WorldWideScience

Sample records for atorvastatin-treated healthy men

  1. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Men Published June 23, 2014 ...

  2. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Women Home Health Wellness Healthy Aging Healthy Aging 4 Types of Foods to Help Boost Your ... clean plate, there are many negative long-term consequences. Try these rewards instead. View More Articles Freshly ...

  3. Men: Eat Right, Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than 18.5, it falls within the underweight range.If your BMI is 18.5 to ... org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Food and Nutrition, Men, Prevention and WellnessTags: adult, Dietary Supplements, Men, ...

  4. Spirometry of healthy adult South African men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-07-07

    Jul 7, 1996 ... Spirometry of healthy adult. South African men. Part I. Normative values. S. J. Louw, J. G. Goldin, G. Joubert. Aim. To detennine normative spirometric values for black and white South African men. Methods. A population of 796 bank personnel were. sUbjected to spirometry and anthropometric.

  5. Facial Redness Increases Men's Perceived Healthiness and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I

    2017-06-01

    Past research has shown that peripheral and facial redness influences perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. The current research investigated whether a parallel effect is present when women rate men with varying facial redness. In four experiments, women judged the attractiveness of men's faces, which were presented with varying degrees of redness. We also examined perceived healthiness and other candidate variables as mediators of the red-attractiveness effect. The results show that facial redness positively influences ratings of men's attractiveness. Additionally, perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of this effect, independent of other potential mediator variables. The current research emphasizes facial coloration as an important feature of social judgments.

  6. Keeping Active and Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Guide for Teenagers Talking with Patients about Weight Loss: Tips for Primary Care Providers Tips to Help You Get Active Benefits Starting Physical Activity Keep Moving Clinical Trials Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Using the World Around You to Stay Healthy ...

  7. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  8. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused on e...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  9. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  10. Testosterone and sexual desire in healthy women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual desire is typically higher in men than in women, with testosterone (T) thought to account for this difference as well as within-sex variation in desire in both women and men. However, few studies have incorporated both hormonal and social or psychological factors in studies of sexual desire. The present study addressed how three psychological domains (sexual-relational, stress-mood, body-embodiment) were related to links between T and sexual desire in healthy adults and whether dyadic and solitary desire showed associations with T. Participants (n = 196) were recruited as part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health study, which had 105 men and 91 women who completed questionnaires and provided saliva for cortisol and T assays. T was positively linked to solitary desire in women, with masturbation frequency influencing this link. In contrast, T was negatively correlated with dyadic desire in women, but only when cortisol and perceived social stress were controlled. Replicating past findings, no significant correlations between T and desire in men were apparent, but these analyses showed that the null association remained even when psychological and confound variables were controlled. Men showed higher desire than women, but masturbation frequency rather than T influenced this difference. Results were discussed in terms of challenges to assumptions of clear links between T and desire, gendered approaches to T, and the unitarity of desire.

  11. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion...

  12. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  13. Risk factors of osteoporosis in healthy Moroccan men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounach Aziza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although not as common as in women, osteoporosis remains a significant health care problem in men. Data concerning risk factors of osteoporosis are lacking for the male Moroccan population. The objective of the study was to identify some determinants associated to low bone mineral density in Moroccan men. Methods a sample of 592 healthy men aged 20-79 years was recruited from the area of Rabat, the capital of Morocco. Measurements were taken at the lumbar spine and proximal femurs using DXA (Lunar Prodigy Vision, GE. Biometrical, clinical, and lifestyle determinants were collected. Univariate, multivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results the mean (SD age of the patients was 49 (17.2 years old. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were 8.7% and 52.8%, respectively. Lumbar spine and hip BMD correlated significantly with age, weight and BMI. When comparing the subjects according to the WHO classification, significant differences were revealed between the three groups of subjects for age, weight and BMI, prevalence of low calcium intake and low physical activity. The multiple regression analysis found that only age, BMI, and high coffee consumption were independently associated to the osteoporotic status. Conclusion ageing and low BMI are the main risk factors associated with osteoporosis in Moroccan men.

  14. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF measurable through hand-grip strength (HG, which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA was conducted to determine the resistance (R, reactance (Xc and phase angle (PhA. We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles, obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA’s parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting.

  15. Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis and Muscular Fitness in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-07-02

    Muscle strength can define the general muscular fitness (MF) measurable through hand-grip strength (HG), which is a factor that relates to the health of people of different ages. In this study we evaluated the muscle strength together with a bioimpedance electric analysis in 223 healthy Colombian adult subjects. The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) was conducted to determine the resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase angle (PhA). We classified the subjects into three groups (for tertiles), obtaining lower values of R and Xc in subjects with lower HG, plus a high correlation between PhA and HG. An increase in the level of PhA is associated with a high level of MF in a sample of healthy Latin American adult men. The BIVA's parameters and PhA are a potentially effective preventive measure to be integrated into routine screening in the clinical setting.

  16. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2015-04-01

    Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss.

  17. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  18. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  19. Health-related physical fitness in healthy untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups...... weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body...... improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training...

  20. Chitooligosaccharides decreases plasma lipid levels in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Cheong-Rak; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Je, Jae-Young; An, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jae Dong; Wang, Joon Ho; Ki, Seung Seog; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Moon, Sang-Ho; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2012-02-01

    Chitosan, which is derived from chitin, has drawn much attention due to its low toxicity and potential use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The biological activities of chitosan have been shown to depend on its molecular weight (MW) and degree of deacetylation. In this study, we investigated whether oral chitooligosaccharides, which are easily absorbed into the body, can reduce the plasma level of lipid in smokers and non-smokers because smoking is a high-risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. All healthy men (11 smokers and 8 non-smokers) consumed 500 mg of chitooligosaccharides in water twice daily before a meal (breakfast and dinner) over a 6-week period. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in both the smoker group and non-smoker group when compared with baseline. These results suggest that low MW chitooligosaccharides would be an effective dietary supplement for lowering cholesterol level.

  1. Testosterone and reward prediction-errors in healthy men and men with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R W; Purves-Tyson, T D; Weickert, C Shannon; Rothmond, D; Lenroot, R; Weickert, T W

    2015-11-01

    Sex hormones impact reward processing, which is dysfunctional in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which testosterone levels relate to reward-related brain activity in healthy men and the extent to which this relationship may be altered in men with schizophrenia has not been determined. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure neural responses in the striatum during reward prediction-errors and hormone assays to measure testosterone and prolactin in serum. To determine if testosterone can have a direct effect on dopamine neurons, we also localized and measured androgen receptors in human midbrain with immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR. We found correlations between testosterone and prediction-error related activity in the ventral striatum of healthy men, but not in men with schizophrenia, such that testosterone increased the size of positive and negative prediction-error related activity in a valence-specific manner. We also identified midbrain dopamine neurons that were androgen receptor immunoreactive, and found that androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was positively correlated with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA in human male substantia nigra. The results suggest that sex steroid receptors can potentially influence midbrain dopamine biosynthesis, and higher levels of serum testosterone are linked to better discrimination of motivationally-relevant signals in the ventral striatum, putatively by modulation of the dopamine biosynthesis pathway via AR ligand binding. However, the normal relationship between serum testosterone and ventral striatum activity during reward learning appears to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eccentric Exercise, Kinesiology Tape, and Balance in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Simona; Folie, Ramona; Csapo, Robert; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2017-07-01

      Deficits in balance have been identified as a possible risk factor for knee injuries in athletes. Despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness, kinesiology tape (KT) is widely used to prevent knee injuries.   To investigate the influence of KT at the knee joint on balance ability in healthy men after eccentric exercise.   Crossover study.   University laboratory.   Twelve young men with no history of lower limb injury volunteered for the study (age = 23.3 ± 2.6 years). All participants were students enrolled in a sports science program.   Participants performed the balance test with and without KT at the knee joint on 2 separate days.   The ability to maintain balance was assessed during a single-legged-stance test using a computerized balance-stability test system. The test was performed before and after 30 minutes of downhill walking on a treadmill.   Eccentric exercise resulted in a deterioration of balance ability, which was attenuated by the use of KT. Further analyses revealed that the effectiveness of KT depended on the participant's balance status, with the preventive effect being greater in participants presenting with poorer baseline balance ability.   Applied to the knee joint, KT counteracted the exercise-related deterioration of balance ability observed when no tape was used. Participants presenting with below-average balance ability received more benefit from KT. By preventing exercise-related impairment of balance ability, KT might help to reduce the risk of sport-associated knee injuries.

  3. Acute sleep deprivation reduces energy expenditure in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lassen, Arne; Mahnke, Christin; Schultes, Bernd; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that chronic sleep curtailment increases risk of developing obesity, but the mechanisms behind this relation are largely unknown. We examined the influence of a single night of total sleep deprivation on morning energy expenditures and food intakes in healthy humans. According to a balanced crossover design, we examined 14 normal-weight male subjects on 2 occasions during a regular 24-h sleep-wake cycle (including 8 h of nocturnal sleep) and a 24-h period of continuous wakefulness. On the morning after regular sleep and total sleep deprivation, resting and postprandial energy expenditures were assessed by indirect calorimetry, and the free-choice food intake from an opulent buffet was tested in the late afternoon at the end of the experiment. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, norepinephrine, cortisol, thyreotropin, glucose, and insulin were repeatedly measured over the entire 24-h session. In comparison with normal sleep, resting and postprandial energy expenditures assessed on the subsequent morning were significantly reduced after sleep deprivation by ≈5% and 20%, respectively (P ghrelin concentrations (P sleep conditions were detected. Our findings show that one night of sleep deprivation acutely reduces energy expenditure in healthy men, which suggests that sleep contributes to the acute regulation of daytime energy expenditure in humans.

  4. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract.Our objective was to identify men who consistently produced high frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities (stable variants) and to determine whether healthy men with normal semen quality vary with respect to the incidence of sperm aneuploidy ...

  5. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2017-07-21

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging.

  6. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  7. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  8. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  9. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years.......To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years....

  10. Technology of making healthy and correction of build of men of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroganov S.V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Directions of search of ways of making healthy of population of mature age are considered. In an experiment 30 men took part 21-35 years. The men of experimental group conducted training on the basis of 4th of the monthly program of correction and making healthy. There was statistically meaningful divergence in the capacity of men of experimental group by comparison to the men of control group. Also in the subjective estimation of own build, feel for a day, at the end of workweek and after training. Employment on the developed technology induced the men of experimental group a greater measure to give up harmful habits.

  11. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan; Jovanov, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA administration in five healthy men and monitored the prevalence and severity of side effects of the intervention. Volunteers were supplemented daily with 36 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GAA for the first 4 wk of the intervention; afterward GAA dosage was titrated ≤60 mg/kg BW of GAA daily. At baseline, 4, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8-wk follow-up in all brain areas evaluated (P creatine pool in the human brain. This might be relevant for restoring cellular bioenergetics in disorders characterized by low brain creatine and functional enzymatic machinery for creatine synthesis, including neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, or cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, pexercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  13. Understanding Barriers to Healthy Behaviors in Black College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincey, Krista; Turner, Brian L.; Brown, Amber; Maurice, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Due to the short life expectancy of black men, it is important to understand what impacts health behaviors in this group so that interventions and programs can be developed to improve their health behaviors which may help in increasing the life expectancy of black men. The purpose of this study was to understand what perceived barriers…

  14. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  15. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  16. Relationship between penile size and somatometric parameters in 2276 healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Söylemez, H; Atar, M; Sancaktutar, A A; Penbegül, N; Bozkurt, Y; Onem, K

    The aim of this study was to determine the average penile length of a group of healthy, young Turkish men, and to investigate the relationship between penile length and somatometric parameters in the same group...

  17. The incretin effect does not differ in trained and untrained, young, healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Dalby, Sina; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    with untrained humans after oral and intravenous glucose administration. Methods: A 3½-h oral glucose tolerance test was performed in eleven trained and ten untrained, young, healthy men. On a separate day, an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion was performed matching the individual glucose concentrations...... plasma insulin concentrations found in trained compared with untrained, young, healthy men are most likely explained by lower b-cell sensitivity to glucose and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in the former group....

  18. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  19. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Statistical analysis. All results were expressed as the mean ± SD, with the range in parentheses. An unpaired Student's t test was used to analyze all .... electrolytic assessment parameters. Serum GH concentrations. Men (n = 30). Serum GH concentrations. Women (n = 34). Variable r p r p. Calcium (mmol/l).

  20. Metabolically Healthy Obesity Is Not Associated with Food Intake in White or Black Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, P K

    2015-11-01

    Healthy obese individuals may be protected against adverse health outcomes. Diet and race might influence healthy obesity, but data on their roles and interactions on the phenotype are limited. We compared the food intake of metabolically healthy obese men to those of other weight status-metabolic health phenotypes. Men (n = 4855) aged ≥ 45 y with BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) study cohort. Food intake was assessed with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. Weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intake among weight status-metabolic health phenotypes were compared with the use of linear regression. MetS-defined healthy obesity was present in 44% of white obese men and 58% of black obese men; the healthy obese phenotype, based on HOMA-IR, was equally prevalent in both white (20%) and black (21%) obese men. Among white men, MetS-defined healthy and unhealthy obesity were associated with lower wholegrain bread intake and higher consumption of red meat (P obesity were associated with lower red meat intake (P food intake in all models. Healthy obesity in men is not associated with a healthier diet. Future studies need to consider dietary patterns, which may better inform the holistic effect of diet on healthy obesity, in prospective analyses. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  2. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I.; Stenvers, Dirk J.; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W.; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. PMID:28470119

  3. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Ruth I; Stenvers, Dirk J; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Bisschop, Peter H

    2017-04-01

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the main signal indicating the onset of the diurnal phase of physical activity and food intake in humans, we hypothesized that bright light would affect glucose and lipid metabolism. Therefore, we determined the acute effects of bright light on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in 2 randomized crossover trials: (1) in 8 healthy lean men and (2) in 8 obese men with type 2 diabetes. From 0730 h, subjects were exposed to either bright light (4000 lux) or dim light (10 lux) for 5 h. After 1 h of light exposure, subjects consumed a 600-kcal mixed meal. Primary endpoints were fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In healthy men, bright light did not affect fasting or postprandial plasma glucose levels. However, bright light increased fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light increased fasting and postprandial glucose levels. In men with type 2 diabetes, bright light did not affect fasting triglyceride levels but increased postprandial triglyceride levels. We show that ambient light intensity acutely affects human plasma glucose and triglyceride levels. Our findings warrant further research into the consequences of the metabolic effects of light for the diagnosis and prevention of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia.

  4. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of active and healthy aging (AHA) in octogenarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Kirsi K; Strandberg, Timo E; Stenholm, Sari S; Strandberg, Arto Y; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Salomaa, Veikko V; Tilvis, Reijo S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate clinical and laboratory variables associated with good subjective and objective health ("active and healthy aging", AHA) in a cohort of octogenarian men. Cross-sectional analyses of a longitudinal study. The Helsinki Businessmen Study in Finland. A socioeconomically homogenous cohort of men (baseline n = 3293), born in 1919-1934, has been followed up from the 1960s. From 2000, the men have been regularly sent mailed questionnaires and mortality has been retrieved from national registers. In 2010 survey, AHA was defined as independently responding to the mailed survey, feeling happy without cognitive or functional impairments and without major diseases. In 2010/11, a random subgroup men was clinically investigated and survivors with healthy and nonhealthy aging were compared. By 2010, 1788 men of the baseline cohort had died, and 894 men responded to the mailed survey. 154 (17.2 %) of those fulfilled the present AHA criteria. Increasing number of criteria were negatively (P difference was observed in other risk factors. Men with AHA had significantly faster walking speed (P < 0.001), stronger handgrip (P = 0.017), better self-rated health and less phenotypic frailty (P = 0.02). Less than 5 % enjoyed active and healthy aging over their life course, which was significantly related to markers of frailty but not to the traditional vascular risk factors.

  5. Cardiac arrhythmias during exercise testing in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, E. F.; Owen, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    Clinically healthy male executives who participate in a long-term physical conditioning program have demonstrated cardiac arrhythmia during and after periodic ergometric testing at submaximal and maximal levels. In 1,385 tests on 248 subjects, it was found that 34% of subjects demonstrated an arrhythmia at some time and 13% of subjects developed arrhythmia on more than one test. Premature systoles of ventricular origin were most common, but premature systoles of atrial origin, premature systoles of junctional origin, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular block, wandering pacemaker, and pre-excitation were also seen. Careful post-test monitoring and pulse rate regulated training sessions are suggested for such programs.

  6. Possible metabolic impact of Ramadan fasting in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarli, Mustafa Cumhur; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Vardarli, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function during Ramadan fasting in healthy male subjects have not been investigated so far. We assessed the changes of these and other metabolic parameters to judge the potential metabolic benefits of Ramadan fasting. Twenty-four healthy males of Turkish origin living in Germany, with normal glucose tolerance, participated in this study during Ramadan of 2009; 19 who completed fasting were analyzed. Blood was drawn at sunset after a period of fasting lasting approximately 15 h on days 0, 16, and 30 of Ramadan, as well as 7 and 28 days later. Insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment, HOMA), β-cell function, and other parameters were assessed. Ramadan fasting was associated with a significant reduction (-) or increment (+) for the following variables: insulin sensitivity (-20%; P = 0.04), β-cell function (+10%; P = 0.049), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-23%; P = 0.0003), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+14%; P = 0.007), nonesterified fatty acids (-62%; P Ramadan fasting is associated with transiently impaired insulin sensitivity, compensated for by an increased β-cell function. However, the pattern of insulin resistance-mediating adipocytokines suggests a potentially beneficial metabolic effect of Ramadan fasting.

  7. Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Responses in Men with Essential Hypertension Compared with Healthy Men Based on Introversion and Extraversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Namdar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. Methods: One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50. Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Results: Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively. And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036. However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Conclusion: Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  8. Effects of music on cardiovascular responses in men with essential hypertension compared with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Hossein; Taban Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Sabourimoghaddam, Hassan; Sadeghi, Babak; Ezzati, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of two different types of music on cardiovascular responses in essential hypertensive men in comparison with healthy men based on introversion and extraversion. One hundred and thirteen hypertensive men referred to Madani Heart Hospital in Tabriz completed the NEO-FFI Questionnaire and after obtaining acceptable scores were classified in four groups: introvert patients, extravert patients, introvert healthy subjects, and extravert healthy subjects (each group with 25 samples with age range 31-50). Baseline blood pressure and heart rate of each subject was recorded without any stimulus. Then subjects were exposed to slow-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. After15 minute break, and a little cognitive task for distraction, subjects were exposed to fast-beat music and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded again. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) test showed that extravert patient subjects obtained greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert patients (P= 0.035, and P= 0.033 respectively). And extravert healthy subjects obtained greater reduction in heart rate after presenting slow-beat music compared with introvert healthy subjects (P= 0.036). However, there are no significant differences between introvert and extravert groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after presenting fast-beat music. Based on our results, introvert subjects experience negative emotions more than extravert subjects and negative emotions cause less change in blood pressure in these subjects compared with extravert subjects.

  9. Postural differences in hemodynamics and diastolic function in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, James C; Lalande, Sophie; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Johnson, Bruce D

    2007-04-01

    The shift from upright to supine posture increases stroke volume in healthy young adults, primarily through increased end-diastolic volume. Aging is associated with increased ventricular stiffness and impaired diastolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the stroke volume change between the upright and supine posture was blunted in healthy older men and whether the early mitral inflow response to this postural change was reduced by aging. Pulsed Doppler echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging were used to assess stroke volume and left ventricular function during upright and supine posture in 10 young and 12 older healthy men. Cardiac output was greater in the supine versus upright condition in both groups. In young men supine posture was associated with a large increment in stroke volume (63.1 +/- 7.2 upright to 98.6 +/- 11.7 ml supine; P older men, the stroke volume increment was smaller (63.9 +/- 3.6 upright to 82.0 +/- 5.7 ml supine; P posture. Increased stroke volume was associated with higher peak early diastolic filling velocity (E) in young men and higher peak late diastolic filling velocity (A) in older men. These findings indicate that healthy aging attenuates the increase in early filling associated with moving from an upright to a supine posture. Furthermore, healthy older men are more dependent upon atrial diastolic filling to augment end-diastolic and stroke volume, which may be due to age-associated increases in left ventricular filling pressure and impaired compliance.

  10. Phthalate Excretion Pattern and Testicular Function: A Study of 881 Healthy Danish Men

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Background: In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. Objectives: We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. Methods: A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-b...

  11. Metabolism of injected barium in six healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, D.; Harrison, G.E.; Kang, C.; Warner, A.J. (AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell Laboratory, Oxon (England))

    1991-08-01

    Data are presented on the early metabolism and long-term retention of 133Ba (half-life 10.74 y) injected into six healthy male volunteers at ages 25-81 y. The tracer appeared to be mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP's model of alkaline earth metabolism. Excretion was mainly fecal, the relative fecal: urinary clearance up to 14 d ranging from 6 to 15 in the six subjects. The whole-body retention at 50 d (mean 8%, range 4.5 to 12%) was similar to that inferred from published data on the retention of injected Ra in man (mean 7%, range 3-13%). For about 1 y thereafter, the retention of Ba could be represented by simple power functions of time, with the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate inferred over the first 4 d. In the subject aged 81 y, the pattern differed from that established following an earlier injection at age 60, but the differences were not necessarily related to advancing age.

  12. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Henrik; Rognmo, Øivind; Saltin, Bengt; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20) were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years) and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (sex differences, pexercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women.

  14. Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Winzell, Maria Sörhede

    2008-01-01

    integrated incretin and islet hormone responses to ingestion of pure fat (oleic acid; 0.88 g/kg) or protein (milk and egg protein; 2 g/kg) over 5 h in healthy men, aged 20-25 yr (n=12); plain water ingestion served as control. Both intact (active) and total GLP-1 and GIP levels were determined as was plasma...

  15. Acute and chronic effects of dinner with alcoholic beverages on nitric oxide metabolites in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The present study investigated the acute and chronic effect of dinner with alcoholic beverages on serum nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, namely nitrate and nitrite (NOx), in 11 healthy, non-smoking middle-aged men. 2. In a randomized, diet-controlled, cross-over trial, subjects consumed dinner with

  16. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid does not accumulate in the brain of healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostojic, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of a previously completed trial to determine the effects of 8-week guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) loading on brain GAA levels in five healthy men. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was taken at baseline and post-administration, with spectra additionally ...

  17. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars Grøndahl; Suetta, Charlotte Arneboe; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 4 days of disuse (knee brace) on contractile function of isolated vastus lateralis fibers (n=486) from 11 young (24.3+/-0.9 yrs) and 11 old (67.2+/-1.0 yrs) healthy men having comparable levels of physical activity. Prior to disuse single...

  18. Coronary endothelial function is better in healthy premenopausal women than in healthy older postmenopausal women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Mathews

    Full Text Available Premenopausal women have fewer cardiovascular disease (CVD events than postmenopausal women and age-matched men, but the reasons are not fully understood. Coronary endothelial function (CEF, a barometer of coronary vascular health, promises important insights into age and sex differences in atherosclerotic CVD risk, but has not been well characterized in healthy individuals because of the invasive nature of conventional CEF measurements. Recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI methods were used to quantify CEF (coronary area and flow changes in response to isometric handgrip exercise (IHE, an endothelial-dependent stressor to test the hypothesis that healthy women have better CEF compared to men particularly at a younger age.The study participants were 50 healthy women and men with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD or traditional CV risk factors and Agatston coronary calcium score (on prior CT <10 for those ≥ 50 years. Coronary cross-sectional area (CSA measurements and flow-velocity encoded images (CBF were obtained at baseline and during continuous IHE using 3T breath-hold cine MRI-IHE. CEF (%change in CSA and CBF with IHE comparisons were made according to age and sex, and all women ≥50 years were post-menopausal.In the overall population, there were no differences in CEF between men and women. However, when stratified by age and sex the mean changes in CSA and CBF during IHE were higher in younger premenopausal women than older postmenopausal women (%CSA: 15.2±10.6% vs. 7.0±6.8%, p = 0.03 and %CBF: 59.0±37.0% vs. 30.5±24.5% p = 0.02. CBF change was also nearly two-fold better in premenopausal women than age-matched men (59.0±37.0% vs. 33.6±12.3%, p = 0.03.Premenopausal women have nearly two-fold better mean CEF compared to postmenopausal women. CEF, measured by CBF change is also better in premenopausal women than age-matched men but there are no sex differences in CEF after menopause. Fundamental age and sex

  19. Healthy Eating and Active Living: Rural-Based Working Men's Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Johnson, Steven T; Healy, Theresa; Lamont, Sonia; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally

    2017-11-01

    There is a pressing need for health promotion programs focused on increasing healthy eating and active living among "unreached" rural-based men. The purpose of the current study was to describe rural-based working men's views about health to distil acceptable workplace approaches to promoting men's healthy lifestyles. Two focus group interviews included 21 men who worked and lived in northern British Columbia, Canada. Interviews were approximately 2 hours in duration; data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes inductively derived included (a) food as quick filling fuels, (b) work strength and recreational exercise, and (c) (re)working masculine health norms. Participants positioned foods as quick filling fuels both at work and home as reflecting time constraints and the need to bolster energy levels. In the theme work strength and recreational exercise, men highlighted the physical labor demands pointing to the need to be resilient in overcoming the subarctic climate and/or work fatigue in order to fit in exercise. In the context of workplace health promotion programs for men, participants advised how clear messaging and linkages between health and work performance and productivity and cultivating friendly competition among male employees were central to reworking, as well as working, with established masculine health norms. Overall, the study findings indicate that the workplace can be an important means to reaching men in rural communities and promoting healthy eating and active living. That said, the development of workplace programs should be guided by strength-based masculine virtues and values that proactively embrace work and family life.

  20. DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological measurements were performed before, directly after the stress test and after 30 mins of recovery. In both men and women, significantly elevated DHEA and DHEA-S levels were observed in response to the stressor. There was a large inter-individual variation in the magnitude of the response, especially for DHEA but no statistical difference between men and women. Magnitude of the change in the levels of DHEA was found to be positively associated with the magnitude of the changes in ACTH, cortisol and heart rate. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the capacity to secrete DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress declines with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklianou Stella A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS, as well as postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial lipemia after oral fat tolerance test (OFTT in subjects with MetS and compare them to hypertensive (HTN and healthy subjects. Results OFTT was given to 33 men with MetS (defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III, 17 HTN and 14 healthy men. The MetS group was further divided according to fasting triglycerides (TG into TG ≥ 150 [MetS+TG, (n = 22] or The postprandial response was significantly higher in MetS compared to HTN and healthy men [AUC (SD in mg/dl/h; 2534 ± 1016 vs. 1620 ± 494 and 1019 ± 280, respectively, p ≤ 0.001]. The TG levels were increased significantly in MetS+TG compared to MetS-TG subjects at 4 (p = 0.022, 6 (p Conclusion Fasting TG concentration is the main determinant of postprandial lipemia. However, an exaggeration of TG postprandialy was found in normotriglyceridemic MetS and HTN compared to healthy subjects. This suggests that intervention to lower fasting TG levels should be recommended in MetS subjects.

  2. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in healthy older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan P.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Randolph, Brittney J.; Heffernan, Matthew J.; Leuenberger, Urs A.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as “hypoxia‐induced vasodilation”. We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia‐induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia‐induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia‐induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. PMID:25052494

  3. Risk factors for low BMD in healthy men age 50 years or older: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A; Kennedy, C C; Cranney, A; Hawker, G; Brown, J P; Kaiser, S M; Leslie, W D; O'Brien, C J M; Sawka, A M; Khan, A; Siminoski, K; Tarulli, G; Webster, D; McGowan, J; Adachi, J D

    2009-04-01

    In this systematic review, we summarize risk factors for low bone mineral density and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. Consistent risk factors were: age, smoking, low weight, physical/functional limitations, and previous fracture. Data specific to men has clinical and policy implications. Osteoporosis is a significant health care problem in men as well as women, yet the majority of evidence on diagnosis and management of osteoporosis is focused on postmenopausal women. The objective of this systematic review is to examine risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss in healthy men age 50 years or older. A systematic search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Embase, Health STAR. The three main search concepts were bone density, densitometry, and risk factors. Trained reviewers assessed articles using a priori criteria. Of 642 screened abstracts, 299 articles required a full review, and 25 remained in the final assessment. Consistent risk factors for low BMD/bone loss were: advancing age, smoking, and low weight/weight loss. Although less evidence was available, physical/functional limitations and prevalent fracture (after age 50) were also associated with low BMD/bone loss. The evidence was inconsistent or weak for physical activity, alcohol consumption, calcium intake, muscle strength, family history of fracture/osteoporosis, and height/height loss. In this systematic review, we identified several risk factors for low BMD/bone loss in men that are measurable in primary practice.

  4. Assessment of Fat distribution and Bone quality with Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in Healthy Chinese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Lv; Aisen Zhang; Wenjuan Di; Yunlu Sheng; Peng Cheng; Hanmei Qi; Juan Liu; Jing Yu; Guoxian Ding; Jinmei Cai; Bin Lai

    2016-01-01

    Whether fat is beneficial or detrimental to bones is still controversial, which may be due to inequivalence of the fat mass. Our objective is to define the effect of body fat and its distribution on bone quality in healthy Chinese men. A total of 228 men, aged from 38 to 89 years, were recruited. BMD, trabecular bone score (TBS), and body fat distribution were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were assessed by MRI. In the Pearson correlation analysis,...

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and...... output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work......./or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose...

  6. The effect of farmed trout on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Madsen, Birgitte Overgaard; Bügel, Susanne H.

    2010-01-01

    was to examine the effect of farmed trout on novel and traditional CVD risk markers in healthy men, and to evaluate whether this was affected by the aquacultural feed regime. We performed a parallel, 8-week intervention study in which sixty-eight healthy male volunteers were randomised to consume either a daily...... meal with 150 g farmed trout raised on either marine or vegetable-based feed, or a reference meal containing 150 g chicken. Twenty-four hour BP, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC), and concentrations of TAG, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose...

  7. Healthy lifestyle status, antihypertensive treatment and the risk of heart failure among Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2013-11-01

    To compare the association between antihypertensive drug treatment and heart failure (HF) risk with the association between engaging in a healthy lifestyle and HF risk. We prospectively investigated the single and joint associations of lifestyle factors and awareness, treatment, blood pressure control status with HF risk among 38 075 Finns, who were 25-74 years old and free of HF at baseline. During a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 638 men and 445 women developed HF. Engaging in a healthy lifestyle was associated with an decreased risk of HF. Compared with normotensive people, hypertensive patients with and without antihypertensive treatment had a higher risk of HF. Hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs but did not engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF [HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.21] than hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drugs but engaged in a healthy lifestyle. In addition, compared with hypertensive patients who used antihypertensive drugs and engaged in a healthy lifestyle, hypertensive patients who did not use antihypertensive drug or engage in a healthy lifestyle had a significantly higher risk of HF (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24-1.95). The present study demonstrates that HF risk was lower in hypertensive patients who engaged in a healthy lifestyle but higher in hypertensive people using antihypertensive drug treatment.

  8. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Some epidemiological observations indicate that 1 to 2 weekly servings of fish prevent ischemic heart disease (IHD). This might be explained by an effect of the very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 VLCPUFA) of fish oil on lipid metabolism and/or the hemostatic system, both involved...... VLCPUFA effect that could contribute to primary prevention of IHD in healthy middle-aged men as assessed by currently measurable lipid and hemostatic risk markers. Udgivelsesdato: 1997-Dec...

  9. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Yan; Wu, Chi-Qiu; Liu, Wei-Xing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chun-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity bursae are very vulnerable to injury during strenuous physical exercises. Understanding the imaging characteristics of normal bursae is essential for early diagnosis of morphological abnormalities. Therefore, we evaluated the normal range of lower extremity bursae in healthy young men using high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) imaging. Methods: Bursae in the lower extremities were examined by HR-US in 290 Chinese healthy young men with a median age of 18 years (range, 18–23 years). The bilateral suprapatellar bursa (SPB), deep infrapatellar bursa (DIPB), popliteal bursa (PB), and retrocalcaneal bursa (RCB) were imaged and measured for analysis. Results: The HR-US identification rates of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were 89.0% (517/580), 55.0% (319/580), 29.4% (171/580), and 49.5% (287/580), respectively. With the assumption that the bursae were normal in 95% of the study participants, the length and width values at the maximal cross-section of the SPB, DIPB, PB, and RCB were ≤18.00 and 6.09 mm, 8.10 and 2.11 mm, 7.67 and 3.93 mm, and 7.82 and 2.04 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity. PMID:26831233

  10. Lower cardiac vagal tone in non-obese healthy men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio S. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m², healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications, aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old. Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype, a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles - unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005, sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037 and waist circumference (p<0.001. In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023, while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  11. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C.D.; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S. L.; Broman, J-E; Schi?th, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. Method A total of 16?healthy normal-weight men participated in 2?conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30?h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning ...

  12. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  13. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, Joachim; Winkler, Karl; Bode, Christian J; Schäfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    So far, little is known about the effect of nutrition and lifestyle on the composition of circulating lipoprotein subfractions. In the current study, we measured the correlations among physical activity, nutrient intake, smoking, body-mass index (BMI), and age with the concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small,...

  14. Lower Cardiac Vagal Tone in Non-Obese Healthy Men with Unfavorable Anthropometric Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio S.; Araújo, Claudio Gil S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI somatotype), a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles – unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005), sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037) and waist circumference (p<0.001). In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023), while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:20126345

  15. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels than men (P cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting heart rate predicts metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy non-obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Eiji; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2014-02-01

    Autonomic nervous dysfunction is considered to be one of the mechanisms of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study is to investigate whether resting heart rate, a marker of autonomic nervous dysfunction, is a predictor of MetS in apparently healthy non-obese [body mass index (BMI) healthy Japanese 1,265 men and 793 women without MetS and with no history of cardiovascular disease and no use of antihypertensive, antidiabetic, or antihyperlipidemic medication at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) of incident MetS were calculated for each 1 SD increase in heart rate stratified by gender and obesity. Incidence of MetS for each tertile of heart rate and HRs of MetS for the highest tertile (T3) compared with the lowest tertile (T1) were calculated stratified by gender and obesity. The HRs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of MetS for each 1 SD increase in heart rate were 1.319 (1.035-1.681) (p = 0.025) in non-obese men, 1.172 (0.825-1.665) (p = 0.377) in obese men, 1.115 (0.773-1.608) (p = 0.560) in non-obese women, and 1.401 (0.944-2.078) (p = 0.094) in obese women adjusted for BMI, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. The HRs (95% CIs) of MetS for T3 were 2.138 (1.071-4.269) (p = 0.031) in non-obese men and 1.341 (0.565-3.180) (p = 0.506) in obese men adjusted for pre-existing five components of MetS, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. In conclusion, an increase in resting heart rate was a significant predictor of MetS in non-obese Japanese men.

  17. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gawron-Skarbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax. Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37±0.28 versus 1.27±0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P<0.05 but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA. Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations.

  19. Promoting fit bodies, healthy eating and physical activity among Indigenous Australian men: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricciardelli Lina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall the physical health of Indigenous men is among the worst in Australia. Research has indicated that modifiable lifestyle factors, such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity, appear to contribute strongly to these poor health conditions. To effectively develop and implement strategies to improve the health of Australia's Indigenous peoples, a greater understanding is needed of how Indigenous men perceive health, and how they view and care for their bodies. Further, a more systematic understanding of how sociocultural factors affect their health attitudes and behaviours is needed. This article presents the study protocol of a community-based investigation into the factors surrounding the health and body image of Indigenous Australian men. Methods and design The study will be conducted in a collaborative manner with Indigenous Australian men using a participatory action research framework. Men will be recruited from three locations around Australia (metropolitan, regional, and rural and interviewed to understand their experiences and perspectives on a number of issues related to health and health behaviour. The information that is collected will be analysed using modified grounded theory and thematic analysis. The results will then be used to develop and implement community events in each location to provide feedback on the findings to the community, promote health enhancing strategies, and determine future action and collaboration. Discussion This study will explore both risk and protective factors that affect the health of Indigenous Australian men. This knowledge will be disseminated to the wider Indigenous community and can be used to inform future health promotion strategies. The expected outcome of this study is therefore an increased understanding of health and health change in Indigenous Australian men, the development of strategies that promote healthy eating and positive patterns of physical activity and, in

  20. The epidemiology of oral HPV infection among a multinational sample of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimee R; Villa, Alessandro; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Smith, Danelle; Hildesheim, Allan; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-01-01

    Oral human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV16) infection is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. We examined oral HPV infection among healthy men. Oral rinse/gargle specimens and questionnaire data were collected from 1,688 healthy men aged 18 to 74 (median = 31 years), from the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 59, and noncarcinogenic HPV types were detected using Roche Linear Array. Oral HPV DNA was detected in 67 of 1,680 (4.0%, 95% CI = 3.1%-5.0%) β-globin-positive specimens; carcinogenic HPVs were detected in 1.3% (95% CI = 0.8%-2.0%; n = 22) and HPV16 was the most commonly detected carcinogenic HPV type (0.6%, 95% CI = 0.2%-1.1%; n = 10). The prevalence of oral HPV infection was similar by country except for HPV55, which had notably higher prevalence in Mexico (3.0%) than Brazil (0%) or the United States (0.2%). Oral HPV prevalence nonsignificantly increased over increasing age categories (P(trend) = 0.096). The strongest predictor of oral HPV was current tobacco use, which increased the odds 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.4-4.4). Oral sexual behaviors were not associated with oral HPV infection. Oral HPV16 infection was rare in healthy men, especially at younger ages, and was positively associated with current tobacco use. Oral HPV appears to be about 10-fold less prevalent than infection at genital sites in men (4% vs. ∼40%, respectively). It remains unclear whether this reflects reduced exposure or if the oral region is more resistant to HPV infection compared with anogenital sites. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia2, Brice Faraut1,2, Patricia Stenuit1, Maria José Esposito1,2, Michal Dyzma1,2, Dany Brohée2, Jean Ducobu2, Michel Vanhaeverbeek2, Myriam Kerkhofs1,21Sleep Laboratory; 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine (ULB 222 Unit, CHU de Charleroi Vésale Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Montigny-le-Tilleul, BelgiumObjectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men.Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group.Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/µl, p = 0.03, and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/µl, p = 0.01 was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group.Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.Keywords: sleep restriction, men, cardiovascular risk, cholesterol, neutrophils

  2. Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan P; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Randolph, Brittney J; Heffernan, Matthew J; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as "hypoxia-induced vasodilation". We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia-induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia-induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Childhood enuresis is associated with shorter intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Ahmet; Halis, Fikret

    2013-06-01

    In our previous study we showed that there was a significant increase in the prevalence of monosymptomatic enuresis among lifelong premature ejaculators. In this study we compared the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of men with and without a history of monosymptomatic enuresis, and determined the association between the severity and duration of monosymptomatic enuresis and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in healthy men. Between March and September 2012 we designed a prospective study in 49 healthy men who had a history of monosymptomatic enuresis and in age matched 49 control cases without a history of monosymptomatic enuresis. All subjects were asked about their history of monosymptomatic enuresis. Each subject was then evaluated using the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and asked to measure their intravaginal ejaculatory latency times with their female sexual partner using a calibrated stopwatch. Men with a history of monosymptomatic enuresis and control cases had a mean age of 33.6 (SD 4.7, range 25 to 43) and 33.8 (SD 5.4, range 25 to 48) years, respectively (p = 0.97). Mean/median intravaginal ejaculatory latency times of men with and without a history of monosymptomatic enuresis were 196.9/126.2 and 426.6/343.2 seconds, respectively (p enuresis were 7.1/6 and 2.3/2, respectively (p enuresis history, duration and severity (p enuresis is significantly shorter than that of controls. We have also shown that there is a strong negative correlation between having a history of monosymptomatic enuresis and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Loe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide a large reference material on aerobic fitness and exercise physiology data in a healthy population of Norwegian men and women aged 20-90 years. METHODS: Maximal and sub maximal levels of VO2, heart rate, oxygen pulse, and rating of perceived exertion (Borg scale: 6-20 were measured in 1929 men and 1881 women during treadmill running. RESULTS: The highest VO2max and maximal heart rate among men and women were observed in the youngest age group (20-29 years and was 54.4±8.4 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 and 43.0±7.7 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 (sex differences, p<0.001 and 196±10 beats·min(-1 and 194±9 beats·min(-1 (sex differences, p<0.05, respectively, with a subsequent reduction of approximately 3.5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1 and 6 beats·min(-1 per decade. The highest oxygen pulses were observed in the 3 youngest age groups (20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years among men and women; 22.3 mL·beat(-1±3.6 and 14.7 mL·beat(-1±2.7 (sex differences, p<0.001, respectively, with no significant difference between these age groups. After the age of 50 we observed an 8% reduction per decade among both sexes. Borg scores appear to give a good estimate of the relative exercise intensity, although observing a slightly different relationship than reported in previous reference material from small populations. CONCLUSION: This is the largest European reference material of objectively measured parameters of aerobic fitness and exercise-physiology in healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, forming the basis for an easily accessible, valid and understandable tool for improved training prescription in healthy men and women.

  5. Healthy eating and survival among elderly men with and without cardiovascular-metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, F P C; Soedamah-Muthu, S S; de Hoon, S E M; Jacobs, D R; Kromhout, D

    2015-12-01

    The strength of the associations of dietary scores with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in elderly vary considerably between a priori scores. To assess whether healthy eating lowers the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality among elderly men. The Zutphen Elderly Study (age 65-84 years) was divided into men with (n = 210) and without (n = 616) cardiovascular-metabolic diseases at baseline in 1985. Diet was assessed with the cross-check dietary history method. We created the "Dutch Healthy Nutrient and Food Score" (DHNaFS) and the "Dutch Undesirable Nutrient and Food Score" (DUNaFS). Associations of the scores with CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable Cox regression models. Associations of scores with life years gained used general linear models. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years (IQR 5.8-15.9) 806 participants died, of whom 359 from CVD. In all men, diet scores did not predict death. Among men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases, DHNaFS was associated with lower CVD (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35-0.93) and all-cause mortality risk (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.94) comparing the highest vs. the lowest score tertiles. Men with cardiovascular-metabolic diseases in the highest vs. the lowest tertile of the DHNaFS lived approximately 2.5 years longer. The DHNaFS was not associated with CVD and all-cause mortality in men without cardiovascular-metabolic diseases. The DUNaFS was not associated with any of the outcomes. A high quality diet was associated with a 40% lower mortality risk and 2.5 years longer life expectancy in elderly men with, but not without, cardiovascular-metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low density lipoprotein subclasses and response to a low-fat diet in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.; Dreon, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-11-01

    Lipid and lipoprotein response to reduced dietary fat intake was investigated in relation to differences in distribution of LDL subclasses among 105 healthy men consuming high-fat (46%) and low-fat (24%) diets in random order for six weeks each. On high-fat, 87 subjects had predominantly large, buoyant LDL as measured by gradient gel electrophoresis and confirmed by analytic ultracentrifugation (pattern A), while the remainder had primarily smaller, denser LDL (pattern B). On low-fat, 36 men changed from pattern A to B. Compared with the 51 men in the stable A group, men in the stable B group (n = 18) had a three-fold greater reduction in LDL cholesterol and significantly greater reductions in plasma apoB and mass of intermediate (LDL II) and small (LDL III) LDL subtractions measured by analytic ultracentrifugation. In both stable A and change groups, reductions in LDL-cholesterol were not accompanied by reduced plasma apoB, consistent with the observation of a shift in LDL particle mass from larger, lipid-enriched (LDL I and II) to smaller, lipid-depleted (LDL III and IV) subfractions, without significant change in particle number. Genetic and environmental factors influencing LDL subclass distributions thus may also contribute substantially to interindividual variation in response to a low-fat diet.

  7. Healthy lifestyle behaviours and cardiovascular mortality among Japanese men and women: the Japan collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Eri; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tanabe, Naohito; Wada, Yasuhiko; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2012-02-01

    To examine the combined impacts of healthy lifestyle behaviours on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asians. A total of 18 747 men and 24 263 women aged 40-79 without a history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) at baseline in 1988-90 were followed up until 2006. Participants scored one point for each following lifestyle behaviour: consumption of fruits ≥1 intake per day, fish ≥1 intake per day, milk almost every day, exercise ≥5 h per week and/or walking ≥1 h per day, body mass index (BMI) of 21-25 kg/m(2), alcohol intake lifestyle score category was one-third in men and one-fourth in women of those in the lowest scores, suggesting that a large fraction of CVD could be prevented through lifestyle modification.

  8. Intercorrelations of lipoprotein subfractions and their covariation with lifestyle factors in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Eckoldt, Joachim; Winkler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (ApoA1, ApoA2 and ApoB) in subfractions of LDL and HDL in 265 healthy working men. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB in small, dense atherogenic LDL particles (sdLDL) correlated negatively (pcholesterol......, phospholipids, and ApoA1 in HDL2, respectively. Age correlated positively with sdLDL while increasing BMI correlated with an atherogenic shift of cholesterol, phospholipids, and ApoB from large, buoyant LDL (lbLDL) to sdLDL and decreasing concentrations of HDL2 constituents. Physical activity and alcohol intake...... correlated negatively with sdLDL constituents and positively with HDL2 components. Consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) correlated with a lower ratio of sdLDL to HDL2 cholesterol. A favorable lipoprotein subfraction profile linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in men was associated...

  9. Abscess Formation after Septic Arthritis in the Sternoclavicular Joint of Two Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jeppe; Tang, Mariann; Hjortdal, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Abscess formation after septic arthritis in the sternoclavicular joint is a rare phenomenon in healthy people without immune suppression, intravenous drug abuse, or diabetes. Here we report two cases with formation of abscess in two middle-aged men, with no relevant comorbidities and no obvious...... sites of infection. The abscesses were both treated surgically with debridement followed by negative pressure wound therapy and antibiotics. The cases differ in diagnostic procedures and delay of diagnosis and broach the issues of handling a rare disease....

