therapy is the usual practice for most patients with symptoms of gastritis in primary care. Aim. To assess the relative efficacy of Troxipide and Ranitidine in patients with endoscopic gastritis over a four-week period. Methods. In all, 142 patients were randomized to Troxipide (100 mg tid or Ranitidine (150 mg bid for a period of four weeks. The severity of the signs of endoscopic gastritis at baseline and week 4 using a four-point scale and the subjective symptom severity at baseline and week 2 & week 4 using a Visual analog scale (VAS were documented. Results. Troxipide was found to be superior to Ranitidine for both, the complete resolution and improvement of endoscopic gastritis. Higher proportion of patients showed complete healing of erosions (88.14%, oozing (96.77%, and edema (93.88% with Troxipide as compared to Ranitidine (<.01. Patients receiving Troxipide also showed a greater improvement in the VAS scores for abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn (<.01. Both the drugs were found to be well tolerated. Conclusion. In patients with endoscopic gastritis, Troxipide, with its superior rate of improvement, resolution of signs, and subjective clinical symptoms, can be considered as an alternative to the commonly used antisecretory agents.
Full Text Available Background: While laser resurfacing remains the most effective treatment option for atrophic acne scars, the high incidence of post-treatment adverse effects limits its use. Fractional laser photothermolysis attempts to overcome these limitations of laser resurfacing by creating microscopic zones of injury to the dermis with skip areas in between. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in atrophic facial acne scars. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe atrophic facial acne scars were treated with 3-4 sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing at 6-week intervals. The therapeutic response to treatment was assessed at each follow up visit and then finally 6 months after the last laser session using a quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was labelled as ′excellent′ if there was >50% improvement in scar appearance and texture of skin on the grading scale while 25-50% response and <25% improvement were labelled as ′good′ and ′poor′ response, respectively. The overall satisfaction of the patients and any adverse reactions to the treatment were also noted. Results: Most of the patients showed a combination of different morphological types of acne scars. At the time of final assessment 6 months after the last laser session, an excellent response was observed in 26 patients (43.3% while 15 (25% and 19 patients (31.7% demonstrated a good and poor response respectively. Rolling and superficial boxcar scars responded the best while pitted scars responded the least to fractional laser monotherapy. The commonest reported adverse effect was transient erythema and crusting lasting for an average of 3-4 and 4-6 days, respectively while three patients developed post-inflammatory pigmentation lasting for 8-12 weeks. Conclusions: Fractional laser resurfacing as monotherapy is effective in treating acne scars especially rolling and superficial boxcar
Binod, Bijukachhe; Nagmani, Singh; Bigyan, Bhandari; Rakesh, John; Prashant, Adhikari
Tibial nonunion is the most common nonunion encountered by the orthopedic surgeon. Repeated surgeries, cost, increased duration of hospital stay, disability, pain all contribute to the increased morbidity. Many methods have been used to treat nonunion of tibia with variable results and none of them are 100 % successful. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of modification of Judet's decortication technique and buttress plating, without bone graft, in the treatment of aseptic, atrophic tibial nonunion. Also, to find the correlation between time of achieving union and time since injury to decortication. Ours is a retrospective study conducted at a Level I trauma center. A total of 35 cases of atrophic tibial nonunion, irrespective of the cause, was treated by modifying Judet's osteoperiosteal decortication and plating during the time period January 2006 to July 2013. Demographic data, range of motion, time of achieving union and clinico-radiological evaluation for union of fracture were included as main outcome measurements. Union was achieved in all cases with a mean duration of 8.34 months. Pain and stiffness of joints were not reported in any case on long-term follow-up and the patients had satisfactory range of motion. Implant removal was done in three cases after fracture union. Treatment of atrophic tibial nonunion is challenging and management of each nonunion has to be customized based on the biological and mechanical characteristics of the nonunion. Plating with osteoperiosteal decortication is an effective and simple technique, which in our hands has shown to result in 100 % union rates without the need of additional bone healing augmentation procedures like bone grafting. Level II.
