WorldWideScience

Sample records for atoms exhibiting electromagnetically

  1. Contribution of Electromagnetic Field to Atomic Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Tao; LIANG Wen-Feng; WU Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We examine the contribution of electromagnetic field to the atomic spin, by adopting two different, both gauge invariant definitions of the electromagnetic angular momentum: →JI≡ ∫ d3x∈0→γ× (→E × →B) and →JII ≡ ∫ d3x(∈0→E × A→⊥ + ∈0Ei→ γ× ▽A⊥i). Notably, at the classical level, J→II gives an exactly null result while →JI gives a finite value.This suggests that JII leads to a simpler and more reasonable picture of the atomic spin, therefore qualifies as a more appropriate definition of the electromagnetic angular momentum. Our observation gives important hint on the delicate issue of gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  2. Entanglement harvesting from the electromagnetic vacuum with hydrogenlike atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    We study how two fully featured hydrogenlike atoms harvest entanglement from the electromagnetic field vacuum, even when the atoms are spacelike separated. We compare the electromagnetic case—qualitatively and quantitatively—with previous results that used scalar fields and featureless, idealized atomic models. Our study reveals the new traits that emerge when we relax these idealizations, such as anisotropies in entanglement harvesting and the effect of exchange of angular momentum. We show that, under certain circumstances, relaxing previous idealizations makes vacuum entanglement harvesting more efficient.

  3. ATOMS INTERACTING WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mainfray, G

    1982-01-01

    The non linear interaction between an intense laser radiation and atoms leads to ionization through the absorption of N photons from the laser radiation via laser-induced virtual states. The multiphoton ionization rate varies as a function of the laser intensity I as IN. We discuss the two most important effects which govern multiphoton ionization processes : resonance effects and laser-coherence effects. In a moderate laser intensity range (107 - 109 W cm-2) corresponding to the two, three o...

  4. Electromagnetically induced absorption in metastable 83Kr atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Mishra, S R; Singh, S; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) resonances of sub-natural linewidth (FWHM) in metastable noble gas 83Kr* atoms using degenerate two level schemes (DTLSs). This is the first observation of EIA effect in a metastable noble gas atoms. Using these spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition from 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 hyperfine manifolds of 83Kr* atoms, we have measured the Lande's g-factor (gF) for the lower level (F = 13/2) of the closed transition accurately with small applied magnetic fields of few Gauss.

  5. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B; Lucatorto, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Combined with Volumes 29A and 29B, this volume is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

  6. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Hua; WANG Wen-Yi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and discuss the absorption properties of the probe beam in a four-level atomic system with a nearly hyper-fine doublet structure of two higher-lying excited levels based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for the two cases of transient process and steady-state process. The main gain of this work is to investigate theoretically the influence of the nearly hyper-fine levels on the probe absorption. For the transient process,using the numerical calculations by a simple Mathematica code we find that the magnitude of the probe absorption at the line center is small compared to the typical three-level atomic system in the context of electromagnetically induced transparency. For the case of the steady state, our results show that the probe absorption can be completely eliminated at the line center of the probe transition just as the usual three-level EIT scheme.

  7. Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Gongpan; Lin Zhizhou; Xiang Xuyang; Deng Jingting (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-08-01

    Electromagnetic isotope separation at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is described. Calutron, Nier-Bernas and Freeman ion sources were constructed for ion implantation systems. It was found that some enriched isotope samples were contaminated more by lighter than by heavier neighbors. This phenomenon may be explained if the sputtered particles consist of a considerable percentage of ions. A computer inspection system for recording and processing operation data has been designed. (orig.).

  8. Electromagnetism

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the electromagnetic force, you would not be solid. The atoms of your body are held together by electromagnetism: negatively charged electrons are held around the positively charged nucleus. Atoms share electrons to form molecules, so building up the structure of matter. As its name suggests, electromagnetism has a double nature: a moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. This intimate connection between electricity and magnetism was described by James Maxwell in 1864. The electromagnetic force can be both positive and negative : opposite charges attract, whereas like charges repel. Electromagnetic radiation, such as radio, microwaves, light and X-rays, is emitted by charges when they are made to move. For example, an oscillating current in a wire emits radio waves. Text for the interactive: Why do the needles move when you switch on the current ?

  9. Atoms for Peace Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    "Atoms for Peace", this old slogan is gaining a new meaning today. Rejecting confrontation, mankind looks for new ways to unite the world. Political and economic integration makes it possible to use the great potential and high technologies of the military-industrial complex for constructing new scientific facilities.

  10. Dynamic effects of electromagnetic wave on a damped two-level atom

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Z Y; Kuang, L M; Zhang, L D

    1999-01-01

    We studied the dynamic effects of an electromagnetic(EM) wave with circular polarization on a two-level damped atom. The results demonstrate interesting ac Stark split of energy levels of damped atom. The split levels have different energies and lifetimes, both of which depend on the interaction and the damping rate of atom. When the frequency of the EM wave is tuned to satisfy the resonance condition in the strong coupling limit, the transition probability exhibits Rabi oscillation. Momentum transfer between atom and EM wave shows similar properties as the transition probability under resonance condition. For a damped atom interacting with EM field, there exists no longer stable state. More importantly, if the angular frequency of the EM wave is tuned the same as the atomic transition frequency and its amplitude is adjusted appropriately according to the damping coefficients, we can prepare a particular 'Dressed State' of the coupled system between atom and EM field and can keep the system coherently in this...

  11. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Deans, Cameron; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  12. Electromagnetic Imaging with Atomic Magnetometers: A Novel Approach to Security and Surveillance

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Sarah; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    We describe our research programme on the use of atomic magnetometers to detect conductive objects via electromagnetic induction. The extreme sensitivity of atomic magnetometers at low frequencies, up to seven orders of magnitude higher than a coil-based system, permits deep penetration through different media and barriers, and in various operative environments. This eliminates the limitations usually associated with electromagnetic detection.

  13. Electromagnetic imaging with atomic magnetometers: a novel approach to security and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sarah; Marmugi, Luca; Deans, Cameron; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2016-05-01

    We describe our research programme on the use of atomic magnetometers to detect conductive objects via electromagnetic induction. The extreme sensitivity of atomic magnetometers at low frequencies, up to seven orders of magnitude higher than a coil-based system, permits deep penetration through different media and barriers, and in various operative environments. This eliminates the limitations usually associated with electromagnetic detection.

  14. Atomic Interaction Effects on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Slow Light in Ultracold Bose Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正峰; 杜春光; 李代军; 李师群

    2002-01-01

    We investigate electromagnetically induced transparency and slow group velocity of light in ultracold Bose gas with a two-photon Raman process. The properties of electromagnetically induced transparency and light speed can be changed by controlling the atomic interaction. Atomic interaction can be used as a knob to control the optical properties of atomic media. This can be realized in experiment by using the Feshbach resonance technique.

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  16. Density matrix reconstruction of three-level atoms via Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Gavryusev, V; Ferreira-Cao, M; Zürn, G; Hofmann, C S; Günter, G; Schempp, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M

    2016-01-01

    We present combined measurements of the spatially-resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, whilst the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and li...

  17. Density matrix reconstruction of three-level atoms via Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryusev, V.; Signoles, A.; Ferreira-Cao, M.; Zürn, G.; Hofmann, C. S.; Günter, G.; Schempp, H.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present combined measurements of the spatially resolved optical spectrum and the total excited-atom number in an ultracold gas of three-level atoms under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions involving high-lying Rydberg states. The observed optical transmission of a weak probe laser at the center of the coupling region exhibits a double peaked spectrum as a function of detuning, while the Rydberg atom number shows a comparatively narrow single resonance. By imaging the transmitted light onto a charge-coupled-device camera, we record hundreds of spectra in parallel, which are used to map out the spatial profile of Rabi frequencies of the coupling laser. Using all the information available we can reconstruct the full one-body density matrix of the three-level system, which provides the optical susceptibility and the Rydberg density as a function of spatial position. These results help elucidate the connection between three-level interference phenomena, including the interplay of matter and light degrees of freedom and will facilitate new studies of many-body effects in optically driven Rydberg gases.

  18. Inversion of an Atomic Wave Packet in a Circularly Polarized Electromagnetic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Gao-Jian

    2001-01-01

    We study behavior of an atomic wave packet in a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave, and particularly calculate the atomic inversion of the wave packet. A general method of calculation is presented. The results are interesting. For example, if the wave packet is very narrow or/and the interaction is very strong, no matter the atom is initially in its ground state or excited state, the atomic inversion approaches zero as time approaches infinity. If the atom is initially in its ground state and excited state with the probability 1/2 respectively, and if the momentum density is an even function, then the atomic inversion equals zero at any time.``

  19. Two-photon excitation of atoms by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in a discrete spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Astapenko, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to the theoretical analysis of two-photon excitation of atoms in a discrete energy spectrum by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses of femto- and subfemtosecond ranges of durations. As examples, excitation of hydrogen and sodium atoms from the ground state to excited states with a zero orbital moment is considered.

  20. Photo-Ionization of Hydrogen Atom in a Circularly Polarized Standing Electromagnetic Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-Tao; ZHANG Qi-Ren; WANG Wan-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Applying time-independent non-perturbative formalism to the photo-ionization of hydrogen atom immersed in a strong circularly polarized standing electromagnetic wave, we calculate the shift of energy levels and the distortion of wave functions for the hydrogen atom, the ionization cross section induced by the standing wave, and the angular distribution of photoelectrons and obtain some interesting results.

  1. Entanglement harvesting from the electromagnetic vacuum with hydrogen-like atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We study how two fully-featured hydrogen-like atoms harvest entanglement from the electromagnetic field vacuum, even when the atoms are spacelike separated. We compare the electromagnetic case ---qualitatively and quantitatively--- with previous results that used scalar fields and featureless, idealized atomic models. Our study reveals the new traits that emerge when we relax these idealizations, such as anisotropies in entanglement harvesting and the effect of exchange of angular momentum. We show that, under certain circumstances, relaxing previous idealizations makes vacuum entanglement harvesting more efficient.

  2. Emission Spectra of a Moving Atom in an Electromagnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-Tao; FENG Xun-Li; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    The emission spectra of a two-level atom moving in an electromafneric fiekd are studied We find that there that there is a shift in the peak position and that each peak splits into double peaks The shit is duble peaks The shift is duc to the detuning indced by the atomic mition and the splitting is casused by the atomic energy change due of photons

  3. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system with nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the Talbot effect resulting from the repeatedly self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field under the Fresnel near-field regime. By launching the probe beam into an optically induced atomic lattice (established by interfering two coupling fields) inside a thermal rubidium vapor cell, we can obtain an electromagnetically induced grating (EIG) on probe beam in a coherent three-level $\\Lambda$-type Doppler-free atomic configuration with the assistance of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window, which can modify and greatly enhance the Kerr nonlinearity near atomic resonance. The EIG patterns out of the cell can repeat the image at the output plane of the cell at integer multiples of Talbot length, which agree well with the theoretical prediction [Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 081108 (2011)]. Such first demonstrated EIT Talbot effect in a coherent atomic system may pave a lensless and nondestructive way for imaging ultracold atoms or molecules.

  4. Manipulation of multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency in a six-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Wen-Zhi; Wang Shun-Jin

    2009-01-01

    In the five-level K-type atomic system, by using another control field to couple the excited level of the coupling transition to the sixth higher excited level, a six-level atomic system is constructed. In this system, the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency has been investigated. What is more, if choosing the parameters of the control fields properly the triple transparency window will reduce to a double one which means that the multiple electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency can be manipulated in this system. The physical interpretation of these phenomena is given in terms of the dressed states and the dark states.

  5. Aspects of the theory of atoms and coherent matter and their interaction with electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Halvor Moell

    2002-07-01

    In the present work I have outlined and contributed to the time-dependent theory of the interaction between atoms and electromagnetic fields and the theory of Bose-Einstein condensates. New numerical methods and algorithms have been developed and applied in practice. Calculations have exhibited certain new dynamical features. All these calculations are in a regime where the applied field is of the same magnitude as the atomic field. In the case of BEC we have investigated the use of time-dependent methods to calculate the excitation frequencies. We also investigated the possibility of nonlinear coupling for a scissors mode and found no such contributions to damping which is consistent with other studies . Special emphasis has also been paid to the gyroscopic motion of rotating BEC where several models were investigated. Briefly, the main conclusions are: (1) Rydberg wave packets appear for direct excitations of Rydberg atoms for long pulses. (2) The survival of just a few states is decided by symmetry of the Hamiltonian. (3) For few cycle intense pulses classical and quantum mechanics show remarkable similarity. (4) Time-dependent methods for finding excitation frequencies have been shown to be very efficient. (5) New dynamical features is shown in gyroscopic motion of BEC. (6) It was shown that no nonlinear mixing of scissors modes occur in the standard Gross-Pitaevskii regime. As mentioned in the introduction, this work is a part of very active research fields and new progress is constantly reported. Thus, the present work cannot be concluded as a closed loop. The fast development of grid based numerical solutions for atoms in intense fields will surely make great contribution to solve many of today's problems. It is a very important area of research to understand both nonperturbative atomic response and highly nonlinear optics. In the field of Bose-Einstein condensation the new experimental achievements constantly drive the field forward. The new

  6. A physics exhibit to show the effect of the aerosol in the atmosphere on electromagnetic wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchetti, Dedalo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper it is explained the construction and utility of a didactic exhibit about the effect of aerosol in atmosphere on electromagnetic wave propagation. The exhibit is composed by a lamp simulating the Sun, a Plexiglas case (the atmosphere), white or black panels (surface albedo), a combustion chamber to supply aerosol inside the case and other equipments. There are temperature and relative humidity of air sensors and 5 light sensors to measure direct and scattered light. It is possible to measure the cooling effect of aerosol inside the case and the increasing in scattered light.

  7. The Formalism for Energy Changing Rate of an Accelerated Atom Coupled with Electromagnetic Vacuum Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anwei

    2016-09-01

    The structure of the rate of variation of the atomic energy for an arbitrary stationary motion of the atom in interaction with a quantum electromagnetic field is investigated. Our main purpose is to rewrite the formalism in Zhu et al. (Phys Rev D 73:107501, 2006) and to deduce the general expressions of the Einstein A coefficients of an atom on an arbitrary stationary trajectory. The total rate of change of the energy and Einstein coefficients of the atom near a plate with finite temperature or acceleration are also investigated.

  8. Laser spectroscopy of atoms in superfluid helium for the measurement of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of radioactive atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T., E-mail: tomomi.fujita@riken.jp [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Imamura, K.; Yang, X. F. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Shimoda, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuo, Y. [Hosei University, Department of Advanced Sciences (Japan); Collaboration: OROCHI Collaboration

    2015-11-15

    A new laser spectroscopic method named “OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion catcher)” has been developed for deriving the nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low-yield exotic nuclei. In this method, we observe atomic Zeeman and hyperfine structures using laser-radio-frequency/microwave double-resonance spectroscopy. In our previous works, double-resonance spectroscopy was performed successfully with laser-sputtered stable atoms including non-alkali Au atoms as well as alkali Rb and Cs atoms. Following these works, measurements with {sup 84−87}Rb energetic ion beams were carried out in the RIKEN projectile fragment separator (RIPS). In this paper, we report the present status of OROCHI and discuss its feasibility, especially for low-yield nuclei such as unstable Au isotopes.