  10. Abscess Formation after Septic Arthritis in the Sternoclavicular Joint of Two Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Henriksen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscess formation after septic arthritis in the sternoclavicular joint is a rare phenomenon in healthy people without immune suppression, intravenous drug abuse, or diabetes. Here we report two cases with formation of abscess in two middle-aged men, with no relevant comorbidities and no obvious sites of infection. The abscesses were both treated surgically with debridement followed by negative pressure wound therapy and antibiotics. The cases differ in diagnostic procedures and delay of diagnosis and broach the issues of handling a rare disease.

  11. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G.; Mendes, Renata G.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) ...

  12. Effect of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortiz, Manuel; Pascoe-González, Sara; Kam-Ramos, Angélica M; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of a low dose of tequila on homocysteine, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic profile in healthy young men. An open clinical trial was carried out in eight healthy nonobese, young male volunteers. The study was divided in two phases. The first one evaluated metabolic changes, including insulin secretion and sensitivity due to acute administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. The second phase of the study evaluated metabolic effects due to the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days. There were no significant metabolic changes after the single oral administration of 30 ml of straight tequila. After the administration of tequila during 30 days, a significant increase in homocysteine levels and a tendency to increase the glucose concentration and to decrease the insulin sensitivity were found. Detrimental metabolic changes were observed with the daily administration of 30 ml of tequila during 30 days.

  13. The effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; Ismail, Mohammad; Baker, Alicia; Blair, Jason; Adebayo, Adeboye; Kelly, Liam; Chandurkar, Vikram; Cheema, Sukhinder; Joanisse, Denis R; Basset, Fabien A

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting (RF) on substrate oxidation, energy production, blood lipids and glucose as well as body composition. Nine healthy Muslim men (fasting (FAST) group) and eight healthy non-practicing men (control (CNT) group) were assessed pre- and post-RF. FAST were additionally assessed at days 10, 20 and 30 of RF in the morning and evening. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry, substrate oxidation and energy production by indirect calorimetry, blood metabolic profile by biochemical analyses and energy balance by activity tracker recordings and food log analyses. A significant group×time interaction revealed that chronic RF reduced body mass and adiposity in FAST, without changing lean mass, whereas CNT subjects remained unchanged. In parallel to these findings, a significant main diurnal effect (morning v. evening) of RF on substrate oxidation (a shift towards lipid oxidation) and blood metabolic profile (a decrease in glucose and an increase in total cholesterol and TAG levels, respectively) was observed, which did not vary over the course of the Ramadan. In conclusion, although RF induces diurnal metabolic adjustments (morning v. evening), no carryover effect was observed throughout RF despite the extended daily fasting period (18·0 (sd 0·3) h) and changes in body composition.

  14. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pmetabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  15. Determination of the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Betina; Gilbert, Erin; Turki, Abrar; Madden, Kenneth; Elango, Rajavel

    2016-07-01

    Leucine, a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and thus has been proposed to prevent age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Therefore, leucine supplementation may have potential benefits in elderly populations to preserve muscle mass. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine intake in young men has recently been determined to be 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1), and increases in blood ammonia concentrations were seen at intake levels above 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1); the UL for leucine in elderly is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the safety of leucine supplementation in healthy elderly men. Six healthy elderly men (72.2 ± 3.5 years) received graded stepwise increases in leucine intakes ranging from 50 to 750 mg kg(-1) day(-1), on eight separate study days. Plasma and urinary biochemical variables, including blood ammonia, and an oral primed-continuous protocol of L-1-(13)C-Leucine was performed. Blood ammonia concentrations above normal values (35 µmol/L) were observed at leucine intakes >550 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Leucine oxidation measured as a F(13)CO2 (rate of label tracer oxidation) increased with increasing leucine intakes and started to plateau after 450 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Two-phased linear regression analysis of the F(13)CO2 data revealed a breakpoint of 431 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (R (2) = 0.73), suggesting that the upper limit to oxidize leucine was reached at that point. Taking the data together the upper limit for leucine intake in healthy elderly could be set similar to young men at 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or ~35 g/day for an individual weighing 70 kg.

  16. Less healthy dietary pattern is associated with smoking in Korean men according to nationally representative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang-Yeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation.

  17. Association between left-handedness and cardiac autonomic function in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcen, Sinan; Özenç, Salim; Tavlasoglu, Urat

    2014-07-01

    Effects of nonright-handedness on risk for sudden death associated with coronary artery disease via sympathetic imbalance contributed to ventricular arrhythmogenesis previously have been demonstrated. This study hypothesized that left-handedness might be associated with cardiac autonomic functions in healthy young men. The aim of this study was to examine the association between left-handedness and cardiac autonomic functions in healthy young men. A total of 992 asymptomatic young male subjects underwent routine health checkup between May 2012 and July 2013, and were included in this study. All were submitted to a standard protocol that included a complete clinical examination, laboratory evaluation, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and 2D-echocardiogram. Fifty-two subjects were left-handed; 32 subjects had abnormal QRS-T angle. Statistical analyses were performed using statistical package SPSS 15.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and statistical significance was assessed at the two-tailed 0.05 threshold. A total of 52 (5%) subjects were left-handed; 32 (3%) subjects had an abnormal frontal QRS-T angle. The mean age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, current smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, platelet count, and echocardiographic parameters were not different between two groups. But subjects with left-handedness had greater prevalence of abnormal QRS-T angle. The left-handedness group had 18 subjects with abnormal QRS-T angle (34%) and the right-handedness group had 14 subjects with abnormal QRS-T angle (1.4%). The difference between two groups was significant (P left-handedness and abnormal QRS-T angle in healthy young subjects. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ‘BIG, HARD and UP!’ A healthy creed for men to live by?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Van der Watt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social construction of reality is influenced extensively by the mass media. Commercialised images of masculinity, including discourses to interpret it, are continuously reflected and/or created by sources of mass media, in a myriad of ways. These images are subjectively loaded, but still effectively communicate to us, and even entice and persuade us. It furthermore wields extensive power over men – especially over their self-images, passions, and egos. In this article, dominating images and discourses concerning manhood and male identity – particularly those displayed in men’s health magazines (MHM – were critically examined. This was done through a thematic analysis of 123 issues (spanning more than 10 years of MHM cover pages. The investigation showed that MHM is infused with traditional masculine ideology. Moreover, MHM fails to confront discourses that endorse hegemonic masculinity, for the sake of holistic health. It was suggested that a sober, precautionary, health strategy should challenge men to critically engage with MHM’s reigning creed: ‘big, hard and up’. This creed incites a utilitarian view of sexuality within a culture of performance-driven masculinity, which subsequently fuels anxieties that can lead to unhealthy issues, such as body image dissatisfaction. From a pastoral care perspective, it was asserted that (specifically Christian men need to search for alternative ways to instigate their capacity to experience and facilitate authentic intimacy, in order to work toward the social construction of more balanced and healthy discourses on male identity. Keywords:Masculinity/Masculinities; Men's Health; Male Sexuality; Embodiment; Pastoral Care Perspective

  19. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exton, M S; Krüger, T H; Bursch, N; Haake, P; Knapp, W; Schedlowski, M; Hartmann, U

    2001-11-01

    This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted for each participant twice, both before and after a 3-week period of sexual abstinence. Plasma was subsequently analysed for concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and testosterone concentrations. Orgasm increased blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines and prolactin. These effects were observed both before and after sexual abstinence. In contrast, although plasma testosterone was unaltered by orgasm, higher testosterone concentrations were observed following the period of abstinence. These data demonstrate that acute abstinence does not change the neuroendocrine response to orgasm but does produce elevated levels of testosterone in males.

  1. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  2. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K

    2017-01-01

    receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145...... and neocortex). We tested whether testosterone and estradiol predict global 5-HT4R, adjusting for age. We found that testosterone, but not estradiol, correlated negatively with global 5-HT4R levels (p=0.02) suggesting that men with high levels of testosterone have higher cerebral serotonergic tonus. Our...... findings corroborate the link between sex hormone levels and serotonin signalling. Future longitudinal studies in clinical relevant populations are needed to elucidate the potential importance of testosterone in the pathophysiology of e.g. major depression and its treatment....

  3. Comparison of the effects of labetalol and propranolol in healthy men at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D A; Woodings, E P; Maconochie, J G

    1977-01-01

    1. Oral labeltalol and propranolol have been compared in healthy men with regard to the effects on heart rate, blood pressure and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at rest and the changes induced by exercise. 2. Labetalol caused a dose-related reduction in standing diastolic pressure at rest whereas propranolol did not but neither drug altered standing systolic pressure at rest. 3. In the doses compared, propranolol was consistently more potent than labetalol in influencing blood pressure changes induced by exercise, in lowering heart rate at rest and reducing PEFR at rest. 4. Labetalol and propranolol are both beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists and the observed differences in the profiles of the two drugs are probably directly related to the additional alpha-adrenoreceptor blocking property of labetalol not possessed by propranolol. Because of these differences labetalol may be expected to have advantages in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:843418

  4. Similar Reference Intervals for Total Testosterone in Healthy Young and Elderly Men. Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Wraae, K; Nielsen, Torben Leo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Aging in men is associated with changes in levels of sex hormones. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in sex hormones in young and elderly men and the significance of comorbidity and fat mass on sex hormones in elderly men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. PATIENTS: 783 men aged 20-29 years...... and 600 men aged 60-74 years randomly recruited from the background population. MEASUREMENTS: Sex hormones and SHBG were measured, and reference intervals were determined in healthy individuals in both groups and in elderly men stratified according to whether they were obese or lean (waist......-circumference ≥102cm). RESULTS: Sex hormones were lower and SHBG higher in elderly men compared to the young cohort. Lower cut-offs for TT in healthy, young and elderly men were similar (Lower cut-off (95%CI): Young: 11.7 (11.2-12.1) vs. elderly: 11.2 (10.3-12.1) nmol/l), but lower and higher cut-offs of BT and FT...

  5. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  6. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  7. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C D; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S L; Broman, J-E; Schiöth, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29 %). Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD. One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.

  8. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Douglas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080, with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined. TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035, while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007. No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05. Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.

  9. Moderate-intensity endurance training improves endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P Training led to a decrease (P training did not induce a significant increase in basal nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration (P > 0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology

  10. Relation between exercise central haemodynamic response and resting cardiac structure and function in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Matthew C; Lefferts, Wesley K; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) structure and function are predictors of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and are related to resting peripheral haemodynamic load in older adults. The central haemodynamic response to exercise may reveal associations with LV structure and function not detected by traditional peripheral (brachial) measures in a younger population. To examine correlations between acute exercise-induced changes in central artery stiffness and wave reflections and measures of resting LV structure and function. Sixteen healthy men (age 26 ± 6 year; BMI 25·3 ± 2·7 kg m-2 ) had measures of central haemodynamic load measured before/after a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAT). Common carotid artery stiffness and reflected wave intensity were assessed via wave intensity analysis as a regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and negative area (NA), respectively. Resting LV structure (LV mass) and function [midwall fractional shortening (mFS)] were assessed using M-mode echocardiography in the parasternal short-axis view. There was a significant association between mFS and WAT-mediated change in carotid systolic BP (r = -0·57, P = 0·011), logNA (r = -0·58, P = 0·009) and PWV (r = -0·44, P = 0·045). There were no significant associations between resting mFS and changes in brachial systolic BP (r = -0·26, P>0·05). There were no associations between resting LV mass and changes in any haemodynamic variable (P>0·05). Exercise-induced increases in central haemodynamic load reveal associations with lower resting LV function in young healthy men undetected by traditional peripheral haemodynamics. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Beukhof

    Full Text Available It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs and bone mineral density (BMD. This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable.We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75-80 yrs in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP and Se.The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387 of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (FT4, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3 levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use.Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population.

  12. Static and Dynamic Balance of the Healthy Elderly Men at Different Times of the Day

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    Saeed Ghaeeni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Balance functions play a significant role in routine life of the elderly, especially in reducing the risk of their falling. The aim of this research was to investigate static and dynamic balance of healthy elderly men during different hours of the day. Methods & Materials: For this purpose, 10 old men with the mean (SD age of 69.45(3.23 years participated voluntarily in this study. Then, static and dynamic balance functions of the subjects were evaluated with the stork stand and star excursion balance test at the day hours of 8, 12, 16, and 20. Results: Results of analysis variance indicated no significant effects of hour’s day on closed eye static balance and dynamic balance of the elderly. But, the open eye static balance test results at 16 hour (8.37 s was significantly (P=0.018 higher than 8 hour (6.25 s. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, there is no recommendation on optimum time for doing balance training but it is better for the elderly that pay attention more to extrinsic falling factor such as surface of walking track at about 8 o’clock.

  13. Phthalate excretion pattern and testicular function: a study of 881 healthy Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Frederiksen, Hanne; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-10-01

    In animals, some phthalates impair male reproductive development and function. Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent evidence of associations between phthalates and markers of human testicular function. We aimed to provide estimates of the effects of phthalate exposure on reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy men. A total of 881 men gave urine, serum, and semen samples. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin-B; semen quality; and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), were assessed. The proportions of DEHP and DiNP excreted as their respective primary metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] were calculated and expressed as percentages (%MEHP and %MiNP, respectively). The free androgen index was 15% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -23, -8%] for men in the highest %MiNP quartile compared to the lowest quartile (p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounders, and 9% lower (95% CI: -16, -1%) in the highest %MEHP quartile (p = 0.02). %MEHP and %MiNP were negatively associated with the ratio of testosterone/LH and testosterone/FSH. %MEHP was negatively associated with total testosterone, free testosterone, and ratio of testosterone/E(2). %MiNP was positively associated with SHBG. There was little evidence of associations between urinary phthalate metabolites or sums of phthalates with reproductive hormones or semen quality. Our data suggest that both testosterone production and pituitary-hypothalamic feedback may be compromised in individuals excreting a high proportion of primary metabolites of long-chained phthalates relative to the proportion of secondary metabolites.

  14. Effects of an outdoor bicycle-based intervention in healthy rural Indian men with normal and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Mogensen, P; Thomas, N

    2015-01-01

    of an outdoor exercise intervention on body composition, insulin secretion and action in young men born with LBW and NBW in rural India. A total of 61 LBW and 56 NBW healthy young men were recruited into the study. The individuals were instructed to perform outdoor bicycle exercise training for 45 min every day...... with LBW in rural India benefit metabolically from exercise training to an extent comparable with NBW controls....

  15. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, D H J; Tinken, T M; Hopkins, N; Dawson, E A; Cable, N T; Green, D J

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine post-cuff deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5 min forearm ischaemia every 2 weeks across 8-weeks of a handgrip exercise training regimen. Post-deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5-min of ischaemia were examined before, after and every 2-weeks across an 8-week handgrip training programme in healthy young men (n = 11) using echo-Doppler. The magnitude of dilation increased at week 2-4-6, but returned towards baseline values at week 8 (anova: P = 8.001). The time-to-peak diameter (42 ± 15s) demonstrated a significant prolongation at week 4 (77 ± 32s), but returned towards baseline values at weeks 6 and 8 (anova: P < 0.001). The rate of diameter increase did not differ across the intervention. Exercise training in healthy subjects is initially characterized by a larger dilation. Since the rate of dilation did not change, a longer time-to-peak dilation was necessary to achieve the increase in magnitude of dilation. As exercise training continues, the timing and magnitude of the peak diameter response returns to near baseline levels.

  16. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  17. Phosphorous31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy after total sleep deprivation in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Cynthia M; Lukas, Scott E; Moore, Constance M; Tartarini, Wendy L; Parow, Aimee M; Villafuerte, Rosemond A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2003-08-01

    To investigate chemical changes in the brains of healthy adults after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep, using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three consecutive nights (baseline, sleep deprivation, recovery) were spent in the laboratory. Objective sleep measures were assessed on the baseline and recovery nights using polysomnography. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans took place beginning at 7 am to 8 am on the morning after each of the 3 nights. Sleep laboratory in a private psychiatric teaching hospital. Eleven healthy young men. Following a baseline night of sleep, subjects underwent a night of total sleep deprivation, which involved supervision to ensure the absence of sleep but was not polysomnographically monitored. No significant changes in any measure of brain chemistry were observed the morning after a night of total sleep deprivation. However, after the recovery night, significant increases in total and beta-nucleoside triphosphate and decreases in phospholipid catabolism, measured by an increase in the concentration of glycerylphosphorylcholine, were observed. Chemical changes paralleled some changes in objective sleep measures. Significant chemical changes in the brain were observed following recovery sleep after 1 night of total sleep deprivation. The specific process underlying these changes is unclear due to the large brain region sampled in this exploratory study, but changes may reflect sleep inertia or some aspect of the homeostatic sleep mechanism that underlies the depletion and restoration of sleep. Phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique that may be of value in further exploration of such sleep-wake functions.

  18. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress.

  19. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  20. Effects of Timing of Whey Protein Intake on Appetite and Energy Intake in Healthy Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Coudert, Zoé; Baqeri, Abdul; Jensen, Caroline; Hausken, Trygve; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-10-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men. In a single blind, randomized design, 16 older men were studied on 5 occasions, on which they consumed a whey protein drink (30 g/120 kcal, 140 mL) 3, 2, 1 hour(s), or immediately before a buffet meal, from which ad libitum energy intake was quantified, and isopalatable noncaloric drinks (∼1 kcal) at the remaining time points. On the control day, noncaloric drinks were ingested at all time points. Perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were determined, by visual analog scales, throughout the study days. There was no effect of the timing of protein ingestion on perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms (P > .05) or energy intake at the buffet meal (3 hours: 888 ± 49 kcal, 2 hours: 879 ± 56 kcal, 1 hours: 909 ± 47 kcal, 0 hour: 892 ± 51 kcal, control: 930 ± 49 kcal, P = .94). Total energy intake (ie, preload + test meal) was higher on the protein days compared with control (82 ± 24 kcal increase, P = .003). In older men, ingestion of 30 g protein increased total energy intake, irrespective of the time of intake in relation to the meal. These observations support the use of "pure" whey protein drinks to increase overall protein and energy intake in older adults at risk of undernutrition. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fitness and fatness as mortality predictors in healthy older men: the veterans exercise testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul; Pittsley, Jesse; Myers, Jonathan; Abella, Joshua; Froelicher, Victor F

    2009-06-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are independently associated with increased mortality in the elderly. However, interactions among BMI, CRF, and mortality in older persons have not been adequately explored. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for predetermined strata of BMI and CRF. Independent and joint associations of CRF, BMI, and all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards analyses in a prospective cohort of 981 healthy men aged at least 65 years (mean age [+/-SD], 71 [+/-5] years; range, 65-88 years) referred for exercise testing during 1987-2003. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 +/- 4.4 years, a total of 208 patients died. Multivariate relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of mortality across BMI groups of or =35.0 were 2.51 (1.26-4.98), 1.0 (reference), 0.66 (0.48-0.90), 0.50 (0.31-0.78), and 0.44 (0.20-0.97), respectively, and across CRF groups of 8.0 metabolic equivalents were 1.0 (reference), 0.56 (0.40-0.78), and 0.39 (0.26-0.58), respectively. In a separate analysis of within-strata CRF according to BMI grouping, the lowest mortality risk was observed in obese men with high fitness (HR [95% CI] 0.26 [0.10-0.69]; p = .007). In this cohort of elderly male veterans, we observed independent and joint inverse relations of BMI and CRF to mortality. This warrants further investigation of fitness, fatness, and mortality interactions in older persons.

  2. Daily inspiratory muscle training lowers blood pressure and vascular resistance in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Claire M; De Asis, Roxanne M; Bailey, E Fiona

    2017-11-24

    Previous work has shown inspiratory muscle training (IMT) lowers blood pressure after just six weeks, identifying IMT as a potential therapeutic to prevent/treat hypertension. Here, we explore the effects of IMT on respiratory muscle strength and select cardiovascular parameters in recreationally active men and women. Subjects were randomly assigned to IMT (n = 12, 75% maximal inspiratory pressure) or sham training (n = 13, 15% maximum inspiratory pressure) groups and underwent a 6-week intervention comprising 30 breaths day-1 , 5 days week-1 . Pre- and post- training measures included maximal inspiratory pressure, and resting measures of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, and systemic vascular resistance. We evaluated psychological and sleep status via administration of the Cohen-Hoberman inventory of physical symptoms and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Male and female subjects in the IMT group showed declines in systolic/diastolic blood pressures (-4.3/-3.9 mmHg SBP/DBP, P < 0.025) and systemic vascular resistance (-3.5 mmHg*min L-1 , P = 0.008) at Week 6. There was no effect of IMT on cardiac output (P = 0.722), heart rate (P = 0.795), or spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (P = 0.776). IMT subjects also reported fewer stress-related symptoms pre versus post training (12.5 ± 8.5 vs. 7.2 ± 9.7, P = 0.025). Based on these results, we suggest a short course of inspiratory muscle training confers significant respiratory and cardiovascular improvements and parallel (modest) psychological benefits in healthy men and women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Food cues do not modulate the neuroendocrine response to a prolonged fast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Marieke; Wijngaarden, Marjolein A; Bizino, Maurice B; van der Grond, Jeroen; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; van Buchem, Mark A; Jazet, Ingrid M; Pijl, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    Dietary restriction benefits health and increases lifespan in several species. Food odorants restrain the beneficial effects of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesized that the presence of visual and odorous food stimuli during a prolonged fast modifies the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to fasting in humans. In this randomized, crossover intervention study, healthy young men (n = 12) fasted twice for 60 h; once in the presence and once in the absence of food-related visual and odorous stimuli. At baseline and on the last morning of each intervention, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. During the OGTT, blood was sampled and a functional MRI scan was made. The main effects of prolonged fasting were: (1) decreased plasma thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine levels; (2) downregulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis; (3) reduced plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased glucose and insulin responses to glucose ingestion; (4) altered hypothalamic blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in response to the glucose load (particularly during the first 20 min after ingestion); (5) increased resting energy expenditure. Exposure to food cues did not affect these parameters. This study shows that 60 h of fasting in young men (1) decreases the hypothalamic BOLD signal in response to glucose ingestion; (2) induces glucose intolerance; (3) increases resting energy expenditure, and (4) downregulates the pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal axes. Exposure to visual and odorous food cues did not alter these metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to nutrient deprivation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Bioavailability of tryptophan from a single oral dose of a trytophan-enriched peptide mixture in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.; Boelsma, E.; Steijns, J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioavailability of tryptophan (Trp) from a Trp-enriched peptide mixture in healthy men. A second objective was to investigate the effect of this Trp-enriched protein hydrolysate on potential parameters of serotonergic activity. serum serotonim melatonin

  5. Endurance exercise per se reduces the cardiovascular risk marker t-PA antigen in healthy, younger, overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else Marie; Skov, Jane; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    This was tested in 60 healthy, younger (20–40 years), overweight (BMI: 25–30 kg/m2) men randomly assigned to 12 weeks of intervention in one of four groups: training (T); energy-reduced diet (D); training and increased diet (T-iD); sedentary lifestyle and unchanged diet (controls, C). Fasting blood samples were...

  6. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL

  7. Chronic TNF-a neutralization does not improve insulin resistance or endothelial function in "healthy" men with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, T.C.; Lindeman, J.H.N.; Sourij, H.; Kooistra, T.; Pacini, G.; Roden, M.

    2011-01-01

    The possible contribution of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) to the development of obesity associated insulin resistance in humans is still controversial. Our study investigated the effect of TNF-a neutralization on insulin resistance in healthy, obese and insulin resistant men. We performed a

  8. Acute Peanut Consumption Alters Postprandial Lipids and Vascular Responses in Healthy Overweight or Obese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoran; Hill, Alison M; West, Sheila G; Gabauer, Rachel M; McCrea, Cindy E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-05-01

    Background: Postprandial hyperlipidemia is associated with impaired endothelial function. Peanut consumption favorably affects the lipid and lipoprotein profile; however, the effects on endothelial function remain unclear.Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute peanut consumption as part of a high-fat meal on postprandial endothelial function.Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover postprandial study to evaluate the effect of acute peanut consumption on postprandial lipids and endothelial function as assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery in 15 healthy overweight or obese men [mean age: 26.7 y; mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.4]. Participants consumed, in a randomized order, a peanut meal containing 3 ounces (85 g) ground peanuts (1198 kcal; 40.0% carbohydrate, 47.7% fat, 19.4% saturated fat, 13.2% protein) and a control meal matched for energy and macronutrient content. Meals were in the form of a shake, scheduled ≥1 wk apart. Lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin were measured at baseline (0 min) and at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after shake consumption. FMD was measured at baseline and at 240 min.Results: Acute peanut consumption blunted the serum triglyceride (TG) response 120 and 240 min after consumption compared with the control meal (means ± SEMs-120 min: 188.9 ± 19.4 compared with 197.5 ± 20.7 mg/dL; 240 min: 189.9 ± 24.3 compared with 197.3 ± 18.4 mg/dL; P 150 mg/dL) and LDL (>100 mg/dL)-cholesterol concentrations showed a significant decrease in FMD after the control meal (-1.8%, P = 0.017; -2.0%, P = 0.038), whereas the peanut meal maintained endothelial function in all participants irrespective of total- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations.Conclusion: The inclusion of 85 g peanuts (3 ounces) as part of a high-fat meal improved the postprandial TG response and preserved endothelial function in healthy overweight or obese men. This trial was registered at

  9. PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonate) in serum is negatively associated with testosterone levels, but not with semen quality, in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Veyrand, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    . The potential associations with reproductive hormones remain largely unresolved. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional study of 247 men was conducted during 2008-2009. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Healthy men from the general population, median age of 19 years, gave serum and semen...... samples. Serum samples were analysed for total testosterone (T), estradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin-B and 14 PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). Semen samples were analysed according to the WHO criteria......Is exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) associated with testicular function (reproductive hormone levels and semen quality) in healthy men? SUMMARY ANSWER: PFOS levels were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone (total and calculated free), but not with any other...

  10. Exploratory plasma proteomic analysis in a randomized crossover trial of aspirin among healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    Full Text Available Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years. The plasma proteome was analyzed on an antibody microarray with ~3,300 full-length antibodies, printed in triplicate. Moderated paired t-tests were performed on individual antibodies, and gene-set analyses were performed based on KEGG and GO pathways. Among the 3,000 antibodies analyzed, statistically significant differences in plasma protein levels were observed for nine antibodies after adjusting for false discoveries (FDR adjusted p-value<0.1. The most significant protein was succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC, a key enzyme complex of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The other statistically significant proteins (NR2F1, MSI1, MYH1, FOXO1, KHDRBS3, NFKBIE, LYZ and IKZF1 are involved in multiple pathways, including DNA base-pair repair, inflammation and oncogenic pathways. None of the 258 KEGG and 1,139 GO pathways was found to be statistically significant after FDR adjustment. This study suggests several chemopreventive mechanisms of aspirin in humans, which have previously been reported to play a role in anti- or pro-carcinogenesis in cell systems; however, larger, confirmatory studies are needed.

  11. Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Mouriot, J; Boue-Vaysse, C; Combe, N; Peyraud, J-L; LeRuyet, P; Chesneau, G; Morio, B; Chardigny, J-M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three specific ruminant (R) milk fats resulting from modification of the cow's diet on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers. R-milk fats were characterized by increased content in total trans fatty acids (R-TFAs) and parallel decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). A total of 111 healthy, normolipemic men and women have been recruited for a monocentric, randomized, double-blind and parallel intervention, 4-week controlled study. Volunteers consumed three experimental products (butter, dessert cream and cookies) made with one of the three specific milk fats (55 g fat per day). During the first week (run-in period), the subjects consumed on a daily basis dairy products containing 72% SFA/2.85% R-TFA (called 'L0'). For the next 3 weeks of the study (intervention period), the first group continued to consume L0 products. The second group received dairy products containing 63.3% SFA/4.06% R-TFA (called 'L4'), and the third group received dairy products containing 56.6% SFA/12.16% R-TFA (called 'L9'). Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were not significantly altered by either diet (P=0.38). Compared to L0 diet, L4 diet contributed to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (-0.14+/-0.38 mmol/l, P=0.04), total cholesterol (-0.13+/-0.50 mmol/l, P=0.04), LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.14+/-0.36, P=0.03) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.18+/-0.44, P=0.02). Different milk fat profiles can change cardiovascular plasma parameters in human healthy volunteers. A limited increase of the R-TFA/SFA ratio in dairy products is associated with an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors. However, a further increase in R-TFA/SFA ratio has no additional benefit.

  12. Carbohydrate quality and quantity affect glucose and lipid metabolism during weight regain in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerpusch, Merit; Enderle, Janna; Eggeling, Ben; Braun, Wiebke; Johannsen, Maike; Pape, Detlef; Müller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2013-10-01

    In this controlled, parallel-group feeding trial, we examined the impact of carbohydrate (CHO) intake and glycemic index (GI) on glucose and lipid metabolism during refeeding after weight loss. Healthy men (n = 32 total, age: 25.5 ± 3.9 y, BMI: 23.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2) overconsumed diets containing either 50% or 65% CHO for 1 wk (+50% of energy requirements) and then underwent 3 wk of calorie restriction (CR; -50%) followed by 2 wk of overconsuming (refeeding, +50%) the same diet but with either a low or high GI (40 vs.70 during CR, 41 vs.74 during refeeding) so that glycemic load (GL; dietary CHO content x GI) differed between groups during all phases. Glucose profiles were assessed by continuous interstitial glucose monitoring, insulin sensitivity (IS) by fasting blood sampling, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and liver fat by MRI. Daytime area under the curve-glucose during refeeding was higher with high compared with low GI (P = 0.01) and 65% compared with 50% CHO intake (P = 0.05) and correlated with dietary GL (r = 0.71; P fat also improved with CR (-17 ± 38 mg/dL and -1.1 ± 1.3%; P fat were elevated above baseline values with 65% CHO intake only (+59.9 ± 37.5 mg/dL and +1.1 ± 1.7%, P-interaction fat.

  13. Unobtrusive Estimation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Daily Activity in Healthy Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness, no practical method exists to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) without a specific exercise protocol. We developed an estimation model of VO2max, using maximal activity energy expenditure (aEEmax) as a new feature to represent the level of physical activity. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and acceleration data were recorded for 4 days in 24 healthy young men, and reference VO2max levels were measured using the maximal exercise test. aEE was calculated using the measured acceleration data and body weight, while heart rate (HR) was extracted from the ECG signal. aEEmax was obtained using linear regression, with aEE and HR as input parameters. The VO2max was estimated from the aEEmax using multiple linear regression modeling in the training group (n = 16) and was verified in the test group (n = 8). High correlations between the estimated VO2max and the measured VO2max were identified in both groups, with a 15-hour recording being sufficient to produce a highly accurate VO2max estimate. Additional recording time did not significantly improve the accuracy of the estimation. Our VO2max estimation method provides a robust alternative to traditional approaches while only requiring minimal data acquisition time in daily life. PMID:29115075

  14. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Loreto, C; Ranchelli, A; Lucidi, P; Murdolo, G; Parlanti, N; De Cicco, A; Tsarpela, O; Annino, G; Bosco, C; Santeusanio, F; Bolli, G B; De Feo, P

    2004-04-01

    Whole-body vibration is reported to increase muscle performance, bone mineral density and stimulate the secretion of lipolytic and protein anabolic hormones, such as GH and testosterone, that might be used for the treatment of obesity. To date, as no controlled trial has examined the effects of vibration exercise on the human endocrine system, we performed a randomized controlled study, to establish whether the circulating concentrations of glucose and hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, GH, IGF-1, free and total testosterone) are affected by vibration in 10 healthy men [age 39 +/- 3, body mass index (BMI) of 23.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, mean +/- SEM]. Volunteers were studied on two occasions before and after standing for 25 min on a ground plate in the absence (control) or in the presence (vibration) of 30 Hz whole body vibration. Vibration slightly reduced plasma glucose (30 min: vibration 4.59 +/- 0.21, control 4.74 +/- 0.22 mM, p=0.049) and increased plasma norepinephrine concentrations (60 min: vibration 1.29 +/- 0.18, control 1.01 +/- 0.07 nM, p=0.038), but did not change the circulating concentrations of other hormones. These results demonstrate that vibration exercise transiently reduces plasma glucose, possibly by increasing glucose utilization by contracting muscles. Since hormonal responses, with the exception of norepinephrine, are not affected by acute vibration exposure, this type of exercise is not expected to reduce fat mass in obese subjects.

  16. Effects of dietary selenium on mood in healthy men living in a metabolic research unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, W C; Hornbostel, L

    1996-01-15

    Eleven healthy men were confined in a metabolic research unit for 120 days in a double-blind study of the effects of dietary selenium on mood as assessed by the Profile of Mood States-Bipolar Form. At an intake of 2800 kcal/day, the diet of conventional foods provided 80 micrograms/day of selenium for the first 21 days, then either 13 or 356 micrograms/day for the remaining 99 days. There were no significant changes in any of the mood scales due to dietary selenium. However, in the low-selenium group, the changes in the agreeable-hostile and the elated-depressed subscales were correlated with initial erythrocyte selenium concentration; that is, the lower the initial selenium status, the more the mood scores decreased. These results suggest that persons with low selenium status might experience relatively depressed moods and support the idea that selenium plays a special role in the brain. However, these studies do not support the notion that selenium supplementation could promote improvements in mood in persons eating a typical U.S. diet.

  17. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-09-20

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.

  18. Effects of different sleep restriction protocols on sleep architecture and daytime vigilance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Stone, W S; Hsi, X; Zhuang, J; Huang, L; Yin, Y; Zhang, L; Zhao, Z

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by complex biological systems and environmental influences, neither of which is fully clarified. This study demonstrates differential effects of partial sleep deprivation (SD) on sleep architecture and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance using two different protocols (sequentially) that each restricted daily sleep to 3 hours in healthy adult men. The protocols differed only in the period of sleep restriction; in one, sleep was restricted to a 3-hour block from 12:00 AM to 3:00 AM, and in the other, sleep was restricted to a block from 3:00 AM to 6:00 AM. Subjects in the earlier sleep restriction period showed a significantly lower percentage of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep after 4 days (17.0 vs. 25.7 %) and a longer latency to the onset of REM sleep (L-REM) after 1 day (78.8 vs. 45.5 min) than they did in the later sleep restriction period. Reaction times on PVT performance were also better (i.e. shorter) in the earlier SR period on day 4 (249.8 vs. 272 ms). These data support the view that earlier-night sleep may be more beneficial for daytime vigilance than later-night sleep. The study also showed that cumulative declines in daytime vigilance resulted from loss of total sleep time, rather than from specific stages, and underscored the reversibility of SR effects with greater amounts of sleep.

  19. Mechanism of action of whole milk and its components on glycemic control in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Kubant, Ruslan; Akhavan, Tina; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Milk reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or within an ad libitum meal. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of each of the macronutrient components and their combination with whole milk on postprandial glycemia, glucoregulatory and gastrointestinal hormones and gastric emptying in healthy young men. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 males consumed beverages (500 ml) of whole milk (3.25% M.F.) (control), a simulated milk beverage based on milk macronutrients, complete milk protein (16 g), lactose (24 g) or milk fat (16 g). Whole and simulated milk was similar in lowering postprandial glycemia and slowing gastric emptying while increasing insulin, C-peptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but simulated milk resulted in higher (41%) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and lower (43%) ghrelin areas under the curve (AUC) than whole milk (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively). Whole and simulated milk lowered glucose (P=.0005) more than predicted by the sum of AUCs for their components. Adjusted for energy content, milks produced lower glucose and hormone responses than predicted from the sum of their components. The effect of protein/kcal on the AUCs was higher than fat/kcal for insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rate, GLP-1, CCK and paracetamol (Pmilk lowers postprandial glycemia by both insulin and insulin-independent mechanisms arising from interactions among its macronutrient components and energy content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hormonal responses of combining endurance-resistance exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, S; Kahrizi, S; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of resistance (R) following endurance (E) exercise or ER on acute hormonal responses, such as growth hormone (GH), total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), IGF-1, and cortisol. Ten healthy young men with an average age of 23.9 years (±0.7 y), a height of 175 cm (±3.3 cm), a weight of 74.4 kg (±4.3 kg), and a body mass index of 25.5 kg/m2 (±0.65 kg/m2) participated in this study. All of the participants took part in four protocols (R, E, ER, and control) in separate sessions with at least 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise in the R, E, ER, and control group protocols. GH, lactate, TT, and FT increased in the R protocol, and GH, lactate, FT, and IGF-1 increased significantly in the E and ER protocols (P<0.05). FFA increased only after the E protocol (P<0.05). Cortisol significantly decreased in the ER, E, and control group protocols (P<0.05). In conclusion GH, TT and cortisol responses to R following E exercise were reduced. This effect might be due to increase in FFA. However It seems that IGF-1 has not inhibited by FFA.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of table and Port red wine anthocyanins: a crossover trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I; Marques, C; Évora, A; Cruz, L; de Freitas, V; Calhau, C; Faria, A; Mateus, N

    2017-05-24

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of Port and table red wine anthocyanins in healthy men. Volunteers were recruited to drink 250 mL of a table red wine (221 mg of anthocyanins) and 150 mL of young Port red wine (49 mg of anthocyanins). Venous blood was collected from participants at 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after wine ingestion. Urine samples were collected at baseline and at 120 min. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in plasma and urine samples were quantified by HPLC-DAD and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Red wine anthocyanins were detected in their intact forms in both plasma and urine samples, but the glucuronylated metabolites of peonidin and malvidin (PnGlucr and MvGlucr) were the two main derivatives detected after both red wine consumptions. For the first time, and supported by the synthesis of Mv3Glucr, the main pathway followed by Mv3glc after absorption was described and involves anthocyanidin conjugation with glucuronic acid after glucose removal. Despite the lower total content of anthocyanins ingested when volunteers drank Port wine, no differences were observed in the plasma C max of MvGlucr and PnGlucr after table and Port red wine consumption. The relative bioavailability of anthocyanins in Port wine was 96.58 ± 5.74%, compared to the anthocyanins present in red wine. In conclusion, both Port and table red wines are good sources of bioavailable anthocyanins.

  2. Challenges to Healthy Eating Practices: A Qualitative Study of Non-Hispanic Black Men Living With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Loretta T; Willig, Amanda L; Agne, April A; Locher, Julie L; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore current dietary practices and perceived barriers to healthy eating in non-Hispanic black men with type 2 diabetes. Four 90-minute focus groups held in September and October 2011 were led by a trained moderator with a written guide to facilitate discussion on dietary practices and barriers to healthy eating. Participants were recruited from the diabetes database at a public safety-net health system in Jefferson County, Alabama. Two-independent reviewers performed content analysis to identify major themes using a combined deductive and inductive approach. There were 34 male participants aged 18 years and older. Mean years living with diabetes was 9.6 ± 5.9. Sixty-two percent of participants perceived themselves to be in fair or poor health. Participants' self-reported eating practices did not always relate to hunger. Internal cues to eat included habit and response to emotions, and external cues to eat included media messaging, medication regimens, and work schedules. Men identified multiple barriers to healthy eating including hard-to-break habits, limited resources and availability of food at home and in neighborhood grocery stores, and perceived poor communication with health care professionals. Non-Hispanic black men acknowledged the importance of healthy eating as part of diabetes self-management but reported various internal and external challenges that present barriers to healthy eating. Tailored strategies to overcome barriers to healthy eating among non-Hispanic black men should be developed and tested for their impact on diabetes self-management. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Sonographic parameters of the pancreas and gall bladder in healthy men from Podillya region of Ukraine of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunas Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we undertook a study of the sonographic parameters of the pancreas and gall bladder in healthy men with different somatotypes. The study-subjects were from the Podillya region of Ukraine. Herein, the majority of gallbladder dimensions (length, thickness, cross-sectional area and volume in men type-classified as endo-mesomorphic, were significantly higher when compared with men in general and with those of the meso- and ecto-mesomorphic somatotype. Furthermore, the dimensions of the pancreas (width of head and tail length in mesomorphic males were significantly higher than that of endo-mesomorphic males. The rest of the studied parameters (length, longitudinal cross section area of the gall bladder, the thickness of the head, body and head length, the width of the body and tail of the pancreas in men of the different somatotypes have no significant differences.

  4. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.

  5. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation: Prospective study in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-01-15

    The combined impact of multiple lifestyle factors on risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unclear. We investigated the joint association of four modifiable lifestyle factors on incidence of AF in a prospective study of men and women. The study cohort comprised 39 300 men in the Cohort of Swedish Men and 33 090 women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort who were 45-83 years of age and free from atrial fibrillation at baseline. Healthy lifestyle was defined as body mass index healthy lifestyle factors, the multivariable relative risks (95% confidence interval) of AF were 0.83 (0.65-1.07) for one, 0.74 (0.58-0.94) for two, 0.62 (0.49-0.79) for three, and 0.50 (0.39-0.64) for four healthy lifestyle factors (P for trend healthy lifestyle factors combined were associated with a halving of the risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Form of Dietary Fat Alters Postprandial Substrate Utilization and Glycemic Response in Healthy Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sze-Yen; Peh, Elaine; Lau, Evelyn; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-06-01

    Background: Dietary fats elicit various physiological responses, with the physical form of fat reported to alter fat digestion and absorption.Objectives: The primary aims were to compare the effects of dietary fat in 2 physical forms (liquid and oleogel) and 2 degrees of saturation (saturated and polyunsaturated) on postprandial energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation, glycemia, and appetite.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled crossover trial. Sixteen normal-weight, healthy Chinese men completed the study [mean ± SD age: 28 ± 6 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.9 ± 3.1]. After an overnight fast, participants had their body weight measured and entered an indirect whole-room calorimeter (WRC). After baseline measurements, participants consumed orange juice and rice porridge alone (control), with 22.25 g coconut oil or sunflower oil or with 25 g coconut oleogel or sunflower oleogel in random order with a 5-d washout period between treatments. EE, substrate oxidation, capillary blood glucose, and appetite were measured over 195 min in a WRC. Participants completed a meal challenge to assess appetite. Test meals effects were compared by using repeated-measures ANOVA.Results: Fat saturation did not affect all study outcomes significantly. When data were pooled based on the physical form of dietary fat, EE did not differ. However, significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation (P = 0.03) and a trend of lower fat oxidation (P = 0.07) were found after the liquid oil than after the oleogel or control treatments. Postprandial capillary glucose was also significantly lower after the liquid oil than after the oleogel or control treatments (P fats.Conclusions: The saturation of dietary fat did not affect postprandial glucose, EE, substrate oxidation, or appetite. However, oleogel prevented the glycemic-lowering and fat-oxidation effects induced by liquid oil in Chinese men. Future work on oleogel should focus on cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was

  7. Single oral dose pharmacokinetics of decursin and decursinol angelate in healthy adult men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN root has promising anti-cancer and other bioactivities in rodent models. It is currently believed that the pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D and decursinol angelate (DA contribute to these activities. We and others have documented that D and DA were rapidly converted to decursinol (DOH in rodents. However, our in vitro metabolism studies suggested that D and DA might be metabolized differently in humans. To test this hypothesis and address a key question for human translatability of animal model studies of D and DA or AGN extract, we conducted a single oral dose human pharmacokinetic study of D and DA delivered through an AGN-based dietary supplement Cogni.Q (purchased from Quality of Life Labs, Purchase, NY in twenty healthy subjects, i.e., 10 men and 10 women, each consuming 119 mg D and 77 mg DA from 4 vegicaps. Analyses of plasma samples using UHPLC-MS/MS showed mean time to peak concentration (Tmax of 2.1, 2.4 and 3.3 h and mean peak concentration (Cmax of 5.3, 48.1 and 2,480 nmol/L for D, DA and DOH, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 for D and DA was similar (17.4 and 19.3 h and each was much longer than that of DOH (7.4 h. The mean area under the curve (AUC0-48h for D, DA and DOH was estimated as 37, 335 and 27,579 h∙nmol/L, respectively. Gender-wise, men absorbed the parent compounds faster and took shorter time to reach DOH peak concentration. The human data supported an extensive conversion of D and DA to DOH, even though they metabolized DA slightly slower than rodents. Therefore, the data generated in rodent models concerning anti-cancer efficacy, safety, tissue distribution and pharmacodynamic biomarkers will likely be relevant for human translation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02114957.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Total Serum Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gawron-Skarbek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD is related to a decrease in total antioxidant capacity (TAC has not yet been completely clarified. We assessed TAC of blood serum in a group of 163 men with CHD aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 163 age-matched peers without CHD. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: ferric reducing ability of serum (TAC-FRAS and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH tests. In the CHD group, multivariate analysis revealed that uric acid (UA, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure contributed independently to the TAC-FRAS variance. TAC-DPPH was favorably predicted by UA concentration, but negatively so by current smoking and glucose levels. In men without CHD, UA was the only independent determinant of both TAC-FRAS and TAC-DPPH. Presence of CHD was not an independent predictor of TAC—observed between-group differences (higher TAC in CHD patients disappeared after adjustment for other confounders. We conclude that UA is the main determinant of TAC of blood serum in men. TAC is not directly influenced by age or CHD but is related to several indices of overweight/obesity and laboratory measures of metabolic syndrome, especially in patients with CHD.

  9. Influence of GLP-1 on myocardial glucose metabolism in healthy men during normo- or hypoglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gejl

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 may provide beneficial cardiovascular effects, possibly due to enhanced myocardial energetic efficiency by increasing myocardial glucose uptake (MGU. We assessed the effects of GLP-1 on MGU in healthy subjects during normo- and hypoglycemia.We included eighteen healthy men in two randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over studies. MGU was assessed with GLP-1 or saline infusion during pituitary-pancreatic normo- (plasma glucose (PG: 4.5 mM, n = 10 and hypoglycemic clamps (PG: 3.0 mM, n = 8 by positron emission tomography with (18fluoro-deoxy-glucose ((18F-FDG as tracer.In the normoglycemia study mean (± SD age was 25±3 years, and BMI was 22.6±0.6 kg/m(2 and in the hypoglycemia study the mean age was 23±2 years with a mean body mass index of 23±2 kg/m(2. GLP-1 did not change MGU during normoglycemia (mean (+/- SD 0.15+/-0.04 and 0.16+/-0.03 µmol/g/min, P = 0.46 or during hypoglycemia (0.16+/-0.03 and 0.13+/-0.04 µmol/g/min, P = 0.14. However, the effect of GLP-1 on MGU was negatively correlated to baseline MGU both during normo- and hypoglycemia, (P = 0.006, r(2 = 0.64 and P = 0.018, r(2 = 0.64, respectively and changes in MGU correlated positively with the level of insulin resistance (HOMA 2IR during hypoglycemia, P = 0.04, r(2 = 0.54. GLP-1 mediated an increase in circulating glucagon levels at PG levels below 3.5 mM and increased glucose infusion rates during the hypoglycemia study. No differences in other circulating hormones or metabolites were found.While GLP-1 does not affect overall MGU, GLP-1 induces changes in MGU dependent on baseline MGU such that GLP-1 increases MGU in subjects with low baseline MGU and decreases MGU in subjects with high baseline MGU. GLP-1 preserves MGU during hypoglycemia in insulin resistant subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov registration numbers: NCT00418288: (hypoglycemia and NCT00256256: (normoglycemia.