Full Text Available STUDY BACKGROUND Post acne scars are always a challenge to treat, especially the ones which are deep seated. There are many treatment options like laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, microdermabrasion and non-ablative laser resurfacing but with considerable morbidity and interference with the daily activities of the patient in the post-treatment period. Microneedling or dermaroller therapy is one of the new treatment options in the management of acne scars with satisfactory improvement and no significant side effect. The aim of the present study is to perform an objective evaluation the efficacy of microneedling in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty patients of skin type III-V having atrophic facial acne scars presenting to our dermatology OPD. were received multiple sittings of microneedling (dermaroller treatment with an interval of 6 weeks between each session. Goodman & Baron’s acne scar grading system was used for assessment of their scars and was evaluated clinically by serial photography at the start as well as at two months after the conclusion of the treatment. Patients on anticoagulant therapy, of keloidal tendency, with bleeding disorders, vitiligo patients, pregnant and lactating mothers and patients with active acne lesions were excluded from the study. The duration of this study was for ten months-from January 2014 to October 2014. RESULTS Any change in the grading of scars after the end of treatment and follow-up period was noted down. The efficacy and improvement of dermaroller treatment was assessed by Goodman and Baron’s Global Acne Scarring System. Out of 30 patients, 26(80.64% patients achieved a reduction in the severity of their scarring by one or two grades. Quantitative assessment showed that 13.3% of patients had minimal, 16.6% had good and 70% showed very good improvement. Adverse effects were limited to transient pain, erythema and edema. CONCLUSION Microneedling therapy seems to be
Seidel, Rachel; Moy, Ronald L
Atrophic acne scars are a common and psychologically devastating sequela of acne vulgaris that are refractory to the vast majority of topical treatments. We evaluated the efficacy of a topically applied synthetic epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum in reducing the appearance of atrophic acne scars. A single-center clinical trial was performed on nine self-selected male and female patients with Goodman & Baron grade II-IV atrophic acne scars. Subjects followed a standardized treatment regimen, including twice-daily application of EGF serum to scarred areas over 12 weeks. Subject progress was evaluated at baseline and 4-week intervals by clinical photography, Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), Goodman grade and patient self-assessment. Final patient perceptions were shared by written self-assessment at the end of the study. Before and after photographs were also evaluated by a blind investigator. Eight subjects completed the trial. Compared to baseline, there was an improvement in mean IGA score from 2.875 (SEM= .327) to 2.38 (SEM = .375). Mean Goodman grade was reduced from 3.00 (SEM = .309) to 2.75 (SEM = .25). Of the eight pairs of before and after photographs given to a blind investigator, five were correctly chosen as the post-treatment image. Two were assessed as "excellent" (76-100%) improvement and three were assessed as "good" (50-75%) improvement. A one-tailed paired student t-test (α = .05) using blind investigator ratings of scar severity for each before and after photograph yielded a P-value of .0019, confirming the difference as statistically significant. On final self-assessment, all but one patient reported "good" to "excellent" improvement in their scars compared to baseline. 75% of patients who received alternative treatments in prior years reported EGF serum to be more efficacious. These results suggest that topical EGF may improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars, though further study and more objective evaluation measures are required
Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr This article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data.From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed.Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6% with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%. Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed.Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%. The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism.
Full Text Available Background: Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa as a response to infection or irritation of the gaster. The most common aetiology of chronic gastritis is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. Presence of H. pylori is associated with the occurrence of inflammation, atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia. In terms of morphology, H. pylori is known in 2 forms, which are rod-shaped and coccoid-shaped. Coccoid-shaped bacteria are difficult to detect using Giemsa staining. Therefore, immunohistochemistry staining of H. pylori and evaluation of the sensitivity of coccoid-shaped of H. pylori are needed. Method: Cross-sectional study on 90 biopsy tissues of chronic gastritis patients in year 2015 and 2014, which included 30 Giemsa cases with positive H. pylori, 30 cases of active chronic gastritis with negative H. pylori but coccoid-shaped was found, and 30 non-active chronic gastritis, were subsequently stained with immunohistochemistry staining of H. pylori. Results: Expression of coccoid-shaped H. pylori in active chronic gastritis was significantly different (p < 0.05 in immunohistochemistry staining. There was a significant difference between active chronic gastritis with positive H. pylori and negative H. pylori in immunohistochemistry staining with degree of inflammation. Sensitivity and specificity test between Giemsa and immunohistochemistry staining showed sensitivity of 65% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry staining in active chronic gastritis was more sensitive compared to Giemsa staining in detecting H. pylori, particularly the coccoid-shaped bacteria.
Vanderlocht, Joris; van der Cruys, Mart; Stals, Frans; Bakker-Jonges, Liesbeth; Damoiseaux, Jan
Autoantibody detection for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is traditionally performed by IIF on a combination of tissues. Multiplex line/dot blots (LIA/DIA) offer multiple advantages, i.e. automation, objective reading, no interfering reactivities, no coincidental findings. In the current study we evaluated automated DIA (D-Tek) for detecting autoantibodies related to autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We tested samples of the Dutch EQC program and compared the results with the consensus of the participating labs. For the autoimmune liver diseases and AIG, respectively, 64 and 36 samples were tested. For anti-mitochondrial and anti-smooth muscle antibodies a concordance rate of 97% and 88% was observed, respectively. The concordance rate for anti-parietal cell antibodies was 92% when samples without EQC consensus (n=15) were excluded. For antibodies against intrinsic factor a concordance of 96% was observed. For all these antibodies discrepancies were identified that relate to the different test characteristics and the preponderance of IIF utilizing labs in the EQC program. In conclusion, we observed good agreement of the tested DIA blots with the consensus results of the Dutch EQC program. Taken together with the logistic advantages these blots are a good alternative for autoantibody detection in the respective diseases. A large prospective multicenter study is warranted to position these novel tests further in the whole spectrum of assays for the detection of these antibodies in a routine autoimmune laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: to make physical rehabilitation program for patients with chronic gastritis type B, promotes normalization of gastric secretory function and prolong the period of remission. Objectives of the study was to assess the dynamics of gastric secretory function and functional status of the autonomic nervous system in patients with the chronic gastritis type B . Material: the study involved 37 women with a diagnosis of the chronic gastritis type B, increased acid gastric function. Results: it was established the positive influence of corrective exercises for the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, regulated breathing exercises based on the tone of the autonomic nervous system in combination with massage and diet therapy on the state of gastric secretory function. Conclusions : it is recommended to carry out therapeutic physical culture in the form of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic exercises, self-study.
Zhang, Lan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Ren, Zheng-Gang
Radiation-induced gastritis is an infrequent cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is a serious complication arising from radiation therapy, and the standard treatment method has not been established. The initial injury is characteristically acute inflammation of gastric mucosa. We presented a 46-year-old male patient with hemorrhagic gastritis induced by external radiotherapy for metastatic retroperitoneal lymph node of hepatocellular carcinoma. The endoscopic examination showed diffuse edematous hyperemicmucosa with telangiectasias in the whole muscosa of the stomach and duodenal bulb. Multiple hemorrhagic patches with active oozing were found over the antrum. Anti-secretary therapy was initiated for hemostasis, but melena still occurred off and on. Finally, he was successfully treated by prednisolone therapy. We therefore strongly argue in favor of perdnisolone therapy to effectively treat patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic gastritis.