  9. Entanglement dynamics for uniformly accelerated two-level atoms coupled with electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yiquan; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two uniformly accelerated atoms with the same acceleration perpendicular to their separation. The two-atom system is treated as an open system coupled with fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the Minkowski vacuum, and in the Born-Markov approximation the master equation that describes the completely positive time evolution of the two-atom system is derived. In particular, we investigate the phenomena of entanglement degradation, generation, revival and enhancement. As opposed to the scalar-field case, the entanglement dynamics is crucially dependent on the polarization directions of the atoms. For the two-atom system with certain acceleration and separation, the polarization directions of the atoms may determine whether entanglement generation, revival or enhancement happens, while for entanglement degradation, they affect the decay rate of entanglement. A comparison between the entanglement evolution of accelerated atoms and that of static ones immersed in a ther...

  10. Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Zeeman-Sublevel System in Rubidium Atomic Vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖峰; 郭瑞民; 陈帅; 张宇; 李路明; 陈徐宗

    2003-01-01

    We observed electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevel system using rubidium atomic vapour at the temperature of 75℃, in which the width of the EIT signal is only 0.6 MHz. Two different methods were performed to observe the EIT signal in our experiment.

  11. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in a multi-V-type system in cesium atomic vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建明; 尹王保; 汪丽蓉; 肖连团; 贾锁堂

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency is observed in a three-level multi-V-type system in cesium vapour atroom temperature. The absorption property is measured and the hyperfine structures of atomic states can be determined.The results of the experiment agree with the theoretical analysis.

  12. Resonant Rydberg Dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaul, C.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Pohl, T.

    2016-06-01

    We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay, and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.

  13. Resonant Rydberg-dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Gaul, C; Aman, J A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C; Pohl, T

    2015-01-01

    We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizeable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of Strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.

  14. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIJia-Hua; WANGWen-Yi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze and discuss the absorption properties of the probe beam in a four-level atomic system with a nearly hyper-fine doublet structure of two higher-lying excited levels based on electromagnetieally induced transparency (EIT) for the two cases of transient process and steady-state process. The main gain of this work is to investigate theoretically the influence of the nearly hyper-fine levels on the probe absorption. For the transient process, using the numerical calculations by a simple Mathematica code we find that the magnitude of the probe absorption at the line center is small compared to the typical three-level atomic system in the context of electromagnetieally induced transparency. For the case of the steady state, our results show that the probe absorption can be completely eliminated at the line center of the probe transition just as the usual three-level EIT scheme.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  16. Dynamic Polariton and Quantum State Swapping Between an Electromagnetic Field and Atomic Ensemble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯戈; 杨国建

    2002-01-01

    We analyse a dynamical swapping of the quantum state in coupled harmonic oscillators. The result can be applied to the interaction of a single-mode field with atomic ensemble in the weak field case. Similar to the case of electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT), a dynamic polariton is formed. Therefore, the quantum state of the field can be completely mapped on to the atomic medium, and vice versa. Using this dynamical swapping and the adiabatic transfer in the EIT between the field and atomic ensemble, we propose a scheme in which both the quantum and the coherent information can be transferred from one field to another.

  17. Three-dimensional atom localization via electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Cao, Dewei; Yu, Benli

    2016-05-01

    We present a new scheme for three-dimensional (3D) atom localization in a three-level atomic system via measuring the absorption of a weak probe field. Owing to the space-dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the probe absorption. It is found that, by properly varying the parameters of the system, the probability of finding the atom in 3D space can be almost 100%. Our scheme opens a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 3D atom localization, which provides some potential applications in laser cooling or atom nano-lithography via atom localization. PMID:27140374

  18. Three-dimensional atom localization via electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Cao, Dewei; Yu, Benli

    2016-05-01

    We present a new scheme for three-dimensional (3D) atom localization in a three-level atomic system via measuring the absorption of a weak probe field. Owing to the space-dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the probe absorption. It is found that, by properly varying the parameters of the system, the probability of finding the atom in 3D space can be almost 100%. Our scheme opens a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 3D atom localization, which provides some potential applications in laser cooling or atom nano-lithography via atom localization.

  19. Multi-level cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms using an optical nanofibre interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Both the probe (at 780 nm) and the coupling (at 776 nm) beams propagate through the nanofibre. The observed multipeak transparency spectra of the probe beam could offer a method for simultaneously slowing down multiple wavelengths in an optical nanofibre or for generating ONF-guided entangled beams, showing the potential of such an atom-nanofibre system for quantum information. We also demonstrate all-optical-switching in the all fibred system using the obtained EIT effect.

  20. Metrology of electromagnetic static actuation of MEMS microbridge using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczała, M; Majstrzyk, W; Sierakowski, A; Dobrowolski, R; Grabiec, P; Gotszalk, T

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for characterization and calibration of static deflection of electromagnetically and/or thermally actuated micro-electromechanical (MEMS) bridge. The investigated MEMS structure is formed by a silicon nitride bridge and a thin film metal path enabling electromagnetic and/or thermal deflection actuation. We present how static microbridge deflection can be measured using contact mode AFM technology with resolution of 0.05nm in the range of up to tens of nm. We also analyze, for very small structure deflections and under defined and controlled load force varied in the range up to ca. 32nN, properties of thermal and electromagnetical microbridge deflection actuation schemes.

  1. Cavity cooling of a trapped atom using Electromagnetically-Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Bienert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A cooling scheme for trapped atoms is proposed, which combines cavity-enhanced scattering and electromagnetically induced transparency. The cooling dynamics exploits a three-photon resonance, which combines laser and cavity excitations. It is shown that relatively fast ground-state cooling can be achieved in the Lamb-Dicke regime and for large cooperativity. Efficient ground-state cooling is found for parameters of ongoing experiments.

  2. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations

  3. Two electromagnetically induced transparency windows and an enhanced electromagnetically induced transparency signal in a four-level tripod atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Xie Changde; Wang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2007-08-28

    We present the experimental observations and theoretical calculations of two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows and an enhanced EIT signal in a four-level tripod system of D1 line of {sup 87}Rb atoms. The two EIT dips produced by a strong coupling beam and a weak trigger beam were observed in the absorption spectrum of probe field, when the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was different from that of the coupling beam. When the frequency detuning of the trigger beam was near or equal to that of the coupling beam, the total depth of the EIT dip created by the coupling beam clearly became larger. The experimental measurements were in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  4. Two-photon excitation of atoms by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in a discrete spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Sakhno, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    The paper is devoted to the theoretical investigation of two-photon excitation of atom in a discrete energy spectrum by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses of femto- and subfemtosecond ranges of durations. An analytical expression for the total probability of the process is derived. Numerical simulations are made for hydrogen and sodium atoms. It is shown that the total probability of the process is nonlinear function of pulse duration and character of this function depends strongly on the frequency detuning of pulse carrier frequency from two-photon resonance.

  5. Ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency using nanofiber-guided light in a warm atomic vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D E; Pittman, T B

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofiber suspended in a warm rubidium vapor. The signal and control fields are both guided along the nanofiber, which enables strong nonlinear interactions with the surrounding atoms at relatively low powers. Transit-time broadening is found to be a significant EIT decoherence mechanism in this tightly-confined waveguiding geometry. Nonetheless, we observe significant EIT and controlled polarization rotation using control-field powers of only a few microWatts in this relatively robust warm-atom nanofiber system.

  6. Impressive electromagnetic shielding effects exhibited by highly ordered, micrometer thick polyaniline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjini R.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Sankaran, Jayalekshmi

    2016-04-01

    The present work highlights the remarkably high shielding effectiveness of about 68 dB, exhibited by highly ordered and doped polyaniline films, in the microwave frequency range 4-12 GHz, obtained by self-stabilized dispersion polymerization as the synthesis route. The observed shielding effectiveness is found to depend quite sensitively on the electrical conducting properties, which are predominantly controlled by the nature and concentration of the dopants. The structural and morphological characterization of the films using XRD and TEM techniques reveals surprisingly high extent of crystallinity, which contributes significantly towards enhancing the electrical conductivity of the films. Most of the available reports on the microwave response of conducting polymer film samples deal with much thicker films, compared to the micrometer thick films of the present studies. The shielding effectiveness of acid doped, micrometer thick polyaniline films reported in the present work far exceeds most of the previously reported values and meets the commercial requirements.

  7. Localization of atomic excitation beyond the diffraction limit using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J. A.; Das, Diptaranjan; Simmons, Z. J.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the localization of excitation between hyperfine ground states of 87Rb atoms to as small as λ /13 -wide spatial regions. We use ultracold atoms trapped in a dipole trap and utilize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for the atomic excitation. The localization is achieved by combining a spatially varying coupling laser (standing wave) with the intensity dependence of EIT. The excitation is fast (150 ns laser pulses) and the dark-state fidelity can be made higher than 94% throughout the standing wave. Because the width of the localized regions is much smaller than the wavelength of the driving light, traditional optical imaging techniques cannot resolve the localized features. Therefore, to measure the excitation profile, we use an autocorrelation-like method where we perform two EIT sequences separated by a time delay, during which we move the standing wave.

  8. Electromagnetic transition matrix elements in the continuous spectrum of atoms: theory and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Komninos, Yannis; Nicolaides, Cleanthes A

    2014-01-01

    In a variety of problems concerning the coupling of atomic and molecular states to strong and or short electromagnetic pulses, it is necessary to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation nonperturbatively. To this purpose, we have proposed and applied to various problems the state-specific expansion approach. Its implementation requires the computation of bound-bound, bound-free and free-free N-electron matrix elements of the operator that describes the coupling of the electrons to the external electromagnetic field. The present study penetrates into the mathematical properties of the free-free matrix elements of the full electric field operator of the multipolar Hamiltonian. kk is the photon wavenumber, and the field is assumed linearly polarized, propagating along the z axis. Special methods are developed and applied for the computation of such matrix elements using energy-normalized, numerical scattering wavefunctions. It is found that, on the momentum (energy) axis, the free-free matrix elements hav...

  9. Amplified light storage with high fidelity based on electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Gang; Tang, Guoyu; Xue, Yan

    2016-06-01

    By using slow and stored light based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we theoretically realize the storage of optical pulses with enhanced efficiency and high fidelity in ensembles of warm atoms in 85Rb vapor cells. The enhancement of storage efficiency is achieved by introducing a pump field beyond three-level configuration to form a N-type scheme, which simultaneously inhibits the undesirable four-wave mixing effect while preserves its fidelity. It is shown that the typical storage efficiency can be improved from 29% to 53% with the application of pump field. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this efficiency decreases with storage time and increases over unity with optical depth.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of undoped TiO2 exhibiting p-type conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Andrei T; Logar, Manca; Park, Joonsuk; Prinz, Fritz B

    2015-03-11

    With prominent photocatalytic applications and widespread use in semiconductor devices, TiO2 is one of the most popular metal oxides. However, despite its popularity, it has yet to achieve its full potential due to a lack of effective methods for achieving p-type conductivity. Here, we show that undoped p-type TiO2 films can be fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and that their electrical properties can be controlled across a wide range using proper postprocessing anneals in various ambient environments. Hole mobilities larger than 400 cm(2)/(V·s) are accessible superseding the use of extrinsic doping, which generally produces orders of magnitude smaller values. Through a combination of analyses and experiments, we provide evidence that this behavior is primarily due to an excess of oxygen in the films. This discovery enables entirely new categories of TiO2 devices and applications, and unlocks the potential to improve existing ones. TiO2 homojunction diodes fabricated completely by ALD are developed as a demonstration of the utility of these techniques and shown to exhibit useful rectifying characteristics even with minimal processing refinement.

  11. Efficient Continuous-Duty Bitter-Type Electromagnets for Cold Atom Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sabulsky, Dylan; Gemelke, Nathan D; Chin, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, construction and characterization of Bitter-type electromagnets which can generate high magnetic fields under continuous operation with efficient heat removal for cold atom experiments. The electromagnets are constructed from a stack of alternating layers consisting of copper arcs and insulating polyester spacers. Efficient cooling of the copper is achieved via parallel rectangular water cooling channels between copper layers with low resistance to flow; a high ratio of the water-cooled surface area to the volume of copper ensures a short length scale ~1 mm to extract dissipated heat. High copper fraction per layer ensures high magnetic field generated per unit energy dissipated. The ensemble is highly scalable and compressed to create a watertight seal without epoxy. From our measurements, a peak field of 770 G is generated 14 mm away from a single electromagnet with a current of 400 A and a total power dissipation of 1.6 kW. With cooling water flowing at 3.8 l/min, the coil temperatur...

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency for guided light in an atomic array outside an optical nanofiber

    CERN Document Server

    Kien, Fam Le

    2015-01-01

    We study the propagation of guided light along an array of three-level atoms in the vicinity of an optical nanofiber under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency. We examine two schemes of atomic levels and field polarizations where the guided probe field is quasilinearly polarized along the major or minor principal axis, which is parallel or perpendicular, respectively, to the radial direction of the atomic position. Our numerical calculations indicate that 200 cesium atoms in a linear array with a length of 100 $\\mu$m at a distance of 200 nm from the surface of a nanofiber with a radius of 250 nm can slow down the speed of guided probe light by a factor of about $3.5\\times 10^6$ (the corresponding group delay is about 1.17 $\\mu$s). In the neighborhood of the Bragg resonance, a significant fraction of the guided probe light can be reflected back with a negative group delay. The reflectivity and the group delay of the reflected field do not depend on the propagation direction of the probe f...

  13. Dicke-Narrowing Spectroscopy of Doubly Dressed Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Singly Dressed Four-Wave-Mixing in a Confined Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan-Yuan; BAI Jin-Wao; LI-Li; ZHANG Wei-Feng; LI Chang-Biao; NIE Zhi-Qiang; GAN Chen-Li; ZHANG Yan-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Dicke-narrowing effect appears both in doubly dressed electromagnetically induced transparency and singly dressed four-wave-mixing lines due to the contribution of slow atoms resulting from de-excited effects of atom-wall collision and transient behaviour of atoms in a confined system. A robust recipe for high resolution spectroscopy of electromagnetically induced transparency dressed by two fields and four-wave-mixing lines comparable with the cold atoms is achievable in a thin vapour cell in experiments.