  10. Unconditioned and conditioned effects of intravenous insulin and glucose on heart rate variability in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Huenig, Anja; Ziegler, Dan; Scherbaum, Werner A

    2011-04-18

    We examined whether an injection of intravenous insulin and intravenous glucose would affect frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV), i.e., the high-frequency (HF-) band and the ratio of the low frequency (LF-) to the HF-band in healthy humans. Using a classical conditioning protocol, we also assessed whether the measures of HRV are subject to classical conditioning. Thirty healthy men were divided into three groups, given a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an intravenous injection of either insulin (0.05IU/kg) in Group 1, glucose (15%, 0.5g/kg) in Group 2, or placebo (physiological saline [0.9%]) in Group 3 during the 4-day acquisition phase. All subjects were given an olfactory CS (rosewood-peppermint smell) and placebo injection on day 5 (test). Due to their high inter-individual variability, HF and LF/HF-ratio were analysed by intragroup comparisons, using a pre-injection baseline interval (min -15 to -5), and three functional post-injection intervals: a) the interval to the maximum insulin level, i. e. insulin peak (min 0-5) in Groups 1 and 2, b) the interval to the maximum of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (min 20-25) in Group 1, and c) the end of the session (min 70-75). On days 1 to 4, we found significant increases of the HF-band from baseline to interval min 0-5 in Group 1, and an even more pronounced increase in the glucose-treated Group 2. At the test (Day 5), both experimental groups responded with an HF-increase in the interval of the former insulin peak, and also at the other measurement intervals, reflecting some general increase of vagal activity remaining as a conditioned response. On days 1 to 4, the HF-band was positively correlated with the change of peripheral insulin levels in Group 1, reaching statistical significance on days 3 and 4. This pattern only emerged in tendency on Day 4 in Group 2. In conclusion, insulin triggers an increase in parasympathetic tone at maximum hyperinsulinaemia, and our data support the notion that

  11. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter; Farup, Jean

    2016-02-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models. Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle. In the present study, we show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo-stimulating agent (darbepoetin-α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD(+) SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand-receptor interaction. Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD(+) SCs. Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long-term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; darbepoetin-α) treatment and endurance training, separately and combined, on SC quantity and commitment in human skeletal muscle. Thirty-five healthy, untrained men were randomized into four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9), sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9), training-placebo (TP, n = 9) or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). ESA/placebo was injected once weekly and training consisted of ergometer cycling three times a week for 10 weeks. Prior to and following the intervention period, blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2, max) was measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify fibre type specific SCs (Pax7(+)), myonuclei and active SCs (Pax7(+)/MyoD(+)). ESA

  12. The acute effect of commercially available pulse powders on postprandial glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Harvey; Liu, Yudan; Smith, Christopher E; Liu, Ting Ting; Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L

    2014-12-28

    Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0-120 min) and after (140-200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, Plentil (Expt 2, P= 0.008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0.002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response.

  13. Influence of Energy Balance and Glycemic Index on Metabolic Endotoxemia in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusing, Nicolle; Lagerpusch, Merit; Engstler, Anna Janina; Bergheim, Ina; Mueller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet. During OF, subjects gained 1.9 ± 0.7 kg body weight (+0.6 ± 0.8% fat mass) followed by a weight loss of 6.1 ± 0.8 kg (-2.0 ± 0.6% fat mass) and weight regain of 4.0 ± 0.6 kg (0.9 ± 0.8% fat mass). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMAIR) increased with OF and RF and decreased with CR, MatsudaISI decreased by 37% after RF (all p energy balance did not reduce endotoxemia. Impaired insulin sensitivity with hypercaloric refeeding on a high-GI diet was not explained by metabolic endotoxemia.

  14. Effect of short term aerobic exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein subfractions in healthy sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaka, Peter; Kruzliak, Peter; Balaz, David; Komornikova, Andrea; Celovska, Denisa; Cammarota, Giovanni; Kusendova, Katarina; Bendzala, Matej; Rodrigo, Luis; Dukat, Andrej; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Gaspar, Ludovit

    2015-11-25

    Our goal was to investigate the effect of short term exercise on fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile. Healthy sedentary men exercised 20 min for four days. The intensity of exercise was modulated to maintain 75-80 % of a calculated HRmax. Before and after the exercise program, fasting and postprandial (4 h after standard meal) concentrations of lipoprotein subfractions were measured by an electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel and total concentrations of TAG, LDL and HDL by enzymatic colorimetric method. After 2 days of rest, fasting and postprandial concentrations of lipoprotein fractions and subfractions were measured to determine a persistency of a changes in the lipoprotein profile. 4 days of physical exercise led to statistically significant decrease of concentration of triacylglycerol in fasting (76.29 ± 20.07, 53.92 ± 10.90, p fasting (21.88 ± 3.87, 18.00 ± 3.93, p fasting (162.26 ± 23.38, 148.91 ± 17.72, p fasting (9.89 ± 3.27, 6.22 ± 2.55, p fasting (6.11 ± 2.89, 4.22, p fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile disappeared after 2 days of rest. Just 4 daily settings of 20 min of physical exercise can lead to significant positive changes of fasting and postprandial lipoprotein profile.

  15. The Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment work simulator: biomechanical and physiological norms for three attachments in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambhani, Y; Esmail, S; Brintnell, S

    1994-01-01

    The Baltimore Therapeutic Equipment (BTE) work simulator is routinely used by occupational therapists in functional capacity evaluation. Currently, there is a lack of normative data for various attachments on this instrument. The purposes of this study were to (a) establish norms for the biomechanical and physiological responses during three tasks on the BTE work simulator, namely, wheel-turn, push-pull, and overhead-reach; (b) compare these responses during the three tasks, and (c) examine the interrelationships of these responses during the tasks. Twenty healthy men completed five testing sessions: (a) task familiarization on the BTE work simulator to identify the work intensity, which was perceived as hard on the Borg scale; (b) an incremental arm ergometer exercise test to determine their peak oxygen uptake (pVO2) and peak heart rate (pHR); and (c) one of the three tasks on the BTE work simulator for 4 min in each of the next three sessions. Analysis of variance indicated that torque, work, and power during the overhead-reach were significantly higher (p = .000) compared with the wheel-turn and push-pull tasks. However, no significant differences (p > .05) were observed among the tasks for the VO2 and HR, which were approximately 50% and 70% of pVO2 and pHR respectively. Although there was a significant relationship (p wheel-turn and overhead-reach tasks. These results suggest that occupational therapists should include as many tasks as possible when designing functional capacity evaluation test batteries, and that there is no consistent relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and performance of various tasks on the BTE work simulator.

  16. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  17. Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, T M; Harvey, I C; Alleman, R J

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) are widely used alone and in combination with dietary supplements. No investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. A total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo (n = 11), caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) (n = 14), DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 13), or caffeine at 250 mg day(-1) + DMAA at 50 mg day(-1) (n = 12). Before and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the following variables were measured: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. No interaction effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with little change occurring across time for subjects in any of the four conditions. With the exception of urinary pH (p = 0.05; Pre (6.5 ± 0.1) higher than week 6 (6.1 ± 0.1)) and blood CO2 (p = 0.02; week 12 (25.9 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1)) higher than week 6 (24.8 ± 0.3 mmol L(-1))), no time effect was noted for any other variable (p > 0.05). These data indicate that 12 weeks of daily supplementation with caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.

  18. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  19. Hippocampal-Brainstem Connectivity Associated with Vagal Modulation after an Intense Exercise Intervention in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Herbsleb, Marco; Schumann, Andy; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Gabriel, Holger W.; Wagner, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise leads to increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n = 17, control group: n = 17). In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous heart rate variability assessment. We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p exercise group (EG). Comparing baseline (T0) and post-exercise (T1) values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC) was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem. Moreover, we observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r = −0.69, p = 0.003). This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the DVC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal modulation. PMID:27092046

  20. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G; Mendes, Renata G; Simões, Rodrigo P; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.

  1. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa G. Machado-Vidotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE at different loads in healthy older men. Method: Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results: Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower. RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively. In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions: Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population.

  2. What are the main barriers to healthy eating among families? A qualitative exploration of perceptions and experiences of Tehranian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Maryam; Amiri, Parisa; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-06-01

    Despite women playing a pivotal role in shaping nutritional patterns in their families, it is the men whose ideas and preferences, after children, influence the selection and consumption of daily foods among Iranian families. This study focused on exploring the main barriers to healthy eating as experienced by male participants of the Tehran Lipid Glucose Study (TLGS). A grounded theory approach was used for analyzing participants' experiences and their perceptions regarding these barriers. Participants were 98 men, aged 25-65 years, selected and recruited from the TGLS cohort. Data collection was conducted through fourteen semi-structured focus group discussions, between 2008 and 2009. All interviews and focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted manually according to the Strauss and Corbin analysis method. The most important barriers to healthy eating were: (i) Personal factors, which included two subthemes--lack of knowledge and personal taste, (ii) Communication and modeling included two subthemes--other individuals and media/advertisements; (iii) Modernization included two subthemes--nutrition transition and women's role; and (iv) Lack of access to healthy foods, which included four subthemes--Inadequate confidence, perceived risk, high cost and time limitations. Appropriate attention and prioritized policy-making to modify the socio-environmental barriers to healthy eating were explored in the current study, along with effective educational programs that could help to promote healthy eating among Iranian families. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The impact of serum uric acid on the diagnostic of metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy brazilian middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Miranda Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana; Guedes Cocate, Paula; Bressan, Josefina; Azevedo Novello, Alexandre; Cardoso dos Santos, Eliziária; José Natali, Antônio

    2014-09-01

    Hyperuricemia is related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases, but the use of serum uric acid (UA) to diagnose MetS is currently ignored in clinical practices. To examine the impact of serum UA on the diagnostic of MetS and the relationship of serum UA with cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men residents in a city of Minas Gerais. In a cross-sectional analysis, 289 apparently healthy middle-aged men underwent anthropometric, clinical, sociodemographic and blood serum biochemical evaluation. By using receive operating curve the internal cutoff of serum UA was determined (5.25 mg/dL). Subjects with two or more components of MetS exhibited higher serum UA as compared to those with one or none component. The inclusion of serum UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL as an additional component of MetS increased the occurrence of this syndrome by 13%. Subjects with UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL showed high prevalence for MetS and association with its components (central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension) as well as atherogenic risk. Serum UA has an important impact on the diagnostic of MetS and is related to cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men. Its use in clinical practices could aggregate accuracy to diagnose MetS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth hormone and sex steroid effects on serum glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations in healthy older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Thomas; Harman, S Mitchell; Sorkin, John D; Blackman, Marc R

    2009-10-01

    With aging, GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid concentrations and glucose tolerance decrease, and body fat and serum lipids increase. The aim of the study was to assess GH and/or sex steroid administration effects on serum glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in older individuals. A double-masked, 2 x 2 factorial, placebo-controlled, double-dummy design was used for the study. GH and/or sex steroid [transdermal estradiol plus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate in women (HRT); testosterone enanthate (T) in men] were administered for 6 months. Healthy, community-dwelling women (n = 57) and men (n = 74) ages 65-88 yr (mean, 72 yr) participated in the study. We measured serum glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI)] before and during an oral glucose tolerance test and lipid profiles. In women, GH did not alter oral glucose tolerance test 120 min or 2-h area under the curve (AUC) glucose values, but it increased 120 min insulin and AUC insulin. There were no significant effects of HRT or GH+HRT. ISI and QUICKI decreased after GH. In men, GH increased 120 min and AUC glucose and insulin AUC. GH+T increased 120 min glucose and glucose and insulin AUCs. T alone did not affect glucose or insulin. ISI decreased after GH and GH+T, whereas QUICKI decreased after GH. GH in women and men and GH+T in men decreased QUICKI by 4 wk. In women, HRT decreased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and GH decreased LDL-cholesterol. In men, total cholesterol decreased after T and GH+T. LDL-cholesterol decreased after GH and GH+T. GH increased serum triglycerides. GH administration to healthy older individuals for 6 months increased insulin resistance with moderately beneficial effects on lipids.

  5. Long-term gastrointestinal tolerance of NUTRIOSE®FB in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.; Wils, D.; Saniez, M.H.; Kardinaal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of NUTRIOSE®FB in men. Design: A randomized, placebo-contro lled, parallel, double-blind study. Setting: The metabolic ward of TNO Quality of Life. Subjects: Forty-eight subjects started the study: 16 men participated in one of the three

  6. Hippocampal - brainstem connectivity associated with vagal modulation after an intense exercise intervention in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Juergen Bär

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRegular physical exercise leads increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n=17, control group: n=17. In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and synchronic heart rate variability assessment.We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p<0.001, the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p<0.001, and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p<0.001 in the exercise group (EG. Comparing baseline (T0 and post-exercise (T1 values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p<0.06 and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p<0.026 during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC in the brainstem. Moreover, we only observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r=-0.69, p=0.003. This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the dorsal vagal complex.In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal

  7. Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on satiety responses in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jennifer R; Birkett, Anne M; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2011-02-01

    In view of a dramatic increase in the incidence of obesity, the present study examined the appetite effects of a functional fiber as a potential dietary intervention. Fiber may increase satiety. Satiety effects also may be linked to colonic fermentation. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) are fermentable fibers that can be added to foods to influence these actions. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scFOS affects satiety and hunger and has an additive effect on food intake. Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 healthy subjects were assigned to consume two separate doses of 0 g, 5 g, or 8 g of scFOS. The first dose was mixed into a hot cocoa beverage and served with a breakfast meal of a bagel and cream cheese. A beverage was used in the test meal due to the ease with which scFOS can be added to this medium. Satiety was assessed with visual analogue scales (VASs) at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min. Ad libitum food intake was measured at a lunch meal provided at the test site at 240 min. Subjects then recorded their food intake over the remainder of the 24-h study day. The second dose of scFOS was consumed in the form of 3 solid, chocolate-flavored chews (51-67 total kcal) without additional food or drink, 2h prior to the subject's dinner meal. Breath hydrogen measures were collected prior to the breakfast test meal (0 min) and the ad libitum lunch (240 min). Gastrointestinal tolerance was evaluated over the course of the 24-h study day using VAS. All treatments were well tolerated. No differences in subjective satiety over the morning, or food intake at lunch, were found. Over the remainder of the day, the high dose of scFOS reduced food intake in women, but increased food intake in men, suggesting a gender difference in the longer-term response. Breath hydrogen, used as a marker of fermentation, increased in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that scFOS undergoes fermentation within 240 min; however

  8. Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Camp Fundraising Events Step Out Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School ... Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes Tour de Cure Living With Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy ...

  9. Body composition of healthy sedentary and trained, young and older men and women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohrt, W M; Malley, M T; Dalsky, G P; Holloszy, J O

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of age and physical activity on body composition and fat distribution by comparing differences between young and older endurance trained men and women with differences...

  10. Luteinizing hormone and different genetic variants, as indicators of frailty in healthy elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.T. Huhtaniemi; K.S. Pettersson; H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the possible clinical correlates between the serum LH concentration and characteristics of frailty and determined the presence and concentration of a genetic LH variant in an independently living population of elderly men. After exclusion of

  11. Microcirculatory effects of L-arginine during acute anaerobic exercise in healthy men: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Pranskunas

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our findings show that supplementation with L-arginine may cause additional effects on the acute anaerobic exercise-induced transient increase in capillary density in the sublingual mucosa of untrained men.

  12. Starting on a healthy path: promotion of young men's sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Breland, David

    2007-06-01

    Sexuality is an integral part of human life. Men's needs in sexual and reproductive health and health care are receiving increased attention. Adolescence offers the opportunity to improve men's sexual health, as males begin exploring their sexual identity and developing romantic relationships. Despite encouraging trends in risky behavior and health status, rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain high and disparities persist. Young African American men have higher incidence of risky behavior, STIs, and HIV/AIDS. Promoting sexual health and well-being for young men requires multifaceted strategies, including clinical care, education, and improved access to services. Strategies should address the needs of all youth, including homosexual youth. Although reducing specific risky behaviors and health problems remains a priority, more holistic efforts to understand the context and meaning of sexual activity for young males are needed.

  13. Comparative effects of two different forms of selenium on oxidative stress biomarkers in healthy men: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, John P.; Das, Arun; Calcagnotto, Ana M.; Sinha, Raghu; Neidig, Wanda; Liao, Jiangang; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Berg, Arthur; Hartman, Terryl J.; Ciccarella, Amy; Baker, Aaron; Kaag, Matthew G.; Goodin, Susan; DiPaola, Robert S.; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies indicate that dietary selenium protects against prostate cancer. Results from clinical trials suggest that selenium-enriched yeast (SY) but not selenomethionine (SeMet) may be effective at reducing prostate cancer risk. Our objectives were to directly compare for the first time the effects of SeMet and SY on prostate cancer relevant biomarkers in men. We performed a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled trial of SY (200 or 285 µg/day) and SeMet (200 µg/day) administered for 9 months in 69 healthy men. Primary endpoints included blood levels of selenium-containing compounds and oxidative stress biomarkers (urine 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α [8-iso-PGF2α] and blood glutathione [GSH]). Secondary endpoints included plasma glucose and PSA levels. Compliance was high in all groups (>95%). Plasma selenium levels were increased 93%, 54%, and 86% after 9 months in SeMet and low and high dose SY groups, respectively, and returned to baseline levels after a 3 month washout (Pselenium (supplementation with SY but not SeMet in healthy men. These findings suggest that selenium-containing compounds other than SeMet may account for the decrease in oxidative stress. PMID:24938534

  14. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  15. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Korean adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoan Jong; Chung, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Woo Joo; Hong, Young Jin; Choi, Kyong Min; Lee, Jina; Oh, Chi Eun; Welsch, Jo Anne; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Hong, Ki Bae; Dagnew, Alemnew F; Bock, Hans; Dull, Peter M; Odrljin, Tatjana

    2014-11-01

    This phase III placebo-controlled study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-CRM vaccination in healthy Korean adolescents and adults. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination against all four meningococcal serogroups. The IgG concentration specific for serogroup W capsular polysaccharide was measured in a subset of subjects in a post-hoc analysis. Adverse reactions were monitored throughout the study. Four hundred and fifty subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM (N=297) or a saline placebo (N=153). MenACWY-CRM induced a good immune response against all four serogroups, with seroprotection rates (hSBA titers ≥8) of 79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Seroresponse rates were high for serogroups A, C, and Y, i.e. 76%, 86%, and 69%, respectively; the rate for serogroup W was 28%. MenACWY-CRM vaccine induced serum bactericidal antibodies against all four serogroups in a majority of subjects regardless of their baseline hSBA titers. MenACWY-CRM was generally well tolerated with most reactions being transient and mild to moderate in severity. Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects) and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107) against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  17. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    is Known Already The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. Study Design, Size, Duration In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine......, at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined...... with a 9% (3%; 15%) reduction in free testosterone and a 16% (2%; 31%) increase in FSH, after adjustment for confounders. Limitations, Reason for Caution Our study was cross-sectional and reverse causality cannot be ruled out. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility that the men with late puberty...

  18. Prevalence and associated factors of early repolarization pattern in healthy young northeastern Thai men: A correlation study with Brugada electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarawate, Pattarapong; Chaosuwannakit, Narumol; Ruamcharoen, Yossavadee; Panthongviriyakul, Aunejit; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Tharaksa, Prapapan; Sripo, Temsiri; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    Background Early repolarization pattern (ERP) is characterized by J-point elevation with QRS notching or slurring in the terminal portion of the QRS complex. It may be associated with sudden death. Brugada syndrome (BS) is a genetic and fatal disease commonly found in northeastern Thai men. Data on the rate and predictors of ERP in Asian populations are limited. In addition, the correlation between ERP and BS has never been studied in an endemic area of BS. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ERP and its associated factors in young, healthy male Asian subjects. Methods Between June 2011 and May 2012, 282 young, healthy men aged 20–45 years were enrolled at check-up clinics in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Subjects were divided into the ERP and non-ERP groups. Results There were 29 subjects with ERP (10.3%). The Sokolow–Lyon index was an independent factor for ERP with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.090 (95% CI: 1.027, 1.159). The Brugada ECG pattern was found in 11 (37.9%) subjects in the ERP group. The Brugada ECG pattern (non-type 1) was commonly found in lateral ERP patients. After the placement of high intercostal leads, the Brugada ECG pattern was dramatically increased compared with results obtained during standard ECG lead placement. Conclusions The ERP rate in young, healthy men from northeastern Thailand was 10.3%. A higher Sokolow–Lyon index was the only independent factor associated with ERP. Subjects with ERP should be examined with high intercostal leads to uncover Brugada ECG. PMID:26336562

  19. Contributions of white and brown adipose tissues and skeletal muscles to acute cold-induced metabolic responses in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Denis P; Labbé, Sébastien M; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C; Haman, François

    2015-02-01

    Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle activation contribute to the metabolic response of acute cold exposure in healthy men even under minimal shivering. Activation of adipose tissue intracellular lipolysis is associated with BAT metabolic response upon acute cold exposure in healthy men. Although BAT glucose uptake per volume of tissue is important, the bulk of glucose turnover during cold exposure is mediated by skeletal muscle metabolic activation even when shivering is minimized. Cold exposure stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), triggering the activation of cold-defence responses and mobilizing substrates to fuel the thermogenic processes. Although these processes have been investigated independently, the physiological interaction and coordinated contribution of the tissues involved in producing heat or mobilizing substrates has never been investigated in humans. Using [U-(13)C]-palmitate and [3-(3)H]-glucose tracer methodologies coupled with positron emission tomography using (11)C-acetate and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we examined the relationship between whole body sympathetically induced white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and mapped the skeletal muscle shivering and metabolic activation pattern during a mild, acute cold exposure designed to minimize shivering response in 12 lean healthy men. Cold-induced increase in whole-body oxygen consumption was not independently associated with BAT volume of activity, BAT oxidative metabolism, or muscle metabolism or shivering intensity, but depended on the sum of responses of these two metabolic tissues. Cold-induced increase in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance rate was strongly associated with the volume of metabolically active BAT (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), total BAT oxidative metabolism (r = 0.70, P = 0.004) and BAT glucose uptake (r = 0.80, P = 0.005), but not muscle glucose metabolism. The total glucose uptake was more than one order of

  20. Diurnal Variation of Pulse Wave Velocity Assessed Non-Invasively by Applanation Tonometry in Young Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Bodlaj, Gerd; Berg, Joerg; Biesenbach, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is at least partially controlled by vascular tone. Vascular tone and underlying physiological processes such as sympathetic activity, plasma catecholamin, and cortisol levels have been shown to follow diurnal variations. Materials and Methods Carotid-to-radial PWV was non-invasively assessed by applanation tonometry in 21 young (26.5 ? 2.3 years) healthy men at three different time points (8:00hr, 12:00hr, 17:00hr) during a day. Additionally, heart rate, syst...

  1. Effects of 2 wk of GH administration on 24-h indirect calorimetry in young, healthy, lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Morthorst, Rikke; Larsson, Benny

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed as a randomized, double-blind placebo (Plc)-controlled study to determine the effect of 2 wk of growth hormone administration (GH-adm.) on energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation in healthy humans. Sixteen young healthy men were divided into two groups....... The study consisted of two 24-h measurements (indirect calorimetry), separated by 2 wk of either Plc or GH injections (6 IU/day). At baseline, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in any of the measured anthropometric, hormonal, or metabolic parameters, neither did the parameters...... change over time in the Plc group. GH-adm. resulted in a 4.4% increase in 24-h EE (P

  2. Serum LP(A) levels in randomized healthy men from different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cigolini, M; Seidell, J C; Zenti, M G; Bonadonna, G; Zambelli, L; Deslypere, J P; Contaldo, F; Cruz, A.; Charzewska, J; Targher, G

    Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], blood lipids, serum insulin and anthropometric parameters were determined in randomized samples of 38-year-old men living in six European cities: Ede (The Netherlands), Deinze (Belgium), Warsaw (Poland), Lumiar (Portugal), Verona and Naples (respectively in northern and

  3. Kinesio Taping Does Not Alter Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength and Power in Healthy Nonathletic Men: A Prospective Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Korman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The effects of Kinesio Taping (KT on muscular performance remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of KT on the maximum concentric and eccentric quadriceps isokinetic strength. Study Design. This is a single-blinded, placebo crossover, repeated measures study. Methods. Maximum isokinetic concentric/eccentric extension torque, work, and power were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer without taping (NT and with KT or placebo taping (PT in 17 healthy young men. Repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Results. Testing concentric contractions at 60°/s or 180°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in peak torque (Nm, total work (J, or mean power (W were noted among the application modes under different conditions. Testing eccentric contractions at 30°/s or 60°/s isokinetic speed, no significant differences in mentioned parameters were noted, respectively. KT on the quadriceps neither decreased nor increased muscle strength in the participants. Conclusion. KT application onto the skin overlying the quadriceps muscle does not enhance the strength or power of knee extensors in healthy men.

  4. Acute psychosocial stress and everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men: The impact of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2017-07-01

    In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Drug-Drug Interactions Between Ritobegron, a Selective β3 -Adrenoceptor Agonist, With Probenecid in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Yuki; Kanazawa, Toru; Furihata, Takao; Endo, Takuro; Kobayashi, Mamoru

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of probenecid, a potent organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and OAT3 inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and safety of ritobegron, a selective β3 -adrenoceptor agonist, in healthy men. Twelve healthy men were administered a single oral dose of ritobegron (20 mg) alone or in combination with probenecid 2 hours before administration of ritobegron. In the combination sequence, additional doses of probenecid were administered 4 and 10 hours after the administration of ritobegron. Probenecid increased the Cmax of KUC-7322, an active form of ritobegron, and the AUC0-48  h by 1.39 and 2.93 times, respectively. Probenecid prolonged the t1/2 of KUC-7322 from 1.6 to 3.4 hours and decreased the renal clearance and cumulative fraction of KUC-7322 excreted in urine from 18.5 to 4.9 L/h and from 64.7% to 49.7%, respectively. Coadministration of probenecid did not influence adverse events, blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rate relative to ritobegron alone. Although probenecid inhibited renal tubule secretion of KUC-7322 via OAT3 and increased KUC-7322 exposure, it did not influence adverse effects or vital signs. Therefore, clinically significant drug-drug interactions are unlikely to occur when probenecid is administered in combination with OAT3 inhibitors or substrates. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation and both alter the gut microbiota of healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Kathryn J; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Pimentel, Grégory; Bütikofer, Ueli; von Ah, Ueli; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Croxatto, Antony; Aeby, Sébastien; Drai, Jocelyne; McTernan, Philip G; Greub, Gilbert; Pralong, François P; Vergères, Guy; Vionnet, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Probiotic yogurt and milk supplemented with probiotics have been investigated for their role in 'low-grade' inflammation but evidence for their efficacy is inconclusive. This study explores the impact of probiotic yogurt on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, with a parallel study of gut microbiota dynamics. The randomised cross-over study was conducted in fourteen healthy, young men to test probiotic yogurt compared with milk acidified with 2 % d-(+)-glucono-δ-lactone during a 2-week intervention (400 g/d). Fasting assessments, a high-fat meal test (HFM) and microbiota analyses were used to assess the intervention effects. Baseline assessments for the HFM were carried out after a run-in during which normal milk was provided. No significant differences in the inflammatory response to the HFM were observed after probiotic yogurt compared with acidified milk intake; however, both products were associated with significant reductions in the inflammatory response to the HFM compared with the baseline tests (assessed by IL6, TNFα and chemokine ligand 5) (Pyogurt intake (FC=-1·3, P adj=0·03), increased abundance of Bifidobacterium species after acidified milk intake (FC=1·4, P adj=0·04) and detection of Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp. bulgaricus (FC=7·0, P adjyogurt intake. Probiotic yogurt and acidified milk similarly reduce postprandial inflammation that is associated with a HFM while inducing distinct changes in the gut microbiota of healthy men. These observations could be relevant for dietary treatments that target 'low-grade' inflammation.

  7. Acute sleep deprivation delays the glucagon-like peptide 1 peak response to breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, C; Barclay, J L; Ott, V; Oster, H; Hallschmid, M

    2013-06-24

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that acute sleep loss impairs glucose homeostasis and increases food intake in humans. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) enhances postprandial insulin secretion and promotes satiety. Hypothesizing that the detrimental metabolic effects of sleep curtailment imply alterations in GLP-1 signaling, we investigated 24-h serum total GLP-1 concentrations during total sleep deprivation (TSD) and a normal sleep/wake cycle (comprising ∼8 h of sleep) in 12 healthy young men. Sessions started at 1800 h, and subjects were provided with standardized meals. Assessments of serum GLP-1 took place in 1.5- to 3-h intervals, focusing on the response to breakfast intake (3.8 MJ). Across conditions, 24-h concentration profiles of GLP-1 were characterized by the expected postprandial increases (P0.11), the postprandial GLP-1 peak response to breakfast intake was delayed by ∼90 min following sleep loss in comparison with regular sleep (Pconcentrations in healthy men.

  8. [Assessment of severity of depressive symptoms using the Polish version IA of Beck Depression Inventory in healthy men, inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by progression of depressive symptoms, which significantly impair the prognosis and quality of life of elderly men. Currently, there are no Polish reference values reflecting age-related changes in the intensity of depressive symptoms in healthy men. An assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms in a population of healthy Polish men, and an evaluation of the effects of age and education on the analyzed variables. We examined 341 healthy men, inhabitants of Wroclaw, aged 32-79, without any significant medical history. The intensity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Polish version IA of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We observed an increase in the severity of depressive symptoms in the subsequent age categories in the examined men, in all the analyzed symptoms (32-45, 46-55, 56-65, 66-79 years--4.1 +/- 4.4, 8.2 +/- 4.2, 10.4+/- 3.6, 13.4 +/- 3.4 points, respectively, r = 0.65, p or = 10 and depression (BDI > or = 20 and depressive symptoms in the examined men (p > 0.2). In Poland, male aging is accompanied by an increase in the severity of depressive symptoms. Age, but not education, constitutes a major determinant of these symptoms. The presented data may be used as reference values for BDI scores of healthy Polish men in subsequent age categories.

  9. ‘BIG, HARD and UP!’ A healthy creed for men to live by?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Van der Watt

    2016-01-01

    The social construction of reality is influenced extensively by the mass media. Commercialised images of masculinity, including discourses to interpret it, are continuously reflected and/or created by sources of mass media, in a myriad of ways. These images are subjectively loaded, but still effectively communicate to us, and even entice and persuade us. It furthermore wields extensive power over men – especially over their self-images, passions, and egos. In this article, dominating images a...

  10. Healthy eating and survival among elderly men with and without cardiovascularmetabolic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Hoon, de Sabine; Jacobs, D.R.; Kromhout, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims
    The strength of the associations of dietary scores with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in elderly vary considerably between a priori scores. To assess whether healthy eating lowers the risk of CVD and all-cause mortality among elderly

  11. Influence of GLP-1 on Myocardial Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men during Normo- or Hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Mengel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may provide beneficial cardiovascular effects, possibly due to enhanced myocardial energetic efficiency by increasing myocardial glucose uptake (MGU). We assessed the effects of GLP-1 on MGU in healthy subjects during normo- and hypoglycemia...

  12. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy

  13. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal and orgasm in healthy men and women: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoléru, Serge; Fonteille, Véronique; Cornélis, Christel; Joyal, Christian; Moulier, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    In the last fifteen years, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal in healthy human subjects. In most studies, subjects have been requested to watch visual sexual stimuli and control stimuli. Our review and meta-analysis found that in heterosexual men, sites of cortical activation consistently reported across studies are the lateral occipitotemporal, inferotemporal, parietal, orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal, insular, anterior cingulate, and frontal premotor cortices as well as, for subcortical regions, the amygdalas, claustrum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, thalami, cerebellum, and substantia nigra. Heterosexual and gay men show a similar pattern of activation. Visual sexual stimuli activate the amygdalas and thalami more in men than in women. Ejaculation is associated with decreased activation throughout the prefrontal cortex. We present a neurophenomenological model to understand how these multiple regional brain responses could account for the varied facets of the subjective experience of sexual arousal. Further research should shift from passive to active paradigms, focus on functional connectivity and use subliminal presentation of stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of spinal muscle composition and prevalence of hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Wendy; Cawthon, Peggy; Hicks, Gregory E; Vittinghoff, Eric; Shepherd, John; Cauley, Jane A; Harris, Tamara; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Strotmeyer, Elsa; Womack, Catherine; Kado, Deborah M

    2012-02-01

    Older adults with hyperkyphosis are at increased risk of falls, fractures, and functional decline. Modifiable risk factors for hyperkyphosis have not been well studied. Our objective was to determine whether spinal muscle area and density are associated with hyperkyphosis, independent of age, race, sex, bone mineral density, and trunk fat. Using data from the Pittsburgh site of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, we performed a baseline cross-sectional analysis. Participants were black and white men and women 70-79 years old (N = 1172), independent in activities of daily living and able to walk ¼ mile and up 10 steps without resting. We measured Cobb's angle of kyphosis from supine lateral scout computed tomography scans, and categorized hyperkyphosis as Cobb's angle >40°. Axial images from lateral scout computed tomography scans assessed spinal extensor muscle cross-sectional area and density (proxy for fat infiltration). In our sample, 21% had hyperkyphosis. Prevalence in black men was 11%; in white men, 17%; in black women, 26%; and in white women, 30%. In multivariate analysis, each standard deviation increase in muscle density was associated with a 29% reduction in the odds of hyperkyphosis, independent of covariates. Muscle area was not significantly associated with hyperkyphosis. Lower spinal muscle density is associated with hyperkyphosis in healthy community-dwelling older adults. This potentially modifiable risk factor could be targeted in exercise interventions. Randomized trials are needed to determine whether an exercise program targeting spinal muscle density reduces hyperkyphosis and in turn improves health outcomes.

  15. Low levels of free testosterone correlated with bone mineral densities of femoral necks in aged healthy Shanghainese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, T; Zhu, J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of serum testosterone concentrations on bone mineral densities (BMDs) in healthy aged men in Shanghai area. Eighty-four participants, registered in the physical examination center of our hospital were included. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to measure concentrations of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) in serum. BMDs of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, the trochanter major, and Ward's triangle were determined with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The correlations of TT and FT with BMDs at the different skeleton sites were analyzed; stratified analyses by age were performed with 10-year range groups and the changing trends of TT and FT with increasing age were further investigated. In addition, we performed a stratified quartile TT and FT analysis of their correlations with BMDs of different bones in each group. The average age of the participants was 71.8 ± 9.6 years (50-90 years). In a stratified analysis by age, no significant TT changes with increasing age was found, but there was a significant decrease of FT in men older than 80 years (p<0.05). In a stratified FT quartile analysis, FT in the first quartile group correlated significantly with BMDs of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and Ward's triangle; however, there was only a significant correlation between FT and BMD of the femoral neck after adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI). FT blood serum concentrations decreased significantly in healthy men aged over 80 and positively correlated with BMDs of femoral necks. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Involvement of iron-evoked oxidative stress in smoking-related endothelial dysfunction in healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Fukami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and smoking contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Iron might also play a role in oxidative stress generation and endothelial dysfunction. However, the involvement of iron in smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers remains unclear. Therefore, we examined here whether (1 intravenous iron infusion impaired endothelial function evaluated by flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD in non-smokers, and (2 deferoxamine, a potent iron chelator, ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers. METHODS: Eight healthy young male non-smokers (23 ± 4 years old received intravenous injection of saccharated ferric oxide (0.7 mg/kg body weight, while 10 age-matched healthy male smokers received deferoxamine mesylate (8.3 mg/kg body weight. At baseline, 5 and 20 minutes after treatment with iron or deferoxamine, biochemical variables were measured, including serum iron and marondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid oxidation, and endothelial function was simultaneously evaluated by FMD. RESULTS: Compared with non-smokers, FMD was significantly lower in smokers. Iron and MDA levels were significantly increased, whereas FMD was impaired by iron infusion in non-smokers. Conversely, deferoxamine treatment significantly decreased iron and MDA levels and restored the decreased FMD in smokers. Baseline serum iron and MDA levels in all 18 subjects (non-smokers and smokers were correlated with each other. There was a significant inverse correlation between the changes in MDA values and FMD from baseline in 18 men. Endothelium-independent vasodilation by glyceryl trinitrate was unaltered by either treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our present study suggests that iron-evoked oxidative stress might play a role in endothelial dysfunction in healthy smokers.

  17. HealthyDads.ca: What Do Men Want in a Website Designed to Promote Emotional Wellness and Healthy Behaviors During the Transition to Parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Letourneau, Nicole; Howlett, Andrew; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Russell, Brian; Grover, Steven; Lowensteyn, Ilka; Chan, Peter; Khalifé, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to 18% of men experience depression and/or anxiety during the transition to parenthood. Interventions designed specifically to promote the mental health of men during the transition to parenthood are scarce. Internet-delivered interventions may be acceptable and far-reaching in enhancing mental health, parenting knowledge, and healthy behaviors in expectant or new fathers. Objective To guide the development of Healthydads.ca, a website designed to enhance mental health and healthy behaviors in expectant fathers, a needs assessment was conducted to identify fathers’ perspectives of barriers to seeking help for emotional wellness, informational needs, and factors affecting the decision to visit such a website. Methods One hundred and seventy-four men whose partners were expecting, or had recently given birth, in 3 Canadian provinces (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta) completed a Web-based survey inquiring about information needs related to psychosocial aspects of the transition to parenthood, lifestyle behaviors, parenting, and factors associated with the decision to visit a father-focused website. Results Most men (155/174, 89.1%) reported accessing the Internet to obtain information on pregnancy and spent an average of 6.2 hours online per month. Seeking information about parenting on the Internet was reported by 67.2% (117/174) of men, with a mean of 4.4 hours per month of online searching. Top barriers to seeking help to improve emotional wellness during the perinatal period were: no time to seek help/assistance (130/174, 74.7%), lack of resources available in the health care system (126/174, 72.4%), financial costs associated with services (118/174, 67.8%), and feeling that one should be able to do it alone (113/174, 64.9%). Information needs that were rated highly included: parenting/infant care (52.9-81.6%), supporting (121/174, 69.5%) and improving (124/174, 71.3%) relationship with their partner, work-family balance (120/174, 69.0%), improving

  18. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all Pvegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Shorter sleep duration is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patricia M; Manuck, Stephen B; DiNardo, Monica M; Korytkowski, Mary; Muldoon, Matthew F

    2015-02-01

    Short sleep has been linked to increased risk for type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular disease and acute sleep restriction impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Here, we examined whether indices of glucose metabolism vary with naturally occurring differences in sleep duration. Subjects were midlife, nondiabetic community volunteers (N = 224; mean age 44.5 ± 6.6 y [range: 30-54]; 52% female; 89% white). Laboratory measures of insulin sensitivity (Si) and acute secretion (AIRg), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and disposition index (Di) were obtained from a 180-min, intravenous glucose tolerance test. Shorter self-reported sleep duration (in hours) was associated with lower Si (P = 0.043), although an interaction of sleep duration with participant race (β = -0.81, P = 0.002) showed this association significant only in whites. Moreover, sex-stratified analyses revealed that shorter sleep duration predicted lower Si in white men (β = 0.29, P = 0.003) but not in white women (P = 0.22). Findings were similar for AIRg. The relationship between sleep duration and AIRg was moderated by race as well as sex, such that shorter sleep duration associated with greater insulin release only in white men (β = -0.28, P = 0.004). Sleep duration was unrelated to Sg and Di (P's > 0.05). Our findings suggest that shorter sleep duration may impair insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in nondiabetic white men, possibly contributing to later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Evaluation of penile erection rigidity in healthy men using virtual touch tissue quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Wu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to describe the shear wave velocity (SWV) values of the penis by virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in evaluation of the rigidity changes in penile erection. Patients and methods. VTTQ was performed in 37 healthy volunteers. In the course of erection, SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis were quantified and grades of erection were documented. The SWV values at different grad...

  1. Investigations into Changes in Bone Turnover with Acute, Weight-Bearing Exercise in Healthy, Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    visit (P2), volunteers had their maximal rate of oxygen uptake ( VO2max ) measured to establish their physical fitness and allow the calculation of...specific exercise intensities relative to VO2max for use in the studies. Controlled diet and restricted training P1 P2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Preliminary...responses to acute, exhaustive exercise 1 Intermittent, exhaustive running at 65% to 70% VO2max Recreationally-active men (RA) vs endurance-trained

  2. Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, I; Banegas, I; Prieto, I; Wangensteen, R; Segarra, A B; Villarejo, A B; De Gasparo, M; Luna, J D; Vives, F; Ruiz-Bailen, M; Ramirez-Sanchez, M

    2016-01-01

    The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP). It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure. To analyze this hypothesis, we measured BP in the left and right arm of the left and right handed adult young men and women in menstrual and ovulatory phase and calculated their mean arterial pressure (MAP). Significant differences depending on sex, arm, handedness or phase of the cycle were observed. MAP was mostly higher in men than in women. Remarkably, in women, the highest levels were observed in the left handed in menstrual phase. Interestingly, the level of handedness correlated negatively with MAP measured in the left arm of right-handed women in the ovulatory phase but positively with the MAP measured in the right arm of right-handed women in the menstrual phase. These results may reflect an asymmetrical modulatory influence of sex hormones in BP control.

  3. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. METHODS: We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI...... was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. RESULTS: During 53,302 person...

  4. Ankle Dorsiflexion Among Healthy Men With Different Qualities of Lower Extremity Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Alon; Kozol, Zvi; Spitzer, Elad; Finestone, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity movement patterns have been implicated as a risk factor for various knee disorders. Ankle-dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) has previously been associated with a faulty movement pattern among healthy female participants. Objective: To determine the association between ankle DF ROM and the quality of lower extremity movement during the lateral step-down test among healthy male participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Training facility of the Israel Defense Forces. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-five healthy male Israeli military recruits (age = 19.7 ± 1.1 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.4 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 7.6 kg). Intervention(s): Dorsiflexion ROM was measured in weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing conditions using a fluid-filled inclinometer and a universal goniometer, respectively. Lower extremity movement pattern was assessed visually using the lateral step-down test and classified categorically as good or moderate. All measurements were performed bilaterally. Main Outcome Measure(s): Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF ROM were more limited among participants with moderate quality of movement than in those with good quality of movement on the dominant side (P = .01 and P = .02 for weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing DF, respectively). Non–weight-bearing DF demonstrated a trend toward a decreased range among participants with moderate compared with participants with good quality of movement on the nondominant side (P = .03 [adjusted P = .025]). Weight-bearing DF was not different between participants with good and moderate movement patterns on the nondominant side (P = .10). Weight-bearing and non–weight-bearing ankle DF ROM correlated significantly with the quality of movement on both sides (P < .01 and P < .05 on the dominant and nondominant side, respectively). Conclusions: Ankle DF ROM was associated with quality of movement among healthy male participants. The association seemed weaker in

  5. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rawal, Jaikirty S; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E; Payne, John R; Skipworth, James R; Puthucheary, Zudin A; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E; Haddad, Fares S; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2012-02-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response.

  6. Cigarette smoking and the association with glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Isseki; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Koh, Hideo; Harita, Nobuko; Nakamura, Yoshiko; Endo, Ginji; Kambe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kanji

    2011-10-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration and albuminuria accompanied by early-stage diabetic kidney disease predict future renal failure. Cigarette smoking has reported to be associated with elevated GFR in cross-sectional studies and with renal deterioration in longitudinal studies. The degree of glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria associated with smoking, which presumably is a phenomenon of early renal damage, has not been investigated in a satisfying manner so far. This study included 10,118 Japanese men aged 40 to 55 years without proteinuria or renal dysfunction at entry. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for Japanese. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated GFR ≥117.0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of estimated GFR in the total population. Proteinuria was detected using standard dipstick. During the 6-year observation period, there were 449 incident cases of glomerular hyperfiltration and 1653 cases of proteinuria. Current smokers had a 1.32-time higher risk for the development of glomerular hyperfiltration and a 1.51-time higher risk for proteinuria than nonsmokers after adjustment for baseline age, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, diabetes, alcohol consumption, regular leisure-time physical activity, and estimated GFR. Both daily and cumulative cigarette consumption were associated with an increased risk for glomerular hyperfiltration and proteinuria in a dose-response manner. In middle-aged Japanese men, smoking was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria. Of importance, past smokers did not exhibit any increased risk for these conditions.