S. A. Kalmykov
Full Text Available Purpose: to make physical rehabilitation program for patients with chronic gastritis type B, promotes normalization of gastric secretory function and prolong the period of remission. Objectives of the study was to assess the dynamics of gastric secretory function and functional status of the autonomic nervous system in patients with the chronic gastritis type B . Material: the study involved 37 women with a diagnosis of the chronic gastritis type B, increased acid gastric function. Results: it was established the positive influence of corrective exercises for the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, regulated breathing exercises based on the tone of the autonomic nervous system in combination with massage and diet therapy on the state of gastric secretory function. Conclusions : it is recommended to carry out therapeutic physical culture in the form of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic exercises, self-study.
Full Text Available Gastritis is a common but a serious disease with a potential risk of developing carcinoma. Helicobacter pylori infection is reported as the most common cause of gastritis, but other genetic and genomic factors exist, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Association studies between SNPs and gastritis disease are important, but results on epistatic interactions from multiple SNPs are rarely found in previous genome-wide association (GWA studies. In this study, we performed computational GWA case-control studies for gastritis in Korea Associated Resource (KARE data. By transforming the resulting SNP epistasis network into a gene-gene epistasis network, we also identified potential gene-gene interaction factors that affect the susceptibility to gastritis.
Full Text Available The authors studied the efficiency of the 3 months long therapy by Rabeprazole after eradication of the causative agent in the children with h. pylori associated gastritis from the high risk group of the development post helicobacter gastritis. They demonstrated that most children with h. pylori associated gastritis, who have un favourable prognostic factors, have persistence of the inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa of the antral stomach after eradication, which is accompanied with the elevated secretion of the hydrochloric acid and development of the acid dependent diseases. The use of the anti secretory medications during 3 months after h. pylori eradication among these children allows one to prevent the development of the gastritis and its complications.Key words: h. pylori_associated gastritis, eradication of h. Pylori, children, rabeprazole.
In the online world, fraudsterscaneasily manipulate people to gain something and usually for monetary gain. Corpus development research can be use identify keywords used by fraudsters online to prevent the crime. The aim of this research is to develop a corpus for Malay investment fraud so that it can be used in ...
In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.
This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…
This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…
It also discusses the problem ensuing from an attempt to standardise the formats used in the handling of the corpus. The way a corpus is processed is critical in determining its quality. This article aims to show how the different linguistic backgrounds of the processors affect the apprecia-tion of some vital aspects of the ...
Marx, M.; Schuth, A.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.
A corpus called DutchParl is created which aims to contain all digitally available parliamentary documents written in the Dutch language. The first version of DutchParl contains documents from the parliaments of The Netherlands, Flanders and Belgium. The corpus is divided along three dimensions: per
In order to illustrate the feasibility of corpus applications for the African languages at present, the article first considers 'fundamental linguistic research' in the ... due attention by means of the corpus-aided compilation of pronunciation guides and textbooks, and the teaching of morpho-syntactic and contrastive structures.
Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Skoglund, Karl
Corpus callosum analysis is influenced by many factors. The effort in controlling these has previously been incomplete and scattered. This paper sketches a complete pipeline for automated corpus callosum analysis from magnetic resonance images, with focus on measurement standardisation. The prese...
Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; Hondorp, G.H.W.
This contribution describes the Twente News Corpus (TwNC), a multifaceted corpus for Dutch that is being deployed in a number of NLP research projects among which tracks within the Dutch national research programme MultimediaN, the NWO programme CATCH, and the Dutch-Flemish programme STEVIN. The
Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto
Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…
Abstract: The Ndebele language corpus described here is that compiled by the ALLEX Project. (now ALRI) at the University of Zimbabwe. It is intended to reflect as much as possible the Nde- bele language as spoken in Zimbabwe. The Ndebele language corpus was built in order to provide much-needed material for the ...
Corpus-based translation research emerged in the late 1990s as a new area of research in the discipline of translation studies. It is informed by a specific area of linguistics known as corpus linguistics which involves the analysis of large corpora of authentic running text by means of computer software. Within linguistics, this ...
translated texts with regard to various aspects that could be investigated by means of a monolingual comparable corpus. The investigation into translation features in the Afrikaans comparable newspaper article corpus was done with the use of WordSmith Tools 4. (henceforth "WST"). 4.1 Type-token ratio. "Types" refer to the ...
Cakmakci, Emin; Ucan, Berna; Colak, Bayram; Cinar, Hasibe Gokçe
The purpose of this study was to find out whether transabdominal sonography may have a predictive role for detection of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in the antrum. A total of 108 patients and 54 control participants were allocated into 3 groups: group 1, controls without any symptoms or findings of antral gastritis and H pylori infection; group 2, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis in the absence of documented H pylori infection; and group 3, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis and documented H pylori infection. These groups were compared in terms of demographics, antral wall thickness, mucosal layer (together with muscularis mucosa) thickness, and mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio. The groups had no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. However, it turned out that both antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers were thicker and the mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio was higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (P > .001). In addition, group 3 had statistically significantly thicker antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers and a significantly increased mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio than group 2 (P gastritis caused by H pylori infection is associated with characteristic features such as thickening of antral walls and mucosal layers on sonography. These novel clues may be useful in the diagnosis of gastritis, and unnecessary interventions and measures can be avoided in some cases. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya
Recurrent Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (AECRS) in a setting of atrophic rhinitis are perplexing clinical situations. While either may act as the primary factor, repeated inflammation in a vessel-poor atrophied tissue is unusual. Progressive mucosal degeneration, vascularity and the effect of bacterial colonization are the factors suggested to play an important role for the pathobiogenesis of the co-existence of the two diseases. Through presentation of a case, a brief attempt has been made here to explore the temporal relationship between rhinosinusitis and atrophic rhinitis; in the process, other noteworthy features of the patient have also been highlighted.