  14. An approach for considering ionization of light atoms by relativistic projectiles generating strong electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an approach to treat ionization of light atoms in relativistic collisions with highly charged ions, where the electromagnetic field generated by the ions can be very strong. The approach is based on the observation that, for a collision with a certain momentum transfer, either the relativistic effects, connected with the collision velocity approaching the speed of light, or the higher-order terms in the corresponding Born series in the projectile-target interaction can be of importance for the ionization process. The approach consists of dividing all collisions into those with 'small' and 'large' momentum transfers, which are described by (the first order of) the relativistic Born and the Glauber approximations, respectively. The approach is applied to describe helium single ionization by 1 GeV u-1 U92+ projectiles

  15. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms across the Breit-Rabi regime

    CERN Document Server

    Naber, J B; Heuvell, H B van Linden van den; Spreeuw, R J C

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental results on the influence of magnetic fields and laser polarization on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using Rydberg levels of $^{87}$Rb atoms. The measurements are performed in a room temperature vapor cell with two counter-propagating laser beams at 480nm and 780nm in a ladder-type energy level scheme. We measure the EIT spectrum of a range of $ns_{1/2}$ Rydberg states for $n=19-27$, where the hyperfine structure can still be resolved. Our measurements span the range of magnetic fields from the low field linear Zeeman regime to the high field Paschen-Back regimes. The observed spectra are very sensitive to small changes in magnetic fields and the polarization of the laser beams. We model our observations using optical Bloch equations that take into account the full multi-level structure of the atomic states involved and the decoupling of the electronic $J$ and nuclear $I$ angular momenta in the Breit-Rabi regime. The numerical model yields excellent agreement with the o...

  17. On the dynamics of excited atoms in time dependent electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerre, Morten

    2004-06-01

    This thesis is composed of seven scientific publications written in the period 2001-2004. The focus has been set on Rydberg atoms of hydrogen and lithium in relatively weak electromagnetic fields. Such atoms have been studied extensively during many years, both experimentally and theoretically, They are relatively easy to handle in the laboratory. Their willingness to react to conventional field sources and their long lifetimes, are two reasons for this. Much new insight into fundamental quantum mechanics has been extracted from such studies. By exciting a non-hydrogenic ground state atom or molecule into a highly excited state, many properties of atomic hydrogen are adopted. In many cases the dynamics of such systems can be accurately described by the hydrogenic theory, or alternatively by some slightly modified version like quantum defect theory. In such theories the Rydberg electron(s) of the non-hydrogenic Rydberg system is treated like it is confined in a modified Coulomb potential, which arises from the non-hydrogenic core. defined by the non-excited electrons and the nucleus. The more heavily bound core electrons are less influenced from external perturbations than the excited electrons, giving rise to the so-called frozen-core approximation. where the total effect of the core electrons is put into a modified Coulomb potential. A major part of this thesis has been allocated to the study of core effects in highly excited states of lithium. In collaboration with time experimental group of Erik Horsdal-Pedersen at Aarhus University, we have considered several hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic aspects of such states, when exposed to weak slowly varying electromagnetic fields. The dynamics was restricted to one principal shell (intrashell). Two general features were observed, either the hydrogenic theory applied or alternatively, in case of massive deviation, the dynamics was accurately described by quantum defect theory, clearly demonstrating the usefulness of such

  18. On the dynamics of excited atoms in time dependent electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is composed of seven scientific publications written in the period 2001-2004. The focus has been set on Rydberg atoms of hydrogen and lithium in relatively weak electromagnetic fields. Such atoms have been studied extensively during many years, both experimentally and theoretically, They are relatively easy to handle in the laboratory. Their willingness to react to conventional field sources and their long lifetimes, are two reasons for this. Much new insight into fundamental quantum mechanics has been extracted from such studies. By exciting a non-hydrogenic ground state atom or molecule into a highly excited state, many properties of atomic hydrogen are adopted. In many cases the dynamics of such systems can be accurately described by the hydrogenic theory, or alternatively by some slightly modified version like quantum defect theory. In such theories the Rydberg electron(s) of the non-hydrogenic Rydberg system is treated like it is confined in a modified Coulomb potential, which arises from the non-hydrogenic core. defined by the non-excited electrons and the nucleus. The more heavily bound core electrons are less influenced from external perturbations than the excited electrons, giving rise to the so-called frozen-core approximation. where the total effect of the core electrons is put into a modified Coulomb potential. A major part of this thesis has been allocated to the study of core effects in highly excited states of lithium. In collaboration with time experimental group of Erik Horsdal-Pedersen at Aarhus University, we have considered several hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic aspects of such states, when exposed to weak slowly varying electromagnetic fields. The dynamics was restricted to one principal shell (intrashell). Two general features were observed, either the hydrogenic theory applied or alternatively, in case of massive deviation, the dynamics was accurately described by quantum defect theory, clearly demonstrating the usefulness of such

  19. Electromagnetic interference shielding behaviors of Zn-based conducting oxide films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-June; Kang, Kyung-Mun; Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhpark@yonsei.ac.kr

    2015-05-29

    The structural, electrical, and optical properties of undoped ZnO, F-doped ZnO (ZnO:F), and Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with two different thicknesses deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated to evaluate the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE). A diluted fluoride hydroxide was used as a single reactant source for F doping in a ZnO matrix, and the F doping concentration was about 1 at.% in the ZnO:F films. The fabrication of the ZnO:Al films was followed by the typical ALD method, and the Al doping concentration of about 2 at.% was adjusted by the dopant deposition intervals of the ZnO:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursor pulse cycle ratios, which were fixed at 19:1. The film thickness variations were controlled with 600 and 1600 total ALD cycles of approximately 100 nm and 300 nm, respectively. The carrier concentration of the films is monotonically increased in order of the undoped ZnO, ZnO:F, and ZnO:Al films. The EMI-SE values of the undoped ZnO, ZnO:F, and ZnO:Al films at 1 GHz were 0.9 dB, 2.6 dB, and 6.0 dB for ~ 100 nm, and were 2.1 dB, 9.7 dB, and 13.1 dB for ~ 300 nm, respectively. In our work, the EMI-SE value was increased by the enhancement of both the carrier concentration and film thickness due to reflection via the free carrier scattering effect. - Highlights: • Fluorine or aluminum doped ZnO thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition • Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE) of ZnO thin films • Carrier concentration and film thickness enhanced the EMI-SE. • The enhancement of EMI-SE was due to reflection via free carrier scattering effect.

  20. The electromagnetically induced transparency in the Y-type four-level atom system at low light levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liying; LIU Zhengdong; CHEN Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a Y-type four-level atom interacting with external fields system is investigated. It is shown that increasing the control field can reduce the probe absorption, the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and gain can be obtained if the parameters are taken appropriately. An interesting phenomenon is found that the system appears to be probe gain in a large region if the external fields Rabi phases are taken appropriately, too.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency and lasing without inversion in three-level atoms imbedded in a frequency-dependent environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeonychev, Y. V.; Erukhimova, M. A.; Kocharovskaya, O. A.; Vilaseca, R.

    2004-10-01

    The response of a three-level atomic system driven by a resonant coherent field acting on a transition near the photonic band-edge of a photonic band-gap material as well as the general case of a frequency-dependent reservoir is studied. The strong frequency dependence of the radiation mode spectral density on the scale of the driving field Rabi frequency is shown to lead to essential and controllable changes in the refractive index, as well as to effects of electromagnetically induced transparency and lasing without inversion. Such an effective dynamic control of the atomic response enables for applications in nonlinear optics and optical computing and communications.

  2. Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, Farhan

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits ...

  3. Simultaneous Use of Cs and Rb Rydberg Atoms for Independent RF Electric Field Measurements via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Matt T; Holloway, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct SI traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same the RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two independent measurements of the same quantity in the same laboratory, providing two different immediate and independent measurements. This gives two measurements that helps rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength and is a necessary step for this method to...

  4. Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental observations on the simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects for probe and trigger fields (double EIT) as well as the enhanced cross-phase modulation (XPM) between the two fields in a four-level tripod EIT system of the D1 line of 87Rb atoms. The XPM coefficients (larger than 2x10-5 cm2/W) and the accompanying transmissions (higher than 60%) are measured at a slight detuning of the probe field from the exact EIT-resonance condition. The system and enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearities presented here can be applied to quantum information processes

  5. Four-Wave Mixing Scheme in a Four-Level Ladder-Type Atomic System Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-Hua; CHEN Ai-Xi; PENG Ju-Cun

    2004-01-01

    @@ A nonlinear optical four-wave mixing scheme is presented and analysed for the generation of coherent light in a nearly four-level ladder-type atomic system in the context of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT).We find that EIT can suppress nonlinear photon absorption and the peak of the generated mixing field is located at the centre of the transparency window where the loss is minimal, though there is a dip in the centre. Such a nonlinear optical process can also be used for generating coherent short-wavelength radiation.

  6. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Jiang; Haichao, Zhang; Yuzhu, Wang

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-type system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space. We use the Zeeman substates of the hyperfine energy states 52S1/2, F = 2 and 52P3/2, F‧ = 2 of 87Rb D2 line to form a Λ-type EIT scheme. The EIT signal is obtained by scanning the probe light over 1 MHz in 4 ms with an 80 MHz arbitrary waveform generator. More than 97% transparency and 100 kHz EIT window are observed. This EIT scheme is suited for an application of pulsed coherent storage atom clock (Yan B, et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 063820). Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91536107).

  7. Enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level tripod atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the cross-Kerr nonlinearity generated in a four-level tripod system in the 87Rb D1 line. The system exhibits simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows for two weak (probe and trigger) fields and the enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity by EIT. The cross-Kerr nonlinear phase shifts for probe (trigger) field are measured at several different intensities of trigger (probe) field. The results show that large cross-phase modulation (XPM) coefficients can be achieved at low light intensities.

  8. Enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level tripod atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xudong; Li Shujing; Zhang Chunhong; Wang Hai [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2009-07-15

    We investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, the cross-Kerr nonlinearity generated in a four-level tripod system in the {sup 87}Rb D1 line. The system exhibits simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows for two weak (probe and trigger) fields and the enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearity by EIT. The cross-Kerr nonlinear phase shifts for probe (trigger) field are measured at several different intensities of trigger (probe) field. The results show that large cross-phase modulation (XPM) coefficients can be achieved at low light intensities.

  9. Atom-membrane cooling and entanglement using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genes, Claudiu; Ritsch, Helmut; Drewsen, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    allows for strong coupling of the membrane's mechanical oscillations to the collective atomic ground-state spin. This facilitates ground-state cooling of the membrane motion, quantum state mapping, and robust atom-membrane entanglement even for cavity widths larger than the mechanical resonance frequency....

  10. Correlation spectroscopy in cold atoms: light sidebands resonances in electromagnetically induced transparency condition

    CERN Document Server

    Florez, H M; Theophilo, K; Nussenzveig, P; Martinelli, M

    2015-01-01

    The correlation spectroscopy has been successfully employed in the measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in time and frequency domain. We study the role of the sidebands of the intense fields in the measured spectra, analyzing the information that can be recovered working with different analysis frequencies. In this case, the non-zero one-photon detuning appears as a necessary condition for spectrally resolving the sideband resonances in the correlation coefficient. Our experimental findings are supported by the perturbative model defined in the frequency domain.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency of single ∧-type three-level atoms in a high-finesse optical cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yan-Fen; Tan Lei; Xu Yan

    2013-01-01

    We study the features of electromagnetically induced transparency (Err) in a single ∧-type three-level atom placed in a high-finesse cavity under the action of a coupling laser and a probe laser.Our calculations show that three transparency windows appear when the pump strength is large enough.This can be explained by the residual pump in the cavity mostly resulting in energy splitting.The level |3> is split into four slightly different energy levels,and interference takes place between the excitation pathways.Furthermore,it is also shown that the frequencies of the EIT windows can be tuned by changing the coupling field detuning △2,and that the reflection profile is very sensitive to the cavity field detuning △c.

  12. Controlling multi-wave mixing signals via photonic band gap of electromagnetically induced absorption grating in atomic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Huaibin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate dressed multi-wave mixing (MWM) and the reflection of the probe beam due to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) grating can coexist in a five-level atomic ensemble. The reflection is derived from the photonic band gap (PBG) of EIA grating, which is much broader than the PBG of EIT grating. Therefore, EIA-type PBG can reflect more energy from probe than EIT-type PBG does, which can effectively affect the MWM signal. The EIA-type as well as EIT-type PBG can be controlled by multiple parameters including the frequency detunings, propagation angles and powers of the involved light fields. Also, the EIA-type PBG by considering both the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive indices is also investigated. The theoretical analysis agrees well with the experimental results. This investigation has potential applications in all-optical communication and information processing.

  13. Controlling multi-wave mixing signals via photonic band gap of electromagnetically induced absorption grating in atomic media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Huaibin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate dressed multi-wave mixing (MWM) and the reflection of the probe beam due to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) grating can coexist in a five-level atomic ensemble. The reflection is derived from the photonic band gap (PBG) of EIA grating, which is much broader than the PBG of EIT grating. Therefore, EIA-type PBG can reflect more energy from probe than EIT-type PBG does, which can effectively affect the MWM signal. The EIA-type as well as EIT-type PBG can be controlled by multiple parameters including the frequency detunings, propagation angles and powers of the involved light fields. Also, the EIA-type PBG by considering both the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive indices is also investigated. The theoretical analysis agrees well with the experimental results. This investigation has potential applications in all-optical communication and information processing.

  14. Weak-light rogue waves, breathers, and their active control in a cold atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to demonstrate the existence of optical Peregrine rogue waves and Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers and realize their active control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we suggest is a cold, Λ -type three-level atomic gas interacting with a probe and a control laser fields and working under EIT condition. We show that, based on EIT with an incoherent optical pumping, which can be used to cancel optical absorption, (1+1)-dimensional optical Peregrine rogue waves, Akhmediev breathers, and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers can be generated with very low light power. In addition, we demonstrate that the Akhmediev and Kuznetsov-Ma breathers in (2+1)-dimensions obtained can be actively manipulated by using an external magnetic field. As a result, these breathers can display trajectory deflections and bypass obstacles during propagation.

  15. Light storage in an optically thick atomic ensemble under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Nathaniel B; Novikova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    We study the modification of a traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) stored light technique that includes both EIT and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an ensemble of hot Rb atoms. The standard treatment of light storage involves the coherent and reversible mapping of one photonic mode onto a collective spin coherence. It has been shown that unwanted, competing processes such as four-wave mixing are enhanced by EIT and can significantly modify the signal optical pulse propagation. We present theoretical and experimental evidence to indicate that while a Stokes field is indeed detected upon retrieval of the signal field, any information originally encoded in a seeded Stokes field is not independently preserved during the storage process. We present a simple model that describes the propagation dynamics of the fields and the impact of FWM on the spin wave.

  16. Slow and stored light under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency and four wave mixing in an atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathaniel Blair

    The recent prospect of efficient, reliable, and secure quantum communication relies on the ability to coherently and reversibly map nonclassical states of light onto long-lived atomic states. A promising technique that accomplishes this employs Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), in which a strong classical control field modifies the optical properties of a weak signal field in such a way that a previously opaque medium becomes transparent to the signal field. The accompanying steep dispersion in the index of refraction allows for pulses of light to be decelerated, then stored as an atomic excitation, and later retrieved as a photonic mode. This dissertation presents the results of investigations into methods for optimizing the memory efficiency of this process in an ensemble of hot Rb atoms. We have experimentally demonstrated the effectiveness of two protocols for yielding the best memory efficiency possible at a given atomic density. Improving memory efficiency requires operation at higher optical depths, where undesired effects such as four-wave mixing (FWM) become enhanced and can spontaneously produce a new optical mode (Stokes field). We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the FWM-EIT interaction under continuous-wave (cw), slow light, and stored light conditions. In particular, we provide evidence that indicates that while a Stokes field is generated upon retrieval of the signal field, any information originally encoded in a seeded Stokes field is not independently preserved during the storage process. We present a simple model that describes the propagation dynamics and provides an intuitive description of the EIT-FWM process.