  7. Resting cardiac energy metabolism is inversely associated with heart rate in healthy young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Gabriele; De Cobelli, Francesco; Spoladore, Roberto; Esposito, Antonio; Salerno, Anna; Calori, Giliola; Montanaro, Claudia; Maranta, Francesco; Lattuada, Guido; Margonato, Alberto; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Perseghin, Gianluca

    2011-07-01

    31-Phosphorus-magnetic resonance spectroscopy may provide pathophysiological insights into the high-energy phosphate metabolism of the myocardium as measured by phosphocreatine to adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio. Aim of the present study was to determine in vivo the relation between cardiac PCr/ATP ratio and heart rate in normal male subjects. One hundred twelve apparently healthy, young male individuals (age 34 ± 10 years) were prospectively evaluated. They underwent cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging to assess left ventricular (LV) function and morphology and 3D-ISIS (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the LV to assess the PCr/ATP ratio (a recognized in vivo marker of myocardial energy metabolism). Data were analyzed after segregation by tertiles of the resting PCr/ATP ratio. A significant inverse association between PCr/ATP ratios and resting heart rate was observed (Spearman ρ: r=-0.37; P heart rate was found to be independently related to PCr/ATP. The present study shows that resting heart rate is proportionally lower across tertiles of increasing PCr/ATP ratio of the LV in apparently healthy young male individuals, supporting the hypothesis that heart rate is a major determinant of cardiac energy stores. These findings may explain the prognostic role of heart rate in the general population as evidenced by previous large epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxytocin Improves β-Cell Responsivity and Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Johanna; Ott, Volker; Rapp, Kristina; Brede, Swantje; Piccinini, Francesca; Cobelli, Claudio; Lehnert, Hendrik; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    In addition to its pivotal role in psychosocial behavior, the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin contributes to metabolic control by suppressing eating behavior. Its involvement in glucose homeostasis is less clear, although pilot experiments suggest that oxytocin improves glucose homeostasis. We assessed the effect of intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) administered to 29 healthy, fasted male subjects on glucose homeostasis measured by means of an oral glucose tolerance test. Parameters of glucose metabolism were analyzed according to the oral minimal model. Oxytocin attenuated the peak excursion of plasma glucose and augmented the early increases in insulin and C-peptide concentrations in response to the glucose challenge, while slightly blunting insulin and C-peptide peaks. Oral minimal model analyses revealed that oxytocin compared with placebo induced a pronounced increase in β-cell responsivity (PHItotal) that was largely due to an enhanced dynamic response (PHId), and a more than twofold improvement in glucose tolerance (disposition index). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucagon, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were not or were only marginally affected. These results indicate that oxytocin plays a significant role in the acute regulation of glucose metabolism in healthy humans and render the oxytocin system a potential target of antidiabetic treatment. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption.

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen and vitamin C and E supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Nicolle; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Koch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of normobaric and hyperbaric O2 (HBO) on plasma antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress in plasma and urine and to investigate the effect of a 4-week vitamin C plus E supplementation on HBO-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen...... healthy men were exposed to HBO (100 % O2; 240 kPa) before and after 4 weeks' supplementation with 500 mg vitamin C plus 165 mg alpha-tocopherol equivalents. Exposure to 21 % O2 at 100 kPa served as intra-individual controls (control). Samples for the analysis of plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress......G) excretion (P = 0.006). Oxidative stress was not prevented by a 4-week supplementation with vitamins C and E. HBO-induced changes in plasma parameters correlated with basal antioxidant levels. The increase of urinary 8-oxodG after HBO plus supplementation correlated negatively with vitamin E intake (P = 0...

  11. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one...... of the factors determining the metabolic quality of different types of carbohydrates. We analyzed the correlation between the rate of intestinal absorption of (starch-derived) glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP after ingestion of glucose and starchy foods with a different content of rapidly...... and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...

  12. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic...... and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout...... the cardiac cycle by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at rest, during dobutamine stress (15 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1)), 15 min after termination (T15), and 30 min after termination (T30) of dobutamine stress. We calculated LV ejection fractions, LV stroke volumes, LV peak filling rates, and LA passive, active...

  13. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p < .05). Furthermore, a higher serum insulin concentration was noted after OFI intake at baseline and at t₃₀ (p < .05). In OGTT(EX), blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p < .05). However, insulin values and AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  14. Sex differences in associations between insulin resistance, heart rate variability, and arterial stiffness in healthy women and men: a physiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannelli, Luke Anthony; MacRae, Jennifer M; Mann, Michelle C; Ramesh, Sharanya; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Rabi, Doreen; Sola, Darlene Y; Ahmed, Sofia B

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes confers greater cardiovascular risk to women than to men. Whether insulin-resistance-mediated risk extends to the healthy population is unknown. Measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, glucose) were determined in 48 (56% female) healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated by spectral power analysis and arterial stiffness was determined using noninvasive applanation tonometry. Both were measured at baseline and in response to angiotensin II infusion. In women, there was a non-statistically significant trend towards increasing insulin resistance being associated with an overall unfavourable HRV response and increased arterial stiffness to the stressor, while men demonstrated the opposite response. Significant differences in the associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular physiological profile exist between healthy women and men. Further studies investigating the sex differences in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in cardiovascular disease are warranted.

  15. Impact of acute psychosocial stress on peripheral blood gene expression pathways in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Whistler, Toni; Lonergan, William; Mletzko, Tanja; Vernon, Suzanne D; Heim, Christine

    2009-10-01

    We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression responses to acute psychosocial stress to identify molecular pathways relevant to the stress response. Blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy male subjects before, during and after (at 0, 30, and 60 min) a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted and gene expression measured by hybridization to a 20,000-gene microarray. Gene Set Expression Comparisons (GSEC) using defined pathways were used for the analysis. Forty-nine pathways were significantly changed from baseline to immediately after the stressor (p<0.05), implicating cell cycle, cell signaling, adhesion and immune responses. The comparison between stress and recovery (measured 30 min later) identified 36 pathways, several involving stress-responsive signaling cascades and cellular defense mechanisms. These results have relevance for understanding molecular mechanisms of the physiological stress response, and might be used to further study adverse health outcomes of psychosocial stress.

  16. Intentional weight loss and mortality among initially healthy men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mette K; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B

    2008-01-01

    Most prospective observational studies suggest that weight loss increases the risk of premature death among obese individuals. This is surprising because clinical studies show that weight loss generally leads to overall improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. It is sometimes argued...... that the increased mortality observed with weight loss must depend on confounding or poor study designs. This review was conducted to summarize results from studies on intentional weight loss and mortality among healthy individuals, while carefully considering the designs and problems in these studies. Evaluation...... criteria with a rating scale were developed. Of the studies evaluated, two found decreased mortality with intentional weight loss, three found increased mortality, and four found no significant associations between intentional weight loss and total mortality. Thus, it is still not possible for health...

  17. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass is associated with isokinetic muscle strength and balance in healthy collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Hong, Ju; Cha, Jun-Youl; Park, Jung-Min; Eun, Denny; Yoo, Jaehyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-11-01

    There are few studies on the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and balance in the young ages. We investigated the relationship between appendicular skeletal muscle mass, isokinetic muscle strength of lower extremity, and balance among healthy young men using relative skeletal muscle index. Thirty men were grouped according to relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index: higher skeletal muscle group (n = 15) and lower skeletal muscle group (n = 15). Static and dynamic balance abilities were measured using the following: a test where participants stood on one leg with eyes closed, a modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB) with eyes open and eyes closed, a stability test, and limits of stability test. The muscle strength of lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic analyser in hip, knee, and ankle joints. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass were significantly more stable in maintaining dynamic balance than those with lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Moreover, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with dynamic balance ability. Participants with higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass had stronger strength in the lower extremity, and there were significant differences in the isokinetic torque ratios between groups. From these results, it can be inferred that higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass relates to muscle strength and the alteration in the peak torque ratio of the lower extremity, contributing to the maintenance of balance.

  18. The degree of fat saturation does not alter glycemic, insulinemic or satiety responses to a starchy staple in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Caroline G; Holt, Susanna H A; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2003-08-01

    Inclusion of fat reduces the glycemic response to a carbohydate meal, although the effect of different types of fat on glycemic, insulinemic and satiety responses is unclear. Ten healthy men received 50-g carbohydrate portions of mashed potato with isoenergetic amounts of butter (saturated fatty acid), Sunola oil (monounsaturated fatty acid) or sunflower oil (PUFA) and two 50-g glucose loads on separate days. Capillary blood was collected at regular intervals for 2 h. Satiety ratings were assessed by use of a rating scale. The glycemic index (GI), insulin index (II) and satiety index (SI) scores were calculated. Energy intakes from a meal consumed ad libitum at 2 h and for the remainder of the day were quantified. The GI values ranged from 68 +/- 8 to 74 +/- 10 and the II values ranged from 113 +/- 10 to 122 +/- 17, but there was no effect of fat type. SI scores and subsequent energy intake did not differ among the test meals. Substitution of unsaturated fats for saturated fatty acids had no acute benefits on postprandial glycemia, insulin demand or short-term satiety in young men.

  19. Test-retest reliability of the net joint power transferred by the lower limbs during walking in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of the measurement of net joint power during repeated gait measurements within one day and between two different measurement days. METHODS: Thirty able-bodied men who underwent repeated gait measurements within a day and between days participated in this research. An acceptable trial was one in which the participant complied with the range of walking speed 1.45 m/s ± 5%. Three-dimensional angles, angular velocities, net moments of force and net power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were determined using external passive reflective markers, an 8-camera motion analysis system and two force plates. RESULTS: This study presents the patterns of the net power in the fundamental joints of the lower limbs in young healthy men at standard gait velocity. Intraclass correlation coefficients for net joint power measure reached values in the range of .70 to .89 on the first day, from .69 to .86 on the second day, and from .67 to .83 in total. CONCLUSION: The reliability of the measurement of the peak net joint power within one day and between the two measurement days was evaluated as satisfactory. The study provides the value of minimal detectable change for the peak net power of the lower limb in the sagittal plane during gait. The net joint power appears to be a reliable measure and could be used in practice.

  20. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise increase circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA without development of tolerance in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert; Walczak, Konrad; Kosielski, Piotr; Meissner, Pawel; Budlewski, Tomasz; Padula, Gianluca; Nowak, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). We tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in healthy men. Eleven average-trained men (age 34.0±5.2 years, body mass index 26.2±3.1 kg/m2, maximal oxygen consumption-VO2max 49.6±4.5 ml/kg*min) performed three treadmill exercise tests to exhaustion at speed corresponding to 70% VO2max separated by 72 hours of resting. Blood was collected before and after each bout of exercise for determination of cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (cf n-DNA, cf mt-DNA) by real-time PCR, selected markers of muscle damage, and blood cell count. Each bout induced the increase (pafore-mentioned markers at any occasion. Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced remarkable increase in circulating cf n-DNA without signs of tolerance development. Baseline cf mt-DNA decreased in response to series of strenuous exercise. Since percentage increments of cf n-DNA in response to exercise were many times higher than those observed for other markers, measurement of circulating cf n-DNA could be a sensitive tool for monitoring acute exercise effects in human body.

  1. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of posaconazole coadministered with antacid in fasting or nonfasting healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Rachel; Radwanski, Elaine; Lim, Josephine; Laughlin, Mark

    2004-03-01

    Posaconazole is a potent broad-spectrum azole antifungal agent in clinical development for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. This study evaluated the potential for a pH-dependent pharmacokinetic interaction between posaconazole and an antacid (Mylanta), under fasting and nonfasting conditions. Twelve men completed this randomized, four-period crossover, single-dose study. Subjects received 200 mg of posaconazole following a 10-h fast, with 20 ml of Mylanta and a 10-h fast, with 20 ml of Mylanta and a high-fat breakfast, and with a high-fat breakfast alone. Antacid coadministration had no statistically significant effects on posaconazole bioavailability under fasting or nonfasting conditions. In the fasting state, antacid slightly increased the relative oral bioavailability of posaconazole by 15% (P = 0.296); in the nonfasting state, antacid decreased the relative bioavailability of posaconazole by 12% (P = 0.352). Food increased the relative oral bioavailability of posaconazole by 400% (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the effect of antacid on posaconazole exposure in the fasting or nonfasting state was small and is not considered clinically significant.

  3. Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle is Associated With a Lower Risk of Diverticulitis among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Hong; Cao, Yin; Keeley, Brieze R; Tam, Idy; Wu, Kana; Strate, Lisa L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Diverticulitis is a common disease with high clinical burden. We evaluated the joint contribution of multiple lifestyle factors to risks of incident diverticulitis. We also estimated the proportion of diverticulitis preventable by lifestyle modifications. We prospectively examined the association between lifestyle factors (red meat, dietary fiber intake, vigorous physical activity (activity with metabolic equivalent ≥6), body mass index (BMI), and smoking) and risk of diverticulitis among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We documented 907 incident cases of diverticulitis during 757,791 person-years. High intake of red meat, low intake of dietary fiber, low vigorous physical activity, high BMI, and smoking were independently associated with increased risks of diverticulitis (all Pdiverticulitis incidence (P for trenddiverticulitis were 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.87) for men with 1 low-risk lifestyle factor; 0.66 (95% CI: 0.55-0.81) for 2 low-risk factors; 0.50 (95% CI: 0.40-0.62) for 3 low-risk factors; 0.47 (95% CI: 0.35-0.62) for 4 low-risk factors, and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.15-0.48) for 5 low-risk factors. Adherence to a low-risk lifestyle could prevent 50% (95% CI: 20-71%) of incident diverticulitis. Adherence to a low-risk lifestyle is associated with reduced incidence of diverticulitis.

  4. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; George, L K; Coleman, R E; Riddle, M W; McKee, D C; Reasoner, J; Williams, R S

    1989-09-01

    The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold. Psychological measures included measures of mood, psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2 and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological changes observed among aerobic exercise participants included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few significant psychological changes could be attributed to aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a number of psychological and behavioral dimensions.

  5. [Influence of family history of hypertension on blood pressure in young healthy men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwierz, Paweł; Grzeszczak, Władysław

    2003-01-01

    Hypertension belongs to the most frequent illnesses of circulatory system and in regard for its spread in population and great effects determines one of the most important medical, social and economical problems. In spite of turbulent progress which took place in diagnostic methods pathogenesis of primary hypertension still remains not fully detected. There are many proofs, that the important role plays here genetical factor. The purpose of these studies were to find answer the question, if young men age between 18-30 years with family medical hypertension history have a difference in middle systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in comparison to coevals without familiar hypertension. Lipoid parameters such as: total cholesterol, and its fractions HDL and LDL and triglyceride were also studied to. In order to exclude some well-known factors but which have influence blood pressure of studies height, weight and body mass index were measured. All around a clock registration blood pressure was made by means of ERKA machine with frequency three times a hour in the daily activity (6 a.m.-10 p.m.) and one time a hour during the night (10 p.m.-6 a.m.), arranging in this way 57 time points (measuring points). Obtaining mean systolic, diastolic and mean BP were in reality higher in studying group (p genetical predisposition and contribution of this factor in pathogenesis of primary hypertension.

  6. Heart-rate variability and blood-lactate threshold interaction during progressive resistance exercise in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo P; Mendes, Renata G; Castello, Viviane; Machado, Heloísa G; Almeida, Larissa B; Baldissera, Vilmar; Catai, Aparecida M; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to (a) evaluate the impact of the leg press, at variable percentages of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood lactate and (b) determine the relationship between HRV with blood lactate in a healthy elderly cohort. Ten healthy men (64 +/- 4 years) participated in a progressive leg-press protocol to maximal exertion. Initially, 1RM for the leg press was determined for all subjects. The protocol then began at 10% of 1RM, with subsequent increases of 10% until 30% of 1RM, followed by incremental adjustments of 5% until exhaustion. The measurement of instantaneous R-R interval variability from Poincare plots (SD1 and SD2) and time domain indexes (RMSSD and RMSM), blood pressure, and blood lactate were obtained at rest and all leg-press loads. Significant alterations of HRV and blood lactate were observed from 30% of 1RM leg press (p measure obtained at a relatively low cost may be used to identify neural and metabolic alterations during RE in older subjects.

  7. Rapid clinical induction of bupropion hydroxylation by metamizole in healthy Chinese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Hu, Dong-Li; Wang, Dan; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2012-01-01

    AIMS This study aimed to investigate the effect of metamizole on bupropion hydroxylation related to different CYP2B6 genotype groups in healthy volunteers. METHODS Sixteen healthy male volunteers (6 CYP2B6*1/*1, 6 CYP2B6*1/*6 and 4 CYP2B6*6/*6) received orally administered bupropion alone and during daily treatment with metamizole 1500 mg day–1 (500 mg tablet taken three times daily) for 4 days. Serial blood samples were obtained up to 48 h after each bupropion dose. RESULTS After metamizole treatment relative to bupropion alone, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the AUC(0,∞) ratio of 4-hydroxybupropion over bupropion were 1.99 (1.57, 2.55) for the CYP2B6*1/*1 group, 2.15 (1.53, 3.05) for the CYP2B6*1/*6 group and 1.86 (1.36, 2.57) for the CYP2B6*6/*6 group. The GMRs and 90% CI of bupropion were 0.695 (0.622, 0.774) for AUC(0,∞) and 0.400 (0.353, 0.449) for Cmax, respectively. The corresponding values for 4-hydroxybupropion were 1.43 (1.28, 1.53) and 2.63 (2.07, 2.92). The t1/2 value was significantly increased for bupropion and decreased for 4-hydroxybupropion. The tmax values of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were both significantly decreased. The mean percentage changes in pharmacokinetic parameters among the CYP2B6 genotype groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of metamizole for 4 days significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of both bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, and significantly increased the CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in all of the subjects. Cautions should be taken when metamizole is co-administered with CYP2B6 substrate drugs. PMID:22519658

  8. Rapid clinical induction of bupropion hydroxylation by metamizole in healthy Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Hu, Dong-Li; Wang, Dan; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of metamizole on bupropion hydroxylation related to different CYP2B6 genotype groups in healthy volunteers. Sixteen healthy male volunteers (6 CYP2B6*1/*1, 6 CYP2B6*1/*6 and 4 CYP2B6*6/*6) received orally administered bupropion alone and during daily treatment with metamizole 1500 mg day(-1) (500 mg tablet taken three times daily) for 4 days. Serial blood samples were obtained up to 48 h after each bupropion dose. After metamizole treatment relative to bupropion alone, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the AUC(0,∞) ratio of 4-hydroxybupropion over bupropion were 1.99 (1.57, 2.55) for the CYP2B6*1/*1 group, 2.15 (1.53, 3.05) for the CYP2B6*1/*6 group and 1.86 (1.36, 2.57) for the CYP2B6*6/*6 group. The GMRs and 90% CI of bupropion were 0.695 (0.622, 0.774) for AUC(0,∞) and 0.400 (0.353, 0.449) for C(max) , respectively. The corresponding values for 4-hydroxybupropion were 1.43 (1.28, 1.53) and 2.63 (2.07, 2.92). The t(1/2) value was significantly increased for bupropion and decreased for 4-hydroxybupropion. The t(max) values of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were both significantly decreased. The mean percentage changes in pharmacokinetic parameters among the CYP2B6 genotype groups were not significantly different. Oral administration of metamizole for 4 days significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of both bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, and significantly increased the CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in all of the subjects. Cautions should be taken when metamizole is co-administered with CYP2B6 substrate drugs. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Resting heart rate and incident heart failure in apparently healthy men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2012-10-01

    Increasing levels of resting heart rate are associated with increased risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and seem to play a role in the progression of heart failure. The shape of the association between resting heart rate and risk of developing heart failure has not been examined in healthy individuals of the general population. Hazard ratios (HRs) of heart failure comparing categories of resting heart rate [51-60 b.p.m. (reference), 61-70 b.p.m., 71-80 b.p.m., 81-90 b.p.m., and 91-100 b.p.m.] were calculated in apparently healthy men (9805) and women (12 321) aged 39-79 participating in the 'European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition' (EPIC) study in Norfolk. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 1356 incident cases of heart failure occurred. In participants without potential heart rate-modifying medication, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates of heart failure were 3.3, 3.7, 4.0, 5.1, and 5.5 per 1000 person-years for increasing categories of resting heart rate; compared with the reference category, HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increasing categories of resting heart rate were 1.08 (0.88-1.34), 1.17 (0.94-1.46), 1.39 (1.08-1.79), and 1.42 (1.00-2.03), respectively, in multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, prevalent diabetes, cholesterol concentration, social class, educational level, smoking, and physical activity. Within the reference range of resting heart rate (50-100 b.p.m.) each 10 b.p.m. increase was associated with an 11% increase in hazard of heart failure in multivariable analysis. The results did not change materially after adjusting for myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease events during follow up (1.12, 1.06-1.18). Resting heart rate shows a graded association with hazard of heart failure in apparently healthy men and women which is not mediated by coronary heart disease. Further study is needed to examine the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella, a unicellular green alga, contains various antioxidants and other nutrients such as amino acids and fiber. Previous studies have reported that supplementation with multiple antioxidants reduces arterial stiffness, a well-established cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the effects of Chlorella intake on arterial stiffness using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study design. Fourteen young men took placebo or Chlorella tablets for four weeks, with a 12-week washout period between trials, in a randomized order. Before and after each trial, blood pressure, heart rate, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, an index of arterial stiffness, were measured. Treatment compliance was comparable between the two groups. There were no differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after supplementation in both the placebo and Chlorella groups. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity decreased after Chlorella intake (before vs after intake; 11.6 ± 0.2 vs 11.1 ± 0.1 m/s, p = 0.01), but not after placebo intake (11.4 ± 0.2 vs 11.4 ± 0.2 m/s, p = 0.98). Multicomponent analysis of the Chlorella-containing tablet detected nutrients that can reduce arterial stiffness, such as antioxidant vitamins, arginine, potassium, calcium, and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that intake of a Chlorella-containing multicomponent supplement can decrease arterial stiffness. PMID:24249971

  11. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Skulberg, Andreas; Skulberg, Knut Ragnvald; Aass, Hans Christian D; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol's effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N = 20) aged 25-45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg) which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028). Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015). In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p < 0.001). The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention.

  12. Evaluation of penile erection rigidity in healthy men using virtual touch tissue quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaozhi; Ji, Ping; Mao, Hongwei; Wu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to describe the shear wave velocity (SWV) values of the penis by virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and to examine the clinical usefulness of this procedure in evaluation of the rigidity changes in penile erection. Patients and methods. VTTQ was performed in 37 healthy volunteers. In the course of erection, SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis were quantified and grades of erection were documented. The SWV values at different grades of erection were compared. Results The axial and radial SWV values of glans penis, corpus penis and radix penis all significantly decreased from Grade 0 to Grade 4 of erection. At Grade 4, they were less than one-third of that at Grade 0 (axial direction: 0.79 ± 0.13 vs. 2.79 ± 0.32 for glans penis, Ppenile rigidity and can effectively and sensitively indicate the axial and radial rigidity changes in penile erection, which provide a new approach to assessing the erectile function. PMID:23077447

  13. Helplessness and perceived pain intensity: relations to cortisol concentrations after electrocutaneous stimulation in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Matthias J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncontrollable aversive events are associated with feelings of helplessness and cortisol elevation and are suitable as a model of depression. The high comorbidity of depression and pain symptoms and the importance of controllability in both conditions are clinically well-known but empirical studies are scarce. The study investigated the relationship of pain experience, helplessness, and cortisol secretion after controllable vs. uncontrollable electric skin stimulation in healthy male individuals. Methods Sixty-four male volunteers were randomly assigned to receive 30 controllable (self-administered or uncontrollable (experimenter-administered painful electric skin stimuli. Perceived pain intensity (PPI, subjective helplessness ratings, and salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed. PPI was assessed after stress exposure. For salivary cortisol concentrations and subjective helplessness ratings, areas under the response curve (AUC were calculated. Results After uncontrollable vs. controllable stress exposure significantly higher PPI ratings (P = 0.023, higher subjective helplessness AUC (P Conclusions The results confirm the impact of uncontrollability on stress responses in humans; the relationship of PPI with subjective helplessness and salivary cortisol suggests a cognitive-affective sensitization of pain perception, particularly under uncontrollable conditions.

  14. Factor analysis of regional cerebral glucose metabolic rates in healthy men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Z.; Camargo, E.E.; Sostre, S.; Shafique, I.; Sadzot, B.; Links, J.M.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MA (United States). Div. of Radiation Health Sciences)

    1992-07-01

    Cerebral glucose utilization measured with fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose is characterized by considerable variability both among different persons and for the same person examined on different occasions. The goal of this study was to explore whether some regions of the brain were more variable than others with respect to glucose utilization and whether there was a pattern in their covariance. The global and regional cerebral utilization of glucose was measured in 12 healthy young volunteers on 3 or 4 occasions. In all, 24 regions were examined. The interrelation of the glucose utilization rates of the brain regions was investigated by factor analysis of the metabolic rates. Some 70% of the total variance was attributable to only 1 factor, while 80% of the total variance could be attributed to 2 factors. Regions making up the first factor were the frontal and temporal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen. These regions are functionally related to the limbic system. Regions of the second factor were the parietal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, regions more clearly related to sensory and motor functions. The 2-factor pattern was highly reproducible, being found with different algorithms for factor extraction and rotation. Under resting conditions, the variance of cerebral metabolism seems to be primarily related to regions which are closely involved with the limbic system. Cortical regions involved primarily in motor and sensory functions have less influence on the variance. (orig.).

  15. Cytokine Changes following Acute Ethanol Intoxication in Healthy Men: A Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudan Prasad Neupane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a known modulator of the innate immune system. Owing to the absence of human studies, alcohol’s effect on circulating cytokine profile remains unclear. We investigated the effect of acute high dose alcohol consumption on systemic cytokine release. After an overnight fasting, alcohol-experienced healthy male volunteers (N=20 aged 25–45 years were given oral ethanol in the form of vodka (4.28 mL/kg which they drank over a period of 30 minutes reaching peak blood alcohol concentration of 0.12% (SD 0.028. Blood samples were obtained prior to alcohol intake as well as 2, 7, and 12 hours thereafter. Serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and TNF-α were determined by the multibead-based assay. Baseline cytokine levels were not related to BMI, hepatic parameters, electrolytes, glucose, or morning cortisol levels. Within 2 hours of alcohol intake, levels of IL-1Ra were elevated and remained so throughout the assessment period (p for trend = 0.015. In contrast, the levels of the chemokine MCP-1 dropped acutely followed by steadily increasing levels during the observation period (p<0.001. The impact of sustained elevated levels of MCP-1 even after the clearance of blood alcohol content deserves attention.

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide affects homeostatic sleep regulation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murck, Harald; Steiger, Axel; Frieboes, Ralf M; Antonijevic, Irina A

    2007-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is involved in autonomous regulation, including timekeeping, by its action on the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on neuroendocrine secretion, energy metabolism, and transmitter release. In particular, the interactions between PACAP and the glutamatergic system are well recognized. We compared the effect of intravenously administered PACAP to that of placebo in eight healthy male subjects. PACAP in a concentration of 4x12.5 microg was administered in a pulsatile fashion hourly between 2200 and 0100. Sleep EEG was recorded from 2300 to 1000, which was also the time when subjects were allowed to sleep. Blood samples were taken every 20 min between 2200 and 0700 for the determination of cortisol, GH, and prolactin. PACAP administration led to no changes in the macro-sleep structure as assessed according to standard criteria. Spectral analysis revealed a significant reduction in the theta-frequency range in the first 4-h interval and of the spindle frequency range in the second 4-h interval of the registration period. This was accompanied by an increase in the time constant tau of the physiological delta-power decline in the course of the night, i.e., a less pronounced dynamic of the reduction of delta-power with time. This was accompanied by a trend (Pnapping, i.e., a reduced sleep propensity. This implies that PACAP might be involved in homeostatic sleep regulation.

  17. Bioequivalence evaluation of two formulations of fluconazole 150 mg capsule in healthy Arab men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, Eman; Lockyer, Marilyn; Al-Digither, Saleh; Hammami, Muhammad M

    2005-05-01

    A randomized crossover study was conducted on 26 healthy Arab males to compare the bioavailability of two formulations of fluconazole 150 mg capsules, Fluconazole (test) and Diflucan (reference). The formulations were administered after an overnight fast with a washout period of 2 weeks. Twenty blood samples (per period) were collected over 168 h, plasma fluconazole concentrations were determined by locally validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed by the standard non-compartmental method. The mean +/- SD maximum concentration (C(max)), time to reach maximum concentration (T(max)), area under the curve (AUC(0-->t) and AUC(0-->infinity)) and elimination half-life (t(1/2)) were 3.17+/-0.47 and 3.24+/-0.59 microg/ml, 2.62+/-2.01 and 2.65+/-1.63 h, 149.52+/-29.49 and 151.36+/-25.84 microg.h/ml, 163.57+/-29.9 and 164.89+/-26.46 microg.h/ml, and 36.81+/-5.72 and 36.56+/-5.36 h for the test and reference drug, respectively. These values are similar to previously reported values in other ethnic groups. The parametric 90% confidence intervals on the mean of the difference (test-reference) between the log-transformed values of the two formulations were 95.484% to 101.035%, 96.382% to 101.245% and 94.621% to 102.074% for AUC(0-->t), AUC(0-->infinity) and C(max), respectively. The results indicate that the two formulations are equivalent in the rate and extent of absorption. Further, a review of the literature indicates that there is no apparent ethnic variation in the absorption and elimination rates of fluconazole. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of the triazole antifungal agent genaconazole in healthy men after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojaverian, P; Radwanski, E; Affrime, M B; Cayen, M N; Lin, C C

    1994-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of genaconazole, a potent new difluorophenyl-triazole antifungal agent, was studied in 12 healthy male volunteers following a single oral or intravenous administration of the drug. In a randomized two-way crossover design, each volunteer received either two 50-mg genaconazole tablets orally or a parenteral preparation containing 100 mg of genaconazole given as a 30-min intravenous infusion. Both dosage regimens were well tolerated. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 10 days after drug administration. Concentrations of genaconazole in plasma and urine were determined by a specific high-performance liquid chromatography assay with a limit of quantitation of 0.1 microgram/ml. Pharmacokinetic evaluation following oral and intravenous doses indicated that mean values for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (137 and 136 micrograms.h/ml), half-life (50 and 49 h), volume of distribution (52 and 52 liters), and clearance (12 and 12 ml/min) were independent of the route of drug administration. The oral and intravenous administrations of genaconazole yielded virtually superimposable plasma concentration-time curves, resulting in an absolute bioavailability of 100%. Amounts of unchanged genaconazole found in urine samples from 0 to 240 h after oral and intravenous doses were comparable, and urinary excretion accounted for 76 and 78% of the administered dose, respectively. Renal clearances for the two routes of administration were also similar, and renal clearance accounted for over 80% of the total body clearance. The 100% absolute bioavailability of genaconazole regardless of the route of administration provides greater dosing flexibility in various clinical settings than currently exists. PMID:7695258

  20. Testosterone conversion blockade increases breathing stability in healthy men during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Bascom, Amy; Mohan, David; Diamond, Michael P; Badr, M Safwan

    2013-12-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome may be mediated via male sex hormones. Our objective was to determine the exact pathway for a testosterone-mediated increased propensity for central sleep apnea via blockade of the 5α-reductase pathway of testosterone conversion by finasteride. Randomization to oral finasteride vs. sham, single-center study. Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy young males without sleep apnea. Hypocapnia was induced via brief nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea. The apnea threshold (AT) was defined as the end-tidal CO₂(P(ET)CO₂) that demarcated the central apnea closest to the eupneic P(ET)CO₂. The CO₂ reserve was defined as the difference in P(ET)CO₂ between eupnea and AT. The apneic threshold and CO₂ reserve were measured at baseline and repeated after at a minimum of 1 month. Administration of finasteride resulted in decreased serum dihydrotestosterone. In the finasteride group, the eupneic ventilatory parameters were unchanged; however, the AT was decreased (38.9 ± 0.6 mm Hg vs.37.7 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P = 0.02) and the CO₂ reserve was increased (-2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg vs. -3.8 ± 0.5 mm Hg, P = 0.003) at follow-up, with a significantly lower hypocapnic ventilatory response, thus indicating increased breathing stability during sleep. No significant changes were noted in the sham group on follow-up study. Inhibition of testosterone action via the 5α-reductase pathway may be effective in alleviating breathing instability during sleep, presenting an opportunity for novel therapy for central sleep apnea in selected populations.

  1. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  2. Heart rate reserve predicts cardiovascular death among physically unfit but otherwise healthy middle-aged men: a 35-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeseth, Kristian; Hodnesdal, Christian; Grundvold, Irene; Liestøl, Knut; Gjesdal, Knut; Erikssen, Gunnar; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Erikssen, Jan E; Bodegard, Johan; Skretteberg, Per Torger

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate reserve (HRR) has been reported to be inversely associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease and death. The impact of physical fitness (PF) on this relationship has not, however, been described in detail. We investigated how different levels of PF influenced the association between HRR and CV death during a 35-year follow-up. HRR and PF were measured in 2014 apparently healthy, middle-aged men during a symptom-limited bicycle exercise test in 1972-75. The men were divided into tertiles (T1-T3) by age-adjusted HRR. Morbidity and mortality data were registered from hospital charts through 2007 and the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate risks. Incidence of CV death was 528 (26%) during median 30 years of follow-up. Men with the lowest HRR had 41% (HR 1.41 [1.14-1.75]) increased risk of CV death compared with the men with the highest. We found a significant interaction between age-adjusted PF and HRR. After stratifying the men by PF, results were statistically significant only among men with the lowest PF, where the men with lowest HRR had a 70% (HR 1.70 [1.12-2.67]) increased risk of CV death compared with the men with the highest. Low HRR was independently associated with increased risk of CV death in apparently healthy, middle-aged men. The predictive impact of HRR on CV death risk was, however, confined to unfit men. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Impact of male hormonal contraception on prostate androgens and androgen action in healthy men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Elahe A; Lin, Daniel W; Amory, John K; Wright, Jonathan L; Marck, Brett T; Nelson, Peter S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Page, Stephanie T

    2012-08-01

    Male hormonal contraception (MHC) combines hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis blockade with exogenous androgen delivery to maintain extragonadal androgen end-organ effects. Concern exists that MHC may adversely impact prostate health. The objective of the study was to determine the molecular impact of MHC on intraprostatic androgen concentrations and androgen action. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. 32 healthy men aged 25-55 yr participated in the study. Interventions included placebo, daily transdermal testosterone (T) (T-gel), T-gel + depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (T+DMPA), or T-gel + dutasteride daily (T+D) for 12 wk, and prostate biopsy during treatment wk 10. Serum and prostate androgen concentrations and prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were measured. Thirty men completed the study. Serum T levels were significantly increased in T-gel and T+D groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05) but were decreased with the addition of DMPA. Intraprostatic androgens were no different from placebo with T-gel treatment. Addition of DMPA to T resulted in 40% lower intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration (P = 0.0273 vs. placebo), whereas combining dutasteride with T resulted in a 90% decrease in intraprostatic DHT (P = 0.0012), 11-fold increased intraprostatic T (P = 0.0011), and 7-fold increased intraprostatic androstenedione (P = 0.0011). Significant differences in global or androgen-regulated prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were not observed. Androgen-regulated gene expression correlated with epithelial-cell androgen receptor and prostatic DHT in placebo, T-gel, and T+DMPA arms and with T and androstenedione levels in the T+D arm. MHC regimens do not markedly alter gene expression in benign prostate epithelium, suggesting they may not alter risk of prostate disease. Longer-term studies examining the impact of MHC on prostate health are needed.

  4. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt - Dongen, S.H.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Riemersma, R.A.; Sebedio, J.L.; Chardigny, J.M.; Mensink, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    : Br J Nutr 2001 Mar;85(3):387-92 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut Comment in: Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar;85(3):249-50. Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Vermunt SH, Beaufrere B, Riemersma RA, Sebedio JL,

  5. Mechanical deformation of posterior thoracolumbar fascia after myofascial release in healthy men: A study of dynamic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Kit; Chai, Huei-Ming; Chen, Yu-Jen; Wang, Chung-Li; Shau, Yio-Wha; Wang, Shwu-Fen

    2017-02-01

    Myofascial release (MR) on the posterior thoracolumbar fascia (PLF) is one of the manual techniques aim to restore the normal length and tension of restricted fasciae and muscles. The present study aimed to quantify the immediate effects of MR on fascial properties of the PLF in healthy men. Cross-sectional study. Participants (N = 10, aged 22.8 ± 2.0 years) performed a press-down to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in the prone position. Deformation of the PLF was measured using an ultrasonographic apparatus. Force output was simultaneously measured. The stiffness index and hysteresis index were then represented by the slope of the loading curve, and the percentage of the area within the loading-unloading curve. One-way ANCOVA was used to compare differences in the stiffness index or hysteresis index of the PLF before and after MR. Two-way repeated ANOVA was used to compare deformation of the PLF or force output after MR. The primary findings included a decrease (before: 24.1 ± 8.3 vs. after: 18.9 ± 5.3 N/mm; mean difference, -5.2 ± 4.9 N/mm, p = 0.002 < 0.05) in the stiffness index of the PLF and a greater difference in deformation of the PLF between 50% and 100% MVC (before: Def50% = 6.5 ± 1.8 mm and Def100% = 9.8 ± 1.9 mm vs. after: Def50% = 6.4 ± 2.5 mm and Def100% = 10.2 ± 2.4 mm; p = 0.037 < 0.05, power = 58.5%). After MR, stiffness of the PLF decreased in healthy men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of lipid-lowering drugs on high-density lipoprotein subclasses in healthy men-a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner K Berthold

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on HDL subclasses has shown ambiguous results. This study assessed the effects of ezetimibe, simvastatin, and their combination on HDL subclass distribution. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-center randomized parallel 3-group open-label study was performed in 72 healthy men free of cardiovascular disease with a baseline LDL-cholesterol of 111±30 mg/dl (2.9±0.8 mmol/l and a baseline HDL-cholesterol of 64±15 mg/dl (1.7±0.4 mmol/l. They were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n = 24, simvastatin (40 mg/day, n = 24 or their combination (n = 24 for 14 days. Blood was drawn before and after the treatment period. HDL subclasses were determined using polyacrylamide gel-tube electrophoresis. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the influence of treatment and covariates on changes in HDL subclass composition. RESULTS: Baseline HDL subclasses consisted of 33±10% large, 48±6% intermediate and 19±8% small HDL. After adjusting for baseline HDL subclass distribution, body mass index, LDL-C and the ratio triglycerides/HDL-C, there was a significant increase in large HDL by about 3.9 percentage points (P<0.05 and a decrease in intermediate HDL by about 3.5 percentage points (P<0.01 in both simvastatin-containing treatment arms in comparison to ezetimibe. The parameters obtained after additional adjustment for the decrease in LDL-C indicated that about one third to one half of these effects could be explained by the extent of LDL-C-lowering. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy men, treatment with simvastatin leads to favorable effects on HDL subclass composition, which was not be observed with ezetimibe. Part of these differential effects may be due to the stronger LDL-C-lowering effects of simvastatin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00317993.

  7. The effect of short-term fasting on liver and skeletal muscle lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism in healthy women and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    Fasting promotes triglyceride (TG) accumulation in lean tissues of some animals, but the effect in humans is unknown. Additionally, fasting lipolysis is sexually dimorphic in humans, suggesting that lean tissue TG accumulation and metabolism may differ between women and men. This study investigated lean tissue TG content and metabolism in women and men during extended fasting. Liver and muscle TG content were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 48-h fast in healthy men and women. Whole-body and hepatic carbohydrate, lipid, and energy metabolism were also evaluated using biochemical, calorimetric, and stable isotope tracer techniques. As expected, postabsorptive plasma fatty acids (FAs) were higher in women than in men but increased more rapidly in men with the onset of early starvation. Concurrently, sexual dimorphism was apparent in lean tissue TG accumulation during the fast, occurring in livers of men but in muscles of women. Despite differences in lean tissue TG distribution, men and women had identical fasting responses in whole-body and hepatic glucose and oxidative metabolism. In conclusion, TG accumulated in livers of men but in muscles of women during extended fasting. This sexual dimorphism was related to differential fasting plasma FA concentrations but not to whole body or hepatic utilization of this substrate. PMID:22140269

  8. Plasma Growth Hormone and Prolactin Levels in Healthy Sedentary Young Men after Short-Term Endurance Training under Hot Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Cicioglu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h. on plasma growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two groups: an in¬ter¬val running group (IR, and continuous running group (CR. Both groups were performed 3 days/wk. Growth hormone, PRL and VO2max levels were assessed at the beginning and the end of the training period. Body temperature (TB was also measured at the be¬ginning and immediately after each training. The exercise type affected plasma PRL (8.52 vs. 6.50 ng/ml IR and CT groups, P 0.38. Plasma GH level at the end of training pro¬gram increased from 0.42 to 1.48 ng/ml and 0.58 to 0.67 ng/ml for IR and CR groups. Expectedly, both training types increased TB, at a greater rate for IR group than CR group. In conclusion, an 8-wk regular exercise result in an increase in plasma PRL level, with¬out altering plasma GH level, which accompanied by elevated body temperature, regardless of the individual’s sporting rou¬ti¬ne. These suggest that untrained individuals could benefit from a regular exercise program as much as those doing the routine sport.

  9. Impaired postural control in healthy men at moderate altitude (1630 m and 2590 m: data from a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Stadelmann

    Full Text Available Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects.In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28, static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes.Median (quartiles COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57, 55 (48;62, 56 (49;61, 53 (47;59, 54 (48;60 cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97, 95% (94;96, 95%(94;96, 92%(90;93, 93%(91;93, P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001.Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948.

  10. Impaired postural control in healthy men at moderate altitude (1630 m and 2590 m): data from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Clark, Ross A; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Achermann, Peter; Bloch, Konrad E

    2015-01-01

    Intact postural control is essential for safe performance of mountain sports, operation of machinery at altitude, and for piloting airplanes. We tested whether exposure to hypobaric hypoxia at moderate altitude impairs the static postural control of healthy subjects. In 51 healthy men, median age 24 y (quartiles 20;28), static control was evaluated on a balance platform in Zurich, 490 m, and during a 4-day sojourn in Swiss mountain villages at 1630 m and 2590 m, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Total center of pressure path length (COPL) and sway amplitude measured in two directions by a balance platform, and pulse oximetry were recorded. Data were compared between altitudes. Median (quartiles) COPL during standing on both legs with eyes open at 490 m and in the evenings on the first and second days at 1630 and 2590 m, respectively were: 50 (45;57), 55 (48;62), 56 (49;61), 53 (47;59), 54 (48;60) cm, P<0.001 ANOVA. Corresponding arterial oxygen saturation was 97% (96;97), 95% (94;96), 95%(94;96), 92%(90;93), 93%(91;93), P<0.001. Anterior-posterior sway amplitudes were larger at 1630 and 2590 m compared to 490 m, P<0.001. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that higher altitudes (1630 and 2590m) were independently associated with increased COPL when controlled for the order of altitude exposure and age (P=0.001). Exposure to 1630 and 2590m was associated with impaired static postural control even when visual references were available. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948.

  11. Differences in cortical and pituitary activity in response to hypoglycaemia and cognitive testing in healthy men with different basal activity of the renin-angiotensin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Kjaer, Troels W

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity has been associated with a high risk of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and with cognitive deterioration during experimental hypoglycaemia in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to describe possible differences...... in cerebral activity during hypoglycaemia and cognitive testing in two groups of healthy men with different basal RAS activity. METHODS: Ten healthy men with high RAS activity and 10 with low activity underwent six oxygen-15-labelled water positron emission tomography scans: twice during normoglycaemia, twice...... during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and twice during post-hypoglycaemia. During the scans, the subjects performed a computer-based reaction time test. RESULTS: Occipital areas were consistently more activated in the low RAS group than in the high RAS group throughout all three conditions. During...

  12. Effect of heat exposure and exercise on food intake regulation: A randomized crossover study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Cécile; Charlot, Keyne; Henri, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Hue, Olivier; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of physical activity on food intake regulation may be moderated by environmental temperature. The aim of the study was to determine the single and combined effects of metabolic activity and temperature on energy intake and its hormonal regulation. A randomized crossover study was conducted in the laboratory. Ten healthy and physically active young Afro-Caribbean men participated in four experimental sessions (rest at 22°C and 31°C and cycling at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake at 22°C and 31°C, all for 40 min). Each test period was followed by a 30-min recovery period and then an ad libitum meal. The main outcome measures were energy balance, subjective appetite, and plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK) and ghrelin concentrations. Relative energy intake was significantly decreased whereas plasma PP was increased in the exercise conditions (p=0.004 and p=0.002, respectively). Postprandial levels of CCK were elevated only in the rest conditions. Exposure to heat induced a decrease in plasma ghrelin (p=0.031). Exercise induced a short-term energy deficit. However, modifications in the hormonal regulation of food intake in response to short-term heat or heat and exercise exposure seem to be minor and did not induce changes in energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157233. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Lack of relationship of physical activity level with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey Mesa, Jesús; Fabián Suárez, Milton; Arbeláez, Alejandra; Mosquera, Mildrey; Pradilla, Alberto; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; de Plata, Ana Cecilia Aguilar

    2011-02-01

    The World Health Report 2002 estimated that sedentary is one of the main 10 causes of morbidity and mortality and the proportion of people whose health is at risk due to sedentary life is approximately 60%. To assess the relationship of the physical activity level with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in 61 healthy men. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) recommended by the World Health Organization was used as a valid measure to estimate two categories of physical activity, such as: low level (insufficient and sedentary) and vigorous level (moderate and very active). Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome were defined according to criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program of the United States and International Diabetes Federation respectively. Serum levels of C-reactive protein and ferritin were also measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Mean age of study population was 47.1 ± 6.9 years. 17 participants (28%) had metabolic syndrome. There were no differences between the categories of low and vigorous level physical activity, or relationship with total physical activity (MET × week). No association was seen between low levels of physical activity and metabolic syndrome criteria. The high prevalence of physical inactivity found in study participants using the IPAQ questionnaire was not associated to cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  15. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Marian K; Bügel, Susanne; Kristensen, Mette; Malde, Ketil; Graff, Ingvild E; Pedersen, Jan I

    2010-07-20

    Calcium (Ca) - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish) and Atlantic cod (lean fish) in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3). Mean Ca absorption (+/- SEE) from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 +/- 1.7%, 22.5 +/- 1.7% and 27.4 +/- 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3), respectively. We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  16. Calcium from salmon and cod bone is well absorbed in young healthy men: a double-blinded randomised crossover design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graff Ingvild E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium (Ca - fortified foods are likely to play an important role in helping the consumer achieve an adequate Ca intake, especially for persons with a low intake of dairy products. Fish bones have a high Ca content, and huge quantities of this raw material are available as a by-product from the fish industry. Previously, emphasis has been on producing high quality products from fish by-products by use of bacterial proteases. However, documentation of the nutritional value of the enzymatically rinsed Ca-rich bone fraction remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to assess the bioavailability of calcium in bones of Atlantic salmon (oily fish and Atlantic cod (lean fish in a double-blinded randomised crossover design. Methods Ca absorption was measured in 10 healthy young men using 47Ca whole body counting after ingestion of a test meal extrinsically labelled with the 47Ca isotope. The three test meals contained 800 mg of Ca from three different calcium sources: cod bones, salmon bones and control (CaCO3. Results Mean Ca absorption (± SEE from the three different Ca sources were 21.9 ± 1.7%, 22.5 ± 1.7% and 27.4 ± 1.8% for cod bones, salmon bones, and control (CaCO3, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that bones from Atlantic salmon and Atlantic cod are suitable as natural Ca sources in e.g. functional foods or as supplements.