Full Text Available Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to muco-purulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intra-muscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15 % lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7. Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were madeat the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
Monje, Alberto; Monje, Florencio; González-García, Raúl; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; García-Nogales, Agustin; Wang, Hom-Lay
There is limited evidence available on the influence of residual ridge height (RH) on bone density. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the correlation between the atrophic posterior RH in the maxilla and its bone density as determined by microcomputed tomography (μ-CT). Thirty-two subjects with atrophic posterior maxilla of residual RH bone core biopsy was thus obtained from the predetermined surgical site. Out of 32 biopsies, 27 were intact and sent for μ-CT analysis. A statistically significant positive correlation between bone volumetric fraction (BV/TV) and RH was identified (r = 0.417, p = .03). A statistically significant negative correlation between trabecular pattern factor and RH was also found (r = -0.415, p = .03). The rest of the morphometric parameters analyzed did not have any significant correlation to RH. BV/TV is potentially influenced by the residual bone height at the posterior maxilla. The lesser the RH, the lower the bone quantity and quality present. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the stress distribution of 2-short implants (2SIs) installed in a severely atrophic maxillary molar site. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different diameters of internal connection implants were modeled: narrow platform (NP), regular platform (RP), and wide platform (WP). The maxillary first molars were restored with one implant or two short implants. Three 2SI models (NP-oblique, NP-vertical, and NP-horizontal) and four single implant models (RP and WP in a centered or cantilevered position) were used. Axial and oblique loadings were applied on the occlusal surface of the crown. The von Mises stress values were measured at the bone-implant, peri-implant bone, and implant/abutment complex. RESULTS The highest stress distribution at the bone-implant interface and the peri-implant bone was noticed in the RP group, and the lowest stress distribution was observed in the 2SI groups. Cantilevered position showed unfavorable stress distribution with axial loading. 2SI types did not affect the stress distribution in oblique loading. The number and installation positions of the implant, rather than the bone level, influenced the stress distribution of 2SIs. The implant/abutment complex of WP presented the highest stress concentration while that of 2SIs showed the lowest stress concentration. CONCLUSION 2SIs may be useful for achieving stable stress distribution on the surrounding bone and implant-abutment complex in the atrophic posterior maxilla. PMID:27555900
Zettinig, G; Weissel, M; Flores, J; Dudczak, R; Vogelsang, H
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a gluten-sensitive skin disease that is associated with a variety of autoimmune disorders. Several investigations demonstrated an association between DH and autoimmune thyroid disease. However, it has not been shown if DH is associated with atrophic or goitrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We investigated a cohort of 41 DH patients (18 male, 23 female) and a control group (11 male, 19 female; sex and age matched healthy volunteers) to find out which variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with DH. All patients had thyroid hormones and antibodies measured. In addition to that, thyroid sonography as well as detailed history-taking of previous thyroid disease were performed. In the control group no individual with elevated levels of thyroid antibodies nor abnormal thyroid hormones nor thyroid atrophy was found. Median thyroid volume in the control group was 11 mL (range 4.8-24.7 mL). However, in nine DH patients (22%) elevated levels of antithyroid microsomal (TM) antibodies were seen (P hypothyroidism had a thyroid volume < 7 mL. Goitrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was not seen in any of the DH patients. Our findings demonstrate that DH is associated with atrophic but not with goitrous variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (high efficacy of fractional CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.
Mardinger, Ofer; Nissan, Joseph; Chaushu, Gavriel
A one-stage surgical technique has been adopted that allows simultaneous implant placement in as little as 1 to 2 mm of residual bone. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe results and complications in sinus augmentation of severely atrophic edentulous maxillae in patients with 1 to 3 mm residual bone height and compare them to a group of patients treated following the standard protocol with residual bone height > 4 mm. The study consisted of a study group (N = 25) and a control group (N = 30). All patients were consecutive admissions treated for one-stage sinus augmentation by one surgeon during the years 2001 to 2005. Patients' medical files were reviewed mainly regarding operative technical problems and complications. Included in the study were 60 sinuses and 164 simultaneous implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses. Eight implants failed, seven of which were in the study group; three were in heavy smokers with residual bone of 1 to 3 mm. The success rate was 92% for the study group and 98.7% for the control group. A borderline statistically significant difference was found in the success rates between the groups using the Fisher exact test (P = 0.069). Sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement can be used to treat the atrophic maxilla in patients with 1 to 3 mm of vertical residual bone height when careful case planning and surgical techniques are used.
Jea, Andrew; Vachhrajani, Shobhan; Widjaja, Elysa; Nilsson, Daniel; Raybaud, Charles; Shroff, Manohar; Rutka, James T
Disconnection syndromes following corpus callosotomy represent complex and variably expressed groupings of signs and symptoms affecting motor control, spatial orientation, vision, hearing, and language. Little is known, however, about the functional topography of callosal fiber pathways. In addition, most published case reports and case series of corpus callosotomy seldom report neurological deficits. We sought to categorize these deficits based on surgical anatomy. We comprehensively reviewed the literature and described, compiled, and tabulated the most common disconnection syndromes complicating corpus callosotomy. We depict the topography of the cerebral cortex and associated commissural fibers of the corpus callosum through illustrations and diffusion tensor imaging tractography. Anatomical classification of disconnection syndromes will provide great value to neurosurgeons embarking on callosotomy, whether partial or complete. Such information will apply to procedures performed for epilepsy and to procedures where the corpus callosum is sectioned for access to lesions within the ventricular system.
Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen
CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo
Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading of cultured H. pylori was reported on a scale 0 to 3. The histopathological features of biopsy specimens were reported according to the Sydney classification of chronic gastritis. Serum gastritis and pepsinogen concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: H. pylori was identified in 62.5% (20 of 32 GU, 30 of 48 DU) of the study group. Gastric clonization rate of H. pylori did not increased with age. Forty of 50 biopsy specimens with H. pylori and also 23 of 30 biopsy specimens without H. pylori showed active chronic gastritis. There was no significant correlation overall between the presence of H. pylori and histological grading of chronic gastritis, including activity, and also no association was found between the quantitative grading of H. pylori and the histological grading of chronic gastritis. With and without H. pylori, a mean of serum gastritis concentration (79.4±43.0 pg/ml and 80.2±31.9 pg/ml) showed no significant difference, but a mean of serum pepsinogen concentration (87.7±41.6 ng/ml and 119±34.4 ng/ml) showed significant difference between the populations with and without H. pylori (p=0.001) Conclusions: The influence of H. pylori on histological grading of chronic gastritis in Korean is less than that in prior studies of Western countries, and further investigation of pathogenesis of H. pylori in chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration is necessary. PMID:7495770
Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl
Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ko, Geun Jun; Park, Koung Suk; Park, Tae Woon; Woo, Meung Yeul; Han, Ki Jun; Lee, Sang Cheul; Cho, Jae Hee
Emphysematous gastritis is a rare infection of the stomach wall with high mortality rate. It is caused by gas forming organisms and may arise by local spread through the mucosa or hematogenous dissemination from distant focus. Clinical manifestation includes acute abdomen with systemic toxicity, and diagnosis is based on radiologic demonstration of gas within the gastric wall. Treatment should be aimed to cover gram-negative organisms and anaerobes using wide-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgical management may be needed in order to enhance survival. Herein, we report a case of emphysematous gastritis in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root 'sublux.' It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as 'subluxation:' i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation.
Jensen, Marie Møller
Cheshire et al. (2005) argue that different levels of language do not necessarily follow the same patterns of change over time. In an attempt to test this prediction, this article reports on a comparison between two quantitative corpus studies of Tyneside English which are partly based on the same...... shows support for Cheshire et al. (2005). This difference in the direction of change is explained by socio-psychological processes linking linguistic forms, the local Tyneside area and speaker identity. More specifically, it is argued that speakers imbue local vernacular variants with social meaning...... (Podesva 2006). This means that speakers create a social index (Silverstein 2003) which links linguistic forms and additional non-denotational meanings through processes of enregisterment (Agha 2003). This allows speakers to express an affiliation with their local area and all that it represents to them...
Full Text Available Speech recognition and language analysis of spontaneous speech arising in naturally spoken conversations are becoming the subject of much research. However, there is a shortage of spontaneous speech corpora that are freely available for academics. We therefore undertook the building of a natural conversation speech database, recording over 200 hours of conversations in English by over 600 local university students. With few exceptions, the students used their own cell phones from their own rooms or homes to speak to one another, and they were permitted to speak on any topic they chose. Although they knew that they were being recorded and that they would receive a small payment, their conversations in the corpus are probably very close to being natural and spontaneous. This paper describes a detailed case study of the problems we faced and the methods we used to make the recordings and control the collection of these social science data on a limited budget.
António M. Galvão
Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.
Bradley, J T; Edwards, J S
The ultrastructure of the corpus cardiacum (CC) and corpus allatum (CA) of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, is described. Axon profiles within the CC contain neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter which are indistinguishable from those found in type I neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis and in the nervus corporis cardiaci I. The CC itself contains two cell types: intrinsic neurosecretory cells and glial cells. Intrinsic NSC cytoplasm contains Golgi bodies and electron dense neurosecretory granules 160-350 nm in diameter. Synaptoid configurations with 20-50 nm diameter electron lucent vesicles were observed within axon profiles of the CC. The structure of the CA is relatively uniform with one cell type predominating. Typical CA cells possess large nucleoli, active Golgi complexes, numerous mitochondria, and occassional microtubules. Groups of dark staining cells scattered throughout the CA of some animals were interpreted as evidence of cellular death.
Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin
This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…
Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.