  17. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites. PMID:26458422

  18. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2014-06-30

    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  19. Interaction of Triply-Dressing Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Five-level Folding Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-Biao; NIE Zhi-Qiang; ZHANG Wei-Feng; ZHANG Yan-Peng; SONG Jian-Ping; LI Yuan-Yuan; LU Ke-Qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ We consider a five-level atomic folding system, which involve two kinds of dressing mechanisms (the nested-cascade and the sequential-cascade) in interaction of three-dressing fields, the numerical results show that three-dressing fields are interchangeable under certain conditions, which can be considered as two four-level sub-system configurations (a nested-cascade N configuration and a sequential-cascade inverted-Y configuration).

  20. Electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  1. Multi-V-type and Λ-type electromagnetically induced transparency experiments in rubidium atoms with low-power low-cost free running single mode diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavín Varela, S.; León Suazo, J. A.; Gutierrez González, J.; Vargas Roco, J.; Buberl, T.; Aguirre Gómez, J. G.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the experimental realization of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in A-type and multi-V-type configurations in a sample of rubidium atoms inside a vapor cell at room temperature. Typical EIT windows are clearly visible in the Doppler- broadened absorption signal of the weak probe beam. The coherent optical pump and probe fields are produced by two tunable low-cost, low-power, continuous-wave (cw), free-running and single mode operated diode laser systems, temperature stabilized and current controlled, tuned to the D2 line of rubidium atoms at 780.2 nm wavelength. The continuum wave and single mode operation of our laser systems are confirmed by direct and saturated absorption spectroscopy techniques. Among other applications, these simple experiments can be used as a low-cost undergraduate laboratory in atomic physics, laser physics, coherent light-atom interaction, and high resolution atomic spectroscopy.

  2. Statistics of electromagnetic transitions as a signature of chaos in many-electron atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F

    1998-01-01

    Using a configuration interaction approach we study statistics of the dipole matrix elements (E1 amplitudes) between the 14 lower odd states with J=4 and 21st to 100th even states with J=4 in the Ce atom (1120 lines). We show that the distribution of the matrix elements is close to Gaussian, although the width of the Gaussian distribution, i.e. the root-mean-square matrix element, changes with the excitation energy. The corresponding line strengths are distributed according to the Porter-Thomas law which describes statistics of transition strengths between chaotic states in compound nuclei. We also show how to use a statistical theory to calculate mean squared values of the matrix elements or transition amplitudes between chaotic many-body states. We draw some support for our conclusions from the analysis of the 228 experimental line strengths in Ce [J. Opt. Soc. Am. v. 8, p. 1545 (1991)], although direct comparison with the calculations is impeded by incompleteness of the experimental data. Nevertheless, the...

  3. Simultaneous use of Cs and Rb Rydberg atoms for dipole moment assessment and RF electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through the modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct International System of Unit traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two measurements of the same E-field strength, providing a relative comparison of the dipole moments of the two atomic species. This gives two measurements that help rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength, and is a necessary step for this method to be accepted as a standard calibration technique. We use this approach to measure E-fields at 9.2 GHz, 11.6 GHz, and 13.4 GHz, which correspond to three different atomic states (different principal atomic numbers and angular momentums) for the two atom species.

  4. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  5. Modifications of Schr\\"{o}dinger's Equation Complying with the Effect of Earth's Rotation on Quantum Energy in Atoms and with the Electromagnetic Force

    CERN Document Server

    Su, C C

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we have presented a local-ether wave equation incorporating a nature frequency and the electric scalar potential, from which the speed-dependences in the angular frequency and wavelength of matter wave, in the mass of particle, and in the energy of quantum states are derived. These relations look like the postulates of de Broglie and the Lorentz mass-variation law, except that the particle speed is referred specifically to a geocentric inertial frame and hence incorporates earth's rotation for earthbound particles. Further, the wave equation is extended by connecting the scalar potential to the augmentation operator which is associated with a velocity difference between involved particles. Then the electromagnetic force law is derived, which under some ordinary conditions reduces to the modified Lorentz force law. In this investigation, the interaction of atoms with electromagnetic radiation is explored. Then it is shown that the time evolution equation derived from the wave equation is substantiall...

  6. Using frequency detuning to improve the sensitivity of electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Raithel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an approach for improved sensitivity in weak radio frequency (RF) electric-field strength measurements using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. This is accomplished by varying the RF frequency around a resonant atomic transition and extrapolating the weak on-resonant field strength from the resulting off-resonant Autler-Townes (AT) splittings. This measurement remains directly traceable to SI compared to previous techniques, precluding any knowledge of experimental parameters such as optical beam powers as is the case when using the curvature of the EIT line shape to measure weak fields. We use this approach to measure weak RF fields at 182 GHz and 208 GHz demonstrating improvement greater than a factor of 2 in the measurement sensitivity compared to on-resonant AT splitting RF electric field measurements.

  7. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. [atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, S. R.; Happer, W.

    1974-01-01

    The report discusses completed and proposed research in atomic and molecular physics conducted at the Columbia Radiation Laboratory from July 1972 to June 1973. Central topics described include the atomic spectra and electronic structure of alkali metals and helium, molecular microwave spectroscopy, the resonance physics of photon echoes in some solid state systems (including Raman echoes, superradiance, and two photon absorption), and liquid helium superfluidity.

  8. Theory and computation of the matrix elements of the full interaction of the electromagnetic field with an atomic state: Application to the Rydberg and the continuous spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop practical formulas for the calculation of the matrix elements of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with an atomic state, beyond the long-wavelength approximation. The atom-plus-field Hamiltonian is chosen to have the multipolar form, containing the electric, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic operators. The final workable expressions include the interactions to all orders and are derived by first expanding the fields in partial waves. The electric-field operator reaches a constant value as the radial variable becomes large, contrary to the result of the electric-dipole approximation (EDA) where the value of the corresponding operator increases indefinitely. Applications are given for Rydberg states of hydrogen up to n=50 and for free-free transitions in a Coulomb potential. Such matrix elements are relevant to a number of real and virtual processes occurring during laser-atom interactions. The computation is done numerically, using a combination of analytic with numerical techniques. By comparing the results of the EDA with those of the exact treatment, it is shown that the former is inadequate in such cases. This finding has repercussions on the theory and understanding of the physics of quantum systems in high-lying Rydberg levels and wave packets or in scattering states

  9. BGO* electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    1988-01-01

    * Short for Bismuth-Germanium-Oxyde, a scintillator of high atomic number Z used in electromagnetic crystal calorimeters. BGO is characterized by fast rise time (a few nanoseconds) and short radiation length (1.11 cm).

  10. Applied electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    2013-01-01

    Included topics: Electromagnetism and Electrical Engineering, Electromagentic Fields and their Sources, Time-varying Currents and Fields in Conductors, Electromagnetic Radiation I, Electromagnetic Problems.

  11. Long-time solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for an atom in an electromagnetic field using complex coordinate contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Liang; Vanroose, Wim; Reps, Brian; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2009-09-08

    We demonstrate that exterior complex scaling (ECS) can be used to impose outgoing wave boundary conditions exactly on solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for atoms in intense electromagnetic pulses using finite grid methods. The procedure is formally exact when applied in the appropriate gauge and is demonstrated in a calculation of high harmonic generation in which multiphoton resonances are seen for long pulse durations. However, we also demonstrate that while the application of ECS in this way is formally exact, numerical error can appear for long time propagations that can only be controlled by extending the finite grid. A mathematical analysis of the origins of that numerical error, illustrated with an analytically solvable model, is also given.

  12. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...... as a result of the visitor’s interaction with the exhibit....

  13. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...

  14. Electromagnetic mass revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinger, Julian

    1983-03-01

    Examples of uniformly moving charge distributions that possess conserved electromagnetic stress tensors are exhibited. These constitute stable systems with covariantly characterized electromagnetic mass. This note, on a topic to which Paul Dirac made a significant contribution in 1938, is dedicated to him for his 80th birthday.

  15. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    ) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective...

  16. Engineering Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-15

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  17. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  18. Characteristics of the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-June; Gong, Su Cheol; Johnson, David C.; Golledge, Stephen; Yeom, Geun Young; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a modified precursor pulse sequence were investigated to evaluate the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE). A Zn-Al-O precursor exposure sequence was used in a modified ALD procedure to result in better distribution of Al3+ ions in the ZnO matrix with the aim of reducing the formation of complete nano-laminated structures that may form in the typical alternating ZnO and Al2O3 deposition procedure. The ALD dopant concentration of the ZnO:Al films was varied by adjusting the dopant deposition intervals of the ZnO:Znsbnd Alsbnd O precursor pulse cycle ratios among 24:1, 19:1, 14:1, and 9:1. The lowest obtained resistivity and average transmittance in the visible region (380-780 nm) were 5.876 × 10-4 Ω cm (carrier concentration of 6.02 × 1020 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 17.65 cm2/V s) and 85.93% in the 131 nm thick ZnO:Al(19:1) film, respectively. The average value of the EMI-SE in the range of 30 MHz to 1.5 GHz increased from 1.1 dB for the 121 nm thick undoped ZnO film to 6.5 dB for the 131 nm thick ZnO:Al(19:1) film.

  19. Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...

  20. Spatially dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Radwell, Neal; Piccirillo, Bruno; Barnett, Stephen M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen vast progress in the generation and detection of structured light, with potential applications in high capacity optical data storage and continuous variable quantum technologies. Here we measure the transmission of structured light through cold rubidium atoms and observe regions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use q-plates to generate a probe beam with azimuthally varying phase and polarisation structure, and its right and left circular polarisation components provide the probe and control of an EIT transition. We observe an azimuthal modulation of the absorption profile that is dictated by the phase and polarisation structure of the probe laser. Conventional EIT systems do not exhibit phase sensitivity. We show, however, that a weak transverse magnetic field closes the EIT transitions, thereby generating phase dependent dark states which in turn lead to phase dependent transparency, in agreement with our measurements.

  1. Some Statistical Properties for Interacting Between a Two Two-Level Atoms and the Electromagnetic Fields in Present of Converter Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Two two-level atoms interacting with a finite dimensional four-mode of radiation field is presented. The interaction of the field-field and the atom-field are considered. By using some canonical transformation, an exact solution of the wave function in the Schrodinger picture is obtained. The atomic inversion, the entropy squeezing, variance squeezing and scaled atomic Wehrl entropy phenomena are investigated. All theses phenomena are been controlled by finite state parameters and photon number operators.

  2. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  3. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  4. Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...

  5. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  6. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  7. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the processes generated by the electromagnetic interaction in relativistic nuclear, and atomic collisions is presented. Very strong electromagnetic fields for a very short time are present in distant collisions with no nuclear contact. Such fields can also lead to interesting effects, which are discussed here. (orig.)

  8. Full Quantum Theory of Transient-State Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Le-Man; ZENG Ai-Hua; KUANG Zhen-Hua

    2004-01-01

    We develop a full quantum theory of transient-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in thevapor of three-level A-type atoms interacting with probe and coupling lasers. As applications of the full quantum theory,we show that transient-state EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion and find that group velocities of both coupling andprobe lasers are greatly reduced. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe laser in the transient-state EIT case isequal to that in the adiabatic EIT case and that the coupling laser group velocity in the transient-state EIT is generallyless than that in the adiabatic EIT.

  9. Full Quantum Theory of Transient-State Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANGLe-Man; ZENGAi-Hua; KUANGZhen-Hua

    2004-01-01

    We develop a full quantum theory of transient-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the vapor of three-level A-type atoms interacting with probe and coupling lasers. As applications of the full quantum theory, we show that transient-state EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion and find that group velocities of both coupling and probe lasers are greatly reduced. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe laser in the transient-state EIT case is equal to that in the adiabatic EIT case and that the coupling laser group velocity in the transient-state EIT is generally less than that in the adiabatic EIT.

  10. Propagation of Gaussian Schell-model beam in electromagnetically induced transparency atomic vapor%高斯谢尔模型光束在EIT原子气体中的传输特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许森东; 徐弼军; 陆璇辉

    2013-01-01

    为了研究高斯-谢尔模型(GSM)光束在电磁感应透明(EIT)材料中的传输特性,利用矩阵光学理论、衍射积分理论、相干偏振统一理论推导了GSM光束通过EIT材料的传输交叉谱密度方程的解析表达式。该表达式可以用于计算和研究GSM光束通过EIT原子气体的谱密度和相干度的变化。分析显示GSM光束的谱密度和相干度都可以通过控制光的拉比频率调控。此研究结果提供了一种新的调控光传输的方法和技术,同时该发现也为控制部分相干光的谱密度和相干度提供了一种新方法。%In order to study the propagation characteristics of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams in electromagnetically induced transparency atomic vapor, the analytical expression was obtained for the cross-spectral density function of a Gaussian Schell-model beam passing through the electromagnetically induced transparency atomic vapor based on the matrix optics theory, diffraction integral theory and unified theory of coherence and polarization. The formula can be used in the study of the changes in the spectral density and spectral degree of coherence of the beam through the EIT atomic vapor. Numerical examples show that both the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the GSM beam can be modulated by the Rabi frequency of the control light. The results have been provided a new method and technique for modulation the beam propagation. The findings indicate a new technique for controlling the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the partially coherent light beam.

  11. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  12. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  13. Electromagnetic absorption properties of graphene/Fe nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene/Fe nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and green method. • 10 nm Fe nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed over the surface of the graphene sheets. • The nanocomposites exhibited strong electromagnetic wave absorption properties. - Abstract: Graphene (G)/Fe nanocomposites with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were fabricated by a facile and green method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) amylases reveal that the α-Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of only about 10 nm were uniformly dispersed over the surface of the graphene sheets. Compared with other magnetic materials and the graphene, the nanocomposites exhibited significantly enhanced electromagnetic absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss to electromagnetic wave was up to −31.5 dB at a frequency of 14.2 GHz for G/Fe nanocomposites with a thickness of 2.5 mm. Importantly, the addition of the nanocomposites is only about 20 wt.% in the matrix. The enhanced mechanism is discussed and it is related to high surface areas of G/Fe nanocomposites, interfacial polarizations between graphene and iron, synergetic effect and efficient dispersity of magnetic NPs

  14. Electromagnetic absorption properties of graphene/Fe nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yujin, E-mail: chenyujin@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of In-Fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry Education of China, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Lei, Zhenyu; Wu, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of In-Fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry Education of China, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhu, Chunling [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Gao, Peng, E-mail: gaopeng@hrbeu.edu.cn [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ouyang, Qiuyun; Qi, Li-Hong [Key Laboratory of In-Fiber Integrated Optics, Ministry Education of China, College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin, Wei, E-mail: qinwei@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene/Fe nanocomposites were prepared by a facile and green method. • 10 nm Fe nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed over the surface of the graphene sheets. • The nanocomposites exhibited strong electromagnetic wave absorption properties. - Abstract: Graphene (G)/Fe nanocomposites with ferromagnetic properties at room temperature were fabricated by a facile and green method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) amylases reveal that the α-Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of only about 10 nm were uniformly dispersed over the surface of the graphene sheets. Compared with other magnetic materials and the graphene, the nanocomposites exhibited significantly enhanced electromagnetic absorption properties. The maximum reflection loss to electromagnetic wave was up to −31.5 dB at a frequency of 14.2 GHz for G/Fe nanocomposites with a thickness of 2.5 mm. Importantly, the addition of the nanocomposites is only about 20 wt.% in the matrix. The enhanced mechanism is discussed and it is related to high surface areas of G/Fe nanocomposites, interfacial polarizations between graphene and iron, synergetic effect and efficient dispersity of magnetic NPs.