  17. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charli Sargent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14 or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14. Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h. The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction.

  18. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W.; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction. PMID:26840322

  19. Interaction of mealtime ad libitum beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Dalia; Panahi, Shirin; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Douglas Goff, H; Harvey Anderson, G

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the interaction of beverage and food intake with meal advancement in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled study, 29 men and women consumed to satiation, over 20 min, a pizza meal with one of the five beverages including water, 1% milk, orange juice, regular cola and diet cola. Mealtime food and fluid intake were measured, within each of three 7-min phases of the meal. A progressive decline occurred from phase 1 to 3 in fluid intake and food intake, averaging 59 mL and 268 kcal (P food (mL/kcal) increased (P Beverage type was not a factor. All beverages resulted in similar fluid volume intake compared to water. However, caloric beverages led to higher mealtime total energy intake compared to water (P food (r = 0.16; P food intake (r = 0.23; Pfood intakes interact, unaffected by beverage characteristics, to increase the ratio of fluid to food intake with meal progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthy lifestyle behavior and risk of long duration troublesome neck pain or low back pain among men and women: results from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skillgate E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eva Skillgate,1,2 Oscar Javier Pico-Espinosa,1 Johan Hallqvist,3 Tony Bohman,1 Lena W Holm4 1Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Musculoskeletal and Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 2Naprapathögskolan - Scandinavian College of Naprapathic Manual Medicine, Stockholm, 3Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 4Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: The role of healthy lifestyle behavior (HLB in terms of physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking, and diet put together has not yet been explored for the risk of low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP. Our aim was to study if an HLB is protective against the onset of long duration troublesome LBP and NP in men and women. Methods: Two cohorts from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, free from LBP (n=12,483 and NP (n=10,539, respectively, in 2006, were surveyed with questionnaires. Baseline information about physical activity, alcohol intake, diet, and smoking were dichotomized into being healthy/not healthy and combined in a categorical variable according to the number of healthy behaviors present. Binomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the role of HLB for the outcomes 4 years later.Results: When men with three or four healthy lifestyles were compared to men with none or one, the risk ratio (RR of LBP was 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39–1.02. The corresponding RR for LBP in women was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.56–1.32. When men with three or four healthy lifestyles were compared to men with none or one, the RR for NP was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.74–1.71. The corresponding RR for NP in women was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35–0.77. Conclusion: An HLB seems to be protective for long duration troublesome LBP in men, and for long duration troublesome NP in women. Keywords: neck pain, low back pain, lifestyle, physical activity, smoking

  1. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  2. Endocrine determinants of changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during a weight cycle in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Karschin

    Full Text Available Changes in insulin sensitivity (IS and insulin secretion occur with perturbations in energy balance and glycemic load (GL of the diet that may precede the development of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Determinants of changes in IS and insulin secretion with weight cycling in non-obese healthy subjects remain unclear.In a 6wk controlled 2-stage randomized dietary intervention 32 healthy men (26±4y, BMI: 24±2kg/m2 followed 1wk of overfeeding (OF, 3wks of caloric restriction (CR containing either 50% or 65% carbohydrate (CHO and 2wks of refeeding (RF with the same amount of CHO but either low or high glycaemic index at ±50% energy requirement. Measures of IS (basal: HOMA-index, postprandial: Matsuda-ISI, insulin secretion (early: Stumvoll-index, total: tAUC-insulin/tAUC-glucose and potential endocrine determinants (ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, thyroid hormone levels, 24h-urinary catecholamine excretion were assessed.IS improved and insulin secretion decreased due to CR and normalized upon RF. Weight loss-induced improvements in basal and postprandial IS were associated with decreases in leptin and increases in ghrelin levels, respectively (r = 0.36 and r = 0.62, p<0.05. Weight regain-induced decrease in postprandial IS correlated with increases in adiponectin, fT3, TSH, GL of the diet and a decrease in ghrelin levels (r-values between -0.40 and 0.83, p<0.05 whereas increases in early and total insulin secretion were associated with a decrease in leptin/adiponectin-ratio (r = -0.52 and r = -0.46, p<0.05 and a decrease in fT4 (r = -0.38, p<0.05 for total insulin secretion only. After controlling for GL associations between RF-induced decrease in postprandial IS and increases in fT3 and TSH levels were no longer significant.Weight cycling induced changes in IS and insulin secretion were associated with changes in all measured hormones, except for catecholamine excretion. While leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin seem to be the major

  3. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Krzemiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNF-IX as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 3011.0 years participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, ratio of early (E to late (A mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A, ratio of early (E' to late (A' diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E‘/A’ and E-wave deceleration time (DT were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-or and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-or correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73 and DT (r=-0.73. It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-or might be involved in this effect.

  4. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect.

  5. Cortisol responses to mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD. The mechanisms are incompletely understood, although dysfunction of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis might be involved. We examined the association between cortisol responses to laboratory-induced mental stress and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC.Participants were 466 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.7±5.6 yrs, without history or objective signs of CHD, drawn from the Whitehall II epidemiological cohort. At the baseline assessment salivary cortisol was measured in response to mental stressors, consisting of a 5-min Stroop task and a 5-min mirror tracing task. CAC was measured at baseline and at 3 years follow up using electron beam computed tomography. CAC progression was defined as an increase >10 Agatston units between baseline and follow up. 38.2% of the sample demonstrated CAC progression over the 3 years follow up. There was considerable variation in the cortisol stress response, with approximately 40% of the sample responding to the stress tasks with an increase in cortisol of at least 1 mmol/l. There was an association between cortisol stress reactivity (per SD and CAC progression (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI, 1.02-1.60 after adjustments for age, sex, pre-stress cortisol, employment grade, smoking, resting systolic BP, fibrinogen, body mass index, and use of statins. There was no association between systolic blood pressure reactivity and CAC progression (odds ratio per SD increase = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.85-1.24. Other independent predictors of CAC progression included age, male sex, smoking, resting systolic blood pressure, and fibrinogen.Results demonstrate an association between heightened cortisol reactivity to stress and CAC progression. These data support the notion that cortisol reactivity, an index of HPA function, is one of the possible mechanisms through which psychosocial stress may influence the risk of CHD.

  6. Emotion and sex of facial stimuli modulate conditional automaticity in behavioral and neuronal interference in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nils; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-12-06

    Our surrounding provides a host of sensory input, which we cannot fully process without streamlining and automatic processing. Levels of automaticity differ for different cognitive and affective processes. Situational and contextual interactions between cognitive and affective processes in turn influence the level of automaticity. Automaticity can be measured by interference in Stroop tasks. We applied an emotional version of the Stroop task to investigate how stress as a contextual factor influences the affective valence-dependent level of automaticity. 120 young, healthy men were investigated for behavioral and brain interference following a stress induction or control procedure in a counter-balanced cross-over-design. Although Stroop interference was always observed, sex and emotion of the face strongly modulated interference, which was larger for fearful and male faces. These effects suggest higher automaticity when processing happy and also female faces. Supporting behavioral patterns, brain data show lower interference related brain activity in executive control related regions in response to happy and female faces. In the absence of behavioral stress effects, congruent compared to incongruent trials (reverse interference) showed little to no deactivation under stress in response to happy female and fearful male trials. These congruency effects are potentially based on altered context- stress-related facial processing that interact with sex-emotion stereotypes. Results indicate that sex and facial emotion modulate Stroop interference in brain and behavior. These effects can be explained by altered response difficulty as a consequence of the contextual and stereotype related modulation of automaticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of auricular electrical stimulation on vagal activity in healthy men: evidence from a three-armed randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Roberto; Nedeljkovic, Marko; Yuan, Lizhuang; Maercker, Andreas; Elhert, Ulrike

    2010-04-01

    The activity of the VN (vagus nerve) is negatively associated with risk factors such as stress and smoking, morbidity and mortality. In contrast, it is also a target of therapeutic intervention. VN stimulation is used in depression and epilepsy. Because of its high invasivity and exclusive application to therapy-resistant patients, there is interest in less invasive methods affecting the VN. Several studies examining acupuncture report beneficial effects on vagal activity. However, findings are inconsistent, and applied methods are heterogeneous resulting in difficulties in interpretation. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of the effects of acupuncture on vagal activity in a three-armed randomized trial while controlling several disturbing factors. Fourteen healthy men participated in random order in four examinations: a control condition without intervention, a condition with placebo, manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture. Acupuncture was conducted on the concha of the ear, as there is neuroanatomical evidence for vagal afferents. Each examination took place once, with a week's time between examinations. RSA(TR) (respiratory sinus arrhythmia adjusted for tidal volume) indicating vagal activity was measured continuously. The study was conducted partially blind in accordance with recommendations. After controlling for respiration,condition-specific pain sensation, individual differences in belief of acupuncture effectiveness and time effects not attributable to the interventions, electroacupuncture but not manual acupuncture was found to have a positive effect on RSA(TR). The results underline the potential role of auricular electrical stimulation to induce an increase in vagal activity, and it therefore might be used as preventive or adjuvant therapeutic intervention promoting health.

  8. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Ogata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019, the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073 and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043. The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184. CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise.

  9. The 5-HTTLPR genotype modulates heart rate variability and its adjustment by pharmacological panic challenge in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Kellner, Michael; Stiedl, Oliver; Muhtz, Christoph; Becktepe, Jos S; Wiedemann, Klaus; Demiralay, Cüneyt

    2014-03-01

    Abnormal serotonin transporter (5-HTT) function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation has been proposed in panic disorder. However, in contrast to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) functioning, ANS reactivity during panic response has yet not been investigated in humans with respect to the 5-HTT genotype. The present study assessed the influence of challenging by cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) on heart rate variability (HRV) measures, to monitor autonomic reactivity and its relationship to 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes. We hypothesized substantial effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype on autonomic reactivity. We studied 30 healthy young men, 15 of each with the long/long (l/l) or short/short (s/s) genotype for the 5-HTTLPR. All participants received an intravenous application of 50 μg CCK-4. HRV measures were assessed in both groups at baseline and immediately after CCK-4 application. Our results indicated lower parasympathetic activity in s/s carriers during baseline, time and frequency domain measures. CCK-4 application significantly enhanced the sympathetic tone in both groups, leading to diminished group differences. A significant treatment by genotype effect indicated reduced autonomic reactivity to CCK-4 challenge in the s/s compared to l/l carriers. Our findings show enhanced sympathetic and/or diminished cardiac vagal activity under basal conditions and blunted autonomic reactivity in s/s vs. l/l carriers. Our study provides novel data supporting claims that the s/s genotype represents a genetic vulnerability factor associated with inadequate hyporeactivity to stress and extends current knowledge on the impact of the central serotonergic activity on the sympathoadrenal pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    Sleep loss is currently proposed to disturb endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis leading to weight gain and obesity. Supporting this view, a reduction of sleep duration to 4 h for two consecutive nights has recently been shown to decrease circulating leptin levels and to increase ghrelin levels, as well as self-reported hunger. We hypothesized that similar endocrine alterations occur even after a single night of sleep restriction. In a balanced order, nine healthy normal-weight men spent three nights in our sleep laboratory separated by at least 2 weeks: one night with a total sleep time of 7 h, one night with a total sleep time of 4.5 h and one night with total sleep deprivation (SD). On a standard symptom-rating scale, subjects rated markedly stronger feelings of hunger after total SD than after 7 h sleep (3.9 +/- 0.7 versus 1.7 +/- 0.3; P = 0.020) or 4.5 h sleep (2.2 +/- 0.5; P = 0.041). Plasma ghrelin levels were 22 +/- 10% higher after total SD than after 7 h sleep (0.85 +/- 0.06 versus 0.72 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1); P = 0.048) with intermediate levels of the hormone after 4.5 h sleep (0.77 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)). Serum leptin levels did not differ between conditions. Feelings of hunger as well as plasma ghrelin levels are already elevated after one night of SD, whereas morning serum leptin concentrations remain unaffected. Thus, our results provide further evidence for a disturbing influence of sleep loss on endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis, which on the long run may result in weight gain and obesity.

  11. FVII, FVIIa and downstream markers of extrinsic pathway activation differ by EPCR Ser219Gly variant in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Helen A; Cooper, Jackie A; Drenos, Fotios; Acharya, Jayshree; Mitchell, Jacqueline P.; Bauer, Kenneth A; Morrissey, James H; Esnouf, M Peter; Humphries, Stephen E

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of a variant in EPCR (Ser219Gly), previously shown to affect EPCR shedding, upon plasma FVII, FVIIa and downstream markers of activated coagulation. Methods: Statistical analysis was undertaken in ~2000 healthy middle aged men (NPHSII) Results: Higher soluble EPCR levels were confirmed for Gly allele carriers (p<0.0001). Significantly higher levels of FVII, FVIIa and downstream markers of activated coagulation in the extrinsic pathway (FIX activation pep {FIXpep}; FX activation pep {FXpep}), and prothrombin F1+2 (F1+2) were identified in baseline samples, in Gly carriers compared to Ser/Ser (p<=0.04 for trend). In repeat samples collected for up to five years, levels of FVII and F1+2 were higher in Gly allele carriers compared to Ser/Ser by (FVII: 6.9% CI 5.5-8.4 in Ser/Gly; and 23.4% CI 16.3-30.8 in Gly/Gly, p<0.0001), (F1+2: 8.1% CI 5.2-11.1 in Ser/Gly; 25.2% CI 11.8-40.3 in Gly/Gly, p<0.04), confirming reproducibility of findings at baseline. Molar ratios for FIXpep, FXpep and F1+2 to FVIIa were constant in Ser/Ser and Ser/Gly but tended to be higher in Gly/Gly, reaching statistical significance for FIXpep:FVIIa (p=0.04). Conclusions: These data suggest that higher levels of FVII and FVIIa circulate when EPCR shedding is greatest. Furthermore, these results suggest consequences for activation of extrinsic coagulation. PMID:19696402

  12. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  13. Post-exercise heart-rate recovery correlates to resting heart-rate variability in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Guilherme Eckhardt; Fontana, Keila Elizabeth; Porto, Luiz Guilherme Grossi; Junqueira, Luiz Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between post-exercise heart-rate recovery (HRR) and resting cardiac autonomic modulation is an incompletely explored issue. To correlate HRR with resting supine and orthostatic autonomic status. HRR at the 1st, 3th, and 5th min following maximal treadmill exercise were correlated with 5-min time-domain (CV, pNN50 and rMSSD) and frequency-domain (TP, LF, HF, LFn, HFn, and LF/HF ratio) indices of heart-rate variability (HRV) in both supine and standing positions in 31 healthy physically active non-athletes men. Statistical analysis employed non-parametric tests with two-tailed p value set at 5 %. Absolute HRR and Δ %HRR at each post-exercise time did not correlated with HRV in supine position, as well as at 1st min in standing position. At the 3rd min and 5th min, these measures negatively correlated with pNN50, rMSSD, TP, and HF indices, and only in the 5th min, they showed negative correlation with HFn and positive correlation with LF, LFn, and LF/HF ratio in the standing position. Coefficient of HRR (CHRR) at the 1st min negatively correlated with pNN50 and rMSSD and at 3rd and 5th min showed positive correlation with LFn and LF/HF ratio in supine position. With HRV indices in standing position CHRR from the 1st to 5th min showed the same respective negative and positive correlations as the other measures. HRR from the 1st to 5th min post-exercise negatively correlated with parasympathetic modulation in resting orthostatic, but showed no correlation in supine position. At the 3rd and 5th min, a positive correlation with combined sympathetic-parasympathetic modulation in both positions was observed.

  14. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on thermal pain in healthy men: a randomized functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Geis, Sandra; Busch, Volker; Greenlee, Mark W; Eichhammer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intranasal oxytocin has been shown to affect human social and emotional processing, but its potential to affect pain remains elusive. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on the perception and processing of noxious experimental heat in 36 healthy male volunteers. Thermal thresholds were determined according to the Quantitative Sensory Testing protocol. A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment including intensity and unpleasantness ratings of tonic heat was used to investigate the effects of oxytocin within the brain. Thirty men (aged 18-50 years) were included in the study. Intranasal oxytocin had no significant effect on thermal thresholds, but significantly (t = -2.06, p = .046) reduced heat intensity ratings during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The effect on intensity ratings was small (-3.46 points on a 100-point visual analog scale [95% confidence interval {CI} = -6.86 to -0.07] and independent of temperature. No effects of oxytocin on stimulus- or temperature-related processing were found at the whole-brain level at a robust statistical threshold. A region of interest analysis indicated that oxytocin caused small but significant decreases in left (-0.045%, 95% CI = -0.087 to -0.003, t = -2.19, p = .037) and right (-0.051%, 95% CI = -0.088 to -0.014], t = -2.82, p = .008) amygdala activity across all temperatures. The present study provides evidence for a significant but subtle inhibitory effect of oxytocin on thermal stimulus ratings and concurrent amygdala activity. Neither of the two effects significantly depended of temperature; therefore, the hypothesis of a pain-specific effect of oxytocin could not be confirmed. EUDRA-CT 2009-015115-40.

  15. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  16. The satiating properties of pork are not affected by cooking methods, sousvide holding time or mincing in healthy men - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad...

  17. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 1, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparison with paroxetine in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sue; Højer, Astrid-Maria; Buchberg, Jeppe; Areberg, Johan; Nutt, David J

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effect of vortioxetine, paroxetine and placebo after three days of dosing on sleep architecture. This was a randomised, double-blind, four-way crossover, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study in 24 healthy young men. Subjects received 20mg vortioxetine, 40mg vortioxetine, 20mg paroxetine or placebo for three consecutive days in four different periods with at least three weeks between them. Polysomnography and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were performed on the ...

  18. Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    exposure, distribution and excretion in humans is limited. In this study we determined the concentration of five parabens; methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben in urine, serum and seminal plasma samples from 60 healthy Danish men. To conduct the study a sensitive and specific method using...... LC-MS/MS for simultaneous determination of the five parabens was developed for all three different matrices. Highest concentrations of the parabens were found in urine, wherein methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl- and n-butyl parabens were measurable in 98%, 80%, 98% and 83% of the men, respectively. Benzyl...... paraben was only measurable in urine from 7% of the men. Methyl- and n-propyl parabens were also measurable in the majority of serum and seminal plasma samples, whereas the other parabens could only be detected in some of the samples. In all the three matrices significant correlations between the parabens...

  19. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Agergård Kaspersen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection.We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model.During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.10-2.34 and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant.In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors.

  20. Low-Grade Inflammation Is Associated with Susceptibility to Infection in Healthy Men: Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was used as the statistical model. During 53,302 person-years of observation, 571 participants were hospitalized for infection. Similarly, during 26,125 person-years of observation, 7,276 participants filled a prescription of antimicrobials. LGI was associated with increased risk of hospital-based treatment for infection only among men (hazard ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-2.34) and specifically infections were abscesses and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Similarly, LGI was associated with the overall use of antimicrobials among men, and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin and broad-spectrum antimicrobials for treatment of urinary tract infections. The difference between men and women was not statistically significant. In a large cohort of healthy individuals, LGI was associated with an increased risk of infection among healthy male blood donors.

  1. Effects of DHEA administration on episodic memory, cortisol and mood in healthy young men: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaj, Hamid A; Massey, Anna E; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2006-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to enhance cognition in rodents, although there are inconsistent findings in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DHEA administration in healthy young men on episodic memory and its neural correlates utilising an event-related potential (ERP) technique. Twenty-four healthy young men were treated with a 7-day course of oral DHEA (150 mg b.d.) or placebo in a double blind, random, crossover and balanced order design. Subjective mood and memory were measured using visual analogue scales (VASs). Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples. ERPs were recorded during retrieval in an episodic memory test. Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to identify brain regions involved in the cognitive task. DHEA administration led to a reduction in evening cortisol concentrations and improved VAS mood and memory. Recollection accuracy in the episodic memory test was significantly improved following DHEA administration. LORETA revealed significant hippocampal activation associated with successful episodic memory retrieval following placebo. DHEA modified ERPs associated with retrieval and led to a trend towards an early differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). DHEA treatment improved memory recollection and mood and decreased trough cortisol levels. The effect of DHEA appears to be via neuronal recruitment of the steroid sensitive ACC that may be involved in pre-hippocampal memory processing. These findings are distinctive, being the first to show such beneficial effects of DHEA on memory in healthy young men.

  2. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE, FITNESS AND AEROBIC TRAINING IN TYPE 1 DIABETIC AND HEALTHY MEN IN RELATION TO THE LIPID PROFILE, LIPID PEROXIDATION AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Laaksonen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and possibly lipid peroxidation play important roles in the development of macro- and microvascular disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Little is known, however, of the role of aerobic exercise in dyslipidemia and resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes. Despite the well-known effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on components of the metabolic syndrome, little is known of the association of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max with development of the metabolic syndrome itself. A randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of a 12-16 week aerobic exercise program on VO2max and the lipid profile was carried out in otherwise healthy young men with type 1 diabetes. The effect of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses and the relation to VO2max in men with type 1 diabetes was also evaluated. To test four recently proposed definitions by the World Health Organization (WHO and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP of the metabolic syndrome, the sensitivity and specificity of the definitions for prevalent and incident diabetes were assessed in a population-based cohort of middle-aged men. We also studied the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with prevalent and incident cases of the metabolic syndrome. A 12-16 week endurance exercise program produced antiatherogenic changes in lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in 20 type 1 diabetic men who for the most part were already physically active at baseline. The most favorable training-induced changes in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and apolipoprotein A-I/apolipoprotein B ratios were in patients with low baseline HDL/LDL levels, likely the group with the most benefit to be gained by such changes. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a measure of lipid peroxidation, was higher in nine

  3. Obesity, Underweight, and Smoking Are Associated with Worse Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Finnish Healthy Young Men: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Nikolakaros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObesity and smoking are strongly associated with worse cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. Most previous studies that have examined the association of body composition with CRF have neither assessed non-linearity nor separately examined the effects of underweight. Thus, very little is known on how underweight affects CRF. Possible joint effects of obesity and smoking on CRF have not been adequately explored.AimsWe examined the association between body mass index (BMI and smoking with CRF in 1,629 Finnish army conscripts. We focused on non-linear effects of BMI in order to assess the importance of underweight. We also examined whether the cooccurrence of obesity and smoking potentiates their deleterious effects on CRF.MethodsWe used the Cooper’s 12-minute run test (12MR to measure CRF. The 12MR score was analyzed as continuous (linear, polynomial, and restricted cubic spline regression and categorical. In categorical analyses, we used binary logistic regression with the 12MR score in two groups (low = lowest quintile vs. intermediate/high = quintiles 2–5 and multinomial logistic regression with the 12MR score in three groups (low = lowest quintile, intermediate = quintiles 2 and 3, and high = quintiles 4 and 5.ResultsNon-linearity in the spline model was statistically significant (p < 0.001. In addition, the non-linear models had a clearly better fit than the linear one in terms of Akaike Information Criterion and R-squared values. There was a statistically significant interaction between smoking and BMI (p < 0.01. In the categorical analysis, overweight/obese regular smokers were at a particularly high risk of not achieving high CRF.ConclusionIn healthy young men, not only overweight/obesity but also underweight may be associated with worse CRF. This provides a potential mechanism for the previously reported association between underweight and increased mortality. The cooccurrence of overweight/obesity and

  4. Ischemic preconditioning does not alter muscle sympathetic responses to static handgrip and metaboreflex activation in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incognito, Anthony V; Doherty, Connor J; Lee, Jordan B; Burns, Matthew J; Millar, Philip J

    2017-07-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been hypothesized to elicit ergogenic effects by reducing feedback from metabolically sensitive group III/IV muscle afferents during exercise. If so, reflex efferent neural outflow should be attenuated. We investigated the effects of IPC on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during static handgrip (SHG) and used post-exercise circulatory occlusion (PECO) to isolate for the muscle metaboreflex. Thirty-seven healthy men (age: 24 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]) were randomized to receive sham (n = 16) or IPC (n = 21) interventions. Blood pressure, heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography; sham n = 11 and IPC n = 18) were collected at rest and during 2 min of SHG (30% maximal voluntary contraction) and 3 min of PECO before (PRE) and after (POST) sham or IPC treatment (3 × 5 min 20 mmHg or 200 mmHg unilateral upper arm cuff inflation). Resting mean arterial pressure was higher following sham (79 ± 7 vs. 83 ± 6 mmHg, P IPC (81 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 6 mmHg, P > 0.05), while resting MSNA burst frequency was unchanged (P > 0.05) with sham (18 ± 7 vs. 19 ± 9 bursts/min) or IPC (17 ± 7 vs. 19 ± 7 bursts/min). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total vascular conductance responses during SHG and PECO were comparable PRE and POST following sham and IPC (All P > 0.05). Similarly, MSNA burst frequency, burst incidence, and total MSNA responses during SHG and PECO were comparable PRE and POST with sham and IPC (All P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that IPC does not reduce hemodynamic responses or central sympathetic outflow directed toward the skeletal muscle during activation of the muscle metaboreflex using static exercise or subsequent PECO. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and total testosterone (TT as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking.To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study.A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th.Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml.A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific.We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  6. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Minooee, Sonia; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and total testosterone (TT) as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking. To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study. A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th. Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml. A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP) regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific. We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  7. The serotonin-1A receptor distribution in healthy men and women measured by PET and [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Patrycja; Savli, Markus; Fink, Martin; Spindelegger, Christoph; Moser, Ulrike; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, Markus; Mien, Leonhard-Key [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); University of Vienna, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The higher prevalence rates of depression and anxiety disorders in women compared to men have been associated with sexual dimorphisms in the serotonergic system. The present positron emission tomography (PET) study investigated the influence of sex on the major inhibitory serotonergic receptor subtype, the serotonin-1A (5-HT{sub 1A}) receptor. Sixteen healthy women and 16 healthy men were measured using PET and the highly specific radioligand [carbonyl-{sup 11}C]WAY-100635. Effects of age or gonadal hormones were excluded by restricting the inclusion criteria to young adults and by controlling for menstrual cycle phase. The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} was quantified using (1) the 'gold standard' manual delineation approach with ten regions of interest (ROIs) and (2) a newly developed delineation method using a PET template normalized to the Montreal Neurologic Institute space with 45 ROIs based on automated anatomical labeling. The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} was found equally distributed in men and women applying both the manual delineation method and the automated delineation approach. Women had lower mean BP{sub ND} values in every region investigated, with a borderline significant sex difference in the hypothalamus (p=0.012, uncorrected). There was a high intersubject variability of the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor BP{sub ND} within both sexes compared to the small mean differences between men and women. To conclude, when measured in the follicular phase, women do not differ from men in the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor binding. To explain the higher prevalence of affective disorders in women, further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between hormonal status and the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor expression. (orig.)

  8. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) response to animal source foods varies among healthy young men and is influenced by their gut microbiota composition: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Clara E; Taesuwan, Siraphat; Malysheva, Olga V; Bender, Erica; Tulchinsky, Nathan F; Yan, Jian; Sutter, Jessica L; Caudill, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite linked to the gut microbiota, is associated with excess risk of heart disease. We hypothesized that (i) TMAO response to animal source foods would vary among healthy men and (ii) this response would be modified by their gut microbiome. A crossover feeding trial in healthy young men (n = 40) was conducted with meals containing TMAO (fish), its dietary precursors, choline (eggs) and carnitine (beef), and a fruit control. Fish yielded higher circulating and urinary concentrations of TMAO (46-62 times; p gut microbes. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that high-TMAO producers (≥20% increase in urinary TMAO in response to eggs and beef) had more Firmicutes than Bacteroidetes (p = 0.04) and less gut microbiota diversity (p = 0.03). Consumption of fish yielded substantially greater increases in circulating TMAO than eggs or beef. The higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes enrichment among men exhibiting a greater response to dietary TMAO precursor intake indicates that TMAO production is a function of individual differences in the gut microbiome. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inoue, Hiroko; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Aiso, Izumi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-01-01

    .... Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria...

  10. Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet exerts favorable effects on metabolic parameters, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risks in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Lin, Jin-Rong; Yan, Bing; Yu, Ya-Xin; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Can-Dong; Li, Wei-Hua

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD). One hundred sixty-nine healthy Chinese lacto-vegetarians and 126 healthy omnivore men aged 21-76 years were enrolled. Anthropometric indexes, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, pancreatic β cell function, and intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries were assessed and compared. Cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in participants aged 24-55 years were calculated. Compared with omnivores, lacto-vegetarians had remarkably lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, γ-glutamyl transferase, serum creatinine, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, as well as lower total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. Vegetarians also had higher homeostasis model assessment β cell function and insulin secretion index and thinner carotid IMT than the omnivores did. These results corresponded with lower cardiovascular risk points and probability of developing CVD in 5-10 years in vegetarians 24-55 years old. In healthy Chinese men, the lacto-vegetarian diet seems to exert protective effects on blood pressure, lipid profiles, and metabolic parameters and results in significantly lower carotid IMT. Lower CVD risks found in vegetarians also reflect the beneficial effect of the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet.

  11. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Melnikovova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  12. Acute Effects of Constant-Angle and Constant-Torque Static Stretching on Passive Stiffness of the Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles in Healthy, Young and Old Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B

    2017-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of constant-angle (CA) and constant-torque (CT) static stretching on passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles in healthy, young and old men. Fifteen young (25±3 years) and 15 old (71±4 years) men underwent 2 passive straight-leg raise (SLR) assessments before and after 8 min of CA and CT stretching using an isokinetic dynamometer. Passive stiffness was calculated during each SLR as the slope of the final 10% of the angle-torque curve. The results indicated that passive stiffness decreased from pre- to post-stretching for both treatments (P≤0.001-0.002) and age groups (P≤0.001-0.046); however, greater decreases were observed for the CT than the CA stretching (P=0.045) and for the old than the young men (Pstretching. These findings suggest that holding stretches at a constant tension may be a more effective strategy for altering passive stiffness of the posterior hip and thigh muscles. The greater stretch-induced stiffness decreases observed for the older men provide support that acute static stretching may be particularly effective for reducing stiffness in the elderly. As a result, it may be advantageous to prescribe static stretching prior to exercise for older adults, as this may be used to elicit substantial declines in passive stiffness, which could help reduce the risk of subsequent injury events in this population.

  13. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, A.N.; Ovesen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -95 percentile 114-147 g/L in women (panemia, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, was 18% in men and 17% in women. Apparently healthy iron-replete men (n=129) and women (n=141) had median Hb of 141 g/L and 131 g/L. Median Hb levels were higher in 10-year surviving...... or supplemental iron intake. In men, Hb was correlated to meat consumption. Conclusions: WHO decision limits for anemia should not be lowered in 80-year-old subjects. "Optimal" Hb concentrations with respect to survival appear to be at least 140 g/L in men and 131 g/L in women. Further research should evaluate......Background and aims: In elderly Danes, reference intervals for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are derived from younger population groups. The aim was to examine reference intervals for Hb and cut-off limits for anemia by application of criteria for normality to a representative population of 80...

  14. Are hepatic and soleus lipid content, assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, associated with low birth weight or insulin resistance in a rural Indian population of healthy young men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, R. S.; Grunnet, L. G.; Thomas, N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess young healthy men from rural India, who had normal or low birth weights, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the potential differences in ectopic fat storage between birth weight groups, and to determine if ectopic fat storage was associated with insulin resistance.......1–1.3)%, 1.38 (0.9–2.2)% and 2.07 (1.2–2.8)%, respectively, for the low birth weight group (P > 0.05). No difference in ectopic fat storage was observed between the low and normal birth weight groups, with or without adjustment for age and total fat percentage. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin...... resistance values were not associated with hepatic cellular, intramyocellular or extramyocellular lipid content in any of the groups. Total fat percentage was the only independent predictor of intramyocellular and extramyocellular lipid content. Conclusion: Young and lean men from rural India with low birth...

  15. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; Pmood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.

  16. The HAT TRICK programme for improving physical activity, healthy eating and connectedness among overweight, inactive men: study protocol of a pragmatic feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Hunt, Kate; Sharp, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Kayla M; Price, Ryley; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2017-09-06

    Physical activity, healthy eating and maintaining a healthy weight are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer and with improved mental health. Despite these benefits, many men do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and have poor eating behaviours. Many health promotion programmes hold little appeal to men and consequently fail to influence men's health practices. HAT TRICK was designed as a 12-week face-to-face, gender-sensitised intervention for overweight and inactive men focusing on physical activity, healthy eating and social connectedness and was delivered in collaboration with a major junior Canadian ice hockey team (age range 16-20 years). The programme was implemented and evaluated to assess its feasibility. This article describes the intervention design and study protocol of HAT TRICK. HAT TRICK participants (n=60) were men age 35 years, residing in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia, who accumulate 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity a week, with a body mass index of >25 kg/m 2 and a pant waist size of >38'. Each 90 min weekly session included targeted health education and theory-guided behavioural change techniques, as well as a progressive (ie, an increase in duration and intensity) group physical activity component. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months and included the following: objectively measured anthropometrics, blood pressure, heart rate, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, as well as self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviour, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep habits, risk of depression, health-related quality of life and social connectedness. Programme feasibility data (eg, recruitment, satisfaction, adherence, content delivery) were assessed at 12 weeks via interviews and self-report. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia Okanagan Behavioural Research Ethics Board (reference no H

  17. Ramadan model of intermittent fasting for 28 d had no major effect on body composition, glucose metabolism, or cognitive functions in healthy lean men

    OpenAIRE

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina M.; Rosenberg, Astrid; Benatti, Fabiana B.; Damm, Julie A.; Thomsen, Carsten; Mortensen, Erik L.; Pedersen, Bente K.; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There has been a parallel increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes as well as the number of daily meals. However, evidence is lacking regarding the role of intermittent fasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a Ramadan model of intermittent fasting (RIF; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. Methods: Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, crossove...

  18. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  19. L-arginine supplementation and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in healthy men: a double-blind randomized clinical trial [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Pahlavani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The effect of L-arginine on risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has mostly focused on western countries. Since cardiovascular diseases is the second cause of death in Iran and, as far as we are aware, there have been no studies about the effect of L-arginine on CVD risk factors, the aim of this trial was to assess the effects of L-arginine supplementation on CVD risk factors in healthy men. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose L-arginine supplementation on CVD risk factors (lipid profile, blood sugar and blood pressure in Iranian healthy men. Design, setting, participants: We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial in 56 patients selected from sport clubs at the Isfahan University of Medical Science between November 2013 and December 2013. Interventions: Healthy men received L-arginine supplementation (2000 mg daily in the intervention group or placebo (2000 mg maltodextrin daily in the control group for 45 days. Main outcome measure: The primary outcome measures were we measured the levels of fasting blood sugar, blood pressure and lipid profile including triglyceride (TG, cholesterol, LDL and HDL in healthy subjects. It was hypothesized that these measures would be significantly improved in those receiving L–arginine supplementation. at the beginning and end of the study. Results: In this trial, we had complete data for 52 healthy participants with mean age of 20.85±4.29 years. At the end of study, fasting blood sugar (P=0.001 and lipid profile (triglycerideTG (P<0.001, cholesterol (P<0.001, LDL (P=0.04, HDL (P=0.015 decreased in the L-arginine group but we found no significant change in the placebo group. In addition, the reduction of fasting blood sugar and lipid profile in L-arginine was significant compared with placebo group. No significant changes were found about systolic (P=0.81 and diastolic blood pressure either in L-arginine or placebo group. (P=0

  20. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Scheek, L.M.; Tol, van A.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein

  1. Association of sleep disturbances with reduced semen quality: a cross-sectional study among 953 healthy young Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Joensen, Ulla Nordstrøm; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Nordkap, Loa; Olesen, Inge Alhmann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-05-15

    Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and morbidity and mortality, but no previous studies have examined the association between sleep disturbances and semen quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 953 young Danish men from the general population who were recruited in Copenhagen at the time of determination of fitness for military service between January 2008 and June 2011. All of the men delivered a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire including information about sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances were assessed on the basis of a modified 4-item version of the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, which includes questions on sleep patterns during the past 4 weeks. Sleep disturbances showed an inverse U-shaped association with sperm concentration, total sperm count, percent motile and percent morphologically normal spermatozoa, and testis size. Men with a high level of sleep disturbance (score >50) had a 29% (95% confidence interval: 2, 48) lower adjusted sperm concentration and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.3, 3.0) percentage points' fewer morphologically normal spermatozoa than men with a sleep score of 11-20. This appears to be the first study to find associations between sleep disturbances and semen quality. In future studies, investigators should attempt to elucidate mechanistic explanations and prospectively assess whether semen quality improves after interventions restoring a normal sleeping pattern.

  2. The effect of wet cupping on serum lipid concentrations of clinically healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasari, Majid; Kosari, Farid; Ahmadi, Ali

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a reduction in serum lipoproteins, especially LDL cholesterol, is a preventive approach against atherosclerosis. Phlebotomy has been a recommended method to reduce serum lipoprotein levels. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of wet cupping on serum lipoprotein concentrations. In this randomized controlled trial, 47 men (18 to 25 years old), without chronic disease or a history of hyperlipidemia and antihyperlipidemic drug consumption were randomly assigned into control (N = 24) and treated (N = 23) groups. Men in the treated group were subjected to wet cupping, whereas men in the control group remained untreated. The serum concentrations of lipids, collected from brachial veins, were determined at the time of wet cupping and then once a week for 3 weeks. Data were analyzed using a repeated measure ANOVA. A substantial decrease in LDL cholesterol (p 0.05). Although there were no statistically significant variations in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (p > 0.05), a 7% decrease in total cholesterol and 3% increase in HDL cholesterol may be clinically important. Wet cupping may be an effective method of reducing LDL cholesterol in men and consequently may have a preventive effect against atherosclerosis.

  3. Detection of the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Pvuii Intron 15 Polymorphism Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction: Association With Plasma Lipid Traits in Healthy Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gudnason

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used anchored PCR to amplify and sequence 1400bp of the 15th intron of the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene, and have determined oligonucleotides and conditions for the genotyping of the previously reported Pvull polymorphism. The cutting site (CAGCTG is created by the transition of a CpG to a TpG within the sequence CAGCCG at a position roughly 600bp 5' from the splice acceptor site of exon 16. Genotype was determined in three populationbased samples of healthy individuals. In a group of 318 men and women from Iceland the frequencies of the Intron-15 T (cutting allele was 0.23 (95% CI, 0.19-0.28 and was similar in men and women. In two groups of men from England (n=385 and Scotland (n=320, the frequency was similar, being 0.23 (0.19-0.27 and 0.25 (0.22-0.28 respectively. Individuals who were homozygous for the T allele had lower levels oftotal-cholesterol triglycerides and apolipoprotein B, than those with other genotypes, and in the combined group of UK men this effect reached statistical significance; compared to the CIC group, the TIT group had 6% lower cholesterol (p=0.02 and 15% lower triglycerides (p=0.03. The lowering effect associated with the TIT genotype was greater in men who were in the lowest terti Ie of body mass index (<25kg/m2 and for the trait of apoB levels, this genotype x obesity interaction was statistically significant (p=0.01. We thus confirm the association between this allele and lower levels of plasma lipid levels previously reported. The availability of a PCR-based method to detect this polymorphism will facilitate further investigation of the impact of LDL-receptor gene variation in determining lipid levels.

  4. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Penev, Plamen; Van Cauter, Eve

    2004-12-07

    Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours. To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation. Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study. Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2). Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite. 2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity. Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

  5. Determinants of physical performance at cycloergometer in healthy middle aged men in Italy. The ECCIS project. Epidemiology and Clinics of Silent Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccareccia, F; Menotti, A; Fazzini, P F; Prati, P L; Antoniucci, D; Menghini, F

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to relate the performance at cycloergometer of healthy middle aged men, identified in a population, with a number of personal characteristics to explain part of their physical fitness indicators. A sample of 5,163 men aged 40-59, belonging to sedentary occupational groups in Florence and Rome, were screened by a complex diagnostic procedure (participation rate = 66.3%). 3,893 were judged "healthy" from the cardiovascular point of view. A cycloergometric test and the measurement of some individual characteristics allowed to correlate indicators of performance at exercise (work load, test duration, work load/heart rate, PWC150 and PWC150/kg) with body mass index, resting pulse rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure. HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, a score of physical exercise and cigarette consumption. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed significant relationship of exercise performance indicators with age, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, cigarette consumption (inverse) and with physical exercise score (direct). These individual characteristics could explain 14-15% of the variance of exercise performance indicators. The analysis could not establish how much the individual characteristics were causes or effects of individual physical fitness. A reasonable cause effect relationship can be argued for physical exercise score and likely for cigarette smoking. Relatively large differences in performance indicators can be expected for people with largely different individual characteristics.

  6. Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith; Kahlhöfer, Julia; Peter, Andreas; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-10

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI) have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein), 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m²) completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day). During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose) or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose), providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx), insulin sensitivity (IS) and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p 0.05). Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men.

  7. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B.; Storgaard, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    A high-fat, high-calorie diet is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the relative contribution of metabolic defects to the development of hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes is controversial. Accumulation of excess fat in muscle and adipose tissue in insulin resistance and type 2...... diabetes may be linked with defective mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The aim of the current study was to investigate acute effects of short-term fat overfeeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young men. We studied the effects of 5 days' high-fat (60% energy) overfeeding (+50%) versus...... a control diet on hepatic and peripheral insulin action by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, muscle mitochondrial function by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gene expression by qrt-PCR and microarray in 26 young men. Hepatic glucose production and fasting glucose levels increased...

  8. Effects of supplementation with branched chain amino acids and ornithine aspartate on plasma ammonia and central fatigue during exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Jan; Hilgier, Wojciech; Ziemba, Andrzej; Krzeminski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed only slight improvement in central fatigue, measured indirectly by psychomotor performance, after branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation during various efforts in healthy men. It is hypothesised that hyperammonaemia resulting from amino acids metabolism may attenuate their beneficial effect on psychomotor performance; therefore, the L-ornithine L-aspartate (OA) as an ammonia decreasing agent was used. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral BCAA + OA supplementation to reduce plasma ammonia concentration and enhance psychomotor performance during exhaustive exercise in healthy men. Eleven endurance-trained men (mean age 32.6 ± 1.9 years) performed two sessions (separated by one week) of submaximal cycloergometer exercise for 90 minutes at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by graded exercise until exhaustion with randomised, double-blind supplementation with a total of 16 g BCAA and 12 g OA (BCAA + OA trial) or flavoured water (placebo trial). Before exercise, during both efforts and after 20 minutes of recovery multiple choice reaction time (MCRT), perceived exertion, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured and venous blood samples were taken for plasma leucine, valine, isoleucine, ornithine, aspartate, free tryptophan (fTRP), ammonia, lactate and glucose determination. After ingestion, during both efforts and after 20 minutes of recovery the plasma concentrations of all supplemented amino acids were significantly increased, while the fTRP/BCAA ratio decreased in the BCAA + OA trial more than in the placebo trial. At the end of graded exercise plasma fTRP was lower and MCRT shorter in BCAA + OA than in the placebo trial (p BCAA + OA than in placebo trial (p BCAA + OA than in the placebo trial. Plasma ammonia positively correlated with the total plasma BCAA and MCRT only in the BCAA + OA trial. The fTRP/BCAA ratio positively correlated with MCRT only in the placebo trial. Supplementation with

  9. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Methods Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. Trial Registration NCT: NCT01343342 PMID:23398686

  10. Associations between dietary patterns and gene expression profiles of healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-12

    Diet regulates gene expression profiles by several mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine gene expression in relation with dietary patterns. Two hundred and fifty four participants from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area were recruited. Two hundred and ten participants completed the study protocol. Dietary patterns were derived from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by factor analysis. For 30 participants (in fasting state), RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and expression levels of 47,231 mRNA transcripts were assessed using the Illumina Human-6 v3 Expression BeadChips®. Microarray data was pre-processed with Flexarray software and analysed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Two dietary patterns were identified. The Prudent dietary pattern was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and low intakes of refined grain products and the Western dietary pattern, by high intakes of refined grain products, desserts, sweets and processed meats. When individuals with high scores for the Prudent dietary pattern where compared to individuals with low scores, 2,083 transcripts were differentially expressed in men, 1,136 transcripts in women and 59 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. For the Western dietary pattern, 1,021 transcripts were differentially expressed in men with high versus low scores, 1,163 transcripts in women and 23 transcripts were overlapping in men and women. IPA reveals that genes differentially expressed for both patterns were present in networks related to the immune and/or inflammatory response, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Gene expression profiles were different according to dietary patterns, which probably modulate the risk of chronic diseases. NCT: NCT01343342.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM in healthy Korean adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Jong Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this first study of a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine in Korean adults and adolescents demonstrated that a single dose of MenACWY-CRM was well tolerated and immunogenic, as indicated by the percentages of subjects with hSBA titers ≥8 (79%, 99%, 98%, and 94% of subjects and geometric mean titers (48, 231, 147, and 107 against serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively, at 1 month post-vaccination.

  12. Elevated resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in healthy men and women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-04-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with reduced survival but inconsistencies remain, including lack of significance in most studies of healthy women, lack of independence from systolic blood pressure (SBP) in some, and the suggestion that RHR is merely functioning as a marker of physical inactivity or other comorbidities. We aimed to clarify these inconsistencies.

  13. Acute effect of pegvisomant on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men: implications for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in GH deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular risk is increased in GH deficiency (GHD). GHD adults are frequently abdominally obese and display features of the metabolic syndrome. Otherwise healthy abdominally obese subjects have low GH levels and show features of the metabolic syndrome as well.