Yaroslavtseva, N G; Grumbkova, L O; Tikhomirov, D S; Ignatova, E N; Romanova, T Yu; Garanja, T A; Tupoleva, T A; Filatov, F P
The extended monitoring (up to 1 year 11 months) of PCR markers was implemented concerning viral infections: cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, simple herpes virus type I and II, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and bacterial infection of Helicobacter pylori in bioassays (blood, biopsy material of mucous coat of stomach and inferior third of esophagus) from children with different types of chronic gastritis. In biological samples from patients with gastritis type A and type A + B DNA of hepatitis B virus (87% and 71% of patients correspondingly) and DNA of Epstein-Barr virus (63% and 67% of patients) were detected with high rate. Under gastritis type B and C these markers were detected significantly rarely (20-36%). Among patients with gastritis type A, B and A + B, the positive results on DNA of cytomegalovirus consisted 13-17%. In patients with gastritis type C DNA of cytomegalovirus was not detected. In any of analyzed samples no DNA of simple herpes virus type I and II was detected. The control of DNA of H. pylori demonstrated its presence in biological materials of 67% and 84% of patients with gastritis type B and A +B. This type of DNA was absent in patients with gastritis type A and C. Under gastritis type A, B and A+B, DNA of Epstein-Barr virus and DNA of hepatitis B virus detected more often in biological materials of mucous coat of stomach (71%-100%) and out of them simultaneously in blood in 33%-60% of examined patients and only in blood up to 29%. DNA of Epstein-Barr virus was detected in leukocytes of peripheral blood and DNA of hepatitis B virus both in plasma and leukocytes of peripheral blood. Under gastritis type C DNA of Epstein-Barr virus was always detected in leukocytes of peripheral blood (in 20% out of these patients simultaneously in biological material) and DNA of hepatitis B virus just as much in blood (plasma and/or leukocytes of peripheral blood) and biological materials. The lower concentrations (less than 700 copies/ml) DNA of
Marcián, Petr; Borák, Libor; Valášek, Jiří; Kaiser, Jozef; Florian, Zdeněk; Wolff, Jan
The first aim of this study was to assess displacements and micro-strain induced on different grades of atrophic cortical and trabecular mandibular bone by axially loaded dental implants using finite element analysis (FEA). The second aim was to assess the micro-strain induced by different implant geometries and the levels of bone-to-implant contact (BIC) on the surrounding bone. Six mandibular bone segments demonstrating different grades of mandibular bone atrophy and various bone volume fractions (from 0.149 to 0.471) were imaged using a micro-CT device. The acquired bone STL models and implant (Brånemark, Straumann, Ankylos) were merged into a three-dimensional finite elements structure. The mean displacement value for all implants was 3.1 ±1.2 µm. Displacements were lower in the group with a strong BIC. The results indicated that the maximum strain values of cortical and cancellous bone increased with lower bone density. Strain distribution is the first and foremost dependent on the shape of bone and architecture of cancellous bone. The geometry of the implant, thread patterns, grade of bone atrophy and BIC all affect the displacement and micro-strain on the mandible bone. Preoperative finite element analysis could offer improved predictability in the long-term outlook of dental implant restorations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983
Full Text Available Juan L Romero-Flores,1 Justo A Fernandez-Rivero,1 Erika Marroquín-Fabian,1 Félix I Téllez-Ávila,2 Beatriz A Sánchez-Jiménez,1 Eva Juárez-Hernández,3 Misael Uribe,1 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia1,3 1Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, 3Translational Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods: Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results: A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078 was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of
Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav1 is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS, infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies ("humming bird" compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1. Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1 to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87 and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1 to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with sketching future directions for corpus-based dialectology. We advocate a holistic approach to the study of geographically conditioned linguistic variability, and we present a suitable methodology, 'corpusbased dialectometry', in exactly this spirit. Specifically, we argue that in order to live up to the potential of the corpus-based method, practitioners need to (i abandon their exclusive focus on individual linguistic features in favor of the study of feature aggregates, (ii draw on computationally advanced multivariate analysis techniques (such as multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, and (iii aid interpretation of empirical results by marshalling state-of-the-art data visualization techniques. To exemplify this line of analysis, we present a case study which explores joint frequency variability of 57 morphosyntax features in 34 dialects all over Great Britain.Este artigo debruça-se sobre o esboço propositivo de futuras direções para a dialetologia baseada em corpus. Defendemos uma abordagem holística para o estudo da variabilidade linguística geograficamente condicionada, e apresentamos uma metodologia adequada para tal - a dialetometria baseada em corpus. Mais especificamente, defendemos que para que se obtenham todos os resultados esperados da metodologia de corpus, pesquisadores devem: (i abandonar seu foco exclusivo em traços linguísticos individuais em favor do estudo dos agregados de traços, (ii amparar-se em métodos computacionais avançados de técnicas de análise multivariada (tais como escalagem multidimensional, análise de clusters, e análise de componente principal, e (iii auxiliar a interpretação de resultados empíricos através da utilização do estado da arte em técnicas de visualização. A fim de exemplificarmos essa linha de análise, apresentamos um estudo de caso que explora a variabilidade da frequência agregada de 57 tra
Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with
Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo
Full Text Available Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exist in the site of atrophic non-union fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic potency of MSCs in order to have a better understanding of the unclear pathophysiology of atrophic non-union fracture Methods: This is an in vitro experimental study. Sample was obtained from the non-union site of a patient with a 6-years-history of atrophic non-union fracture of right femur. The MSCs was isolated from the fracture site and was cultured in the growth medium. Confirmation of the MSCs was performed and then osteogenic differentiation was performed in mono-layered MSC grown in both home-made and commercial osteogenic media. To evaluate the osteogenic differentiation, we performed Alizarin red staining and colorimetric assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Results: From Alizarin red staining, most cells in the osteoblast medium were stained red by the staining. The result of colorimetric assessment of ALP shows that peak concentration was reached after 4 minutes in osteogenic group and control group. Conclusion: The presence of ALP activity and positive Alizarin red staining in our study showed that MSCs stem cells obtained from site of atrophic non-union is capable to be differentiated into osteogenic cells. . J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 159-163