  15. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  16. Double-resonance optical-pumping effect and laddertype electromagnetically induced transparency signal without Doppler background in cesium atomic vapour cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bao-Dong; Gao Jing; Liang Qiang-Bing; Wang Jie; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2011-01-01

    In a Doppler-broadened ladder-type cesium atomic system(6S1/2-6P3/2-8S1/2),this paper characterizes electromagneticauy inouced transparency(EIT)in two different experimental arrangements, and investigates the influence of the double-resonance optical-pumping(DROP)effect on EIT in both arrangements. When the probe laser is weak,DROP is explicitly suppressed. When the probe laser is moderate, population of the intermediate level(6P3/2 F′=5)is remarkable, therefore DROP is mixed with EIT. An interesting bimodal spectrum with the broad component due toDROP and the narrow part due to EIT has been clearly observed in cesium 6S1/2 F=4-6P3/2 F′=5-8S1/2 F″-4 transitions.

  17. Parallel Exhibits: Combining Physical and Virtual Exhibits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lischke; T. Dingler; S. Schneegaß; A. Schmidt; M. van der Vaart; P. Wozniak

    2014-01-01

    People have a special fascination for original physical objects, their texture, and visible history. However, the digitization of exhibits and the use of these data is a current challenge for museums. We believe that museums need to capitalize on the affordances of physical exhibits to help users na

  18. Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...

  19. Betatron electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betatron electromagnet is described. It enables to increase focusing forces. For this purpose the ridges of one pole are located above the gaos between the redges of the second .oole at equal distances from two neighboring ridges of this pole. Azimuthal periodic controlling field with vertical symmetry plane forms in operation gap. Increase of focusing forces results to the growth of accelerated particle amount per cycle

  20. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  1. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems  and summaries.   The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...

  2. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  3. Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xihua; Xiao, Min

    2015-08-28

    Quantum entanglement provides an essential resource for quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum network. How to conveniently and efficiently produce entanglement between bright light beams presents a challenging task to build realistic quantum information processing networks. Here, we present an efficient and convenient way to realize a novel quantum phenomenon, named electromagnetically induced entanglement, in the conventional Λ-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the two fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.

  4. Theoretical analysis of dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Atabek, Osman; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed, realistic analysis of the implementation of a proposal for dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency (DIET) [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek, and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.163603] using an ensemble of cold atoms at high density. Using both direct numerical simulations and simple analytical models, we show how, in a realistic N -level quantum system, narrow transparency windows can appear at large densities. The existence of such windows is attributed to quantum interference effects in overlapping resonances. Our analysis is applied to the D1 transition of Rb atoms, and we show that, at high densities, Rb can behave like a simple three-level emitter exhibiting all the properties of DIET. Some interesting effects such as slow light are also presented, and their limits in the context of DIET are discussed

  5. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Tze-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  6. Diagnosis on Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's exhibition industry, often renowned as the locomotive of the tertiary industry, has developed rapidly in recent years and has become the sunrise industry and gets much concern. However, in exhibition industry circles in China, there is a saying being passed around "rushed exhibitions with bad service, property rights protection is badly needed; a low threshold with high demand, and 5 out of 10 exhibitions are disorganized." This jingle reflects many problems that currently exist in the exhibition industry in China.

  7. Minimalist's Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Sobouti, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    That the universal constancy of the speed of light is a logical consequence of Maxwell's equations is common knowledge. Here we show that the converse is also true. That is, electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics (ED) in all their details can be derived from the simple assumption that the speed of light is a universal constant. The consequences reach far. Conventional EM and ED are observation based. The alternative we propose spares all observational foundations of EM, only to reintroduce them as theoretically derived and empiricism-free laws of Nature. Simplicity is beauty and there are merits to it. For instance, if $\

  8. Dynamics of atom-atom correlations in the Fermi problem

    OpenAIRE

    Borrelli, Massimo; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Plastina, Francesco; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed perturbative study of the dynamics of several types of atom-atom correlations in the famous Fermi problem. This is an archetypal model to study micro-causality in the quantum domain, where two atoms, one initially excited and the other prepared in its ground state, interact with the vacuum electromagnetic field. The excitation can be transferred to the second atom via a flying photon, and various kinds of quantum correlations between the two are generated during this pro...

  9. Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.

  10. Electromagnetic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic calorimetry forms a key element of almost all current high energy particle physics detectors and has widespread application in related experimental fields such as nuclear physics and astro-particle physics. It will play a particularly important role in the latest generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where it is expected that high energy electrons and photons will provide some of the clearest signatures for new discoveries. This article introduces the basic concepts underlying electromagnetic calorimetry and illustrates how these principles have been applied in recent and current detector designs, explaining the connection between technical choices and specific physics goals. Designs are described in sufficient detail to demonstrate the compromises that have to be made in achieving optimum performance within practical constraints. The main emphasis is on the LHC experiments, which provide outstanding examples of the state-of-the-art. Selected examples from other domains, such as nuclear physics and neutrino experiments are also considered and particular attention is given to calorimeter design studies for the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) where the concept of Particle Flow Analysis is being used as a guiding influence in the overall detector optimization.

  11. Gravito-electromagnetism versus electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Tartaglia, Angelo; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2003-01-01

    The paper contains a discussion of the properties of the gravito-magnetic interaction in non stationary conditions. A direct deduction of the equivalent of Faraday-Henry law is given. A comparison is made between the gravito-magnetic and the electro-magnetic induction, and it is shown that there is no Meissner-like effect for superfluids in the field of massive spinning bodies. The impossibility of stationary motions in directions not along the lines of the gravito-magnetic field is found. Fi...

  12. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  13. Etruscan Culture Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    EARLY this year an exhibition on the ancient civilization of Etruria was held at the Beijing-based China Millennium Monument.The theme of the exhibition was Etruscan Culture and on show were the most representative cultural and historical relics of this ancient civilization unearthed in the past 20 years. The 349 exhibits from various

  14. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  15. Electromagnetic topology - Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    This paper presents the main principles of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: electromagnetic topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of electromagnetic topology. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  16. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-08-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  17. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  18. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  19. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  20. 4 Exhibition Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China's convention and exhibition industry has grown rapidly in recent years, with some of the nation's key cities becoming hubs of internationally renowned expositions, spurred by the construction of new exhibition centers.In 2003, a total of 3,298 conventions and exhibitions were held in China, up from 3,075 in the previous year. The number is estimated to have hit 4,000 in 2004.

  1. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  2. Multiphoton ionization of polarized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory is derived for the multiphoton ionization of polarized atoms. The angular distributions of the differential and total ionization probabilities are studied for various polarizations of the electromagnetic radiation. The circular dichroism is also studied. The multiphoton ionization of oriented s-state atoms near a resonance is studied separately. Some relevant experiments which might be carried out are discussed

  3. Sonnesgade 11 - Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    This exhibition consists of site specific installations; a collection of work by students from Studio Constructing an Archive at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and SLETH Architects. The exhibition showcases the culmination of a common project which began in February 2013. The project has been...

  4. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  5. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  6. Atomizing nozzle and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  7. Material Nuclear Culture, Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele; Mabb, David; Craighead, Alison; Crowe, Nick; Schuppli, Susan; Takeuchi, Kota; Erika, Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Material Nuclear Culture is an exhibition of contemporary artists responses to the physical qualities and material traces of the aesthetics, traditions and legacy of nuclear powered submarines in the UK. Whilst the MOD is currently undertaking a public consultation process on how and where to dismantle and store Britain’s old subs the long term problems of storing radioactive waste remain unresolved. The exhibition will include new sculptural, film, sound and installation works by David ...

  8. Models of quintessence coupled to the electromagnetic field and the cosmological evolution of alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, E J; Pospelov, M E

    2004-01-01

    We study the change of the effective fine structure constant in the cosmological models of a scalar field with a non-vanishing coupling to the electromagnetic field. Combining cosmological data and terrestrial observations we place empirical constraints on the size of the possible coupling and explore a large class of models that exhibit tracking behavior. The change of the fine structure constant implied by the quasar absorption spectra together with the requirement of tracking behavior impose a lower bound of the size of this coupling. Furthermore, the transition to the quintessence regime implies a narrow window for this coupling around $10^{-5}$ in units of the inverse Planck mass. We also propose a non-minimal coupling between electromagnetism and quintessence which has the effect of leading only to changes of alpha determined from atomic physics phenomena, but leaving no observable consequences through nuclear physics effects. In doing so we are able to reconcile the claimed cosmological evidence for a ...

  9. Looking into meta-atoms of plasmonic nanowire metamaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Kuntong

    2014-09-10

    Nanowire-based plasmonic metamaterials exhibit many intriguing properties related to the hyperbolic dispersion, negative refraction, epsilon-near-zero behavior, strong Purcell effect, and nonlinearities. We have experimentally and numerically studied the electromagnetic modes of individual nanowires (meta-atoms) forming the metamaterial. High-resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy has been used to visualize the intensity and phase of the modes. Numerical and analytical modeling of the mode structure is in agreement with the experimental observations and indicates the presence of the nonlocal response associated with cylindrical surface plasmons of nanowires.

  10. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  11. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  12. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  13. A novel preparation of silver-plated polyacrylonitrile fibers functionalized with antibacterial and electromagnetic shielding properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Weiya; Gao, Cuicui; Tian, Weicheng [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Sun, Bin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: yudan@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel modification method to initiate silver electroless plating on PAN fiber without noble metal catalyst. • The silver-plated fiber we fabricated has good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and antibacterial properties. • The metal layer has good adhesion strength and the properties of the silver-plated fiber can stand 30 cycles of standard washing. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers with antibacterial, electromagnetic shielding and antistatic functionalities were fabricated in this paper through modifying PAN fibers with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES) sequentially and followed with silver electroless plating. The silver layer on PAN fiber surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the silver layer was plated uniformly and compactly. The surface resistance of plated fabric was about 40 mΩ/sq on average. The antibacterial tests demonstrate that silver-plated PAN fiber exhibits excellent antibacterial property against S. aureus and E. coli with a non-leaching characteristic. The antibacterial property remains good after 30 cycles of standard washing, which is a strong proof of a durable adhesion between metal layer and fiber. The shielding effectiveness (SE) of silver-plated PAN fabric before and after 30 cycles of standard washing was about 40–80 dB and 35–50 dB, respectively. This resultant fiber can be used in many occasions for reducing or preventing electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic hazards.

  14. Designing an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the provoked dialogue as reflection-in-action is used to look into the designing of an exhibition, and the theoretical background is phenomenological and semiotic related to inquiries in the processes of design and the designer as a theoretical fieldwork. The concept of design...... is enveloped by the design process but also by the end product, which is an artefact. Design is much more than a given form that serves the function of an object. I will provide an illustrative case example focuses on the processes of developing the visual and symbolic design of a small poster exhibition...

  15. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  16. Do electromagnetic waves always propagate along null geodesics?

    CERN Document Server

    Asenjo, Felipe A

    2016-01-01

    We find exact solutions to Maxwell equations written in terms of four-vector potentials in non--rotating, as well as in G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes. Exact electromagnetic waves solutions are written on given gravitational field backgrounds where they evolve. We find that in non--rotating spherical symmetric spacetimes, electromagnetic plane waves travel along null geodesics. However, electromagnetic plane waves on G\\"odel and Kerr spacetimes do not exhibit that behavior.

  17. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  18. Applied Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.

  19. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  20. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  1. Entanglement and Its Dynamics with Atomic Spontaneous Decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. A. Hessian; A. -B. A. Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The atomic decay for a two-level atom interacting with a single mode of electromagnetic field is considered. For a chosen initial state, the exact solution of the master equation is found. Therefore, effect of the atomic damping on entanglement (purity loss), degree of entanglement by the negativity, mutual information and atomic coherence through the master equation are studied.

  2. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  3. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  4. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  5. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  6. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  7. Large electromagnetic pumps. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilman, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The development of large electromagnetic pumps for the liquid metal heat transfer systems of fission reactors has progressed for a number of years. Such pumps are now planned for fusion reactors and solar plants as well. The Einstein-Szilard (annular) pump has been selected as the preferred configuration. Some of the reasons that electromagnetic pumps may be preferred over mechanical pumps and why the annular configuration was selected are discussed. A detailed electromagnetic analysis of the annular pump, based on slug flow, is presented. The analysis is then used to explore the implications of large size and power on considerations of electromagnetic skin effect, geometric skin effect and the cylindrical geometry.

  8. Cooperative electromagnetic interactions and linewidth narrowing in discrete metamaterial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, S. D.; Ruostekoski, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple scattering of the electromagnetic (EM) field from an ensemble of resonators generates interactions which can lead to a cooperative response. In atomic gases, the cooperative response is often washed out due to fluctuations in atomic positions. When these fluctuations are restricted, as in an optical lattice in a Mott-insulator state with precisely one atom per lattice site, a cooperative response can be observed. The ability to fabricate metamaterials whose constituent circuit elemen...

  9. Biomass-Derived Thermally Annealed Interconnected Sulfur-Doped Graphene as a Shield against Electromagnetic Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Faisal; Kumar, Pradip; Kim, Yoon-Hyun; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-04-13

    Electrically conductive thin carbon materials have attracted remarkable interest as a shielding material to mitigate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) produced by many telecommunication devices. Herein, we developed a sulfur-doped reduced graphene oxide (SrGO) with high electrical conductivity through using a novel biomass, mushroom-based sulfur compound (lenthionine) via a two-step thermal treatment. The resultant SrGO product exhibited excellent electrical conductivity of 311 S cm(-1), which is 52% larger than 205 S cm(-1) for undoped rGO. SrGO also exhibited an excellent EMI shielding effectiveness of 38.6 dB, which is 61% larger than 24.4 dB measured for undoped rGO. Analytical examinations indicate that a sulfur content of 1.95 atom % acts as n-type dopant, increasing electrical conductivity and, therefore, EMI shielding of doped graphene. PMID:27002336

  10. Atoms at work Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Extensive international scientific and technological co-operation is one of the most important principles of JINR's activity. Every year more than 1000 specialists come to Dubna to participate in collaborative research projects.