  14. Presence of human papillomavirus in semen of healthy men is firmly associated with HPV infections of the penile epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; King, Audrey J.; Pronk, Divera T. M.; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; Doorbar, John; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    To study the source of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen. Observational study (CCMO-NL3248800010). Academic hospital-based laboratory. Healthy male volunteers (n = 213). One penile scrape and three semen samples were obtained per participant for HPV-DNA testing by both GP5+/6+ polymerase chain

  15. The Glycemic Response Does Not Reflect the In Vivo Starch Digestibility of Fiber-Rich Wheat Products in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, C.; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Wang, H.W.; Schepers, M.; Preston, T.; Boer, T.; Vonk, R.J.; Schierbeek, H.; Priebe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male

  16. Coping strategy and social support modify the association between perceived stress and C-reactive protein: a longitudinal study of healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanoe, Chisato; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Otsuka, Yasuko; Horita, Mikako; Yasukata, Jun; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2018-02-05

    Inconsistent associations have been reported between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We previously observed a male-specific inverse relationship between perceived stress and CRP in a cross-sectional study. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between changes in perceived stress and CRP, and further analyzed whether changes in coping strategies and social support modify this association. This study included 8454 participants in both a baseline survey and a follow-up survey 5 years later. Psychosocial measures (i.e. perceived stress, coping strategies, and social support) and CRP concentrations were measured by identical means in both surveys. Consistent with our previous findings, increased perceived stress was significantly associated with lower CRP in men (p trend  = .037), but not in women. Increased "emotional expression," a coping strategy, was also associated with lower CRP in women (p trend  = .024). Furthermore, interactions between perceived stress and a coping strategy (positive reappraisal) or social support on CRP were found in men (p interaction  = .007 and .038, respectively); the above inverse association between stress and CRP was not detected for participants with diminished positive reappraisal or social support. In conclusion, increases in perceived stress during a 5-year period were associated with decreases in CRP among healthy men, and the observed association was possibly modified by coping strategy or social support.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of an investigational meningococcal ACWY conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2 to 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Sanjay; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Gogtay, Nithya; Palkar, Sonali; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Thatte, Urmila; Vakil, Hoshang; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Pedotti, Paola; Hoyle, Margaret; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani

    2015-09-01

    This phase 3, multi-center, open-label study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM, Menveo(®); Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics S.r.l., Siena, Italy) in healthy Indian subjects aged 2-75 years, to provide data for licensure in India. A total of 180 subjects were enrolled (60 subjects 2-10 years, 60 subjects 11-18 years, and 60 subjects 19-75 years) and received one dose of MenACWY-CRM. Serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA) was measured before and 1 month after vaccination. Adverse events were collected throughout the 29-day study period. Percentages of subjects with post-vaccination hSBA ≥8 were 72%, 95%, 94%, and 90% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. Geometric mean titers rose 7-fold to 42-fold against the four serogroups. Similar immune responses were observed for the age subgroups 2-10 years, 11-18 years, and 19-75 years. Seroresponse rates at 1 month following vaccination were 72%, 88%, 55%, and 71% for serogroups A, C, W, and Y, respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated with no safety concerns. A single dose of MenACWY-CRM induced a robust immune response against all four meningococcal serogroups and was well tolerated in an Indian population 2-75 years of age. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bell

    Full Text Available Protein and other compounds can exert anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, particularly in conjunction with exercise. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of twice daily consumption of a protein-based, multi-ingredient nutritional supplement to increase strength and lean mass independent of, and in combination with, exercise in healthy older men. Forty-nine healthy older men (age: 73 ± 1 years [mean ± SEM]; BMI: 28.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to 20 weeks of twice daily consumption of either a nutritional supplement (SUPP; n = 25; 30 g whey protein, 2.5 g creatine, 500 IU vitamin D, 400 mg calcium, and 1500 mg n-3 PUFA with 700 mg as eicosapentanoic acid and 445 mg as docosahexanoic acid; or a control (n = 24; CON; 22 g of maltodextrin. The study had two phases. Phase 1 was 6 weeks of SUPP or CON alone. Phase 2 was a 12 week continuation of the SUPP/CON but in combination with exercise: SUPP + EX or CON + EX. Isotonic strength (one repetition maximum [1RM] and lean body mass (LBM were the primary outcomes. In Phase 1 only the SUPP group gained strength (Σ1RM, SUPP: +14 ± 4 kg, CON: +3 ± 2 kg, P < 0.001 and lean mass (LBM, +1.2 ± 0.3 kg, CON: -0.1 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001. Although both groups gained strength during Phase 2, upon completion of the study upper body strength was greater in the SUPP group compared to the CON group (Σ upper body 1RM: 119 ± 4 vs. 109 ± 5 kg, P = 0.039. We conclude that twice daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement increased muscle strength and lean mass in older men. Increases in strength were enhanced further with exercise training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02281331.

  19. Decomposition of wheat bran and ispaghula husk in the stomach and the small intestine of healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J R; Bukhave, K; Højgaard, L

    1988-01-01

    Decomposition of dietary fibers in the stomach and small bowel was studied in 13 healthy male volunteers. Liquid control meals were compared with test meals, which in addition contained a source of fiber (wheat bran or ispaghula husk) in random order. Aspirations were collected from the stomach...... for monosaccharides, either free or fiber-bound, by gas-liquid chromatography. Both types of fiber were hydrolyzed in the stomach, but not in the small bowel. Of ispaghula husk, 1-6% was hydrolyzed, as was 5-8% of wheat bran. Intestinal absorption of free arabinose was 85-93%, but excretion of arabinose in the urine...... was not greater than after control meals. For further evaluation of gastric hydrolysis six additional healthy male volunteers were studied by serial aspirations from the antral part of the stomach. Hydrolysis was instantaneous for both fibers, and was significantly more pronounced for wheat bran than...

  20. Significant inverse association of equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification but not dietary isoflavones in healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vasudha; Miura, Katsuyuki; Vishnu, Abhishek; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Evans, Rhobert; Zaid, Maryam; Miyagawa, Naoko; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadota, Aya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Equol, a metabolite of the dietary isoflavone daidzein, is produced by the action of gut bacteria in some individuals who are termed as equol-producers. It is proposed to have stronger atheroprotective properties than dietary isoflavones. We examined a cross-sectional association of dietary isoflavones and equol-producer status with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a biomarker of coronary atherosclerosis, among men in Japan. A population-based sample of 272 Japanese men aged 40-49 years recruited from 2004 to 2007 was examined for serum isoflavones, serum equol, CAC and other factors. Equol-producers were classified as individuals having a serum level of equol >83 nm. The presence of CAC was defined as a coronary Ca score ≥10 Agatston units. The associations of dietary isoflavones and equol-producers with CAC were analysed using multiple logistic regression. The median of dietary isoflavones, equol and CAC were 512·7 (interquartile range (IQR) 194·1, 1170·0), 9·1 (IQR 0·10, 33·1) and 0·0 (IQR 0·0, 1·0) nm, respectively. Prevalence of CAC and equol-producers was 9·6 and 16·0 %, respectively. Dietary isoflavones were not significantly associated with CAC. After multivariable adjustment, the OR for the presence of CAC in equol-producers compared with equol non-producers was 0·10 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·90, PEquol-producers had significantly lower CAC than equol non-producers, but there was no significant association between dietary isoflavones and CAC, suggesting that equol may be a key factor for atheroprotective properties of isoflavones in Japanese men. This finding must be confirmed in larger studies or clinical trials of equol that is now available as a dietary supplement.

  1. Sleep duration and quality in relation to chronic kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Won; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Eunju; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Ko, Byung-Joon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Kim, Hyang; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality (n = 241,607). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR above the age-/sex-specific 95th percentile. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders, the adjusted prevalence ratios for CKD (95% confidence interval) comparing sleep durations of ≤ 5, 6, 8, and 9 hours with 7 hours were 1.22 (0.95-1.55), 0.93 (0.75-1.14), 0.97 (0.75-1.26), and 1.56 (1.06-2.30) in men and 0.98 (0.68-1.43), 1.03 (0.72-1.46), 1.39 (0.97-2.00), and 1.31 (0.78-2.22) in women, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) for glomerular hyperfiltration were 1.00 (0.93-1.08), 0.97 (0.91-1.03), 1.03 (0.94-1.13), and 1.39 (1.13-1.72) in men and 1.04 (0.95-1.14), 0.96 (0.90-1.04), 1.11 (1.02-1.20), and 1.28 (1.14-1.45) in women, respectively. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in men and women. In this large study of young and middle-aged adults, we found that long sleep duration was associated with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. Additionally, poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration, suggesting the importance of adequate quantity and quality of sleep for kidney function.

  2. Sleep duration and quality in relation to chronic kidney disease and glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Won Kim

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether sleep duration and quality are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. The aim of this study was to examine the association of sleep duration and quality with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration in young and middle-aged adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality (n = 241,607. Chronic kidney disease (CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as eGFR above the age-/sex-specific 95th percentile.In a multinomial logistic regression analysis adjusting for relevant confounders, the adjusted prevalence ratios for CKD (95% confidence interval comparing sleep durations of ≤ 5, 6, 8, and 9 hours with 7 hours were 1.22 (0.95-1.55, 0.93 (0.75-1.14, 0.97 (0.75-1.26, and 1.56 (1.06-2.30 in men and 0.98 (0.68-1.43, 1.03 (0.72-1.46, 1.39 (0.97-2.00, and 1.31 (0.78-2.22 in women, respectively. The corresponding prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval for glomerular hyperfiltration were 1.00 (0.93-1.08, 0.97 (0.91-1.03, 1.03 (0.94-1.13, and 1.39 (1.13-1.72 in men and 1.04 (0.95-1.14, 0.96 (0.90-1.04, 1.11 (1.02-1.20, and 1.28 (1.14-1.45 in women, respectively. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with glomerular hyperfiltration in men and women.In this large study of young and middle-aged adults, we found that long sleep duration was associated with CKD and glomerular hyperfiltration. Additionally, poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration, suggesting the importance of adequate quantity and quality of sleep for kidney function.

  3. Excessive dietary phosphorus intake impairs endothelial function in young healthy men: a time- and dose-dependent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Tamae; Shuto, Emi; Ogawa, Mariko; Ohya, Miho; Nakanishi, Misaki; Masuda, Masashi; Katsumoto, Misaki; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Sakai, Tohru; Takeda, Eiji; Sakaue, Hiroshi; Taketani, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus (P) has been speculated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we performed a double-blinded crossover study to investigate the time- and dose-dependent effects of dietary P intake on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were given meals containing 400, 800, and 1,200 mg P (P400, P800, and P1200 meals, respectively) with at least 7 days between doses. There were no differences in nutritional composition among the experimental diets except for P content. Blood biochemistry data and flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of the brachial artery were measured while fasted, at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h after meal ingestion, and the next morning while fasted. The P800 and P1200 meals significantly increased serum P levels at 1-4 h after ingestion. A significant decrease in %FMD was observed between 1-4 h,while the P400 meal did not affect %FMD. We observed no differences among meals in serum P levels or %FMD the next morning. A significant negative correlation was observed between %FMD and serum P. These results indicate that excessive dietary P intake can acutely impair endothelial function in healthy people.

  4. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. Objectives: We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. Methods: The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18–22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS vegetable intake with semen variables and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The total intake of fruit and vegetables was unrelated to semen quality. However, the intake of fruit and vegetables with low-to-moderate pesticide residues was associated with a higher total sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest quartile (vegetables, regardless of pesticide-residue status, was not associated with reproductive hormone concentrations. Conclusions: The consumption of fruit

  5. Intake of Fruits and Vegetables with Low-to-Moderate Pesticide Residues Is Positively Associated with Semen-Quality Parameters among Young Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Levine, Hagai; Hauser, Russ; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that occupational or environmental pesticide exposure can affect male fertility. There is less evidence, however, regarding any potentially adverse effects of pesticide residues in foods on markers of male fertility potential. We examined the relations between fruit and vegetable intake, considering pesticide residue status, and semen quality and serum concentrations of reproductive hormones in healthy young men. The Rochester Young Men's Study is a cross-sectional study that recruited men aged 18-22 y (n = 189) in Rochester, New York. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided a semen sample, had a blood sample drawn, and underwent a physical examination at enrollment. Semen samples were analyzed for total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology, motility, ejaculate volume, total motile count, and total normal count. Dietary intake during the previous year was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fruit and vegetables were categorized as having high [Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) ≥4] or low-to-moderate (PRBS fruit and vegetable intake with semen variables and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounding factors. The total intake of fruit and vegetables was unrelated to semen quality. However, the intake of fruit and vegetables with low-to-moderate pesticide residues was associated with a higher total sperm count and sperm concentration, whereas the intake of fruit and vegetables with high pesticide residues was unrelated to semen quality. On average, men in the highest quartile of low-to-moderate-pesticide fruit and vegetable intake (≥2.8 servings/d) had a 169% (95% CI: 45%, 400%) higher total sperm count and a 173% (95% CI: 57%, 375%) higher sperm concentration than did men in the lowest quartile (fruit and vegetables, regardless of pesticide-residue status, was not associated with reproductive hormone concentrations. The consumption of fruit and vegetables with low

  6. Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F; Fenger, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing...... normal ranges of tHcy in the general population. We investigated the simultaneous effect of sex, age, and MTHFR(C677T) genotype on the distribution of tHcy in a cross-sectional study design. THcy concentrations and MTHFR(C677T) genotype were determined in a population-based sample of 2,788 Danish men...... and women aged 30-60 years participating in the Inter99 Study. The prevalences of MTHFR(C677T) genotypes were 48.8% (CC), 42.4% (CT), and 8.8% (TT). The overall median tHcy was 8.1 micromol/l, and the 2.5-97.5 percentiles were 4.8-17.8 micro mol/l. The estimated proportionally higher level of tHcy in men...

  7. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  8. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density Levels in Maraş Powder (Smokeless Tobacco) Users and Smokers in Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    Betül Bakan; Mustafa Haki Sucaklı; Fuat Özkan; Ökkeş Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are two recognized risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. Maras powder (MP), a kind of smokeless tobacco, has a lot of addicts in the city of Kahramanmaraş and its surroundings, Turkey. This is the study investigating the effects of MP on BMD and comparing with smoking. Meterial and Methods: A total of 120 healthy male subjects (60 MP users, 60 smoker) from Maras City, Turkey were included in the study. All subjects...

  9. Reference intervals and variation for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in healthy men and women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Reference intervals for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in 120 healthy individuals performing their routine work were established according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...... Medicine (IFCC) for use in the risk assessment of exposure to occupational stress. Reference intervals were established for three different times of the day: in morning samples (05.45-07.15) the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.10 micromol epinephrine/mol creatinine (82 women) and 2.86 micromol epinephrine...

  10. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmoezzi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that regular aerobic exercise improves dynamic balance in elderly men. We also found that jogging and walking improved dynamic balance. The improvement in balance may be due to the increase in nervous compatibility (due to exercise; increase in fitness, strength, and motion domain; improvement in aerobic status, response time and mental status; improvement in neuromuscular control, including a decrease in changing movement units; and improvement in simultaneous movement units. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between body composition and movement with balance. Therefore, regular aerobic activities are recommended as a suitable training method for improving balance.

  11. The Effect of Various Standing Positions in Muscles Activity between Healthy Young Men and those with Genu Varum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persian Abstract Amir Hossein Barati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genu varum is considered a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. Being aware of the changes in muscles activity in various standing positions among genu varum patients, can provide insight for preventing osteoarthritis in this population. This study is undertaken to compare muscles activity in various standing positions between young healthy and genu varum male individuals. Methods: 80 healthy male university students, 40 normal and 40 subjects with genu varum deformity, participated in this study. Deformity of genu varum was assessed with caliper and Goniometer. Each subject stood in five different positions and muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and SPSS software were employed and Mixed variance analysis test (Mixed ANOVA was run to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for muscles activity of the tensor fasia latae (at single leg with closed eye position, tertius fibulae and gluteus medius muscles (at single leg with closed eye and upward head postions( p≤0.05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be suggested that frontal knee angle may affect muscles activity. Perhaps one of the reasons for higher injury risk and knee osteoarthritis in genu varum population is the increase in muscles activity. Therefor, It is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises can reduce these risks.

  12. Sleep habits in middle-aged, non-hospitalized men and women with schizophrenia: a comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Julie; Chouinard, Sylvie; Pampoulova, Tania; Lecomte, Yves; Stip, Emmanuel; Godbout, Roger

    2010-10-30

    Patients with schizophrenia may have sleep disorders even when clinically stable under antipsychotic treatments. To better understand this issue, we measured sleep characteristics between 1999 and 2003 in 150 outpatients diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 80 healthy controls using a sleep habits questionnaire. Comparisons between both groups were performed and multiple comparisons were Bonferroni corrected. Compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia reported significantly increased sleep latency, time in bed, total sleep time and frequency of naps during weekdays and weekends along with normal sleep efficiency, sleep satisfaction, and feeling of restfulness in the morning. In conclusion, sleep-onset insomnia is a major, enduring disorder in middle-aged, non-hospitalized patients with schizophrenia that are otherwise clinically stable under antipsychotic and adjuvant medications. Noteworthy, these patients do not complain of sleep-maintenance insomnia but report increased sleep propensity and normal sleep satisfaction. These results may reflect circadian disturbances in schizophrenia, but objective laboratory investigations are needed to confirm subjective sleep reports. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A; Coats, Bonnie S; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E; Bain, James R; Shankar, Meena N; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2012-10-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fed a 28-d, low-vitamin B-6 diet. Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6-adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6-restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency. Plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, FFA concentrations, and erythrocyte and PBMC membrane fatty acid compositions did not significantly change from baseline after the 28-d restriction. Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean ± SD) 548 ± 96 to 490 ± 94 μmol/L, 37 ± 13 to 32 ± 13 μmol/L, and 121 ± 28 to 109 ± 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency.

  14. Consumption of juice fortified with oregano extract markedly increases excretion of phenolic acids but lacks short- and long-term effects on lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Anna; Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Alfthan, Georg; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kaikkonen, Jari; Salonen, Jukka T; Voutilainen, Sari

    2006-08-09

    Oregano has been shown to possess antioxidant capacity in various in vitro models and has thus been suggested to be potentially beneficial to human health, but studies in humans are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and the effects of Origanum vulgare extract supplementation on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men. A four-week double-blinded supplementation trial was concluded in which volunteers (n = 45) were randomized to consume daily mango-orange juice (placebo), mango-orange juice enriched with 300 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract, or mango-orange juice enriched with 600 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract. The excretion of phenolic compounds was markedly increased in the higher phenolic group as compared to the placebo group, but no significant changes were observed in the safety parameters, serum lipids, or biomarkers of lipid peroxidation.

  15. The effect of alternate-day caloric restriction on the metabolic consequences of eight days' bed rest in healthy lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Porsdam Mann, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and alternate-day fasting/caloric restriction may both ameliorate aspects of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, visceral fat mass accumulation, and cognitive impairment, by overlapping mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alternate-day...... caloric restriction (ADCR) with overall energy balance would reduce insulin resistance and accumulation of visceral fat, in addition to improving cognitive functions, after eight consecutive days in bed. DESIGN: Healthy, lean men (n = 20) were randomized to 1) 8 days' bed rest with 3 daily iso......-energetic meals (control group, n = 10); and 2) 8 days' bed rest with 25% of total energy requirements every other day and 175% of total energy requirements every other day (ADCR group). Oral glucose tolerance testing, DXA scans, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and brain, VO2 max, and tests...

  16. Changes in insulin sensitivity precede changes in body composition during 14 days of step reduction combined with overfeeding in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Pedersen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and a high-calorie diet is a known risk factor for impaired insulin sensitivity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate possible links, nine young healthy men (24 ± 3 yr; body mass index of 21.6 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) completed 14 days of step...... reduction (10,000 to 1,500 steps/day) and overfeeding (+50% kcal). Body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry, MRI), aerobic fitness (maximal O(2) consumption), systemic inflammation and insulin sensitivity [oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp] were assessed before (day 0......), during (days 3 and 7), and immediately after the intervention (day 14), with follow-up tests (day 30). Body weight had increased at days 7 and 14 (P day 14 compared with day 0 (P days 7 and 14 (P...

  17. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum...... energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...

  18. Effect of drinking on adiponectin in healthy men and women: a randomized intervention study of water, ethanol, red wine, and beer with or without alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Armin; Plamper, Ines; Maier, Steffen; Trischler, Gerlinde; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular mortality and increases adiponectin concentrations, but effects might differ according to sex and beverage consumed. A total of 72 healthy individuals (22-56 years) were enrolled in this randomized controlled crossover trial. After washout, two interventions for 3 weeks followed: ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%), or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 g ethanol/day for men and 20 g/day for women or the same de-alcoholized beverages or water. Adiponectin was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among women, adiponectin significantly increased after consuming red wine (29.8%, P alcoholized beverages had no substantial effect on adiponectin concentrations. Moderate amounts of ethanol-containing beverages increased adiponectin concentrations, but sex-specific effects might depend on type of beverage consumed.

  19. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined...... with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA...

  20. Caffeinated coffee does not acutely affect energy intake, appetite, or inflammation but prevents serum cortisol concentrations from falling in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrieli, Anna; Yannakoulia, Mary; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Margaritopoulos, Dimitris; Chamberland, John P; Kaisari, Panagiota; Kavouras, Stavros A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-04-01

    Our aim in this crossover study was to investigate the acute effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption on appetite feelings, energy intake, and appetite-, inflammation-, stress-, and glucose metabolism-related markers. Sixteen healthy men (age range, 21-39 y; BMI range, 19.7-28.6 kg/m(2)) received in a random order on 3 separate occasions a standard breakfast snack with 200 mL of either caffeinated coffee (3 mg caffeine/kg body weight), decaffeinated coffee, or water (control). Before intervention (-15 min) and at standard time points following breakfast consumption (0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min), participants recorded their appetite feelings and we collected blood samples for measurements of circulating glucose, insulin, cortisol, and appetite- and inflammation-related markers. At 180 min, participants consumed a meal ad libitum. The appetite-related ratings, the appetite plasma hormonal responses as well as the plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma and serum inflammatory marker responses did not show an overall intervention effect or a time x intervention interaction. Ad libitum energy intake did not differ among the 3 interventions. However, a significant intervention effect (P = 0.04) and a time x intervention interaction (P-interaction = 0.02) were found for serum cortisol; cortisol concentrations were significantly higher following the caffeinated coffee intervention, compared to control, at 60 min and thereafter. In conclusion, the usually consumed amount of caffeinated coffee does not have short-term effects on appetite, energy intake, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers, but it increases circulating cortisol concentrations in healthy men.

  1. Effects of soy or milk protein during a high-fat feeding challenge on oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christina G; Brown, Blakely D; Dufner, Danielle; Thorland, William G

    2006-03-01

    Soy isoflavones may impede atherogenic processes associated with cardiovascular disease. Research suggests that the postprandial generation of TG-rich remnants contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current study was to determine if 39 g soy (85 mg aglycone isoflavones, treatment) compared with 40 g milk protein (0 mg aglycone isoflavones, control) in combination with a high-fat meal can modify postprandial, atherogenic-associated events and biomarkers for oxidative stress, inflammation, and thrombosis. Fifteen healthy men (20-47 yr) participated in a double-blind cross-over meal-challenge study occurring on two nonconsecutive days. The study meals consisted of two high-fat apple muffins consumed with either a soy or milk shake (229 mL, 41% fat, 41% carbohydrate, and 18% protein). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (fasted) and hours two, four, and six postprandial. Plasma TG significantly increased in both treatment and control meal challenges compared with baseline. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between treatment (soy) and control (milk) for ex vivo copper-induced LDL oxidation, serum C-reactive protein, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum fibrinogen, or plasma lipids (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TG). IL-6-concentrations significantly decreased as a function of time during either meal challenge (P = 0.005). These data suggest that consumption of soy or milk protein in conjunction with a high-fat meal does not acutely modify postprandial oxidative stress, inflammation, or plasma lipid concentrations in young, healthy men.

  2. Whole-body cryostimulation--potential beneficial treatment for improving antioxidant capacity in healthy men--significance of the number of sessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    Full Text Available It is claimed that WBC (whole-body cryotherapy enhances the resistance of the human body, also thanks to the beneficial effect on the antioxidant system. Accordingly, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of a series of whole-body cryostimulations on the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in healthy men. The study was carried out on 30 young and healthy men aged 27.8±6.1 years with average body mass index and peak oxygen consumption (46.34±6.15 ml kg(-1 •min(-1. The participants were daily exposed for 3 minutes to cryogenic temperatures (-130°C. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after exposure and the following day in the morning, during the 1(st, 10(th and 20(th session. Analysis concerned changes in plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, glucose, uric acid and ceruloplasmin, and the most important components of the antioxidant system in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione. To assess the oxidative stress level the 8-isoprostane concentration in plasma was measured. The obtained results indicate that cryogenic temperatures in repeated daily treatments result in changes in the peroxidant and antioxidant status. These changes seem to depend on the number of cryostimulations. After 20 daily treatments there was an increase in SOD, SOD:CAT ratio, a decrease in the concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione and in the activity of GPx. It could be possible that differences in the activity of GSSG-R after 20 treatments depended on the body mass index of participants.

  3. No effect of the farming system (organic/conventional) on the bioavailability of apple (Malus domestica Bork., cultivar Golden Delicious) polyphenols in healthy men: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Berenike A; Rüfer, Corinna E; Bub, Achim; Seifert, Stephanie; Weibel, Franco P; Kunz, Clemens; Watzl, Bernhard

    2010-08-01

    The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce. Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed. In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans. Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.

  4. Comparison of Ground Reaction Forces, Center of Pressure and Body Center of Mass Changes in the Voluntary, Semi-Voluntary and Involuntary Gait Termination in Healthy Young Men

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    behrooz teymourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the ground reaction forces, center of pressure and body center of mass changes in voluntary, semi-voluntary and involuntary gait termination in healthy young men. Methods: In this study, 12 young men performed termination of gait in three different patterns. The variable of peak antero-posterior and vertical forces in two directions at both limbs, the time to reach peak and average forces in every limb in both directions, the center of pressure displacement of medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction for each limb and the net center of pressure and the displacement of the center of mass motion in all three motion plates were recorded using motion analysis system and force plate.The repeated measurements test was used to compare three patterns of gait termination at significance level of p&le0.5. Results: The results showed a significant difference in variables of peak antero-posterior force, the time to reach peak antero-posterior force and mean antero-posterior forces of the leading limb, the peak antero-posterior force of the trialing limbs, the depth force of leading limbs, medio-lateral cop of leading limbs displacement and vertical displacement of the center of mass, among different patterns of gait termination. Conclusion: While walking, the probability of a fall or collision damage, when a sudden or unexpected stop is required, increases. Therefore, more coordination between neuromuscular systems is required.

  5. Effects of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep and cardiorespiratory responses of young and middle-aged healthy men

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    A.M. Catai

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic physical training (APT on heart rate variability (HRV and cardiorespiratory responses at peak condition and ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Ten young (Y: median = 21 years and seven middle-aged (MA = 53 years healthy sedentary men were studied. Dynamic exercise tests were performed on a cycloergometer using a continuous ramp protocol (12 to 20 W/min until exhaustion. A dynamic 24-h electrocardiogram was analyzed by time (TD (standard deviation of mean R-R intervals and frequency domain (FD methods. The power spectral components were expressed as absolute (a and normalized units (nu at low (LF and high (HF frequencies and as the LF/HF ratio. Control (C condition: HRV in TD (Y: 108, MA: 96 ms; P<0.05 and FD - LFa, HFa - was significantly higher in young (1030; 2589 ms²/Hz than in middle-aged men (357; 342 ms²/Hz only during sleep (P<0.05; post-training effects: resting bradycardia (P<0.05 in the awake condition in both groups; VO2 increased for both groups at anaerobic threshold (P<0.05, and at peak condition only in young men; HRV in TD and FD (a and nu was not significantly changed by training in either groups. The vagal predominance during sleep is reduced with aging. The resting bradycardia induced by short-term APT in both age groups suggests that this adaptation is much more related to intrinsic alterations in sinus node than in efferent vagal-sympathetic modulation. Furthermore, the greater alterations in VO2 than in HRV may be related to short-term APT.

  6. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

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    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  7. A Fit-Fat Index for Predicting Incident Diabetes in Apparently Healthy Men: A Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Robert A Sloan

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of combined cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio in the form of a fit-fat index on incident diabetes risk. Additionally, the independent predictive performance of cardiorespiratory fitness, waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index also were estimated and compared.This was a prospective cohort study of 10,381 men who had a normal electrocardiogram and no history of major chronic disease at baseline from 1979 to 2005. Random survival forest models and traditional Cox proportional hazards models were used to predict diabetes at 5-, 10-, and 15-year incidence horizons.Overall, 4.8% of the participants developed diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for incidence risk demonstrated good discrimination using random survival forest models across fitness and fatness measures; Cox models were poor to fair. The differences between fitness and fatness measures across horizons were clinically negligible. Smoothed random survival forest estimates demonstrated the impact of each fitness and fatness measure on incident diabetes was intuitive and graded.Although fitness and fatness measures showed a similar discriminative ability in predicting incident diabetes, unique to the study was the ability of the fit-fat index to demonstrate a better indication of incident risk when compared to fitness or fatness alone. A single index combining cardiorespiratory fitness and waist-to-height ratio may be more useful because it can indicate improvements in either or both of the measures.

  8. Association between insulin resistance, lean mass and muscle torque/force in proximal versus distal body parts in healthy young men.

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    Gysel, T; Calders, P; Cambier, D; Roman de Mettelinge, T; Kaufman, J-M; Taes, Y; Zmierczak, H-G; Goemaere, S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is already an association of insulin resistance (IR) with muscle mass and -force/torque in an adult population and whether this relationship is the same in distal and proximal body parts. 358 Healthy young men were divided into a more insulin sensitive (MIS) (n=89) and a less insulin sensitive (LIS) group (n=89), respectively using lower and upper quartiles of HOMA-IR index (Homeostasis Model Assessment of IR). Muscle force/torque and lean mass, were compared between the two groups. LIS subjects had higher absolute thigh lean mass, but not higher thigh muscle torque, resulting in a lower torque per kg muscle. In upper arm, lean mass was higher in LIS subjects, but also absolute muscle torque resulted higher. For handgrip force, the LIS and MIS group had similar results, despite a trend towards higher forearm lean mass in LIS subjects. Lean mass % of total lean mass is lower in LIS subjects in more distal body parts. Already in a young healthy population, IR seems to be associated with lower force/torque per muscle mass and lower lean mass % of total lean mass predominantly in more distal body parts.

  9. Differentiated effects of the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine on sleep architecture: Part 1, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic comparison with paroxetine in healthy men.

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    Wilson, Sue; Højer, Astrid-Maria; Buchberg, Jeppe; Areberg, Johan; Nutt, David J

    2015-10-01

    We compared the effect of vortioxetine, paroxetine and placebo after three days of dosing on sleep architecture. This was a randomised, double-blind, four-way crossover, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study in 24 healthy young men. Subjects received 20mg vortioxetine, 40 mg vortioxetine, 20mg paroxetine or placebo for three consecutive days in four different periods with at least three weeks between them. Polysomnography and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were performed on the pre-dose night and nights 1 and 3 of dosing in each period. Plasma concentrations of vortioxetine and paroxetine during the polysomnography measurement were used to estimate SERT occupancies using published relationships in healthy subjects.All three active treatments significantly increased REM onset latency and decreased time spent in REM sleep. In the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics analysis significant relationships were found between REM onset latency and time spent in REM sleep and vortioxetine/paroxetine exposure. The relation between REM suppression parameters and SERT occupancy was significantly different between vortioxetine and paroxetine, despite the same SERT occupancy. This indicates that vortioxetine has a different clinical pharmacological profile from paroxetine, which may explain the differences in adverse effect profile of the two drugs, for instance the lower incidence of nausea, weight gain and sexual dysfunction with vortioxetine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men.

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    Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; López-Miranda, José; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ruano, Juan; Paniagua, Juan A; Rodríguez, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period. To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects. 20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.). Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL KINETICS IN ALTERATION AND RECOVERY OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES FROM A CHRONIC SLEEP RESTRICTION IN YOUNG HEALTHY MEN.

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    Arnaud Alexandre Rabat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep restriction (CSR induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e. attention, executive under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8h TIB followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4h TIB, 3 sleep recovery days (R1-R3, 8h TIB and 2 more ones 8 days later (R12-R13. Subjective sleepiness (KSS, maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT were evaluated 4 times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m. and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m. and evening (6:30 p.m. sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13 and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12 samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1, tardily (after R2 and no recovered (R13. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (ClinicalTrials-NCT01989741.

  12. Differential Kinetics in Alteration and Recovery of Cognitive Processes from a Chronic Sleep Restriction in Young Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabat, Arnaud; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Roca-Paixao, Laura; Bougard, Clément; Van Beers, Pascal; Dispersyn, Garance; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Drogou, Catherine; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) induces neurobehavioral deficits in young and healthy people with a morning failure of sustained attention process. Testing both the kinetic of failure and recovery of different cognitive processes (i.e., attention, executive) under CSR and their potential links with subject’s capacities (stay awake, baseline performance, age) and with some biological markers of stress and anabolism would be useful in order to understand the role of sleep debt on human behavior. Twelve healthy subjects spent 14 days in laboratory with 2 baseline days (B1 and B2, 8 h TIB) followed by 7 days of sleep restriction (SR1-SR7, 4 h TIB), 3 sleep recovery days (R1–R3, 8 h TIB) and two more ones 8 days later (R12–R13). Subjective sleepiness (KSS), maintenance of wakefulness latencies (MWT) were evaluated four times a day (10:00, 12:00 a.m. and 2:00, 4:00 p.m.) and cognitive tests were realized at morning (8:30 a.m.) and evening (6:30 p.m.) sessions during B2, SR1, SR4, SR7, R2, R3 and R13. Saliva (B2, SR7, R2, R13) and blood (B1, SR6, R1, R12) samples were collected in the morning. Cognitive processes were differently impaired and recovered with a more rapid kinetic for sustained attention process. Besides, a significant time of day effect was only evidenced for sustained attention failures that seemed to be related to subject’s age and their morning capacity to stay awake. Executive processes were equally disturbed/recovered during the day and this failure/recovery process seemed to be mainly related to baseline subject’s performance and to their capacity to stay awake. Morning concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and α-amylase were significantly decreased at SR6-SR7, but were either and respectively early (R1), tardily (after R2) and not at all (R13) recovered. All these results suggest a differential deleterious and restorative effect of CSR on cognition through biological changes of the stress pathway and subject’s capacity (Clinical

  13. Comparing reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation in semen samples of unexplained infertile and healthy fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Zahra; Vatannejad, Akram; Doosti, Mahmood; Zabihzadeh, Sara; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Bajelan, Leila; Rashidi, Batool; Amanpour, Saeid

    2017-11-15

    Male factor infertility has increased to more than 40% during the last decade. About 30% of these couples are diagnosed with unexplained infertility. In fact, reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide anion (O2-·) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), play a crucial role in regulation of physiological and pathological processes in spermatozoa. Moreover, since the diagnosis of unexplained infertility just through semen analysis is a matter of much controversy; we aimed to evaluate the levels of ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile and fertile control couples. The semen samples of 28 unexplained infertile couples and 30 fertile control couples were analyzed according to WHO criteria. The intracellular levels of H2O2 and O2-· were detected by flow cytometry with 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and Dihydroethidium, respectively, and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by sperm chromatin dispersion test. In unexplained infertile group, sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly lower than the control. The levels of sperm H2O2, O2-·, and DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in unexplained infertile men compared to fertile. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the level of H2O2 and sperm DNA fragmentation in the unexplained infertile group. Besides, reduced sperm motility in the unexplained infertile group was significantly correlated with elevated levels of ROS. The higher levels of intracellular ROS and DNA fragmentation in the semen samples of unexplained infertile couples and their causes might be considered as an important factor related to diagnosis and treatment of the unexplained infertile couples.

  14. Long-term effects of dihydrotestosterone treatment on prostate growth in healthy, middle-aged men without prostate disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idan, Amanda; Griffiths, Kaye A; Harwood, D Tim; Seibel, Markus J; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J; Handelsman, David J

    2010-11-16

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy increases with age and can result in substantially decreased quality of life for older men. Surgery is often required to control symptoms. It has been hypothesized that long-term administration of a nonamplifiable pure androgen might decrease prostate growth, thereby decreasing or delaying the need for surgical intervention. To test the hypothesis that dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonamplifiable and nonaromatizable pure androgen, reduces late-life prostate growth in middle-aged men. Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12605000358640) SETTING: Ambulatory care research center. Healthy men (n = 114) older than 50 years without known prostate disease. Transdermal DHT (70 mg) or placebo gel daily for 2 years. Prostate volume was measured by ultrasonography; bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and blood samples and questionnaires were collected every 6 months, with data analyzed by mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. Over 24 months, there was an increase in total (29% [95% CI, 23% to 34%]) and central (75% [CI, 64% to 86%]; P prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen level (15% [CI, 6% to 24%]) with time on study, but DHT had no effect (P > 0.2). Dihydrotestosterone treatment decreased spinal BMD (1.4% [CI, 0.6% to 2.3%]; P 0.2) and increased serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I procollagen in the second year of the study compared with placebo. Dihydrotestosterone increased serum DHT levels and its metabolites (5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol) and suppressed serum testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Dihydrotestosterone increased hemoglobin levels (7% [CI, 5% to 9%]), serum creatinine levels (9% [CI, 5% to 11%]), and lean mass (2.4% [CI, 1.6% to 3.1%) but decreased fat mass (5.2% [CI, 2.6% to 7.7%]) (P

  15. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density Levels in Maraş Powder (Smokeless Tobacco Users and Smokers in Healthy Men

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    Betül Bakan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are two recognized risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis. Maras powder (MP, a kind of smokeless tobacco, has a lot of addicts in the city of Kahramanmaraş and its surroundings, Turkey. This is the study investigating the effects of MP on BMD and comparing with smoking. Meterial and Methods: A total of 120 healthy male subjects (60 MP users, 60 smoker from Maras City, Turkey were included in the study. All subjects information on demographics, health history, alcohol and tobacco use and medication use were obtained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects who had any pathology that might affect BMD, were excluded from the study. Measurements of bone mineral density were obtained by phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry of the nondominant hand. BMD values (g/cm2 of MP users were compared with those of smokers. Results: The mean duration of MP use and the mean age of MP users were 30.6±14.4 years and 64.4±9.8 years, respectively. The mean duration of smoking and the mean age of smokers were 33.7±11.0 years and 61.6±10.4 years, respectively. The mean phalangeal BMD in MP users (0.31±0.04 g/cm2 was signi cantly lower than that in the smokers (0.33±0.03 g/cm2, p=0.004. Conclusion: In MP user males, BMD is lower compared to the smoker males. If our results are supported by other studies, it may be claimed that MP use is a very strong risk factor for low BMD value compared to cigarette smoking. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 12-6

  16. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  17. OF PHYSIOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN IN HEALTHY MEN UNDER HEAT STRESS IN DRY AND STEAM HEAT SAUNAS

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    W. Pilch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to follow up major physiological reactions, provoked by heat stress during dry and wet sauna baths. A physical strain index and subjective estimation of heat comfort of subjects who had not taken sauna baths before was also evaluated. Ten healthy males aged 25-28 underwent a dry sauna bath and then after a one-month break they underwent a steam sauna bath. Each time, they entered the sauna chamber 3 times for 15 minutes with five-minute breaks. During breaks they cooled their bodies with a cold shower and then rested in a sitting position. Before and after the baths, body mass and blood pressure were measured. Rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored during the baths. The physiological strain index (PSI and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI were calculated. Subjects assessed heat comfort by Bedford’s scale. Greater body mass losses were observed after the dry sauna bath compared to the wet sauna (-0.72 vs. -0.36 kg respectively. However, larger increases in rectal temperature and heart rate were observed during the wet sauna bath (38.8% and 21.2% respectively. Both types of sauna baths caused elevation of systolic blood pressure, but changes were greater after the dry one. Diastolic pressure was reduced similarly. Subjective feelings of heat comfort as well as PSI (4.83 ± 0.29 vs. 5.7 ± 0.28 and CHSI (76.3 ± 18.4 vs. 144.6 ± 21.7 were greater during the wet sauna bath. It can be concluded that due to high humidity and reduction of thermoregulation mechanisms, the wet sauna is more stressful for the organism than the dry sauna, where the temperature is higher with low humidity. Both observed indexes (PSI and CHSI could be appropriate for objective assessment of heat strain during passive heating of the organism.

  18. Effects of different doses of testosterone on gonadotropins, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and blood lipids in healthy men

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    Gårevik N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nina Gårevik, Anders Rane, Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Lena Ekström Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Aims: To study the effect and time profile of different doses of testosterone enanthate on the blood lipid profile and gonadotropins. Experimental design: Twenty-five healthy male volunteers aged 27–43 years were given 500 mg, 250 mg, and 125 mg of testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular doses of Testoviron® Depot. Luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, plasma [p-] low-density lipoprotein, p-high-density lipoprotein [HDL], p-apolipoprotein A1 [ApoA1], p-apolipoprotein B, p-triglycerides, p-lipoprotein(a, serum [s-] testosterone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were analyzed prior to, and 4 and 14 days after dosing. Testosterone and epitestosterone in urine (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio were analyzed prior to each dose after a washout period of 6–8 weeks. Results and discussion: All doses investigated suppressed the LH and FSH concentrations in serum. LH remained suppressed 6 weeks after the 500 mg dose. These results indicate that testosterone has a more profound endocrine effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis than was previously thought. There was no alteration in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels after testosterone administration compared to baseline levels. The 250 and 500 mg doses induced decreased concentrations of ApoA1 and HDL, whereas the lowest dose (125 mg did not have any effect on the lipid profile. Conclusion: The single doses of testosterone produced a dose-dependent increase in serum testosterone concentrations together with suppression of s-LH and s-FSH. Alterations in ApoA1 and HDL were observed after the two highest single doses. It is possible that long-time abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids will lead to alteration in vitamin D status

  19. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

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    Luz, P.L. da; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C. [Divisão de Cardiologia Clínica, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E. [Divisão de Radiologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hojaij, E. [Serviço de Psicologia, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gonsalves, C.R.L. [Serviço Nutricional, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laurindo, F.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Vascular, Instituto do Coração (Incor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-04

    Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  20. Coronary artery plaque burden and calcium scores in healthy men adhering to long-term wine drinking or alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. da Luz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0, 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01. However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001. HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001, while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02. Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.

  1. A cross-sectional study comparing strength profile of dorsal and palmar flexor muscles of the wrist in epicondylitis and healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unyó, C; Chaler, J; Rojas-Martínez, M; Pujol, E; Müller, B; Garreta, R; Mañanas, M A

    2013-08-01

    Strength training has been proposed by several authors to treat Lateral Epicondylitis. However, there is still a lack of information concerning muscle weakness and its relationship to imbalances and fatigability of forearm muscles during dynamic conditions in subjects after epicondylitis recovery. To analyze the relationship between lateral humeral epicondylitis, and forearm muscle strength and fatigue. Rehabilitation specialized center Cross-sectional study in eight former epicondylitis men free of symptoms and actively working at the moment of the evaluation and eight healthy men volunteers. Isokinetic tests were performed at different velocities in order to assess strength in concentric and eccentric contractions. Additionally, a long-term concentric test was carried out in order to analyze strength during endurance. The following variables were analyzed: Average torque of dorsal and palmar flexors of the wrist and ratio of agonist/antagonist for non-endurance contractions; length of initial and final plateaus and the slope of average torque decay during the endurance test. In both groups, average torque produced by palmar flexor muscles was higher than that produced by dorsal flexor muscles. Patients showed higher strength in palmar flexor muscles, whereas dorsal flexor strength was similar for both populations. Palmar flexor vs. dorsal flexor ratio was significantly higher in patients for eccentric contractions. Regarding fatigue, results showed that torque decreased earlier in patients. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Both palmar flexor force and palmar/dorsal ratio in eccentric exercise were significantly higher in patients. This finding indicates a muscular imbalance in patients underlying the epicondylitis condition. Additionally, former patients fatigued earlier. Findings indicate that muscle imbalances and fatigability might be related to lateral epicondylitis. This information may be useful in the design and monitoring of programs

  2. "Omics" of Selenium Biology: A Prospective Study of Plasma Proteome Network Before and After Selenized-Yeast Supplementation in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indu; Karagoz, Kubra; Fogle, Rachel L; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Zea, Arnold H; Arga, Kazim Y; Stanley, Anne E; Hawkes, Wayne C; Sinha, Raghu

    2016-04-01

    Low selenium levels have been linked to a higher incidence of cancer and other diseases, including Keshan, Chagas, and Kashin-Beck, and insulin resistance. Additionally, muscle and cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunction, cancer, neurological disorders, and endocrine function have been associated with mutations in genes encoding for selenoproteins. Selenium biology is complex, and a systems biology approach to study global metabolomics, genomics, and/or proteomics may provide important clues to examining selenium-responsive markers in circulation. In the current investigation, we applied a global proteomics approach on plasma samples collected from a previously conducted, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical study, where men were supplemented with selenized-yeast (Se-Yeast; 300 μg/day, 3.8 μmol/day) or placebo-yeast for 48 weeks. Proteomic analysis was performed by iTRAQ on 8 plasma samples from each arm at baseline and 48 weeks. A total of 161 plasma proteins were identified in both arms. Twenty-two proteins were significantly altered following Se-Yeast supplementation and thirteen proteins were significantly changed after placebo-yeast supplementation in healthy men. The differentially expressed proteins were involved in complement and coagulation pathways, immune functions, lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Reconstruction and analysis of protein-protein interaction network around selected proteins revealed several hub proteins. One of the interactions suggested by our analysis, PHLD-APOA4, which is involved in insulin resistance, was subsequently validated by Western blot analysis. Our systems approach illustrates a viable platform for investigating responsive proteomic profile in 'before and after' condition following Se-Yeast supplementation. The nature of proteins identified suggests that selenium may play an important role in complement and coagulation pathways, and insulin resistance.