Kaminaka, Chikako; Uede, Mikiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Yamamoto, Yuki
Few clinical studies have examined the utility of bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) therapy as a treatment for atrophic acne scars and active acne in people with darker skin. This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of bipolar FRF therapy as a treatment for atrophic acne scars and acne vulgaris. Twenty-three Japanese patients with atrophic acne scars and mild to severe acne on both cheeks were treated with a bipolar FRF system (eMatrix; Syneron, Yokneam Illit, Israel). Five treatment sessions were carried out at 1-month intervals, and the patients were followed up for 3 months after the final treatment. Assessments of scar severity and the number of acne lesions and 3-D in vivo imaging analysis were performed. Evaluations of the treatment outcomes and their effects on the patients' quality of life (QOL) were also carried out. We demonstrated that the improvement in scar volume was marked in the patients with mild scars and was at least moderate in 23 (57.5%) of the treated areas. With regard to the number of acne lesions, the treated areas exhibited significantly fewer lesions compared with the baseline at each time point (P scar depth were observed. Bipolar FRF treatment significantly improved the atrophic acne scars and acne of Japanese patients and had minimal side-effects. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Marina de Pádua Nogueira Menezes
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Wnt pathway is involved in tumorigenesis of several tissues. For this reason, we proposed to evaluate Wnt gene expression in endometrial cancer type I. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on materials gathered from the tissue bank of the Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Endometrial specimens were obtained from surgeries performed between 1995 and 2005 at São Paulo Hospital, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The material was divided into two groups according to tissue type: Group A, atrophic endometrium (n = 15; and Group B, endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 45. We compared the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt1, Frizzled-1 (FZD1, Wnt5a, Frizzled-5 (FZD5 and beta-catenin between endometrial cancer type I and atrophic endometrium. RESULTS: Regarding Wnt1, FZD1 and Wnt5a expression, no significant association was observed between the groups. A significant association was observed between the groups in relation to FZD5 expression (P = 0.001. The proportion of FZD5-positive samples was significantly higher in group A (80.0% than in group B (31.1%. Regarding the survival curve for FZD5 in group B, we did not find any significant association between atrophic endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma. We also did not find any significant association regarding beta-catenin expression (P = 1.000. CONCLUSION: FZD5 is downregulated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, in comparison with atrophic endometrium
Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L
Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis.
Jang, Sungil; Bak, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen, causing various gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been reported that combining N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with conventional antibiotic therapy increases the success rate of H. pylori eradication. We evaluated the effect of NAC itself on the growth and colonization of H. pylori, and development of gastritis, using in vitro liquid culture system and in vivo animal models. H. pylori growth was evaluated in broth culture containing NAC. The H. pylori load and histopathological scores of stomachs were measured in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori strain 7.13, and fed with NAC-containing diet. In liquid culture, NAC inhibited H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner. In the animal model, 3-day administration of NAC after 1 week from infection reduced the H. pylori load; 6-week administration of NAC after 1 week from infection prevented the development of gastritis and reduced H. pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period. Our results indicate that NAC may exert a beneficial effect on reduction of bacterial colonization, and prevents the development of severe inflammation, in people with initial asymptomatic or mild H. pylori infection.
Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno
Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastritis may progress to high risk gastropathy and cancer. However, the pathological progression has not been characterized in detail. H. pylori induce persistent inflammatory infiltration. Neutrophils are unique in that they directly infiltrate into foveolar epithelium aiming the proliferative zone specifically. Neutrophilic proliferative zone foveolitis is a critical pathogenic step in H. pylori gastritis inducing intensive epithelial damage. Epithelial cells carrying accumulated genomic damage and mutations show the Malgun (clear) cell change, characterized by large clear nucleus and prominent nucleolus. Malgun cells further undergo atypical changes, showing nuclear folding, coarse chromatin, and multiple nucleoli. The atypical Malgun cell (AMC) change is a novel premalignant condition in high risk gastropathy, which may progress and undergo malignant transformation directly. The pathobiological significance of AMC in gastric carcinogenesis is reviewed. A new diagnosis system of gastritis is proposed based on the critical pathologic steps classifying low and high risk gastritis for separate treatment modality. It is suggested that the regulation of H. pylori-induced neutrophilic foveolitis might be a future therapeutic goal replacing bactericidal antibiotics approach.
Tariq, Anam; Mehta, Neal; Peroutka, Kathryn
BACKGROUND Follicular B cell lymphomas account for a significant portion of all newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. While involvement can be varied, the most common extranodal presentation is within the gastrointestinal tract beyond the stomach. In addition, the stomach has a diffuse multivessel vascular supply, which decreases the likelihood of developing ischemic gastritis. CASE REPORT An 89-year-old woman with history of diabetes, deep venous thromboembolism, and hypertension was referred due to a newly diagnosed retroperitoneal mass. Biopsy of a left para-aortic node was consistent with low-grade follicular B cell lymphoma. Following mainstream treatment guidelines, rituximab was administered. Approximately 12 hours later, the patient presented to the Emergency Department with intractable vomiting and nausea. After admission, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed extensive ischemic gastritis. Due to recurrent ascites requiring frequent paracenteses, and the clinical aggressiveness of the patient's underlying lymphoma, a second dose of rituximab was administered with concurrent initiation of total parenteral nutrition. Approximately 1 week later, the patient underwent a repeat EGD for quality of life planning while in hospice. The repeat EGD revealed resolved ischemic gastritis. Her diet was advanced and she was subsequently discharged home. CONCLUSIONS Rituximab alone shows promise in treating extensive follicular B cell lymphoma complicated by ischemic gastritis, which has not been previously reported in the literature.
Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.