  11. 2005 Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Harbin China International Winter Goods Exhibition DATE: Jan. 5-9 FREQUENCY: Annual FOUNDED TIME: Dec. 2001 VENUE: Harbin China International Conference & Exhibition Center EXHIBITS: winter sports goods and outdoor devices

  12. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  13. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  14. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  15. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  16. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  17. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  18. Atom assisted cavity cooling of a micromechanical oscillator in the unresolved sideband regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sarma, Bijita

    2016-01-01

    The ground state cooling of a mechanical oscillator in an optomechanical cavity containing an ensemble of identical two-level ground-state atoms is studied in the highly unresolved-sideband regime. The system exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency-like quantum interference effect. The mutual interaction with the cavity optical field gives rise to an indirect coupling between the atomic and mechanical modes. In presence of this interaction, the noise spectrum gets modified and leads to asymmetric cooling and heating rates. Using the quantum master equation, time evolution of the average phonon number is studied and it is observed that the average phonon occupancy in the mechanical resonator exhibits ground-state cooling.

  19. Resolution in Electromagnetic Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Schramm, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) signals are commonly used in geophysical exploration of the shallow subsurface. Sensitivity to conductivity implies they are particularly useful for inferring fluid content of porous media. However, low-frequency EM wavefields are diffusive, and have significantly larger wavelengths compared to seismic signals of equal frequency. The wavelength of a 30 Hz sinusoid propagating with seismic velocity 3000 m/s is 100 m, whereas an analogous EM signal diffusing through a conductive body of 0.1 S/m (clayey shale) has wavelength 1825 m. The larger wavelength has implications for resolution of the EM prospecting method. We are investigating resolving power of the EM method via theoretical and numerical experiments. Normal incidence plane wave reflection/transmission by a thin geologic bed is amenable to analytic solution. Responses are calculated for beds that are conductive or resistive relative to the host rock. Preliminary results indicate the classic seismic resolution/detection limit of bed thickness ~1/8 wavelength is not achieved. EM responses for point or line current sources recorded by general acquisition geometries are calculated with a 3D finite-difference algorithm. These exhibit greater variability which may allow inference of bed thickness. We also examine composite responses of two point scatterers with separation when illuminated by an incident EM field. This is analogous to the Rayleigh resolution problem of estimating angular separation between two light sources. The First Born Approximation implies that perturbations in permittivity, permeability, and conductivity have different scattering patterns, which may be indicators of EM medium properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  1. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  2. Theory of atomic motion in resonant radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.J.

    1980-03-01

    Atomic motion in resonant and near resonant electromagnetic radiation is investigated theoretically. The exposition begins with a study of atomic motion in a resonant standing light wave, with a view toward isotope separation by selective photodeflection, and proceeds to the investigation of more general problems of atomic motion in resonant radiation. The body of the work consists of six chapters, each of which was prepared as a manuscript for publication in the open literature.

  3. Theory of atomic motion in resonant radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic motion in resonant and near resonant electromagnetic radiation is investigated theoretically. The exposition begins with a study of atomic motion in a resonant standing light wave, with a view toward isotope separation by selective photodeflection, and proceeds to the investigation of more general problems of atomic motion in resonant radiation. The body of the work consists of six chapters, each of which was prepared as a manuscript for publication in the open literature

  4. Electromagnetic analysis of electromagnet for control element drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Kim, J.I.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, Y.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    A 2-D electromagnetic numerical analysis model is developed to calculate the attraction force of the electromagnet for CEDM. trend relating to electromagnetic design within constrained. The important design variables of the electromagnet are current density and air gap length. The results show that the attraction force by using optimum design point is well within the acceptable level. It is anticipated that the results will eventually be utilized for more realitic design of the electromagnet. 10 refs., 38 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Electromagnetic characteristics of carbon nanotube film materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT possesses remarkable electrical conductivity, which shows great potential for the application as electromagnetic shielding material. This paper aims to characterize the electromagnetic parameters of a high CNT loading film by using waveguide method. The effects of layer number of CNT laminate, CNT alignment and resin impregnation on the electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed. It is shown that CNT film exhibits anisotropic electromagnetic characteristic. Pristine CNT film shows higher real part of complex permittivity, conductivity and shielding effectiveness when the polarized direction of incident wave is perpendicular to the winding direction of CNT film. For the CNT film laminates, complex permittivity increases with increasing layer number, and correspondingly, shielding effectiveness decreases. The five-layer CNT film shows extraordinary shielding performance with shielding effectiveness ranging from 67 dB to 78 dB in X-band. Stretching process induces the alignment of CNTs. When aligned direction of CNTs is parallel to the electric field, CNT film shows negative permittivity and higher conductivity. Moreover, resin impregnation into CNT film leads to the decrease of conductivity and shielding effectiveness. This research will contribute to the structural design for the application of CNT film as electromagnetic shielding materials.

  6. Neutrino electromagnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to give a short review on a neutrino electromagnetic properties. In the introductory part of the paper a summary on what we really know about neutrinos is given: we discuss the basics of neutrino mass and mixing as well as the phenomenology of neutrino oscillations. This is important for the further discussion on a neutrino electromagnetic properties that starts with derivation of the neutrino electromagnetic vertex function in the most general form, that follows from the requirement of Lorentz invariance, for both the Dirac and Majorana cases. Then the problem of a neutrino form factors definition and calculation within gauge models is considered. In particular, we discuss a neutrino electric charge form factor and charge radius, dipole magnetic and electric and anapole form factors. Available experimental constraints on a neutrino electromagnetic properties are also reviewed, and the most important experiments on obtaining limits on a neutrino magnetic moment are discussed. A s...

  7. Computational electromagnetic-aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Joseph J S

    2016-01-01

    Presents numerical algorithms, procedures, and techniques required to solve engineering problems relating to the interactions between electromagnetic fields, fluid flow, and interdisciplinary technology for aerodynamics, electromagnetics, chemical-physics kinetics, and plasmadynamics This book addresses modeling and simulation science and technology for studying ionized gas phenomena in engineering applications. Computational Electromagnetic-Aerodynamics is organized into ten chapters. Chapter one to three introduce the fundamental concepts of plasmadynamics, chemical-physics of ionization, classical magnetohydrodynamics, and their extensions to plasma-based flow control actuators, high-speed flows of interplanetary re-entry, and ion thrusters in space exploration. Chapter four to six explain numerical algorithms and procedures for solving Maxwell’s equation in the time domain for computational electromagnetics, plasma wave propagation, and the time-dependent c mpressible Navier-Stokes equation for aerodyn...

  8. The classical electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Eyges, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    This excellent text covers a year's course in advanced theoretical electromagnetism, first introducing theory, then its application. Topics include vectors D and H inside matter, conservation laws for energy, momentum, invariance, form invariance, covariance in special relativity, and more.

  9. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  10. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rojansky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to classical electromagnetic theory covers the major aspects, including scalar fields, vectors, laws of Ohm, Joule, Coulomb, Faraday, Maxwell's equation, and more. With numerous diagrams and illustrations.

  11. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents / ... April 17, Dr. Donald Lindberg officially opened the exhibition, "Against the Odds: Making a Difference in Global ...

  12. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  13. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  14. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  17. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China International Trade Fair for Home Textiles and Accessories Date: August 28th - 30th, 2012 Venue: Shanghai New International Expo Center Organizers: China National Textile & Appare Council The Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT China Home Textile Association Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd. Exhibits: All kinds of hometextiles and accessories CAD/CAM system, relevant publications &websites. Space: 138,000 sqm. Tel: 0086-10-85229506, 85229504, 85229496, 85229446, 85229546, 85229505

  18. Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The 15th China International Trade Fair for Apparel Fabrics and Accessories Date:October 20th–23rd,2009 Venue:Shanghai New International Expo Centre Sponsor:China National Textile & Apparel Council Organizers:The Sub-Council of Textile Industry,CCPIT

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  2. Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and analyzes amount of leakage information with formulas.  

  3. A gravito-electromagnetic analogy based on tidal tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L F; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to a physical analogy between General Relativity and Electromagnetism, based on comparing tidal tensors of both theories. Using this approach we write a covariant form for the gravitational analogues of the Maxwell equations, from which the regime of validity of the analogy becomes manifest. Two explicit realisations of the analogy are given. The first one matches linearised gravitational tidal tensors to exact electromagnetic tidal tensors in Minkwoski spacetime. The second one matches exact magnetic gravitational tidal tensors for ultra-stationary metrics to exact magnetic tidal tensors of electromagnetism in curved spaces. We then establish a new proof for a class of tensor identities that define invariants of the type $\\vec{E}^2-\\vec{B}^2$ and $\\vec{E}\\cdot\\vec{B}$, and we exhibit the invariants built from tidal tensors in both gravity and electromagnetism. We contrast our approach with the two gravito-electromagnetic analogies commonly found in the literature, which are reviewed...

  4. Plasmon resonances in atomic-scale gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Johannes; Tarakina, Nadezda V; Häckel, Tim; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Huang, Jer-Shing; Biagioni, Paolo; Prangsma, Jord C; Hecht, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Gap modes in resonant plasmonic nanostructures exhibit optical fields whose spatial confinement and near-field enhancement strongly increases for smaller gaps[1]. In the context of augmented light-matter interaction, gap modes are of high interest for various applications such as single-emitter spectroscopy[2-4], quantum optics[5,6], extreme nonlinear optics[7,8], efficient optical switching[9], optical trapping10, and molecular opto-electronics[11]. By means of reproducible self-assembly we have obtained side-by-side aligned gold nanorod dimers with robust gaps reaching well below 0.5 nm. For such atomic-scale gaps extreme splitting of the symmetric and anti-symmetric dimer eigenmodes of more than 800 meV is observed in white-light scattering experiments. Besides providing evidence for atomic-scale gap modes at visible wavelengths with correspondingly small mode volumes and strong field enhancement, our experimental results can serve as a benchmark for electromagnetic modeling beyond local Maxwell theory[12,...

  5. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  6. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  7. Magnetic resonance as a channel of directed transmission of electromagnetic energy in animate nature

    CERN Document Server

    Fursa, E Y

    2002-01-01

    The phenomenon of magnetic resonance (either NMR or ESR) is a responce of atomic (molecular) system to the external electromagnetic effect. Electrons and nuclei, which possess magnetic moment, are the "magnetic antennas" in the biosystem "human being". They are able to receive (radiate) electromagnetic energy selectively in coordinates $H$ (magnetic field), $\

  8. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  9. Reflection-less device allows electromagnetic warp drive

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking properties of artificially structured materials is the negative refraction, an optical feature that known natural materials do not exhibit. Here, we propose a simple design, composed of two parallel layers of materials with different refraction indices $n_1=-n_2$, that constructs perfect reflection-less devices. The electromagnetic waves can tunnel from one layer to the other, a feature that resembles a truncation of the physical space leading to an electromagnetic warp dr...

  10. Focusing Light Beams To Improve Atomic-Vapor Optical Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy

    2010-01-01

    Specially designed focusing of light beams has been proposed as a means of improving the performances of optical buffers based on cells containing hot atomic vapors (e.g., rubidium vapor). There is also a companion proposal to improve performance by use of incoherent optical pumping under suitable conditions. Regarding the proposal to use focusing: The utility of atomic-vapor optical buffers as optical storage and processing devices has been severely limited by nonuniform spatial distributions of intensity in optical beams, arising from absorption of the beams as they propagate in atomic-vapor cells. Such nonuniformity makes it impossible to optimize the physical conditions throughout a cell, thereby making it impossible to optimize the performance of the cell as an optical buffer. In practical terms simplified for the sake of brevity, "to optimize" as used here means to design the cell so as to maximize the group delay of an optical pulse while keeping the absorption and distortion of the pulse reasonably small. Regarding the proposal to use incoherent optical pumping: For reasons too complex to describe here, residual absorption of light is one of the main impediments to achievement of desirably long group delays in hot atomic vapors. The present proposal is directed toward suppressing residual absorption of light. The idea of improving the performance of slow-light optical buffers by use of incoherent pumping overlaps somewhat with the basic idea of Raman-based slow-light systems. However, prior studies of those systems did not quantitatively answer the question of whether the performance of an atomic vapor or other medium that exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with Raman gain is superior to that of a medium that exhibits EIT without Raman gain.

  11. Analysis of Nonlinear Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Poutrina, Ekaterina; Smith, David R

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a nonlinear metamaterial formed by integrating nonlinear components or materials into the capacitive regions of metamaterial elements. A straightforward homogenization procedure leads to general expressions for the nonlinear susceptibilities of the composite metamaterial medium. The expressions are convenient, as they enable inhomogeneous system of scattering elements to be described as a continuous medium using the standard notation of nonlinear optics. We illustrate the validity and accuracy of our theoretical framework by performing measurements on a fabricated metamaterial sample composed of an array of split ring resonators (SRRs) with packaged varactors embedded in the capacitive gaps in a manner similar to that of Wang et al. [Opt. Express 16, 16058 (2008)]. Because the SRRs exhibit a predominant magnetic response to electromagnetic fields, the varactor-loaded SRR composite can be described as a magnetic material with nonlinear terms in its effective magnetic susceptibility...

  12. D- mesic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2012-02-01

    The anti-D meson self-energy is evaluated self-consistently, using unitarized coupled-channel theory, by computing the in-medium meson-baryon T matrix in the C=-1,S=0 sector. The heavy pseudo-scalar and heavy vector mesons, D¯ and D¯*, are treated on equal footing as required by heavy-quark spin symmetry. Results for energy levels and widths of D- mesic atoms in 12C, 40Ca, 118Sn, and 208Pb are presented. The spectrum contains states of atomic and of nuclear types for all nuclei. D¯0-nucleus bound states are also obtained. We find that, after electromagnetic and nuclear cascade, these systems end up with the D¯ bound in the nucleus, either as a meson or as part of an exotic D¯N (pentaquark) loosely bound state.

  13. Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Norbert; Schröttner, Jörg

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic sensibility, the ability to perceive electric and electromagnetic exposure, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), developing health symptoms due to exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields, need to be distinguished. Increased electrosensibility is a necessary, however, not a sufficient condition for electromagnetic hypersensitivity. At an extended sample of the general population of 708 adults, including 349 men and 359 women aged between 17 and 60 years, electrosensibility was investigated and characterized by perception threshold and its standard deviation. By analyzing the probability distributions of the perception threshold of electric 50 Hz currents, evidence could be found for the existence of a subgroup of people with significantly increased electrosensibility (hypersensibility) who as a group could be differentiated from the general population. The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:12929157

  14. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the Festival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: Back to creation,Powers of ten,LHC - time machine,Stars underground, and Geneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining and Metallurgy

  15. Macroscopic electromagnetic response of metamaterials with toroidal resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Savinov, V; Zheludev, N I

    2013-01-01

    Toroidal dipole, first described by Ia. B. Zeldovich [Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1184 (1957)], is a distinct electromagnetic excitation that differs both from the electric and the magnetic dipoles. It has a number of intriguing properties: static toroidal nuclear dipole is responsible for parity violation in atomic spectra; interactions between static toroidal dipole and oscillating magnetic dipole are claimed to violate Newton's Third Law while non-stationary charge-current configurations involving toroidal multipoles have been predicted to produce vector potential in the absence of electromagnetic fields. Existence of the toroidal response in metamaterials was recently demonstrated and is now a growing field of research. However, no direct analytical link has yet been established between the transmission and reflection of macroscopic electromagnetic media and toroidal dipole excitations. To address this essential gap in electromagnetic theory we have developed an analytical approach linking microscopic and macrosc...