  3. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Long In

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA composition in healthy Korean men. Methods Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T, FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T, and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Results Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition (P for interaction = 0.009 or of AA (≥4.573% (P for interaction = 0.047. Conclusion HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  4. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in healthy Korean men: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Lim, Hyo Hee; Yang, Long In; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Jong Ho

    2011-04-23

    We investigated the relationship between fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene polymorphisms and insulin resistance (IR) in association with serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) composition in healthy Korean men. Healthy men (n = 576, 30 ~ 79 years old) were genotyped for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1-10154G>T), FADS2 (rs174575C>G, rs2727270C>T), and FADS3 (rs1000778C>T) SNPs. Dietary intake, serum phospholipid FA composition and HOMA-IR were measured. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the rs174575G allele carriers than the CC homozygotes, but lower in the rs2727270T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. The proportion of linoleic acid (18:2ω-6, LA) was higher in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154G>T, rs174575C>G and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3ω-6, DGLA) and arachidonic acid (20:4ω-6, AA) in serum phospholipids were significantly lower in the minor allele carriers of FEN1-10154 G>T carriers and rs2727270C>T than the major homozygotes respectively. AA was also significantly lower in the rs1000778T allele carriers than the CC homozygotes. HOMA-IR positively correlated with LA and DGLA and negatively with AA/DGLA in total subjects. Interestingly, rs174575G allele carriers showed remarkably higher HOMA-IR than the CC homozygotes when subjects had higher proportions of DLGA (≥1.412% in total serum phospholipid FA composition) (P for interaction = 0.009) or of AA (≥4.573%) (P for interaction = 0.047). HOMA-IR is associated with FADS gene cluster as well as with FA composition in serum phospholipids. Additionally, HOMA-IR may be modulated by the interaction between rs174575C>G and the proportion of DGLA or AA in serum phospholipids.

  5. Acute Sleep Deprivation Increases Serum Levels of Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) and S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S-100B) in Healthy Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Christian; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Nilsson, Emil K.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.; Vågesjö, Evelina; Massena, Sara; Pettersson, Ulrika; Christoffersson, Gustaf; Phillipson, Mia; Broman, Jan-Erik; Lannfelt, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) affects circulating concentrations of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S-100B) in humans. These factors are usually found in the cytoplasm of neurons and glia cells. Increasing concentrations of these factors in blood may be therefore indicative for either neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or both. In addition, amyloid β (Aβ) peptides 1-42 and 1-40 were measured in plasma to calculate their ratio. A reduced plasma ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 is considered an indirect measure of increased deposition of Aβ 1-42 peptide in the brain. Design: Subjects participated in two conditions (including either 8-h of nocturnal sleep [22:30-06:30] or TSD). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after sleep interventions (19:30 and 07:30, respectively). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: 15 healthy young men. Results: TSD increased morning serum levels of NSE (P = 0.002) and S-100B (P = 0.02) by approximately 20%, compared with values obtained after a night of sleep. In contrast, the ratio of Aβ peptides 1-42 to 1-40 did not differ between the sleep interventions. Conclusions: Future studies in which both serum and cerebrospinal fluid are sampled after sleep loss should elucidate whether the increase in serum neuron-specific enolase and S100 calcium binding protein B is primarily caused by neuronal damage, impaired blood brain barrier function, or is just a consequence of increased gene expression in non-neuronal cells, such as leukocytes. Citation: Benedict C; Cedernaes J; Giedraitis V; Nilsson EK; Hogenkamp PS; Vågesjö E; Massena S; Pettersson U; Christoffersson G; Phillipson M; Broman JE; Lannfelt L; Zetterberg H; Schiöth HB. Acute Sleep Deprivation Increases Serum Levels of Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) and S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S-100B) in Healthy Young Men. SLEEP 2014;37(1):195-198. PMID:24470708

  6. Muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration: data from testosterone dose-response study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, J; Arver, S; Pencina, K M; Martling, A; Blomqvist, L; Buchli, C; Li, Z; Gagliano-Jucá, T; Travison, T G; Huang, G; Storer, T W; Bhasin, S; Basaria, S

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone dose-dependently increases appendicular muscle mass. However, the effects of testosterone administration on the core muscles of the trunk and the pelvis have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on truncal and pelvic muscles in a dose-response trial. Participants were young healthy men aged 18-50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone production and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5aR inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Muscles of the trunk and the pelvis were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose effect of testosterone on changes in the psoas major muscle area was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included changes in paraspinal, abdominal, pelvic floor, ischiocavernosus, and obturator internus muscles. The association between changes in testosterone levels and muscle area was also assessed. Testosterone dose-dependently increased areas of all truncal and pelvic muscles. The estimated change (95% confidence interval) of muscle area increase per 100 mg of testosterone enanthate dosage increase was 0.622 cm2 (0.394, 0.850) for psoas; 1.789 cm2 (1.317, 2.261) for paraspinal muscles, 2.530 cm2 (1.627, 3.434) for total abdominal muscles, 0.455 cm2 (0.233, 0.678) for obturator internus, and 0.082 cm2 (0.003, 0.045) for ischiocavernosus; the increase in these volumes was significantly associated with the changes in on-treatment total and free serum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, core muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration. Future trials should evaluate the potential role of testosterone administration in frail men who are predisposed to falls and men with

  7. A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Pere-Trépat, Emma; Montoliu, Ivan; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Moco, Sofia; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Cléroux, Marilyn; Guy, Philippe A; Breton, Isabelle; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Thorimbert, Anita; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Tornier, Lionel; Bebuis, Aude; Bruce, Stephen J; Beaumont, Maurice; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently find that diets rich in whole-grain (WG) cereals lead to decreased risk of disease compared with refined grain (RG)-based diets. Aside from a greater amount of fiber and micronutrients, possible mechanisms for why WGs may be beneficial for health remain speculative. In an exploratory, randomized, researcher-blinded, crossover trial, we measured metabolic profile differences between healthy participants eating a diet based on WGs compared with a diet based on RGs. Seventeen healthy adult participants (11 female, 6 male) consumed a controlled diet based on either WG-rich or RG-rich foods for 2 wk, followed by the other diet after a 5-wk washout period. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. The metabolic profiles of plasma, urine, and fecal water were measured using (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (plasma only). After 1 wk of intervention, the WG diet led to decreases in urinary excretion of metabolites related to protein catabolism (urea, methylguanadine), lipid (carnitine and acylcarnitines) and gut microbial (4-hydroxyphenylacetate, trimethylacetate, dimethylacetate) metabolism in men compared with the same time point during the RG intervention. There were no differences between the interventions after 2 wk. Urinary urea, carnitine, and acylcarnitine were lower at wk 1 of the WG intervention relative to the RG intervention in all participants. Fecal water short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate were relatively greater after the WG diet compared to the RG diet. Although based on a small population and for a short time period, these observations suggest that a WG diet may affect protein metabolism.

  8. Effect of acute sleep deprivation and recovery on Insulin-like Growth Factor-I responses and inflammatory gene expression in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Scofield, Denis E; Nindl, Bradley C

    2014-01-01

    Acute sleep deprivation in humans has been found to increase inflammatory markers and signaling pathways in the periphery through a possible Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). In addition, short duration sleep has been associated with low circulating total Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. We aimed to determine whether a total sleep deprivation (TSD) protocol with recovery altered whole-blood gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as TLR-4 expression, and to examine the relationship with circulating concentrations of the IGF-I system. Twelve healthy men participated in a five-day TSD (two control nights followed by one night of sleep deprivation and one night of recovery). Blood was sampled at 0800, before and after sleep deprivation (D2 and D4), and after recovery (D5). It is shown that 25 h of sleep deprivation (D4) induced significant increases in mRNA levels of TNF-α and its soluble receptor R1 (Precovery was sufficient to restore basal expression levels for TNF-α, sTNF-R1, TLR-4 and circulating IGF-I. Changes in TLR-4 mRNA levels during the protocol correlated positively with those of TNF-α and sTNF-R1 (r=0.393 and r=0.490 respectively), and negatively with circulating free IGF-I (r=-0.494). In conclusion, 25 h of sleep deprivation in healthy subjects is sufficient to induce transient and reversible genomic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its R1 receptor, and its mediator TLR-4, with a possible link to IGF-I axis inhibition.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of fixed-dose combination of clopidogrel and aspirin versus coadministration of individual formulations in healthy Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyang-Ki; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Shon, Jihong; Choi, Young-Kyung; Jung, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous prescription of clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin is recommended for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome because of improvements in efficacy and patient compliance. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of clopidogrel and aspirin was compared with coadministration of individual formulations to clarify the equivalence of the FDC. This was a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment, crossover study in healthy Korean men aged 20-55 years. Subjects received two FDC capsules of clopidogrel/aspirin 75/100 mg (test) or two tablets of clopidogrel 75 mg and two capsules of aspirin 100 mg (reference) with a 14-day washout period. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel, aspirin, and salicylic acid were measured using validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Bioequivalence was assessed by analysis of variance and calculation of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the ratios of the geometric means (GMRs) for AUClast and Cmax for clopidogrel and aspirin. Sixty healthy subjects were enrolled, and 53 completed the study. Clopidogrel, aspirin, and salicylic acid showed similar absorption profiles and no significant differences in Cmax, AUClast, and Tmax between FDC administration and coadministration of individual formulations. The GMRs (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUClast of clopidogrel were 1.08 (0.95, 1.23) and 0.93 (0.84, 1.03), respectively. The GMRs (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUClast of aspirin were 0.98 (0.84, 1.13) and 0.98 (0.93, 1.04), respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated in the study subjects. The FDC of clopidogrel and aspirin was bioequivalent to coadministration of each individual formulation. The FDC capsule exhibited similar safety and tolerability profiles to the individual formulations. Therefore, clopidogrel/aspirin 75 mg/100 mg FDC capsules can be prescribed to improve patient compliance.

  10. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.

  11. Use of T-RFLP and seven restriction enzymes to compare the faecal microbiota of obese and lean Japanese healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Osaki, T; Oikawa, S

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of 92 healthy Japanese men was measured following consumption of identical meals for 3 days; terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms were then used to analyse the DNA content of their faeces. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were further analysed using seven restriction enzymes: 516f-BslI and -HaeIII, 27f-MspI and -AluI, and 35f-HhaI, -MspI and -AluI. Subjects were classified by their body mass index (BMI) as lean (25.0). OTUs were then analysed using data mining software. Pearson correlation coefficients on data mining results indicated only a weak relationship between BMI and OTU diversity. Specific OTUs attributed to lean and obese subjects were further examined by data mining with six groups of enzymes and closely related accession numbers for lean and obese subjects were successfully narrowed down. 16S rRNA sequences showed Bacillus spp., Erysipelothrix spp. and Holdemania spp. to be present among 30 bacterial candidates related to the lean group. Fifteen candidates were classified Firmicutes, one was classified as Chloroflexi, and the others were not classified. 45 Microbacteriaceae, 11 uncultured Actinobacterium, and 3 other families were present among the 119 candidate OTUs related to obesity. We conclude that the presence of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria may be related to the BMI of the subject.

  12. Differential acute effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich drinks compared with water on cardiac output during rest and exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontoyanni, Victoria G; Werner, Kristin; Sanders, Thomas A B; Hall, Wendy L

    2015-08-01

    The acute effects of drinks rich in protein (PRO) versus carbohydrate (CHO) on cardiovascular hemodynamics and reactivity are uncertain. A randomized crossover design was used to compare 400-mL isoenergetic (1.1 MJ) drinks containing whey protein (PRO; 44 g) or carbohydrate (CHO; 57 g) versus 400 mL of water in 14 healthy men. The primary and secondary outcomes were changes in cardiac output, blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and digital volume pulse measured prior to and 30 min following consumption at rest, during 12 min of multi-stage bicycle ergometry, and 15 min postexercise. The mean change (95% confidence interval (CI)) in resting cardiac output at 30 min was greater for CHO than for PRO or water: 0.7 (0.4 to 1.0), 0.1 (-0.2 to 0.40), and 0.0 (-0.3 to 0.3) L/min (P drink increased cardiac output and lowered SVR in the resting state compared with a PRO-rich drink or water but the effect size of changes in these variables did not differ during or after exercise between CHO and PRO. Neither protein nor carbohydrate affected blood pressure reactivity to exercise.

  13. Effects of three weeks of mild sleep restriction implemented in the home environment on multiple metabolic and endocrine markers in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, M Denise; Russell-Jones, David; Umpleby, A Margot; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-02-01

    Evidence for a causal relationship between sleep-loss and metabolism is derived primarily from short-term sleep deprivation studies in the laboratory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether small changes in sleep duration over a three week period while participants are living in their normal environment lead to changes in insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters. Nineteen healthy, young, normal-weight men were randomised to either sleep restriction (habitual bedtime minus 1.5h) or a control condition (habitual bedtime) for three weeks. Weekly assessments of insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, anthropometry, vascular function, leptin and adiponectin were made. Sleep was assessed continuously using actigraphy and diaries. Assessment of sleep by actigraphy confirmed that the intervention reduced daily sleep duration by 01:19 ± 00:15 (SE; pSleep restriction led to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin which varied during the three week period. There was no effect on plasma adiponectin or vascular function. Even minor reductions in sleep duration lead to changes in insulin sensitivity, body weight and other metabolic parameters which vary during the exposure period. Larger and longer longitudinal studies of sleep restriction and sleep extension are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreasing amphetamine-induced dopamine release by acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion: A PET/[11C]raclopride study in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyton, Marco; Dagher, Alain; Boileau, Isabelle; Casey, Kevin; Baker, Glen B; Diksic, Mirko; Gunn, Roger; Young, Simon N; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2004-02-01

    Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) has been proposed as a new method to decrease catecholamine neurotransmission safely, rapidly, and transiently. Validation studies in animals are encouraging, but direct evidence in human brain is lacking. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that APTD would reduce stimulated dopamine (DA) release, as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) and changes in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential (BP), a measure of DA D2/D3 receptor availability. Eight healthy men received two PET scans, both following d-amphetamine, 0.3 mg/kg, p.o., an oral dose known to decrease [(11)C]raclopride BP in ventral striatum. On the morning before each scan, subjects ingested, in counter-balanced order, an amino-acid mixture deficient in the catecholamine precursors, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, or a nutritionally balanced mixture. Brain parametric images were generated by calculating [(11)C]raclopride BP at each voxel. BP values were extracted from the t-map (threshold: t=4.2, equivalent to pamphetamine-induced DA release exhibited a linear association with the reduction in plasma tyrosine levels (r=-0.82, pnew tool for human neuropsychopharmacology research.

  15. Gating of the vertex somatosensory and auditory evoked potential P50 and the correlation to skin conductance orienting response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S M; Eder, D N; Hemmingsen, R P

    2001-01-01

    A defect in auditory evoked potential (AEP) P50 gating supports the theory of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship between gating of the mid-latency evoked potentials (EP) in the somatosensory and the auditory modalities has not been studied together before. In schiz......A defect in auditory evoked potential (AEP) P50 gating supports the theory of information-processing deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship between gating of the mid-latency evoked potentials (EP) in the somatosensory and the auditory modalities has not been studied together before....... In schizophrenia, we might expect the processing deficits to act on multiple modalities. We have examined the gating of median nerve somatosensory EP (SEP) following paired stimulation identical to the AEP P50 gating paradigm using interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 500, 750 and 1000 ms and the correlation of gating...... to the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in 20 healthy men. We measured mid-latency vertex components (SEP: P50, N65, P85 and N100; AEP: P30, N45, P50 and N80). The gating was most pronounced at ISI 500 ms where the SEP P50 and N100 gating were 0.59 and 0.37, respectively, as compared to a gating...

  16. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  17. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol...

  18. Ramadan model of intermittent fasting for 28 d had no major effect on body composition, glucose metabolism, or cognitive functions in healthy lean men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina M.; Rosenberg, Astrid; Benatti, Fabiana B.

    2017-01-01

    ; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. Methods: Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, crossover, intervention study. Testing was performed before a control period of 28 d, as well as before...... and after 28 d of RIF. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen, fitness test, oral glucose tolerance test, and cognitive function tests were performed. As secondary outcome, the participants' physical activity and 72-h glycemic responses were monitored 6 d.......01) compared with the control period. No changes were observed in any of the other evaluated parameters. Conclusions: Free-living participants were able to comply with 14 h of daily daytime abstinence from food and drinking for 28 d with only a minor effect on body mass index and without any effects on body...

  19. Abdominal hollowing and lateral abdominal wall muscles' activity in both healthy men & women: An ultrasonic assessment in supine and standing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshadi, Farideh Dehghan; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Abdominal Hollowing (AH) maneuver on External Oblique (EO), Internal Oblique (IO) and Transversus Abdominis (TrA) muscles in both healthy men and women during the two postures of supine and upright standing. The study was conducted on 43 asymptomatic volunteers (22 males and 21 females) aged 19-44 (27.8±6.4) years. Rehabilitative Ultrasonic Imaging (RUSI) was simultaneously performed to measure muscle thickness in both rest and during AH maneuvers while activation of the TrA during AH was controlled by Pressure Biofeedback (PBF) device. Mixed-model ANOVA with repeated measures design, and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Muscle thickness of all muscles was significantly higher for male subjects (F>6.2, pRUSI showed that both TrA and IO muscles had activated after AH maneuver. We recommend performing further investigations using electromyography and RUSI simultaneously at more functional postures such as upright standing. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ramadan model of intermittent fasting for 28 d had no major effect on body composition, glucose metabolism, or cognitive functions in healthy lean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina M; Rosenberg, Astrid; Benatti, Fabiana B; Damm, Julie A; Thomsen, Carsten; Mortensen, Erik L; Pedersen, Bente K; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2017-05-01

    There has been a parallel increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes as well as the number of daily meals. However, evidence is lacking regarding the role of intermittent fasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a Ramadan model of intermittent fasting (RIF; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, crossover, intervention study. Testing was performed before a control period of 28 d, as well as before and after 28 d of RIF. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen, fitness test, oral glucose tolerance test, and cognitive function tests were performed. As secondary outcome, the participants' physical activity and 72-h glycemic responses were monitored 6 d within each of the periods. Dietary intake, appetite, and mood questionnaires also were assessed. Comparing Δ differences from testing days; body mass index changes from the control period (Δ mean: 0.2 kg/m 2 , 95% confidence interval [CI], -2 to 0.5) and the RIF period (Δ mean: -0.3 kg/m 2 , 95% CI, -0.6 to -0.1) were significantly different (P cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Addition of rye bran and pea fiber to pork meatballs enhances subjective satiety in healthy men, but does not change glycemic or hormonal responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Kofod, Josephine; Holst, Jens Juul

    2017-01-01

    and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties).Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 22.2 ± 1.9; age, 23.3 ± 2.......9 y] consumed 4 test meals: a low-fiber meal consisting of pork meatballs plus wheat bread (LF meal); pork meatballs plus fiber bread; fiber meatballs plus wheat bread, and vegetable patties with a natural fiber content plus wheat bread (∼3000 kJ; protein ∼18% of energy, carbohydrate ∼50% of energy......, fiber addition to pork meatballs favorably affected appetite sensations but without changes in hormonal and metabolic responses. Moreover, animal- and vegetable-protein-based, fiber-matched meals had similar effects on appetite regulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02521805....

  2. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (psoccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  3. Diets rich in conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid have no effect on blood pressure and isobaric arterial elasticity in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Sejrsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP) and isobaric arterial elasticity (AE), as a measure of arterial health, of a commercial mixture of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and of milk fat produced through livestock feeding to have a high content of vaccenic acid...... (VA). Healthy young men (n = 60) with a BMI of 22.5 +/- 2 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SD) participated in this double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study. The participants substituted 115 g of their daily fat intake with fat from 1 of 3 test diets: 1) CLA-diet rich in CLA (4.7 g/d of c9, t11......- and t10, c12-CLA isomers in equal amounts); 2) VA-diet rich in VA (3.6 g/d); or 3) C-diet, a control diet with a low content of VA and CLA. All test diets were based on milk fat. BP and AE (measured by an oscillometric method) were measured before and after the intervention period. The effects...

  4. Isoflavones improve plasma homocysteine status and antioxidant defense system in healthy young men at rest but do not ameliorate oxidative stress induced by 80% VO2pk exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yen; Bakhiet, Raga M; Hart, Vanessa; Holtzman, Golde

    2005-01-01

    (1) Determination of whether isoflavones, as antioxidants and estrogen-like substances, reduce the atherosclerotic process. (2) Assessment of isoflavone anti-atherosclerotic effectiveness by means of measuring plasma markers of atherosclerosis: homocysteine (Hcy), antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation. (3) Testing of isoflavone antioxidant effectiveness in the presence and absence of oxidative stress induced by exercise. Thirty subjects paired by aerobic fitness level were randomly assigned to either a placebo or high-genistein isoflavone extract (HGI, 150 mg/day) treatment. Blood samples were collected before and within 5 min, after 30 min at 80% peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)pk) exercise, and before and after 4-week supplementation. Plasma genistein and daidzein were significantly increased by 4-week HGI supplementation before and after exercise (p < 0.05). HGI decreased pre-exercise (pre-ex) plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.05) and Hcy (p = 0.01), and increased pre-ex blood total glutathione (TGSH) (p = 0.01), but did not diminish the increase of MDA and the decrease of TGSH due to the exercise. Furthermore, HGI supplementation enhanced pre-ex total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05), but did not influence plasma vitamin C and E and uric acid concentrations. Isoflavones reduce plasma Hcy and have antioxidant activity in healthy young men. However, the effect of isoflavones on antioxidant systems may not be potent enough to diminish an abrupt surge of oxidative stress due to acute exercise. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Nutrition for Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print ... Tags Health Wellness Healthy Aging For Men For Seniors Latest Content 1 2 3 4 5 Eat Right While Traveling Nutrition Info about Beverages 5 Tips to Curb Your ...

  6. The Karlsruhe Metabolomics and Nutrition (KarMeN) Study: Protocol and Methods of a Cross-Sectional Study to Characterize the Metabolome of Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Achim; Kriebel, Anita; Dörr, Claudia; Bandt, Susanne; Rist, Manuela; Roth, Alexander; Hummel, Eva; Kulling, Sabine; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Watzl, Bernhard

    2016-07-15

    The human metabolome is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A precondition to identify such biomarkers is the comprehensive understanding of the composition and variability of the metabolome of healthy humans. Sample handling aspects have an important impact on the composition of the metabolome; therefore, it is crucial for any metabolomics study to standardize protocols on sample collection, preanalytical sample handling, storage, and analytics to keep the nonbiological variability as low as possible. The main objective of the KarMeN study is to analyze the human metabolome in blood and urine by targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry [GC-MS], GC×GC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS], and(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR] spectroscopy) and to determine the impact of sex, age, body composition, diet, and physical activity on metabolite profiles of healthy women and men. Here, we report the outline of the study protocol with special regard to all aspects that should be considered in studies applying metabolomics. Healthy men and women, aged 18 years or older, were recruited. In addition to a number of anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body composition), clinical (blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood and urine clinical chemistry) and functional parameters (lung function, arterial stiffness), resting metabolic rate, physical activity, fitness, and dietary intake were assessed, and 24-hour urine, fasting spot urine, and plasma samples were collected. Standard operating procedures were established for all steps of the study design. Using different analytical techniques (LC-MS, GC×GC-MS,(1)H NMR spectroscopy), metabolite profiles of urine and plasma were determined. Data will be analyzed using univariate and multivariate as well as predictive modeling methods. The project was funded in 2011 and enrollment was carried out between March 2012 and

  7. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (pRUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, pRUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (pRUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (pRUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM REGULAR EXERCISE ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTIONS, INFLAMMATORY AND THROMBOTIC ACTIVITY IN MIDDLE-AGED, HEALTHY MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Ergün

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As studying with population carrying no classical cardiovascular risk factors seems to be an advantage in isolating effects of regular exercise on endothelial functions, inflammatory and thrombotic activity; the present study was designed to evaluate the clear effects of long-term regular exercise in middle-aged, healthy men. A total of 32 regularly exercising (three times per week, 12.8 ± 6.8 years men (Group I, mean age = 53.2 ± 6. 1 yrs and 32 sex- and age-matched sedentary subjects (Group II, mean age = 51.0 ± 7.7 yrs were involved in the study. All participants were non-smokers and with no history of hypertension and diabetes. During one day preceding tests, the subjects refrained from training and maintained their normal diet. In all subjects, body mass index (BMI, percentage of body fat (% BF and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max were calculated. Serum uric acid, glucose, HbA1c, lipids, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen levels, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count were measured. Resting heart rates and blood pressures were recorded and standard exercise stress test was applied using the modified Bruce protocol. Flow-mediated and nitrate-induced dilatation (FMD and NID of the brachial artery and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT were evaluated as markers of endothelial functions and early atherosclerosis. Mean BMI, % BF, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, WBC and platelet count, HbA1c, total and LDL cholesterol, hs-CRP and fibrinogen levels were similar between the groups. Group I had significantly lower serum glucose, uric acid and triglyceride (p < 0.05, p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively and higher HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.0001 than in Group II. FMD values were significantly higher in Group I than in Group II (p < 0.005 while there were no significant differences in NID and cIMT measures between the groups. VO2max and cIMT showed a negative correlation in Group I (r = -0.463, p < 0.0001. Negative

  9. Effect of 1 night of total sleep deprivation on cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid 42 in healthy middle-aged men: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Sharon; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Besse, Kees; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Verbeek, Marcel; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a relationship between poor sleep and the risk of developing Alzheimer disease. A previous study found an effect of sleep on β-amyloid (Aβ), which is a key protein in Alzheimer disease pathology. To determine the effect of 1 night of total sleep deprivation on cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 protein levels in healthy middle-aged men. The Alzheimer, Wakefulness, and Amyloid Kinetics (AWAKE) study at the Radboud Alzheimer Center, a randomized clinical trial that took place between June 1, 2012, and October 1, 2012. Participants were cognitively normal middle-aged men (40-60 years of age) with normal sleep (n = 26) recruited from the local population. Participants were randomized to 1 night with unrestricted sleep (n = 13) or 1 night of total sleep deprivation (24 hours of wakefulness) (n = 13). Sleep was monitored using continuous polysomnographic recording from 3 pm until 10 am. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected using an intrathecal catheter at defined times to compare cerebral Aβ42 concentrations between evening and morning. A night of unrestricted sleep led to a 6% decrease in Aβ42 levels of 25.3 pg/mL (95% CI [0.94, 49.6], P = .04), whereas sleep deprivation counteracted this decrease. When accounting for the individual trajectories of Aβ42 over time, a difference of 75.8 pg/mL of Aβ42 was shown between the unrestricted sleep and sleep deprivation group (95% CI [3.4, 148.4], P = .04). The individual trajectories of evening and morning Aβ42 concentrations differed between the unrestricted sleep and sleep deprivation groups (P = .04) in contrast to stable Aβ40, tau, and total protein levels. Sleep deprivation, or prolonged wakefulness, interferes with a physiological morning decrease in Aβ42. We hypothesize that chronic sleep deprivation increases cerebral Aβ42 levels, which elevates the risk of Alzheimer disease. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01194713.

  10. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pFootball Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of multidrug resistance gene-1 (ABCB1) polymorphisms on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of cloxacillin in healthy adult Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ophelia Q P; Tomlinson, Brian; Chow, Moses S S

    2009-05-01

    C3435T SNP associated with any significant changes in the cloxacillin pharmacokinetic profile. Among subjects with 1 of the 3 major haplotype pairs, those carrying the CGC/CGC pair had a significantly lower C(max) (P = 0.017), AUC (P = 0.032), and urinary excretion of cloxacillin (P = 0.026) compared with those carrying the CGC/TGC and TTT/TTT pairs. In this small population of healthy Chinese men, the C1236T variant of ABCB1 appeared to be an important contributor to interindi-vidual differences in plasma cloxacillin exposure, most likely through an effect on oral absorption rather than on disposition. Studies of multiple doses in larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Bradykinin type 2 receptor -9/-9 genotype is associated with triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy following strength training in young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popadic Gacesa Jelena Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. Methods In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 ± 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2 were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets. Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. Results Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 ± 3.4% (from 929.5 ± 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 ± 140.9 cm3 after training, p9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (−9/-9, 8.5 ± 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 ± 4.5%, p B2BRK genotype (−9/-9, 50.2 ± 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 ± 20.7%, p > 0.05. Conclusions We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training – hypertrophy – is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in

  13. Left ventricular vascular and metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training: a randomized trial in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hakala, Juuso; Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular, time-sparing alternative to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), although the cardiac vascular and metabolic effects of HIIT are incompletely known. We compared the effects of 2-week interventions with HIIT and MICT on myocardial perfusion and free fatty acid and glucose uptake. Insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake was decreased by training without any significantly different response between the groups, whereas free fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Adenosine-stimulated myocardial perfusion responded differently to the training modes (change in mean HIIT: -19%; MICT: +9%; P = 0.03 for interaction) and was correlated with myocardial glucose uptake for the entire dataset and especially after HIIT training. HIIT and MICT induce similar metabolic and functional changes in the heart, although myocardial vascular hyperaemic reactivity is impaired after HIIT, and this should be considered when prescribing very intense HIIT for previously untrained subjects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of obtaining the health benefits of exercise, although the cardiac effects of this training mode are incompletely known. We compared the effects of short-term HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions on myocardial perfusion and metabolism and cardiac function in healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged men were randomized to either HIIT or MICT groups (n = 14 in both) and underwent six cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 weeks (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4 min recovery, MICT session 40-60 min at 60% V̇O2 peak ). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was performed to measure cardiac structure and function and positron emission tomography was used to measure myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine stimulation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) and fasting free

  14. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is inversely associated with dietary total and coffee-derived polyphenol intakes in apparently healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-10-07

    Serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress. Here, we examined the association between serum GGT and the dietary intake of polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties. A cross-sectional survey including 7960 apparently healthy Japanese men (aged 22-86 years) who participated in health checkups was conducted in Shizuoka, Japan. We analyzed these subjects' clinical serum parameters and lifestyle factors, including dietary polyphenol intake, which was evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire and by matching the subjects' food consumption data with our original polyphenol content database. The average intake of polyphenols was 1157 ± 471 mg/day, and green tea was the largest source of polyphenols at 40%, followed by coffee at 36%. Dividing the population according to quintiles of total polyphenol intake, the difference in polyphenol intake from coffee between the groups was much greater than the difference in polyphenol intake from green tea. The analysis of the association between polyphenol intake and biological parameters showed a significant negative association between polyphenol intake and the levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), GGT, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) after adjusting for age, smoking habit, energy intake and alcohol intake. The GGT levels were inversely associated with the polyphenol intake from coffee, but not with that from green tea. Multivariable linear regression analyses demonstrated that the subjects' GGT levels were negatively and independently associated with their polyphenol intake. The intake of total polyphenol including coffee as a major contributor is inversely associated with the serum GGT concentration in Japanese males.

  15. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Long-term impact of preterm birth on exercise capacity in healthy young men: a national population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Svedenkrans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993-2001 and born in Sweden 1973-1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2. Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt, as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. CONCLUSION: Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight.

  17. Soya milk exerts different effects on plasma amino acid responses and incretin hormone secretion compared with cows' milk in healthy, young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Siow, Phei Ching; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-10-01

    Apart from the well-known action of insulin, the mechanism by which soya and cows' milk improve postprandial glycaemia control was examined. In total, twelve healthy, young, Chinese men were studied on three separate occasions, in random order with isovolumetric (322 ml) control water, soya milk and cows' milk. Plasma total amino acid concentrations increased 30 min after test meals consumption and were higher after soya milk (230 %) and cow milk (240 %) consumption compared with water. Cows' milk ingestion induced higher branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) (40 %) than soya milk. Postprandial incretin concentrations increased after meal consumption. Cows' milk meal was accompanied by higher incremental AUC (iAUC) (170 %) for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) compared with soya milk and control (P=0·06). However, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations increased to significantly greater levels after soya milk consumption (iAUC 60 % higher) compared with cows' milk and control. Consumption of both soya and cows' milk with carbohydrates induced a similar reduction in glycaemic response through a different mechanism, beyond insulin action. Plasma amino acids (alanine and arginine), and incretins in particular (GIP was stimulated), may be involved in the hyperinsulinaemia after soya milk meals. However, BCAA and GLP-1 release may be responsible for the reduced glycaemia after cows' milk consumption by delaying gastric emptying. This could be the result of different milk protein/amino acid composition, but also differences in milk carbohydrate composition (i.e. lactose v. sucrose). It can be concluded that soya milk is a good alternative to cows' milk with regard to glycaemic regulation, with different mechanisms involved.

  18. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  19. Acute load-dependent effects of oral whey protein on gastric emptying, gut hormone release, glycemia, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy T; Piscitelli, Diana; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Clifton, Peter M; Standfield, Scott; Hausken, Trygve; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2015-12-01

    In healthy individuals, intraduodenal whey protein load-dependently modulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions and suppresses energy intake. The effect of oral whey, particularly the impact of load, has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to quantify gastric emptying of 30 and 70 g of oral whey protein loads and their relation to gastrointestinal hormone, glycemic, and appetitive responses. On 3 separate occasions in a randomized, double-blind order, 18 lean men [mean ± SEM age: 24.8 ± 1.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 21.6 ± 0.5] received iso-osmolar, equally palatable drinks (∼450 mL) containing 30 g pure whey protein isolate (L), 70 g pure whey protein isolate (H), or saline (control). Gastric emptying (with the use of 3-dimensional ultrasound), plasma cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, insulin, glucagon, total amino acids, and blood glucose were measured for 180 min after consumption of the drinks, and energy intake at a buffet-style lunch was quantified. Gastric emptying of the L and H drinks was comparable when expressed in kilocalories per minute (L: 2.6 ± 0.2 kcal/min; H: 2.9 ± 0.3 kcal/min) and related between individuals (r = 0.54, P drinks were comparable until ∼45-60 min after ingestion, after which time the responses became more differentiated. Blood glucose was modestly reduced after the H drink between t = 45 and 150 min when compared with the L drink (all P drinks compared with control (P protein is independent of load and determines the initial gastrointestinal hormone response. This study was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12611000706976. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Lysine from cooked white rice consumed by healthy young men is highly metabolically available when assessed using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prolla, Ivo R D; Rafii, Mahroukh; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Elango, Rajavel; da Silva, Leila P; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    Cooked white rice (CWR) provides up to 71% of the dietary protein for many people worldwide. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid (AA) score is the method adopted by FAO/WHO to evaluate protein quality. Our group has proposed the metabolic availability (MA) of AAs as another determinant of protein quality. It measures the percentage of an indispensable AA that is incorporated during protein synthesis. This study is the first to our knowledge to assess the MA of l-lysine (L-Lys) from CWR in humans using the indicator AA oxidation (IAAO) technique. Three amounts of L-Lys, 10, 15, and 19 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) (= 28.5, 42.8, and 54.3% of the mean L-Lys requirement of 35 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1)), were studied in 5 healthy young men in a repeated-measures design. To test the principle that the Maillard reaction has an effect on the MA of LLys, we also assessed the MA of L-Lys in oven-browned, cooked rice (n = 3) in the amount of 19 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1) L-Lys. The MA of L-Lys was estimated by comparing the IAAO response with varying L-Lys intakes in rice compared with the IAAO response to varying l-Lys intakes in the reference protein (crystalline AA mixture patterned after egg protein) using the slope ratio method. The MA of L-Lys from CWR was high (97%), but the effect of the Maillard reaction reduced it to 70%. The results show that despite its relatively low content in rice, L-Lys has a high MA when the rice is cooked without being browned.

  1. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...... mass, increased fat-free mass, and unchanged bone mineral content with GH administration. A high incidence of side effects was reported. Our results do not support a role for GH as a means of increasing muscle strength or mass, either alone or combined with RT, in healthy elderly men; although GH......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2...

  2. Phase II study of a three-dose primary vaccination course of DTPa-IPV/Hib-MenC-TT followed by a 12-month Hib-MenC-TT booster in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ameneh; Snape, Matthew D; Ohene-Kena, Brigitte; Young, Katrina; Oeser, Clarissa; Michaelis, Louise J; Macleod, Emma; Smee, Heather; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Leyssen, Maarten; Caubet, Magalie; Yu, Ly-Mee; Heath, Paul T; Faust, Saul N; Finn, Adam; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-06-01

    To test for immunologic noninferiority of antibody responses to Hib and MenC using a 6-in-1 combination vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib-MenC-TT) compared with DTPa-IPV-Hib plus MenC-CRM197, before and after a 12-month Hib-MenC-TT booster. Pragmatic open-label, randomized, multicenter, UK study. "6-in-1" group received DTPa-IPV/Hib-MenC-TT at 2, 3 and 4 months; control group received DTPa-IPV-Hib at 2, 3 and 4 months and MenC-CRM197 at 3 and 4 months. Both groups received Hib-MenC-TT at 12 months. Concomitant vaccines: pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4 and 13 months, and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine at 13 months. One hundred forty-two children were randomized to each group. One hundred children in the "6-in-1" group and 112 control group children completed the study according-to-protocol. One month postprimary immunizations: 100% of "6-in-1" group and 93.3% of control children had anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG ≥0.15 µg/mL; 96.2% and 100%, respectively, had rSBA-MenC titers ≥1:8. One month after booster all children met these thresholds, with anti-PRP geometric mean concentrations of 66.7 (53.3; 83.5) in "6-in-1" recipients and 26.9 (20.9; 34.6) in control children (4.4 [3.5; 5.4] and 3.0 [2.2-4.2] postprimary immunizations, respectively,). rSBA-MenC geometric mean titers were 3062.9 (2421.2; 3874.6) and 954.0 (761.3; 1195.5), respectively, postbooster and 393.2 (292.5; 528.7) and 3110.5 (2612; 3704.2) postprimary. Noninferiority of DTPa-IPV/Hib-MenC-TT compared with DTPa-IPV/Hib plus MenC-CRM197 was demonstrated. In the "6-in-1" group, lower postprimary and greater postbooster rSBA-MenC geometric mean titers suggest memory B-cell priming may be favored by this vaccine over plasma cell induction. Furthermore, greater immunogenicity of TT conjugates used in both primary and booster vaccines in this group may be important.

  3. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time. Copyright

  4. Postprandial adiponectin and gelatinase response to a high-fat versus an isoenergetic low-fat meal in lean, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Alan; Spiers, J Paul; Crowley, Vivion; Williams, Emlyn; Lithander, Fiona E

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests that an acute systemic inflammatory response is invoked after consumption of a high-energy meal. Postprandial regulation of adiponectin, an adipose tissue-derived, anti-inflammatory hormone, and the gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, endopeptidases implicated in a diverse range of inflammatory processes, remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the postprandial effect of a high-energy (1212 kcal) meal on plasma adiponectin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the differential effects on these parameters depending on whether the test meal was high fat (HF; 46 g fat, 1210 kcal) or isoenergetic and low fat (LF; 15 g fat, 1214 kcal energy). Test meals were consumed by 17 lean, healthy men on two separate occasions with blood samples collected by venipuncture at baseline (0 h) and 1 and 3 h after consumption of each test meal. At baseline, no significant difference was seen in the parameters between the two groups, except for MMP-2, MMP-9, and total cholesterol. Over the 3-h postprandial period, no significant differential effect of the HF versus the LF test meal was observed on adiponectin, MMP-2, MMP-9, or on metabolic markers other than triacylglycerol, which increased significantly in response to the HF test meal (time × treatment, P = 0.002). When analyzed independent of time, MMP-2 (treatment, P = 0.006), MMP-9 (treatment, P = 0.022), and glucose (treatment, P = 0.026) were lower after consumption of the HF meal compared with the LF test meal. When analyzed independent of treatment, adiponectin increased over the 3-h postprandial period (time, P = 0.031), but there was no change in MMP-2 or MMP-9 (time, P = 0.503 and P = 0.525, respectively). Over the 3-h postprandial period, insulin (time, P glucose (time, P postprandial adiponectin or the gelatinases. Adiponectin increased in response to a high-energy meal independent of

  5. Systemic exposure to armodafinil and its tolerability in healthy elderly versus young men: an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Hellriegel, Edward T; Yang, Ronghua; Robertson, Philmore

    2011-02-01

    Armodafinil (Nuvigil(®), Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, PA, USA), the longer-lasting isomer of racemic modafinil, is a nonamphetamine, wakefulness-promoting medication. In patients with excessive sleepiness associated with shift work disorder, treated obstructive sleep apnoea, or narcolepsy, armodafinil has been found to improve wakefulness throughout the shift or day. In addition, while not approved for this indication, armodafinil has been found to improve excessive sleepiness associated with jet-lag disorder. This study evaluated systemic exposure to armodafinil and its two major circulating metabolites, R-modafinil acid and modafinil sulfone, and assessed the tolerability profile of armodafinil in elderly and young subjects. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of armodafinil were assessed in an open-label, multiple-dose, parallel-group study in two groups (n = 25 in each group) of healthy men (elderly group aged ≥65 years and young group aged 18-45 years) who received armodafinil 50 mg on day 1, 100 mg on day 2 and 150 mg once daily on days 3 through 7. Plasma concentrations of armodafinil and its metabolites were quantified over 72 hours following the last dose on day 7. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including area under the plasma drug concentration-versus-time curve during a dosing interval (AUC(τ)) and maximum observed plasma drug concentration (C(max)), and tolerability were assessed. All 50 subjects enrolled in the study were evaluable for tolerability and 49 were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. One elderly subject was excluded from the pharmacokinetic analyses because of apparent noncompliance with armodafinil dosing. Systemic exposure following administration of armodafinil, as measured by steady-state AUC(τ) and C(max) values, was approximately 15% greater in elderly subjects compared with young subjects. Geometric mean ratios for AUC(τ) and C(max) in the two groups were 1.14 (95% CI 1.03, 1.25; p = 0.0086) and 1.15 (95% CI 1

  6. Perceptions about penis size among supposedly healthy 40 to 60-year-old Brazilian men: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Margareth de Mello Ferreira dos; Glina, Sidney; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2015-01-01

    Many men seek medical treatments complaining that their penises are too small (short) when in fact they are not (they are not cases of micropenis). The objective of the present study was to evaluate men's satisfaction with their own bodies and sex life and the prevalence of erectile dysfunction, among men who were not seeking medical or psychological advice. Cross-sectional study in a private, philanthropic hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. In this study, 300 male blood donors aged between 40 and 60 years old answered a questionnaire, in privacy, about their sex life and their satisfaction with their own bodies. They were also screened for erectile dysfunction by means of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. Seven men (2.3%) reported that they were dissatisfied with their penis size (they thought that it was small), and among these, one was found to have mild erectile dysfunction. However, none of them had sought medical attention. Among these seven, only two had normal body mass index; the other five were overweight (three) or obese (two). The prevalence of dissatisfaction with penis size was low. Among the seven dissatisfied men, only one had erectile dysfunction, of mild type, and all of them felt potent.

  7. Perceptions about penis size among supposedly healthy 40 to 60-year-old Brazilian men: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth de Mello Ferreira dos Reis

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Many men seek medical treatments complaining that their penises are too small (short when in fact they are not (they are not cases of micropenis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate men's satisfaction with their own bodies and sex life and the prevalence of erectile dysfunction, among men who were not seeking medical or psychological advice. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a private, philanthropic hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: In this study, 300 male blood donors aged between 40 and 60 years old answered a questionnaire, in privacy, about their sex life and their satisfaction with their own bodies. They were also screened for erectile dysfunction by means of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire. RESULTS: Seven men (2.3% reported that they were dissatisfied with their penis size (they thought that it was small, and among these, one was found to have mild erectile dysfunction. However, none of them had sought medical attention. Among these seven, only two had normal body mass index; the other five were overweight (three or obese (two. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dissatisfaction with penis size was low. Among the seven dissatisfied men, only one had erectile dysfunction, of mild type, and all of them felt potent.

  8. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  9. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on lipid peroxidation in healthy young men while controlling for diet and sleep: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In this pilot study, under conditions of fixed sleep-wake schedules and caloric intake, Ramadan IF does not alter serum MDA levels in healthy subjects. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Antioxidants - Protecting Healthy Cells Reviewed by Wendy Marcason, ...

  11. Short term dietary sodium restriction decreases HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and high molecular weight adiponectin in healthy young men : Relationships with renal hemodynamics and RAAS activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. A.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Navis, G.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Background and aims: We aimed to determine the effect of short-term dietary sodium restriction on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in non-obese, normotensive young men. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR),

  12. Effect of drinking on adiponectin in healthy men and women: a randomized intervention study of water, ethanol, red wine, and beer with or without alcohol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imhof, Armin; Plamper, Ines; Maier, Steffen; Trischler, Gerlinde; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    .... After washout, two interventions for 3 weeks followed: ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%), or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 g ethanol/day for men and 20 g/day for women or the same de-alcoholized beverages or water...

  13. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    status in the elderly population. The objective was to evaluate iron status and the relationship with food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake in an elderly population in Copenhagen County. Participants in this health examination survey were 358 subjects (171 men, 187 women) 80 years...

  14. Impact of cocoa flavanol intake on age-dependent vascular stiffness in healthy men: a randomized, controlled, double-masked trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Christian; Sansone, Roberto; Karimi, Hakima; Krabbe, Moritz; Schuler, Dominik; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kraemer, Thomas; Cortese-Krott, Miriam Margherita; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte

    2015-06-01

    Increased vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and isolated systolic hypertension are hallmarks of vascular aging. Regular cocoa flavanol (CF) intake can improve vascular function in healthy young and elderly at-risk individuals. However, the mechanisms underlying CF bioactivity remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of CF intake on cardiovascular function in healthy young and elderly individuals without history, signs, or symptoms of cardiovascular disease by applying particular focus on functional endpoints relevant to cardiovascular aging. In a randomized, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial, 22 young (flavanols to maintain cardiovascular health.

  15. Effects of low-load, higher-repetition versus high-load, lower-repetition resistance training not performed to failure on muscle strength, mass, and echo intensity in healthy young men: a time-course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezoe, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakamura, M; Ichihashi, N

    2017-10-07

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of low-load, higher-repetition training (LLHR) with those of high-load, lower-repetition training (HLLR) on muscle strength, mass, and echo intensity in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy men (age, 23.1 ± 2.6 years) were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: LLHR or HLLR group. Resistance training on knee extensor muscles was performed 3 days per week for 8 weeks. One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, maximum isometric strength, muscle thickness and muscle echo intensity on ultrasonography of the rectus femoris muscle were assessed every 2 weeks. Analysis of variance showed no significant group × time interaction, and only a significant main effect of time was observed for all variables. The 8-week resistance training increased 1RM, maximum isometric muscle strength, and muscle thickness by 36.2%-40.9%, 24.0%-25.5%, and 11.3%-20.4%, respectively, whereas it decreased echo intensity by 8.05%-16.3%. Significant improvements in muscle strength, thickness, and echo intensity were observed at weeks 2, 4, and 8, respectively. The lack of difference in time-course changes between LLHR and HLLR programs suggests that low-load training can exert similar effects on muscle mass and characteristics as high-load training by increasing the number of repetitions, even when not performed to failure.