Мар'яна Миколаївна Курбан
Full Text Available Aim: The work deals with special features of chronic gastritis clinical course with comorbid arterial hypertension.Methods: 96 patients underwent complex examination: 62 patients with combined clinical course of arterial hypertension and chronic gastritis and 34 ones with isolated chronic gastritis. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination.Result: At analysis of results it was established that in the 1 group of patients took place the more heavy clinical course and the main complaints were presented as pain syndrome (of an acute, nagging character especially in epigastric zone or without strict localization that took place after ingestion, dyspeptic syndrome (with predominant meteorism, spreading feeling in epigastrium and eructation and asthenoneurotic syndrome (with sleep disorders, general weakness and work disability as opposed to patients of the 11 group whose pain syndrome was predominantly stable or periodic of an acute character in epigastric zone. Among complaints that are specific for dyspeptic syndrome prevailed eructation, spreading feeling in epigastrium and nausea. At the same time the chronic gastritis duration and pain syndrome intensity correlated with helicobacterial infection and comorbidity.Conclusions: Combined pathology is characterized with more intense clinical symptomatology as a direct consequence of mutual influence of diseases. The researches aimed at the study of clinical features of comorbid states allow the grounded approach to its therapy with special attention to all aspects of interaction
Han, Xue; Jiang, Kui; Wang, Bangmao; Zhou, Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Shu
Chronic gastritis frequently progresses into precancerous intestinal metaplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia lesions. Rebamipide is a free radical scavenger and we assessed its efficacy on clinical symptoms, gastric mucosal lesions, pathologic grade, and immunohistochemistry in chronic gastritis patients. 178 eligible patients were randomized into treatment and control groups. Both groups followed an optimized lifestyle for 26 weeks, but the treatment group was additionally medicated with rebamipide 0.1 g three times per day. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in all patients to evaluate the severity of gastritis by the Modified Lanza Scoring (MLS) and histological changes were evaluated by the Updated Sydney System Score (USSS). Gastric mucosa immunohistochemistry in the treatment group was performed using the intestinal metaplasia markers caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) detection. There were significant outcome differences between the treatment and control groups regarding the clinical symptom scores (2.62 ± 1.86 vs. 1.55 ± 1.61, P = 0.0001), gastric mucosal lesion scores (0.57 ± 1.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.90, P = 0.002), and inflammation (P gastritis patients and decreased the expression rates of CDX2 and TFF3 in gastric cells.
Full Text Available Hepatitis A is a common cause of acute hepatitis in children and usually has a benign self-limiting course, moreover so in young children. We report two exceptional cases of erosive gastritis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, respectively, as rare associations of hepatitis A in children. Both children were < 5 years of age and eventually recovered.
Chambon, J P; Bianchini, A; Massouille, D; Perot, C; Lancelevée, J; Zerbib, P
Ischemic gastritis is poorly known by physicians and is often fatal if not correctly diagnosed. Here, we report on the clinical, endoscopic and imaging features and treatment outcomes for five ischemic gastritis patients. This was a retrospective, single-centre study of patients treated for ischemic gastritis between January 2009 and April 2012. All patients underwent transluminal angioplasty or open revascularization surgery. Five patients (4 men, 1 female) were included in the present study. The condition was diagnosed in two cases of peritonitis with gastric or duodenal perforation, two cases of acute epigastric pain and one case of gastric bleeding, profuse vomiting and hypovolemic shock. Three of the five patients had endoscopically proven gastric ulcerations or necrosis. A computed tomography scan contributed to the diagnosis in all cases. The symptoms resolved in all cases after gastric revascularization via an aortohepatic bypass (N.=1), a renohepatic bypass (N.=1), a retrograde iliosuperior mesenteric bypass (N.=2) with associated celiac artery angioplasty (N.=1) and celiac and superior mesenteric artery angioplasty (N.=1). During follow-up, three patients died of starvation due to short bowel syndrome (N.=1) or metastatic lung cancer (N.=2). Ischemic gastritis is a component of celiac territory ischemia syndrome and is closely associated with chronic or acute mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography always informs the diagnosis. The rapid healing observed here after revascularization confirmed the ischemic nature of the condition and the inappropriateness of gastric resection in this context.
Eskandari, Amir; Mahmoudpour, Ali; Abolfazli, Nader; Lafzi, Ardeshir
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) accounts for gastritis, peptic ulcer and is a probable cause of gastric cancer. Since its detection in the oral cavity, concerns have been raised about dental plaque as a reservoir for reinfection. The aim of this study was to detect the organism in the dental plaque and to determine the association, if any, between H. pylori gastritis and dental plaque contamination causing H.pylori. A polymerase chain reaction-based method was used for detection of H. pylori in clinical specimens. Supra and subgingival samples were collected from 67 patients with chronic periodontitis, 23 of whom were also suffering from gastritis. The data were analyzed with Chi square and Fisher exact test and the statistical significance was set to 0.05. H.pylori was scarce in patients with periodontitis(5.9%). There was a significant association between the presence of H.pylori in the dental plaque and gastritis (p=0.012). Although rarely seen, H.pylori infected dental plaque may be a source for reinfection. It is therefore suggested that professional plaque removal and oral hygiene procedures be performed, along with the antibiotic treatment of H.pylori.
Maarouf, A; Hadj-Henni, L; Caucheteux, N; Renkes, C; Serre, I; Bakchine, S; Tourbah, A
Behçet's disease is a multi-system vascular-inflammatory disease with possible involvement of the central nervous system. Lesions of the corpus callosum on MRI have been rarely reported in this disease. A 47-year-old woman was admitted for a sudden right hemiplegia and confusion revealing a Behcet's disease. MRI showed a pedonculo-thalamic lesion and a white matter hypersignals, which was suggestive of the disease. Besides, involvement of the corpus callosum was observed. This case demonstrates that Behcet's disease should be considered among diseases with corpus callosum involvement. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.