  16. Stern-Gerlach effect of multi-component ultraslow optical solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to exhibit a Stern-Gerlach effect of n-component (n > 2) high-dimensional ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic system with (n + 1)-pod level configuration via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Based on Maxwell-Bloch equations, we derive coupled (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equations governing the spatial-temporal evolution of n probe-field envelopes. We show that under EIT condition significant deflections of the n components of coupled ultraslow optical solitons can be achieved by using a Stern-Gerlach gradient magnetic field. The stability of the ultraslow optical solitons can be realized by an optical lattice potential contributed from a far-detuned laser field.

  17. Photon exchange and correlation transfer in atom-atom entanglement dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    León García, Juan José; Sabín, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement dynamics of a system composed by a pair of neutral two-level atoms that are initially entangled, and the electromagnetic field, initially in the vacuum state, within the formalism of perturbative quantum field theory up to the second order. We show that entanglement sudden death and revival can occur while the atoms remain spacelike-separated and therefore cannot be related with photon exchange between the atoms. We interpret these phenomena as the consequence of a...

  18. Electromagnetic Energy Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A; Maslovski, Stanislav I

    2015-01-01

    The ideal black body fully absorbs all incident rays, that is, all propagating waves created by arbitrary sources. The known idealized realization of a black body is the perfectly matched layer (PML), widely used in numerical electromagnetics. However, ideal black bodies and PMLs do not interact with evanescent fields existing near any finite-size source, and the energy stored in these fields cannot be harvested. Here we introduce the concept of the ideal conjugate matched layer (CML), which fully absorbs energy of both propagating and evanescent fields of sources acting as an ideal sink for electromagnetic energy. Conjugate matched absorbers have exciting application potentials, as resonant attractors of electromagnetic energy into the absorber volume. We derive the conditions on the constitutive parameters of media which can serve as CML materials, numerically study the performance of planar and cylindrical CML and discuss possible realizations of such materials as metal-dielectric composites.

  19. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  20. Applied electromagnetic scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Besides classical applications (radar and stealth, antennas, microwave engineering), scattering and diffraction are enabling phenomena for some emerging research fields (artificial electromagnetic materials or metamaterials, terahertz technologies, electromagnetic aspects of nano-science). This book is a tutorial for advanced students who need to study diffraction theory. The textbook gives fundamental knowledge about scattering and diffraction of electromagnetic waves and provides some working examples of solutions for practical high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems. The book focuses on the most important diffraction effects and mechanisms influencing the scattering process and describes efficient and physically justified simulation methods - physical optics (PO) and the physical theory of diffraction (PTD) - applicable in typical remote sensing scenarios. The material is presented in a comprehensible and logical form, which relates the presented results to the basic principles of electromag...

  1. Electromagnetic pollution. Screens accused

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, J.

    1996-04-01

    A recent experiment carried out by M. Bastide (Montpellier University, France) has shown an important increase of mortality, immunosuppression and morphological changes for chicks embryos when submitted to the very low frequency electromagnetic field of a personal computer screen during incubation. Similar effects on pregnant women working in front of cathode ray tubes have never been demonstrated. The paper gives an overview of the epidemiological studies carried out so far to determine the possible noxious effects of electromagnetic fields on public health. In particular, EdF (Electricite de France) has started three different inquiries involving 400000 workmens from electric power industry in order to determine some possible correlation between the exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of leukemias, brain tumors and melanomas. William Dab, from EdF Medical Studies Service indicates that only a very small relation with the occurrence of brain tumors and acute myeloid leukemias have been shown so far. (J.S.). 4 refs., 2 photos.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  4. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  5. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  6. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  7. Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Xin-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Essentials of Computational Electromagnetics provides an in-depth introduction of the three main full-wave numerical methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM); namely, the method of moment (MoM), the finite element method (FEM), and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Numerous monographs can be found addressing one of the above three methods. However, few give a broad general overview of essentials embodied in these methods, or were published too early to include recent advances. Furthermore, many existing monographs only present the final numerical results without specifyin

  8. Lectures on electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes on electromagnetism have evolved from graduate and undergraduate EM theory courses given by the author at the University of Rochester, with the basics presented with clarity and his characteristic attention to detail. The thirteen chapters cover, in logical sequence, topics ranging from electrostatics, magnetostatics and Maxwell's equations to plasmas and radiation. Boundary value problems are treated extensively, as are wave guides, electromagnetic interactions and fields. This second edition comprises many of the topics expanded with more details on the derivation of vari

  9. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  10. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  11. The theory of electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, D S

    1964-01-01

    The Theory of the Electomagnetism covers the behavior of electromagnetic fields and those parts of applied mathematics necessary to discover this behavior. This book is composed of 11 chapters that emphasize the Maxwell's equations. The first chapter is concerned with the general properties of solutions of Maxwell's equations in matter, which has certain macroscopic properties. The succeeding chapters consider specific problems in electromagnetism, including the determination of the field produced by a variable charge, first in isolation and then in the surface distributions of an antenna. The

  12. Differential evolution in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Qing, Anyong

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution has proven itself a very simple while very powerful stochastic global optimizer. It has been applied to solve problems in many scientific and engineering fields. This book focuses on applications of differential evolution in electromagnetics to showcase its achievement and capability in solving synthesis and design problems in electromagnetics.Topics covered in this book include:*A comprehensive up-to-date literature survey on differential evolution*A systematic description of differential evolution*A topical review on applications of differential evolution in electromag

  13. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  14. Electromagnetic Force on a Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza-Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also ...

  15. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  16. Radiative processes of uniformly accelerated entangled atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, G

    2015-01-01

    We study radiative processes of uniformly accelerated entangled atoms, interacting with an electromagnetic field prepared in the Minkowski vacuum state. We discuss the structure of the rate of variation of the atomic energy for two atoms travelling in different hyperbolic world lines. We identify the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the generation of entanglement as well as to the decay of entangled states. Our results resemble the situation in which two inertial atoms are coupled individually to two spatially separated cavities at different temperatures. In addition, for equal accelerations we obtain that the maximally entangled antisymmetric Bell state is a decoherence-free state.

  17. Quantum noise property in coherent atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-xiang; WANG Hai-hong; CAI Jin; GAO Jiang-rui

    2006-01-01

    The coherent superposition of atomic states leads to the characteristic change of interacting lights because of the coupling between the lights and atoms.In this paper,the noise spectrum of the quantified light interacting with the atoms is studied under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT).It is shown that the noise spectrum displays a double M-shape noise profile resulted from the conversion of phase noise of probe beam.A squeezing of 0.3 dB can be observed at the detuning of probe light at the proper parameters of atoms and coupling beam.

  18. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  19. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  20. Electromagnetic piston engine

    OpenAIRE

    Божко, А. Е.; Иванов, Е. М.; ИВАНОВА З.А.

    2012-01-01

    In-process the presented features of functioning of electromagnetic reciprocator, that contains the pistons with flows, united by means of general knee axle with a fly-wheel, are accommodated in the cylinders equipped by the solenoids set in dead centers.

  1. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...

  2. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  3. Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Shahverdiyev, S S

    2002-01-01

    We propose a unified model of electromagnetism and gravitation in the framework of General Geometry. It reproduces Electromagnetism and General Relativity and predicts that electromagnetic field is a source for gravitational field. This theory is formulated in four dimensional spacetime and does not contain additional fields.

  4. Electromagnetic reactions and few-nucleon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an update on recent theoretical studies of electromagnetic reactions obtained by using the Lorentz integral transform method. The 4He nucleus will be the main focus of this report: results for the photo-disintegration and the electro-disintegration processes will be shown, as well as a recent calculation of polarizability effects in muonic atoms. We also discuss the exciting possibility to investigate inelastic reactions for medium mass nuclei in coupled-cluster theory, highlighted by the recent application to the 16O photo-nuclear cross section. (author)

  5. Electromagnetic Reactions and Few-Nucleon Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacca Sonia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an update on recent theoretical studies of electromagnetic reactions obtained by using the Lorentz integral transform method. The 4He nucleus will be the main focus of this report: results for the photo-disintegration and the electro-disintegration processes will be shown, as well as a recent calculation of polarizability effects in muonic atoms. We also discuss the exciting possibility to investigate inelastic reactions for mediummass nuclei in coupled-cluster theory, highlighted by the recent application to the 16O photo-nuclear cross section.

  6. An electromagnetically induced grating by microwave modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Zhi-Hong; Shin, Sung Guk; Kim, Kisik, E-mail: kisik@inha.ac.k [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-28

    We study the phenomenon of an electromagnetically induced phase grating in a double-dark state system of {sup 87}Rb atoms, the two closely placed lower fold levels of which are coupled by a weak microwave field. Owing to the existence of the weak microwave field, the efficiency of the phase grating is strikingly improved, and an efficiency of approximately 33% can be achieved. Under the action of the weak standing wave field, the high efficiency of the phase grating can be maintained by modulating the strength and detuning of the weak microwave field, increasing the strength of the standing wave field. (fast track communication)

  7. Electromagnetic Reactions and Few-Nucleon Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bacca, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on recent theoretical studies of electromagnetic reactions obtained by using the Lorentz integral transform method. The 4He nucleus will be the main focus of this report: results for the photo-disintegration and the electro-disintegration processes will be shown, as well as a recent calculation of polarizability effects in muonic atoms. We also discuss the exciting possibility to investigate inelastic reactions for medium-mass nuclei in coupled-cluster theory, highlighted by the recent application to the 16O photo-nuclear cross section.

  8. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  9. Auto Technology Exhibition in Tianjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Automotive Technology Exhibition Tianjing2009,jointly hosted by the Society of Automotive Engineers of China(SAE-China),China Automotive Technology and Research Center(CATRC)and Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area(TETD),is to be held in Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center from August 27 to August 30 this year.In line with China's national 11th Five-year Plan,The Automobile Industry Revitalization and Adjustments Planning and The Equipment Manufacturing Revitalization and Adjustments Planning,this Exhibition,centered on the theme of automobile and equipment manufacturing,arranges the exhibition halls respectively for private autos,commercial autos and equipment manufacturing etc.

  10. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  11. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  12. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  13. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  14. Linear atomic quantum coupler

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of them includes a localized and/or a trapped atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchanging energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way, i.e. as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), and with the atom-mode in the second waveguide via evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for the system and deduce the exact form for the wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional linear coupler, the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions, the system can yield the results of the two-m...

  15. Double-negative acoustic metamaterial based on hollow steel tube meta-atom

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Huaijun; Ding, Changlin; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    We presented an acoustic 'meta-atom' model of hollow steel tube (HST). The simulated and experimental results demonstrated that the resonant frequency is closely related to the length of the HST. Based on the HST model, we fabricated a two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial (AM) with negative effective mass density, which put up the transmission dip and accompanied inverse phase in experiment. By coupling the HST with split hollow sphere (SHS), another kind of 'meta-atom' with negative effective modulus in the layered sponge matrix, a three-dimensional (3D) AM was fabricated with simultaneously negative modulus and negative mass density. From the experiment, it is shown that the transmission peak similar to the electromagnetic metamaterials exhibited in the double-negative region of the AM. We also demonstrated that this kind of doble-negative AM can faithfully distinguish the acoustic sub-wavelength details ({\\lambda}/7) at the resonance frequency of 1630Hz.

  16. Absorptive reduction and width narrowing in A-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuan-Yuan; Hou Xun; Bai Jin-Tao; Yan Jun-Feng; Gan Chen-Li; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the absorptive reduction and the width narrowing of electromagnetically induced trans- parency (EIT) in a thin vapour film of A-type atoms confined between two dielectric walls whose thickness is comparable with the wavelength of the probe field. The absorptive lines of the weak probe field exhibit strong reductions and very narrow EIT dips, which mainly results from the velocity slow-down effects and transient behaviour of atoms in a con-fined system. It is also shown that the lines are modified by the strength of the coupling field and the ratio of L/λ, with L the film thickness and A the wavelength of the probe field. A simple robust recipe for EIT in a thin medium is achievable in experiment.

  17. Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41

  18. The Globe: Exhibitions and Events

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva Conference Nano materials: small dimensions, big opportunities Thursday 22 November at 8.00 p.m. Christoph Renner, Professor of Physics and Deputy Director of MaNEP*Information technologies have developed at an incredible pace over the past sixty years. Mobile phones, MP3 players and other modern gizmos are infinitely more powerful than the first computers, which took up whole rooms! The main driving force behind this evolutionary process has been the boom in the miniaturisation of electronic components. The latest technological innovations have led to a new range of tools being developed, allowing matter to be visualised, manipulated and characterised at the smallest possible scales, molecule by molecule and even atom by atom. At these scales, the behaviour of matter is altered as the conventional properties of mass are gradually taken over by quantum effects with which we are quite unfamiliar in our everyday li...

  19. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  20. Models of quintessence coupled to the electromagnetic field and the cosmological evolution of alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. J.; Nunes, N. J.; Pospelov, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the change of the effective fine structure constant in the cosmological models of a scalar field with a nonvanishing coupling to the electromagnetic field. Combining cosmological data and terrestrial observations we place empirical constraints on the size of the possible coupling and explore a large class of models that exhibit tracking behavior. The change of the fine structure constant implied by the quasar absorption spectra together with the requirement of tracking behavior impose a lower bound of the size of this coupling. Furthermore, the transition to the quintessence regime implies a narrow window for this coupling around 10-5 in units of the inverse Planck mass. We also propose a nonminimal coupling between electromagnetism and quintessence which has the effect of leading only to changes of alpha determined from atomic physics phenomena, but leaving no observable consequences through nuclear physics effects. In doing so we are able to reconcile the claimed cosmological evidence for a changing fine structure constant with the tight constraints emerging from the Oklo natural nuclear reactor.

  1. Simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jian-Qi

    2007-01-01

    A new quantum optical mechanism to realize simultaneously negative electric permittivity and magnetic permeability is suggested. In order to obtain a negative permeability, we choose a proper atomic configuration that can dramatically enhance the contribution of the magnetic-dipole allowed transition via the atomic phase coherence. It is shown that the atomic system chosen with proper optical parameters can give rise to striking electromagnetic responses (leading to a negative refractive index) and that the atomic vapour becomes a left-handed medium in an optical frequency band. Differing from the previous schemes of artificial composite metamaterials (based on classical electromagnetic theory) to achieve the left-handed materials, which consist of anisotropic millimetre-scale composite structure units, the left-handed atomic vapour presented here is isotropic and homogeneous at the atomic-scale level. Such an advantage may be valuable in realizing the superlens (and hence perfect image) with left-handed atomic vapour.

  2. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  3. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  4. Electromagnetic Wave Source Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Oskooi, Ardavan

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relationships between current sources and the resulting electromagnetic waves in FDTD simulations. First, the "total-field/scattered-field" approach to creating incident plane waves is reviewed and seen to be a special case of the well-known principle of equivalence in electromagnetism: this can be used to construct "equivalent" current sources for any desired incident field, including waveguide modes. The effects of dispersion and discretization are discussed, and a simple technique to separate incident and scattered fields is described in order to compensate for imperfect equivalent currents. The important concept of the local density of states (LDOS) is reviewed, which elucidates the relationship between current sources and the resulting fields, including enhancement of the LDOS via mode cutoffs (Van Hove singularities) and resonant cavities (Purcell enhancement). We also address various other source techniques such as covering a wide range of frequencies and incident angles in a...