  16. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    -95 percentile 114-147 g/L in women (p= 20 had a lower frequency of anemia. There was no correlation between Hb and dietary or supplemental iron intake. In men, Hb was correlated to meat consumption. Conclusions: WHO decision limits for anemia should not be lowered in 80-year-old subjects. "Optimal" Hb......Background and aims: In elderly Danes, reference intervals for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are derived from younger population groups. The aim was to examine reference intervals for Hb and cut-off limits for anemia by application of criteria for normality to a representative population of 80...... concentrations with respect to survival appear to be at least 140 g/L in men and 131 g/L in women. Further research should evaluate whether not only treating anemia, but also increasing Hb by using erythropoietin and hematinics, may improve functional status and survival in the elderly....

  17. Plasma amino acid levels are elevated in young, healthy low birth weight men exposed to short-term high-fat overfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Hellgren, Lars; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) individuals exhibit a disproportionately increased, incomplete fatty acid oxidation and a decreased glucose oxidation, compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals, and furthermore have an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We hypoth......, the higher alanine level in LBW men could be accompanied by an increased anaplerotic formation of oxaloacetate and thereby an enhanced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and as well an increased gluconeogenesis....

  18. Lack of relationships between cumulative methylprednisolone dose and bone mineral density in healthy men and postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E. F.; Wagemans, M. F.; Verdouw, B. C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Dekhuijzen, P. N. R.; Schweitzer, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    The medical use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is related to low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the cumulative dose of GC is not related to BMD outcome. The study was cross-sectional in design and included healthy individuals with chronic low back pain resistant to

  19. Lack of relationships between cumulative methylprednisolone dose and bone mineral density in healthy men and postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.F.L.; Wagemans, M.F.; Verdouw, B.C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Boxtel, C.J. van; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Schweitzer, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    The medical use of glucocorticoids (GCs) is related to low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the cumulative dose of GC is not related to BMD outcome. The study was cross-sectional in design and included healthy individuals with chronic low back pain resistant to

  20. Familial Longevity Is Not Associated with Major Differences in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Jansen, Steffy W.

    2016-01-01

    longevity and controls. Design: We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 10 healthy middle-aged male offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study together with 10 male age-matched controls. Individual 24-h luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentration profiles were...

  1. Circulating secretory phospholipase A2 activity and risk of incident coronary events in healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallat, Ziad; Benessiano, Joelle; Simon, Tabassome; Ederhy, Stéphane; Sebella-Arguelles, Carla; Cohen, Ariel; Huart, Virginie; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tedgui, Alain; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2007-01-01

    To assess the association between secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity, which encompasses several types of sPLA2, and cardiovascular disease (CAD) in healthy individuals. We investigated this association in a nested case-control study among the 25,663 participants in EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

  2. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is now widely appreciated as a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as visceral obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To date, incidence of metabolic syndrome is continuously increasing worldwide. In addition, low vegetable consumption has recently become a serious issue in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome in the first place. Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria. This menu was designed to prevent and reduce metabolic syndrome. Methods This intervention study took the form of a non-randomized controlled trial. Participants chose the control or intervention group. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only nutrient contents were assessed. The intervention group received a Japanese-style healthy lunch at a workplace cafeteria for 3 months. The participants worked in offices at a city hall and mostly had low levels of physical activity. Data of 35 males (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 28 males, mean age: 47.2 ± 7.9 years) were collected and analyzed. Results We obtained an effective outcome by demonstrating that ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch decreased blood pressure and serum lipids and increased plasma ghrelin levels. The results grew more pronounced as intake of Japanese-style healthy lunches increased in frequency. Conclusions This study presents new empirical data as a result of an original intervention program undertaken in Japan. A Japanese-style healthy lunch menu containing many vegetables consumed can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:24673894

  3. Short-term intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu contributes to prevention and/or improvement in metabolic syndrome among middle-aged men: a non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroko; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Aiso, Izumi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2014-03-27

    Metabolic syndrome is now widely appreciated as a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as visceral obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. To date, incidence of metabolic syndrome is continuously increasing worldwide.In addition, low vegetable consumption has recently become a serious issue in Japan. Furthermore, Japan is facing a shortfall in places offering food that can help prevent metabolic syndrome in the first place. Our study is designed to influence these developments. We conducted a non-randomized controlled trial by offering a Japanese-style healthy lunch menu to middle-aged men in a workplace cafeteria. This menu was designed to prevent and reduce metabolic syndrome. This intervention study took the form of a non-randomized controlled trial. Participants chose the control or intervention group. The control group consumed their habitual lunches without restriction and only nutrient contents were assessed. The intervention group received a Japanese-style healthy lunch at a workplace cafeteria for 3 months. The participants worked in offices at a city hall and mostly had low levels of physical activity. Data of 35 males (control group: 7 males, intervention group: 28 males, mean age: 47.2 ± 7.9 years) were collected and analyzed. We obtained an effective outcome by demonstrating that ongoing intake of a Japanese-style healthy lunch decreased blood pressure and serum lipids and increased plasma ghrelin levels. The results grew more pronounced as intake of Japanese-style healthy lunches increased in frequency. This study presents new empirical data as a result of an original intervention program undertaken in Japan. A Japanese-style healthy lunch menu containing many vegetables consumed can help prevent and/or improve metabolic syndrome.

  4. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  5. Safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) administered with routine infant vaccinations: results of an open-label, randomized, phase 3b controlled study in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Silas, Peter E; Lamas, Marta Raquel Valdés; Aragón, Carlos Fernándo Grazioso; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Acuña, Teobaldo Herrera; Castrejón, Tirza De León; Izu, Allen; Odrljin, Tatjana; Smolenov, Igor; Hohenboken, Matthew; Dull, Peter M

    2014-02-12

    The highest risk for invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is in infants aged CRM, a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, concomitantly administered with routine vaccinations to healthy infants. Two-month-old infants were randomized 3:1 to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines or routine vaccines alone at ages 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Adverse events (AEs) that were medically attended and serious adverse events (SAEs) were collected from all subjects from enrollment through 18 months of age. In a subset, detailed safety data (local and systemic solicited reactions and all AEs) were collected for 7 days post vaccination. The primary objective was a non-inferiority comparison of the percentages of subjects with ≥1 severe systemic reaction during Days 1-7 after any vaccination of MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations versus routine vaccinations alone (criterion: upper limit of 95% confidence interval [CI] of group difference CRM plus routine vaccines and 13% after routine vaccines alone (group difference 3.0% (95% CI -0.8, 6.4%). Although the non-inferiority criterion was not met, post hoc analysis controlling for significant center and group-by-center differences revealed that MenACWY-CRM plus routine vaccinations was non-inferior to routine vaccinations alone (group difference -0.1% [95% CI -4.9%, 4.7%]). Rates of solicited AEs, medically attended AEs, and SAEs were similar across groups. In a large multinational safety study, a 4-dose series of MenACWY-CRM concomitantly administered with routine vaccines was clinically acceptable with a similar safety profile to routine vaccines given alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of a novel finasteride 0.25% topical solution on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone in healthy men with androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserini, Maurizio; Radicioni, Milko; Leuratti, Chiara; Terragni, Emanuela; Iorizzo, Matilde; Palmieri, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The effects on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) of different doses of a novel topical solution of 0.25% finasteride (P-3074), a type 2 5α-reductase, were investigated in men with androgenetic alopecia. Two randomized, parallel-group studies were conducted. Study I: 18 men received 1 mL (2.275 mg) P-3074, applied to the scalp once a day (o.d.) or twice a day (b.i.d), or 1 mg oral tablet o.d. for 1 week. Study II: 32 men received P-3074 at the dose of 100 (0.2275 mg), 200 (0.455 mg), 300 (0.6285 mg), or 400 (0.91 mg) μL or the vehicle o.d. for 1 week. Scalp and serum DHT and serum testosterone were evaluated at baseline and treatment end. Change from baseline in scalp DHT was -70% for P-3074 o.d. and approx. -50% for P-3074 b.i.d. and the tablet. Serum DHT decreased by 60 - 70%. The doses of 100 and 200 μL P-3074 resulted in a -47/-52% scalp DHT reduction, similar to the 300 and 400 μL doses (i.e., -37/-54%). A -5.6% inhibition was observed for the vehicle. Serum DHT was reduced by only -24/-26% with 100 and 200 μL P-3074 and by -44/-48% with 300 and 400 μL P-3074. No relevant changes occurred for serum testosterone. The novel finasteride 0.25% solution applied o.d. at the doses of 100 and 200 μL results in an appropriate inhibition of scalp DHT potentially minimizing the untoward sexual side-effects linked to a systemic DHT reduction.

  7. Consumption of a flavonoid-rich acai meal is associated with acute improvements in vascular function and a reduction in total oxidative status in healthy overweight men

    OpenAIRE

    Alqurashi, Randah M.; Galante, Laura A.; Rowland, Ian R.; Spencer, Jeremy P.; Commane, Danny M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acai (Euterpe oleracea) is a polyphenol-rich fruit marketed as beneficial for health. Experimental data showing improvements in health markers arising from acai consumption in humans is limited.\\ud Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of acai consumption on acute changes in vascular function and on other disease risk markers, including postprandial plasma insulin, glucose, and oxidative stress.\\ud Design: Twenty-three healthy male volunteers,...

  8. LOW VITAMIN D STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY, OBESITY AND LOW VITAMIN D INTAKE IN A LARGE US SAMPLE OF HEALTHY MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, K; Huang, W-Y.; Fraser, D R; Ke, L.; Tseng, M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.; Peters, U.; Ahn, J.; Purdue, M.; Mason, R S; McCarty, C.; Ziegler, R; Graubard, B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate modifiable predictors of vitamin D status in healthy individuals, aged 55-74, and living across the USA. Vitamin D status [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)] was measured along with age and season at blood collection, demographics, anthropometry, physical activity (PA), diet, and other lifestyle factors in 1357 male and 1264 female controls selected from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort. Multivariate li...

  9. Vascular and inflammatory high fat meal responses in young healthy men; a discriminative role of IL-8 observed in a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High fat meal challenges are known to induce postprandial low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. This assumption is largely based on studies performed in older populations or in populations with a progressed disease state and an appropriate control meal is often lacking. Young healthy individuals might be more resilient to such challenges. We therefore aimed to characterize the vascular and inflammatory response after a high fat meal in young healthy individuals. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized cross-over intervention study, we used a comprehensive phenotyping approach to determine the vascular and inflammatory response after consumption of a high fat shake and after an average breakfast shake in 20 young healthy subjects. Both interventions were performed three times. RESULTS: Many features of the vascular postprandial response, such as FMD, arterial stiffness and micro-vascular skin blood flow were not different between shakes. High fat/high energy shake consumption was associated with a more pronounced increase in blood pressure, heart rate, plasma concentrations of IL-8 and PBMCs gene expression of IL-8 and CD54 (ICAM-1, whereas plasma concentrations of sVCAM1 were decreased compared to an average breakfast. CONCLUSION: Whereas no difference in postprandial response were observed on classical markers of endothelial function, we did observe differences between consumption of a HF/HE and an average breakfast meal on blood pressure and IL-8 in young healthy volunteers. IL-8 might play an important role in dealing with high fat challenges and might be an early marker for endothelial stress, a stage preceding endothelial dysfunction.

  10. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour....... Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P

  11. Condition Dependent and Infection Dependent Mate Preferences in Women: Preferences for Healthy Appearing Men are Associated with General Condition and Measures of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Condition dependent mate choice in females, whereby condition or attractiveness influences preferences for markers of male quality, is seen both in non-humans and humans. There are several possible explanations for such effects. For example, in previous studies of fish it has been postulated that females in poor condition have energetic constraints limiting their choosiness. In this article, preferences for healthy facial appearance were measured in women and related to measures of condition. Questions were associated with two factors: a factor reflecting general health and condition (related to self-ratings of attractiveness, health, and physical fitness and a factor reflecting experience of and current state of infection (colds per year and current cold. General health and condition were positively related to preferences for healthy appearance in male faces, in line with previously seen condition dependent preferences. However, the measure of current and previous infection was also positively related to preferences for healthy appearance in male faces. While these two findings appear to conflict, in fact, they may reflect different mechanisms at work. Previous explanations, such as competitiveness for mates and/or energetic constraints may explain general condition dependent preferences. In terms of avoiding contagion, however, those most at risk may benefit most from increased attraction to healthy partners: “infection dependent” mate preferences. In this way, general condition may be positively related to preferences for male quality but infection or experience of infection, while associated with a lowering of condition, may also be positively associated with preferences for male quality.

  12. A 48-Hour Vegan Diet Challenge in Healthy Women and Men Induces a BRANCH-Chain Amino Acid Related, Health Associated, Metabolic Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Colleen Fogarty; Vassallo, Irene; Di Cara, Alessandro; Milone, Cristiana; Comminetti, Ornella; Monnard, Irina; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Scherer, Max; Su, MingMing; Jia, Wei; Guiraud, Seu-Ping; Praplan, Fabienne; Guignard, Laurence; Ammon Zufferey, Corinne; Shevlyakova, Maya; Emami, Nashmil; Moco, Sofia; Beaumont, Maurice; Kaput, Jim; Martin, Francois-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Research is limited on diet challenges to improve health. A short-term, vegan protein diet regimen nutritionally balanced in macronutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet is hypothesized to improve metabolic measurements of blood sugar regulation, blood lipids, and amino acid metabolism. This randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan versus animal diet challenge is conducted on 21 (11 female,10 male) healthy participants. Fasting plasma is measured during a 3 d diet intervention for clinical biochemistry and metabonomics. Intervention diet plans meet individual caloric needs. Meals are provided and supervised. Diet compliance is monitored. The vegan diet lowers triglycerides, insulin and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), bile acids, elevated magnesium levels, and changed branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolism (p vegan versus omnivorous diets. Plasma amino acid and magnesium concentrations positively correlate with dietary amino acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber inversely correlate with insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides. Nutritional biochemistries, BCAAs, insulin, and HOMA-IR are impacted by sexual dimorphism. A health-promoting, BCAA-associated metabolic signature is produced from a short-term, healthy, controlled, vegan diet challenge when compared with a healthy, controlled, omnivorous diet. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  14. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pozo, S E; Schold, J; Nakagawa, T; Sánchez-Lozada, L G; Johnson, R J; Lillo, J López

    2010-03-01

    Excessive fructose intake causes metabolic syndrome in animals and can be partially prevented by lowering the uric acid level. We tested the hypothesis that fructose might induce features of metabolic syndrome in adult men and whether this is protected by allopurinol. A randomized, controlled trial of 74 adult men who were administered 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks with or without allopurinol. Primary measures included changes in ambulatory blood pressure (BP), fasting lipids, glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, body mass index and criteria for metabolic syndrome. The ingestion of fructose resulted in an increase in ambulatory BP (7+/-2 and 5+/-2 mm Hg for systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), Pmetabolic syndrome increased by 25-33% depending on the criteria. Allopurinol lowered the serum uric acid level (Pmetabolic syndrome (0-2%, P=0.009). High doses of fructose raise the BP and cause the features of metabolic syndrome. Lowering the uric acid level prevents the increase in mean arterial blood pressure. Excessive intake of fructose may have a role in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as gender-specific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Langvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p  < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.

  16. Pharmacokinetic comparison study of a combination containing 500 mg of Naproxen and 20 mg of Esomeprazole: a randomized, single-dose, 2-way crossover, open-label study in healthy Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Gyu; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kwak, Seong-Shin; Kim, Hyunil; Jin, Changyun; Im, Yong-Jin; Kim, Eun-Young; Wang, Hye Min; Kim, Yunjeong; Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Min-Gul

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been used for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects, but they carry a risk of major gastrointestinal damage. This risk can be greatly reduced by the coadministration of inhibitors of gastric acid secretion, such as proton pump inhibitors. This study was performed for the subsequent marketing of a combination drug that contained 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole in Korea. We evaluated the comparative bioavailability and tolerability of the test and reference formulations in healthy men. A total of 60 healthy men were enrolled in this single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study. During each period, men received a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole for test or reference, and between each period, there was a 1-week washout period. Blood samples were obtained 21 times throughout each period before dosing and 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after oral administration. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters, including Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Tmax, were measured, and all treatment-emergent adverse events and their associations with the study medications were recorded throughout the entire study. A total of 59 men completed the study. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of AEs between the 2 formulations. In addition, there were no serious or unexpected AEs during the study. Both formulations had very similar Cmax, AUC, and t½ values, but the Tmax of naproxen appeared earlier in the test formulation than in the reference formulation and that of esomeprazole appeared later in the test formulation than in the reference formulation. This study suggests that the test and reference formulations of a combination of 500 mg of naproxen and 20 mg of esomeprazole are bioequivalent in the extent of absorption and peak concentration

  17. Plasma acylcarnitine profiling indicates increased fatty acid oxidation relative to tricarboxylic acid cycle capacity in young, healthy low birth weight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Amalie; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Brøns, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    ‐oxidation relative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux. Also, they had higher C6‐DC, C10‐OH/C8‐DC, and total hydroxyl‐/dicarboxyl‐acylcarnitine levels, which may suggest an increased fatty acid omega‐oxidation in the liver. Furthermore, LBW and NBW men decreased several acylcarnitine levels in response...... additionally tended to be negatively associated with the hepatic insulin resistance index. This indicates that an increased fatty acid omega‐oxidation could be a compensatory mechanism to prevent an accumulation of lipid species that impair insulin signaling.......We hypothesized that an increased, incomplete fatty acid beta‐oxidation in mitochondria could be part of the metabolic events leading to insulin resistance and thereby an increased type 2 diabetes risk in low birth weight (LBW) compared with normal birth weight (NBW) individuals. Therefore, we...

  18. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favorably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Meydani, Mohsen; Barnett, Junaidah B; Vanegas, Sally M; Goldin, Barry; Kane, Anne; Rasmussen, Helen; Saltzman, Edward; Vangay, Pajau; Knights, Dan; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Das, Sai Krupa; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Meydani, Simin N; Roberts, Susan B

    2017-03-01

    Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control.Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40-65 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): Energy metabolism and body-composition metrics, appetite, markers of glycemic control, and gut microbiota were measured at 2 and 8 wk.Results: By design, body weight was maintained in both groups. Plasma alkylresorcinols, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, increased in the whole grain-rich diet group (WG) but not in the refined grain-based diet group (RG) (P-diet-by-time interaction energy content (57 ± 17 kcal/d; P = 0.003), but not in stool energy density, were higher in the WG. When combined, the favorable energetic effects in the WG translated into a 92-kcal/d (95% CI: 28, 156-kcal/d) higher net daily energy loss compared with that of the RG (P = 0.005). Prospective consumption (P = 0.07) and glycemia after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (P = 0.10) trended toward being lower in the WG than in the RG. When nonadherent participants were excluded, between-group differences in stool energy content and glucose tolerance increased, and between-group differences in the RMR and prospective consumption were not statistically significant.Conclusion: These findings suggest positive effects of whole grains on the RMR and stool energy excretion that favorably influence energy balance and may help explain epidemiologic associations between whole-grain consumption and reduced body weight and adiposity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The Association of Free Testosterone Levels in Men and Lifestyle Factors and Chronic Disease Status: A North Texas Healthy Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Singh, Meharvan; Meyer, Jason; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Perez, Oscar; King, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Hypogonadism is highly prevalent in men older than 45 years and is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet, and exercise are associated with reduced testosterone levels. In this cross-sectional study, 147 men older than 44 years were recruited from a collaborative network of primary care clinics in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. Free testosterone levels were measured in plasma samples via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method, and analyzed by simple and multiple linear regression in relationship to age, race/ethnicity, smoking, diet, exercise, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The participants had a mean free testosterone level of 3.1 ng/mL (standard deviation [SD] = 1.5) and mean age of 56.8 years (SD = 7.9). In simple regression analysis, free testosterone levels were associated with increased age (β = -0.04; P = .02), diet (β = -0.49; P = .05), diabetes (β = -0.9; P = .003), and hypertension (β = -0.55; P = .03) but not with race/ethnicity, smoking, exercise, obesity, or dyslipidemia. In multiple regression analysis, free testosterone values were significantly associated only with age (β = -0.05; P = .01) and diet (β = -0.72; P = .01). This study implicates diet, in addition to advanced age as a possible risk factor in the development of reduced testosterone levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on lipid peroxidation in healthy young men while controlling for diet and sleep: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BaHammam, Ahmed S; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Alzoghaibi, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for lifestyle changes during Ramadan, Ramadan Islamic intermittent fasting (IF) reduces oxidative stress. This study was conducted to examine the effect of Islamic IF during and outside of Ramadan on the circadian changes in lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA) during and outside while controlling for potential confounders. Serum MDA concentration was measured in eight healthy male volunteers at baseline (BL), after fasting for 1 week before Ramadan (BL fasting), and during Ramadan. Blood samples were drawn at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00. The participants were admitted to the sleep laboratory and monitored for 24 h on the day of the measurements. In the laboratory, each participant received meals of fixed compositions and caloric contents based on their ideal body weights. Light exposure, physical activity, and total sleep duration were uniformly maintained during the three study periods. The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and a mean body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m(2). No significant changes were observed in MDA levels and blood glucose during BL, BL fasting, or Ramadan. In this pilot study, under conditions of fixed sleep-wake schedules and caloric intake, Ramadan IF does not alter serum MDA levels in healthy subjects. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Identification of anaerobic threshold by analysis of heart rate variability during discontinuous dynamic and resistance exercise protocols in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Archiza, Bruno; Dos Santos, Daniel Augusto; Bonjorno, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine anaerobic threshold (AT) during discontinuous dynamic and resistive exercise protocols by analysing of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood lactate (BL) in healthy elderly subjects and compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic variables obtained from these two forms of exercise. Fourteen elderly (70 ± 4 years) apparently healthy males underwent the following tests: (i) incremental ramp test on cycle ergometer, (ii) one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press at 45°, (iii) a discontinuous exercise test on a cycle ergometer (DET-C) protocol and (iv) a resistance exercise leg press (DET-L) protocol. Heart rate, blood pressure and BL were obtained during each increment of exercise intensity. No significant differences (P>0·05) were found between methods of AT determination (BL and HRV) nor the relative intensity corresponding to AT (30% of maximum intensity) between the types of exercise (DET-C and DET-L). Furthermore, no significant differences (P>0·05) were found between the DET-C and DET-L in relation to HRV, however, the DET-L provided higher values of systolic blood pressure and BL (Pexercise protocols were similar when compared at the same relative intensity. However, DET-L resulted in higher values of blood pressure and BL at workloads beyond AT. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: a randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lene H; Kondrup, Jens; Zellner, Maria; Tetens, Inge; Roth, Erich

    2011-06-01

    Recommendations to use other criteria than N-balance for defining protein requirements have been proposed. However, little evidence to support other measures such as physiological functions is available. To investigate the effects of a usual (UP) versus a high protein (HP) diet on muscle function, cognitive function, quality of life and biochemical regulators of protein metabolism. A randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19-31 yrs). All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages. Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. The HP group improved their reaction time significantly compared with the UP group. Branched chain amino acids and phenylalanine in plasma were significantly increased following the HP diet, which may explain the improved reaction time. Healthy young males fed a HP diet improved reaction time. No adverse effects of the HP diet were observed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00621231. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  4. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... before blood sampling, but not to the length of daylight or the hours of sunshine. In conclusion, our data showed that day to day levels of inhibin B are relatively constant in men and do not seem to be influenced by seasonal factors. In contrast, we found a seasonal variation in LH and testosterone...

  5. The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insulinotropic action of incretin hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose production in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Jensen, C B; Schou, J H

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We studied the physiological, metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of TCF7L2 gene. METHODS: We undertook genotyping of 81 healthy young Danish men for rs7903146 of TCF7L2 and carried out various beta cell tests including: 24...... and peripheral insulin action. RESULTS: Carriers of the T allele were characterised by reduced 24 h insulin concentrations (p p ...-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p

  6. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2......) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...

  7. The influence of angiotensin converting enzyme and bradykinin receptor B2 gene variants on voluntary fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men during moderate-intensity exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; Moss, Andrew D; James, Lewis John; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason J; Evans, Gethin H

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and bradykinin receptor B2 (B2R) genetic variation may affect thirst because of effects on angiotensin II production and bradykinin activity, respectively. To examine this, 45 healthy Caucasian men completed 60 min of cycle exercise at 62% ± 5% peak oxygen uptake in a room heated to 30.5 ± 0.3 °C with ad libitum fluid intake. Blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately post-cycle. Fluid intake, body mass loss (BML), sweat loss (determined via changes in body mass and fluid intake), and thirst sensation were recorded. All participants were genotyped for the ACE insert fragment (I) and the B2R insert sequence (P). Participants were homozygous for the wild-type allele (WW or MM), heterozygous (WI or MP) or homozygous for the insert (II or PP). No differences between genotype groups were found in mean (±SD) voluntary fluid intake (WW: 613 ± 388, WI: 753 ± 385, II: 862 ± 421 mL, p = 0.31; MM: 599 ± 322, MP: 745 ± 374, PP: 870 ± 459 mL, p = 0.20), percentage BML or any other fluid balance variables for both the ACE and B2R genes, respectively. Mean thirst perception in the B2R PP group, however, was higher (p fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men performing 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat are not predominantly influenced by ACE or B2R genetic variation.

  8. Chronic consumption of fresh but not heated yogurt improves breath-hydrogen status and short-chain fatty acid profiles: a controlled study in healthy men with or without lactose maldigestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, S W; Luo, J; Kabir, M; Chevalier, A; Pacher, N; Slama, G

    2000-12-01

    Ingestion of fermented dairy products induces changes in the equilibrium and metabolism of the intestinal microflora and may thus have beneficial effects on the host. We compared the effects of chronic consumption of yogurt with (fresh) or without (heated) live bacterial cultures (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) on plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, fatty acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Two groups of 12 healthy men with or without lactose malabsorption were selected with use of a breath-hydrogen test after a 30-g lactose load. Subjects were randomly assigned in a crossover design to 500 g/d of either fresh or heated yogurt for 2 periods of 15 d each, separated by a 15-d washout interval. Chronic consumption of fresh or heated yogurt had no detrimental effects on plasma glucose, insulin, or fatty acid areas under the curve in response to acute ingestion of 500 g yogurt in healthy men with or without lactose malabsorption. There were also no detectable changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, or cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, plasma butyrate was higher (P: yogurt consumption than after heated yogurt consumption. There were no significant changes in plasma acetate. In subjects with lactose malabsorption, 15 d of fresh yogurt consumption also increased propionate production compared with values at baseline (P: yogurt consumption than after heated yogurt consumption (P: yogurt containing live bacterial cultures ameliorated the malabsorption, as evidenced by lower breath-hydrogen excretion, but increased propionate concentrations. In subjects without lactose malabsorption, such yogurt tended to increase propionate and increased butyrate.

  9. Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: A randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene H.; Kondrup, Jens; Zellner, Maria

    2011-01-01

    on muscle function, cognitive function, quality of life and biochemical regulators of protein metabolism. DesignA randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19–31 yrs). All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before......BackgroundRecommendations to use other criteria than N-balance for defining protein requirements have been proposed. However, little evidence to support other measures such as physiological functions is available. ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a usual (UP) versus a high protein (HP) diet...... the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages. Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period...

  10. Ageratum conyzoides L. inhibits 5-alpha-reductase gene expression in human prostate cells and reduces symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy in otherwise healthy men in a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Matthew; Steels, Elizabeth; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Allifranchini, Elena; Bocchietto, Elena; Vitetta, Luis

    2017-10-19

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of Ageratum conyzoides in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this study, 109 men with medically diagnosed BPH, aged 41-76 years, were administered the investigational product, A. conyzoides extract at a dose of 250 mg/d or placebo, q.d. for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), daily urinary frequency and safety evaluations. The secondary outcome measures were testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels, and prostate specific antigen (PSA), lipids, blood glucose, the Aging Male's Symptom (AMS) Score and sexual function assessed by Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning-Self Report (DISF-SR). The effect of A. conyzoides L extract on gene expression of 5-alpha-reductase in human prostate cells was also investigated to elucidate a potential mechanism of action. The clinical study, showed a significant reduction in total IPSS score (p prostate epithelial cells. The overall results indicate that A. conyzoides may be an effective treatment for reducing symptoms of BPH in healthy men, in part, through inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase enzyme activity. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Lack of effects of fish oil supplementation for 12 weeks on resting metabolic rate and substrate oxidation in healthy young men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannas-Vela, Sebastian; Roke, Kaitlin; Boville, Stephanie; Mutch, David M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2017-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) has been shown to have beneficial effects in the body via incorporation into the membranes of many tissues. It has been proposed that omega-3 fatty acids in FO may increase whole body resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in human subjects, but the results to date are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12 week FO supplementation period on RMR and substrate oxidation, in comparison to an olive oil (OO) control group, in young healthy males (n = 26; 22.8 ± 2.6 yr). Subjects were matched for age, RMR, physical activity, VO2max and body mass, and were randomly separated into a group supplemented with either OO (3 g/d) or FO containing 2 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1 g/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Participants visited the lab for RMR and substrate oxidation measurements after an overnight fast (10-12 hr) at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation. There were significant increases in the EPA (413%) and DHA (59%) levels in red blood cells after FO supplementation, with no change of these fatty acids in the OO group. RMR and substrate oxidation did not change after supplementation with OO or FO after 6 and 12 weeks. Since there was no effect of supplementation on metabolic measures, we pooled the two treatment groups to determine whether there was a seasonal effect on RMR and substrate oxidation. During the winter season, there was an increase in FA oxidation (36%) with a concomitant decrease (34%) in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (p oxidation in healthy young males. Resting FA oxidation was increased and CHO oxidation reduced over a 12 week period in the winter, with no change in RMR. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02092649.

  12. A phase I, randomized, single-dose study evaluating the pharmacokinetic equivalence of biosimilar ABP 215 and bevacizumab in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Richard; Chow, Vincent; Pan, Zhiying; Hanes, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    This study compared the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the proposed biosimilar ABP 215 with bevacizumab in healthy males. In this randomized, single-blind, single-dose, three-arm, parallel-group study, healthy subjects were randomized to receive ABP 215 (n = 68), bevacizumab (US) (n = 67), or bevacizumab (EU) (n = 67) 3 mg/kg intravenously. Primary endpoints were area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUCinf) and the maximum observed concentration (C max). Secondary endpoints included safety and immunogenicity. AUCinf and C max were similar across the three groups. Geometric means ratio (GMR) for C max and AUCinf, respectively, was 0.98 and 0.99 for ABP 215 versus bevacizumab (US); 1.03 and 0.96 for ABP 215 versus bevacizumab (EU); and 1.05 and 0.97 for bevacizumab (US) versus bevacizumab (EU). The 90% confidence intervals for the GMRs of AUCinf and C max were within the prespecified standard PK bioequivalence criteria of 0.80 to 1.25. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was 47.1, 32.8, and 61.2% in the ABP 215, bevacizumab (US) and bevacizumab (EU) groups, respectively. When analyzed by investigational site, the incidence and severity of AEs were comparable in the ABP 215 and bevacizumab groups. There were no AEs leading to study discontinuation. No binding or neutralizing anti-drug anti-bodies was detected. This study demonstrated the PK similarity of ABP 215 to both bevacizumab (US) and bevacizumab (EU), and of bevacizumab (US) to bevacizumab (EU). Safety and tolerability were comparable between treatments and no subject developed binding or neutralizing anti-drug anti-bodies.

  13. Alcohol administration attenuates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in healthy men at low genetic risk for alcoholism, but not in high-risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S

    2013-09-01

    Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min-1; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min-1) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min-1; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min-1) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  15. Simple advice on lifestyle habits and long-term changes in biomarkers of inflammation and vascular adhesion in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, P; Cederholm, T; Heimbürger, M; Stenvinkel, P; Vedin, I; Palmblad, J; Hellenius, M-L

    2010-12-01

    Lifestyle habits, vascular function and inflammation are components in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether simple advice on dietary and exercise habits given (at a single time point) to hypercholesterolemic men affects circulating biomarkers of inflammation and vascular adhesion. In total, 157 men (age 46±5 years) with mild hypercholesterolemia were randomized to four intervention groups, diet (D, n=40), exercise (E, n=39), diet and exercise (DE, n=39) or controls (C, n=39) and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) were quantified at baseline and after a 6-month intervention period. The intervention applied in this study, that is, simple advice on lifestyle changes given at a single time point, had a modest effect on inflammatory biomarkers and soluble vascular adhesion molecules. The most apparent alterations were found for individuals in group DE, who responded with significant reductions in sICAM-1, -28 (-41 to -14 μg/l) and sE-selectin, -3.6 (-6.9 to -0.3 μg/l) after 6 months. None of the groups had altered their concentrations of sVCAM-1, CRP or IL-6 significantly after the intervention. In all individuals combined, we found changes in apolipoprotein B (apoB) to predict alterations in sICAM-1 (β=0.21) and sE-selectin (β=0.26), independently of changes in inflammation and other adhesion molecules. These observations indicate that even small efforts to improve diet and physical activity can influence biomarkers of vascular function in individuals at increased risk for CVD. ApoB was identified as an important determinant of this improvement, which adds further support to the notion of apoB as a critical target in cardiovascular prevention.

  16. Time mode of growth hormone (GH) entry into the bloodstream and steady-state plasma GH concentrations, rather than sex, estradiol, or menstrual cycle stage, primarily determine the GH elimination rate in healthy young women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N; Aloi, J; Evans, W S; Veldhuis, J D

    1999-08-01

    the same volunteers, stopping the constant iv infusions revealed t 1/2 values of GH decay from equilibrium of 26+/-5 and 23+/-2.3 min for the two higher GH infusion rates. In a fourth paradigm, endogenous GH t 1/2 values, as assessed in the same individuals by deconvolution analysis of overnight (10-min sampled) serum GH concentration profiles, averaged 18+/-1.3 min. This value was intermediate between that of poststeady state decay and iv bolus elimination of GH. In summary, the foregoing clinical experiments in healthy men and women indicate that 1) the nonequilibrium GH t 1/2, (body surface area-normalized) Vo, and MCR are independent of GH dose, sex, menstrual cycle stage, and serum estradiol concentrations; 2) the GH t 1/2 calculated after iv bolus injection is significantly (50%) shorter than that assessed during or after steady-state GH infusions or endogenously (overnight) by deconvolution analysis; and 3) the descending rank order of GH t 1/2 values in healthy volunteers is approximately: decay from steady state (23+/-2.3 min) > endogenously secreted GH (18+/-1.3 min) > during equilibrium infusion (15+/-1 min) > after bolus infusion (9.8+/-0.8 min). We thus conclude that for any given body surface area, the elimination properties of GH in men and women reflect predominantly the time mode of hormone entry into the circulation, rather than gender, menstrual cycle stage, or prevailing serum estradiol concentration. Accordingly, differences in serum GH concentrations in premenopausal women compared to those in young men and across the normal menstrual cycle reflect commensurate differences in pituitary GH secretion rates.

  17. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p supports the use of pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  18. s-ICAM-1 and s-VCAM-1 in healthy men are strongly associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, becoming evident in the postprandial response to a lipid-rich meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the postprandial state for the early stages of atherogenesis is increasingly acknowledged. We conducted assessment of association between postprandial triglycerides, insulin and glucose after ingestion of a standardized lipid-rich test meal, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAM in young healthy subjects. Methods Metabolic parameters and sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured before and hourly until 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid-rich meal in 30 healthy young men with fasting triglycerides 260 mg/dl. Levels of CAM were compared in HR and NR, and correlation with postprandial triglyceride, insulin and glucose response was assessed. Results Fasting sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in HR as compared to NR (p = 0.046, p = 0.03. For sE-selectin there was such a trend (p = 0.05. There was a strong positive and independent correlation between sICAM-1 and postprandial insulin maxima (r = 0.70, p Conclusion This independent association of postprandial triglycerides with sICAM-1 may indicate a particular impact of postprandial lipid metabolism on endothelial reaction.

  19. Effects of high-fat and low-fat diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids on serum lipids, LDL size and indices of lipid peroxidation in healthy non-obese men and women when consumed under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egert, Sarah; Kratz, Mario; Kannenberg, Frank; Fobker, Manfred; Wahrburg, Ursel

    2011-02-01

    To study the effects of the dietary fat content on cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans when the fatty acid composition and types of carbohydrates are kept constant. A controlled dietary study in healthy volunteers with 2 dietary groups and a parallel design consisting of 2 dietary periods was conducted. First, participants received a 2-week wash-in diet rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA; 47% of total fatty acids) and were then randomly assigned to either a high-fat (40% of energy) or a low-fat diet (29% of energy) for 4 weeks. Both diets were isocaloric, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; 51% of total fatty acids) and had similar fatty acid and carbohydrate compositions. Compared to the wash-in diet, the high-fat and low-fat diets significantly lowered LDL-cholesterol (-0.34 and -0.41 mmol/l, respectively; P lipid-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in metabolically healthy men and women.

  20. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m2): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread intake

  1. Applying Data Mining to Classify Age by Intestinal Microbiota in 92 Healthy Men Using a Combination of Several Restriction Enzymes for T-RFLP Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshio; Osaki, Takako; Oikawa, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota was measured following consumption of identical meals for 3 days in 92 Japanese men, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to analyze their feces. The obtained operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the subjects' ages were classified by using Data mining (DM) software that compared these data with continuous data and for 5 partitions for age divided at 5 years intervals between the ages of 30 and 50. The DM provided Decision trees in which the selected OTUs were closely related to the ages of the subjects. DM was also used to compare the OTUs from the T-RFLP data with seven restriction enzymes (two enzymes of 516f-BslI and 516f-HaeIII, two enzymes of 27f-MspI and 27f-AluI, three enzymes of 35f-HhaI, 35f-MspI and 35f-AluI) and their various combinations. The OTUs delivered from the five enzyme-digested partitions were analyzed to classify their age clusters. For use in future DM processing, we discussed the enzymes that were effective for accurate classification. We selected two OTUs (HA624 and HA995) that were useful for classifying the subject's ages. Depending on the 16S rRNA sequences of the OTUs, Ruminicoccus obeum clones 1-4 were present in 18 of 36 bacterial candidates in the older age group-related OTU (HA624). On the other hand, Ruminicoccus obeum clones 1-33 were present in 65 of 269 candidates in the younger age group-related OUT (HA995).

  2. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  3. No effect of dietary trans isomers of alpha-linolenic acid on platelet aggregation and haemostatic factors in european healthy men. The TRANSLinE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Chardigny, J M; Beaufrère, B; Bretillon, L; Vermunt, S H; Mensink, R P; Macvean, A; Elton, R A; Sébédio, J L; Riemersma, R A

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trans alpha-linolenic acid on platelet aggregation and blood haemostasis. A randomized, double blind dietary intervention trial was carried out with healthy male volunteers (n=88) in three European centers. After a 6-week washout period where subjects avoided foods containing all trans fats, subjects either continued for 6 weeks with a low trans diet or a diet where trans alpha-linolenic acid provided 0.6% of energy (supplied as oil, margarine, cheese, muffins, and biscuits). At the end of the washout period the intake of trans polyunsaturated fats was 58+/-115 mg/day; this increased in patients on the high trans diet by +1344+/-328 mg/day, compared with +10+/-67 mg/day in patients on the low trans diet (pacid in plasma cholesteryl esters was 0.26+/-0. 20 on the high trans and 0.00+/-0.07% of fatty acids on the low trans diet (pacid for 6 weeks does not increase the risk of coronary heart disease by promoting platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.

  4. Temporal dissociation between myeloperoxidase (MPO)-modified LDL and MPO elevations during chronic sleep restriction and recovery in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Faraut, Brice; Esposito, Maria José; Stenuit, Patricia; Dyzma, Michal; Antwerpen, Pierre Van; Brohée, Dany; Vanhamme, Luc; Moguilevsky, Nicole; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Kerkhofs, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the ways in which sleep disturbances may influence inflammation and the possible links of this effect to cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep restriction and recovery on several blood cardiovascular biomarkers. Nine healthy male non-smokers, aged 22-29 years, were admitted to the Sleep Laboratory for 11 days and nights under continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography. The study consisted of three baseline nights of 8 hours sleep (from 11 pm to 7 am), five sleep-restricted nights, during which sleep was allowed only between 1 am and 6 am, and three recovery nights of 8 hours sleep (11 pm to 7 am). Myeloperoxidase-modified low-density lipoprotein levels increased during the sleep-restricted period indicating an oxidative stress. A significant increase in the quantity of slow-wave sleep was measured during the first recovery night. After this first recovery night, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels increased and myeloperoxidase concentration peaked. We observed for the first time that sleep restriction and the recovery process are associated with differential changes in blood biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Increased anxiety induced by listening to unpleasant music during stress exposure is associated with reduced blood pressure and ACTH responses in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Daniela; Hlavacova, Natasa; Makatsori, Aikaterini; Duncko, Roman; Loder, Ingrid; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety and the neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an acute increase in state anxiety to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. To do so, it was necessary to find a stress condition of the same character and intensity with and without a rise in state anxiety. We decided to examine the effects of listening to music on anxiety and to apply a new methodological approach. A group of 14 healthy volunteers participated in a counterbalanced crossover design study. The stress procedure consisted of mental (Stroop test, mental arithmetic) and physical (handgrip exercise) tasks combined with listening to music played forward (pleasant) or backwards (unpleasant). The results confirmed our hypothesis, namely the condition with listening to unpleasant music was anxiogenic, while the other was not. In case of increased state anxiety, the rise in ACTH concentrations in response to mental challenge and the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by handgrip exercise was reduced compared to the situation with unchanged anxiety. Concentrations of testosterone, oxytocin, vasopressin and aldosterone were slightly increased in response to the stress paradigm accompanied with increased anxiety. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that an acute increase in state anxiety contributes to neuroendocrine activation under stress conditions. Moreover, the results show that listening to music may both positively and negatively influence the perception of stress and the level of anxiety, which might have functional consequences. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; Phypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.

  7. L-tryptophan supplementation can decrease fatigue perception during an aerobic exercise with supramaximal intercalated anaerobic bouts in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, C; Segura, R; Ventura, J L; Suárez, A; Rosés, J M

    2010-05-01

    Physical exercise is often terminated not due to muscle fatigue but because of inadequate neural drive in the serotonergic system. Modifications in activity levels of the serotonergic system, induced by variations in the availability of L-tryptophan (a serotonin precursor) may alter neural drive. We examined the effect of L-tryptophan supplementation on physical performance by combining aerobic work with brief periods of supramaximal intensity that closely mimics the activity typical of team sports. Twenty healthy young sportsmen (mean age 21.2 +/- 0.7 years) performed a submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, with a workload corresponding to 50% of their respective VO(2) max for 10 min, followed by a maximal intensity exercise for 30 s. This sequence was repeated three times and, after the fourth series, each participant continued to exercise at the highest speed that he could sustain for 20 min. This protocol was performed twice: once with and finally without supplementation of L-tryptophan, in random order and double-blind. Peak power output, average anaerobic power output, and power output during the last 20 min of the trial were higher on the trials performed with L-tryptophan supplementation than on those performed with placebo. The distance covered during the last 20 min of the trial was 11,959 +/- 1,753 m on placebo and 12,526 +/- 1,617 m on L-tryptophan (p exercises, modification of the serotonergic system may improve the physical performance.

  8. Acute dietary protein intake restriction is associated with changes in myostatin expression after a single bout of resistance exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Verdijk, Lex B; McKay, Bryon R; Smeets, Joey S J; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Groen, Bart B B; Parise, Gianni; Greenhaff, Paul; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-02-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in the myogenic adaptive response to exercise. It remains to be established whether nutrition plays a role in SC activation in response to exercise. In the present study, we assessed whether dietary protein alters the SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise. Twenty healthy young (aged 21 ± 2 y) males were randomly assigned to consume a 4-d controlled diet that provided either 1.2 g protein ⋅ kg body weight(-1) ⋅ d(-1) [normal protein diet (NPD)] or 0.1 g protein ⋅ kg body weight(-1) ⋅ d(-1) [low protein diet (LPD)]. On the second day of the controlled diet, participants performed a single bout of resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were collected before and after 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of post-exercise recovery. SC content and activation status were determined using immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression were determined using Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The number of myostatin + SCs decreased significantly at 12, 24, and 48 h (range, -14 to -49%; P post-exercise increase in SC content but modifies myostatin expression in skeletal muscle tissue. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01220037.

  9. Temporal dissociation between myeloperoxidase (MPO-modified LDL and MPO elevations during chronic sleep restriction and recovery in healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Many studies have evaluated the ways in which sleep disturbances may influence inflammation and the possible links of this effect to cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep restriction and recovery on several blood cardiovascular biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine healthy male non-smokers, aged 22-29 years, were admitted to the Sleep Laboratory for 11 days and nights under continuous electroencephalogram polysomnography. The study consisted of three baseline nights of 8 hours sleep (from 11 pm to 7 am, five sleep-restricted nights, during which sleep was allowed only between 1 am and 6 am, and three recovery nights of 8 hours sleep (11 pm to 7 am. Myeloperoxidase-modified low-density lipoprotein levels increased during the sleep-restricted period indicating an oxidative stress. A significant increase in the quantity of slow-wave sleep was measured during the first recovery night. After this first recovery night, insulin-like growth factor-1 levels increased and myeloperoxidase concentration peaked. CONCLUSIONS: We observed for the first time that sleep restriction and the recovery process are associated with differential changes in blood biomarkers of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Short-term effect of macronutrient composition and glycemic index of a yoghurt breakfast on satiety and mood in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Anna; Humpeler, Susanne; Heinzl, Harald; Blasche, Gerhard; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2012-01-01

    Promoting satiety and repressing appetite is one