  5. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C. E-mail: cesare.bini@roma1.infn.it; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P

    2002-04-11

    The KLOE detector was designed primarily for the study of CP violation in neutral kaon decays at DAPHINE, the Frascati phi-factory. The detector consists of a tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. A lead-scintillating-fiber sampling calorimeter satisfies best the requirements of the experiment, providing adequate energy resolution and superior timing accuracy. We describe in the following the construction of the calorimeter, its calibration and how the calorimeter information is used to obtain energy, point of entry and time of the arrival of photons, electrons and charged particles. With e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data at DAPHINE for an integrated luminosity of some 2 pb{sup -1} we find for electromagnetic showers, an energy resolution of 5.7%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 54/{radical}E(GeV) ps. We also present a measurement of efficiency for low energy photons.

  6. Spin-Electromagnetic Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, T

    2013-01-01

    The hydrodynamic model including the spin degree of freedom and the electromagnetic field was discussed. In this derivation, we applied electromagnetism for macroscopic medium proposed by Minkowski. For the equation of motion of spin, we assumed that the hydrodynamic equation of the Pauli equation is reproduced when the many-body effect is neglected. The fluid and spin stress tensors induced by the many-body effect were obtained by employing the algebraic positivity of the entropy production in the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. In our model, the effect of the spin-magnetic interaction is absorbed into the magnetic polarization so as to satisfy the momentum and angular momentum conservations. We further compared our result with other existing models.

  7. Cohomology in electromagnetic modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dłotko, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic modeling provides an interesting context to present a link between physical phenomena and homology and cohomology theories. Over the past twenty-five years, a considerable effort has been invested by the computational electromagnetics community to develop fast and general techniques for potential design. When magneto-quasi-static discrete formulations based on magnetic scalar potential are employed in problems which involve conductive regions with holes, \\textit{cuts} are needed to make the boundary value problem well defined. While an intimate connection with homology theory has been quickly recognized, heuristic definitions of cuts are surprisingly still dominant in the literature. The aim of this paper is first to survey several definitions of cuts together with their shortcomings. Then, cuts are defined as generators of the first cohomology group over integers of a finite CW-complex. This provably general definition has also the virtue of providing an automatic, general and efficient algor...

  8. Electromagnetic fields and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magdy F

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...

  9. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  10. Introduction to electromagnetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, George E

    2003-01-01

    A direct, stimulating approach to electromagnetic theory, this text employs matrices and matrix methods for the simple development of broad theorems. The author uses vector representation throughout the book, with numerous applications of Poisson's equation and the Laplace equation (the latter occurring in both electronics and magnetic media). Contents include the electrostatics of point charges, distributions of charge, conductors and dielectrics, currents and circuits, and the Lorentz force and the magnetic field. Additional topics comprise the magnetic field of steady currents, induced ele

  11. The KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Anulli, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Cabibbo, G.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Casarsa, M.; Cataldi, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell' Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Doria, A.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franceschi, A.; Franzini, P.; Gao, M.L.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giannasi, A.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Han, H.G.; Han, S.W.; Huang, X.; Incagli, M.; Ingrosso, L.; Keeble, L.; Kim, W.; Kuo, C.; Lanfranchi, G. E-mail: gaia.lanfranchi@lnf.infn.it; Lee-Franzini, J.; Lomtadze, T.; Mao, C.S.; Martemianov, M.; Mei, W.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moccia, S.; Moulson, M.; Mueller, S.; Murtas, F.; Pacciani, L.; Palomba, M.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Picca, D.; Pirozzi, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R.D.; Sciascia, B.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Silano, P.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Ventura, A.; Woelfle, S.; Wu, Y.; Xie, Y.G.; Zema, P.F.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, J.Q.; Zhao, P.P

    2002-11-21

    The KLOE calorimeter is a fine lead-scintillating fiber sampling calorimeter. We describe in the following the calibration procedures and the calorimeter performances obtained after 3 years of data taking. We get an energy resolution for electromagnetic showers of 5.4%/{radical}E(GeV) and a time resolution of 56 ps/{radical}E(GeV). We also present a measurement of efficiency for low-energy photons.

  12. Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic polarizabilities of hadrons are reviewed, after a discussion of classical analogues. Differences between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches can lead to conflicts with conventional nuclear physics sum rules and calculational techniques. The nucleon polarizabilities are discussed in the context of the non-relativistic valence quark model, which provides a good qualitative description. The recently measured pion polarizabilities are discussed in the context of chiral symmetry and quark-loop models. 58 refs., 5 figs

  13. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    B. G. Sidharth

    2002-01-01

    Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a particle as a source or...

  14. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  15. Fractal Electromagnetic Showers

    OpenAIRE

    Anchordoqui, L.A.; Kirasirova, M.; McCauley, T. P.; Paul, T.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    We study the self-similar structure of electromagnetic showers and introduce the notion of the fractal dimension of a shower. Studies underway of showers in various materials and at various energies are presented, and the range over which the fractal scaling behaviour is observed is discussed. Applications to fast shower simulations and identification, particularly in the context of extensive air showers, are also discussed.

  16. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; Nameth, P.; Okelly, K.; Phillips, H.; Rollo, J.; Rupert, E.; Sykes, H.; Vitrano, E.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  17. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  18. Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency by a Train of Short Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Cun-Yun

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report the experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency in hot rubidium (85 Rb)atomic vapour by using an actively mode-locked external cavity diode laser in Littman-Metcalf configuration.We can make opaque resonant transitions transparent to any two optical comb components in the pulse trains which excite atomic coherence in the ground states of 85Rb.

  19. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-11-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory.

  20. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  1. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  2. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwolińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    or be derived from a combination of many sources. Reported symptoms associated with electromagnetic fields are characterized by the overlapping effect with other individuals with these symptoms exhibited a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, related to exposure to a single or multiple sources of EMF. The phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the form of dermatological disease is associated with mastocytosis. The biopsies taken from skin lesions of patients with EHS indicated on infiltration of the skin layers of the epidermis with mastocytes and their degranulation, as well as on release anaphylactic reaction mediators such as histamine, chymase and tryptase. The number of people suffering from EHS in the world is growing describing themselves as severely dysfunctional, showing multi organ non-specific symptoms upon exposure to low doses of electromagnetic radiation, often associated with hypersensitivity to many chemical agents (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity-MCS) and/or other environmental intolerances (Sensitivity Related Illness-SRI).

  3. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwolińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    or be derived from a combination of many sources. Reported symptoms associated with electromagnetic fields are characterized by the overlapping effect with other individuals with these symptoms exhibited a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, related to exposure to a single or multiple sources of EMF. The phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the form of dermatological disease is associated with mastocytosis. The biopsies taken from skin lesions of patients with EHS indicated on infiltration of the skin layers of the epidermis with mastocytes and their degranulation, as well as on release anaphylactic reaction mediators such as histamine, chymase and tryptase. The number of people suffering from EHS in the world is growing describing themselves as severely dysfunctional, showing multi organ non-specific symptoms upon exposure to low doses of electromagnetic radiation, often associated with hypersensitivity to many chemical agents (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity-MCS) and/or other environmental intolerances (Sensitivity Related Illness-SRI). PMID:27012122

  4. Energy and linear and angular momenta in simple electromagnetic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-01-01

    We present examples of simple electromagnetic systems in which energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum exhibit interesting behavior. The systems are sufficiently simple to allow exact solutions of Maxwell's equations in conjunction with the electrodynamic laws of force, torque, energy, and momentum. In all the cases examined, conservation of energy and momentum is confirmed.

  5. Electromagnetic Evidence of Altered Visual Processing in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M.; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Bolte, Sven; Braun, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate intact or superior local processing of visual-spatial tasks. We investigated the hypothesis that in a disembedding task, autistic individuals exhibit a more local processing style than controls, which is reflected by altered electromagnetic brain activity in response to embedded stimuli…

  6. Green Revolution for Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai World Expo is widely regarded as another grand international pageant, so many people thought that the opening ceremony must be as much magnificent and brilliant as the opening ceremony for Beijing Olympics.However, it was revealed by Wan Jifei, Executive Director of the ExecutiveCommittee of the Shanghai World Expo that the opening ceremony of the Expo was not that luxurious and extravagant as that for the Beijing Olympics, but would have its own characteristics under the elaborate design and thorough arrangement conducted by the host. The veto against that luxurious opening ceremony was actually a practice echoing for the concept of Green World Expo, which would be applied for every corner from the beginning to the end of the Expo, including the construction of exhibition hall, building of exhibition stand and advertisement etc.

  7. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  8. Marketing for exhibitions in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determinate how the European companies may market the international trade fairs in order to attract and serve Russian business customers. The aim was to find out what kind of marketing are tools available for small companies perceiving new market opportunities with Russian business market. The study was carried out by analysing the secondary sources and a massive corpus of publications related to marketing in Russia and exhibitions. The research method was c...

  9. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  10. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  12. Electromagnetic Scattering and Material Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Omar, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Based on the author's more-than 30 years of experience, this first-of-its-kind volume presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of electromagnetic fields and their scattering by material objects. The book considers all three categories of scattering environments commonly used for material measurements – unbounded regions, waveguides, and cavity resonators. The book covers such essential topics as electromagnetic field propagation, radiation, and scattering, containing mathematically rigorous approaches for the computation of electromagnetic fields and the explanation of their behavior.

  13. Electromagnetic field and cosmic censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Düztaş, Koray

    2013-01-01

    We construct a gedanken experiment in which an extremal Kerr black hole interacts with a test electromagnetic field. Using Teukolsky's solutions for electromagnetic perturbations in Kerr spacetime, and the conservation laws imposed by the energy momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field and the Killing vectors of the spacetime, we prove that this interaction cannot convert the black hole into a naked singularity, thus cosmic censorship conjecture is not violated in this case.

  14. Non—conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongChuan-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coulpled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes-Cummings model for coupled atoms, the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of field and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  15. Non-conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董传华

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coupled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes Cummings model for coupled atoms,the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of fields and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  16. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  17. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  18. Electromagnetic waves in stratified media

    CERN Document Server

    Wait, James R; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Electromagnetic Waves, Volume 3: Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media provides information pertinent to the electromagnetic waves in media whose properties differ in one particular direction. This book discusses the important feature of the waves that enables communications at global distances. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general analysis for the electromagnetic response of a plane stratified medium comprising of any number of parallel homogeneous layers. This text then explains the reflection of electromagne

  19. The dressed mobile atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, B; Guillot, L

    2005-01-01

    We consider free atoms and ions in $\\R^3$ interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. Because of the translation invariance we consider the reduced hamiltonian associated with the total momentum. After introducing an ultraviolet cutoff we prove that the reduced hamiltonian for atoms has a ground state if the coupling constant and the total momentum are sufficiently small. In the case of ions an extra infrared regularization is needed. We also consider the case of the hydrogen atom in a constant magnetic field. Finally we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the reduced hamiltonian. \\end{abstract}

  20. Weisskopf--Wigner approximation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approximations involved in the usual Weisskopf-Wigner treatment of the emission of light by an atom are investigated. The system considered is a recoilless, nonrelativistic hydrogen atom interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field, in dipole approximation (with a nonrelativistic cutoff in momentum space). Since only electric dipole waves interact with the atom, the Hamiltonian can be expressed in a simple one-dimensional form. The time evolution of the system is determined by resolvent operator techniques. The method goes beyond the analysis by Van Hove and Hugenholtz, allowing one to treat also fields of finite intensity in the infinite-volume limit. A comparison between this and other techniques is made

  1. Pauli equation for a particle in metric and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pauli equation and definition of probability current and density for a particle in weak metric and arbitrary electromagnetic fields is discussed. To formulate non-relativistic quantum mechanical problems in arbitrary electromagnetic fields and weak metrics (non-inertial systems, gravitational fields which are distant fields of arbitrary distribution of masses, gravitational waves) it is not necessary to make use of the general-relativistic Dirac equation. Close analogies exist to the known Pauli theory with electromagnetic fields. The corresponding Hamiltonians are given for different metric fields. For quantum systems (H-atoms) which are disturbed by a homogeneous gravitational field and a gravitational wave the resulting shift of energy levels and the transition probability is calculated. (author)

  2. Introduction to electromagnetic engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, Roger E

    2003-01-01

    This study of electromagnetic theory introduces students to a broad range of quantities and concepts, imparting the necessary vector analysis and associated mathematics and reinforcing its teachings with several elementary field problems. Based on circuit theory rather than on the classical force-relationship approach, the text uses the theory of electric circuits to provide a system of experiments already familiar to the electrical engineer; a series of field concepts are then introduced as a logical extension of circuit theory. Virtually unobtainable elsewhere, this text was written by a pr

  3. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  4. Electromagnetic waves and photons

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We explore how the thermal ground states of two mixing and pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theories, SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}\\sim 10^{-4}\\,$eV and SU(2)$_{e}$ of scale $\\Lambda_{e}\\sim 5\\times 10^5\\,$eV, associate either wave or particle aspects to electromagnetic disturbances during thermalisation towards the photon gas of a blackbody, in realising the photoelectric effect, and through the frequency dependence of the monochromatic, nonthermal beam structure in Thomson/Compton scattering.

  5. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M.

    2008-06-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider has placed great emphasis on precise calorimetry. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) contains 75000 scintillating lead tungstate crystals that are read out using sophisticated electronics; this paper describes these technologies and how they were implemented in the calorimeter. The results of pre-calibration measurements for the detector modules are detailed. Installation of the ECAL into the underground cavern has commenced and the commissioning process and its status are discussed. The experiment is scheduled to start in 2008 and prospects for the first year of operation and running are given.

  6. CERN Permanent exhibitions short version

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Visits Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. CERN invites the public to discover the mysteries of the Universe and the work of the world's biggest physics laboratory through free of charge guided tours and permanent exhibitions. As a group, with friends, individually, on foot, on your bike, come and discover CERN or explore it virtually. Welcome!

  7. Dancing in the Boardroom (exhibition)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2016-01-01

    The Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit (MOCAD) invited Chloë Brown to present the United States premiere of three pieces of work in the DEPE Space gallery: 'Dancing in the Boardroom (Turnin' My Heartbeat Up)' video, her large drawing 'From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit' and the video 'Dancing in the Street', which was filmed along the route in Detroit that the drawing follows. The exhibition explores connections between the post-industrial cities of Stoke-on-Trent UK and Detroit USA...

  8. Off-resonant transitions in the collective dynamics of multi-level atomic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the contributions of off-resonant transitions to the dynamics of a system of N multi-level atoms sharing one excitation and interacting with the quantized vector electromagnetic field. The rotating wave approximation significantly simplifies the derivation of the equations of motion...... describing the collective atomic dynamics, but it leads to an incorrect expression for the dispersive part of the atom–atom interaction terms. For the case of two-level atoms and a scalar electromagnetic field, it turns out that the atom–atom interaction can be recovered correctly if integrals over the...... photon mode frequencies are extended to incorporate negative values. We explicitly derive the atom–atom interaction for multi-level atoms, coupled to the full vector electromagnetic field, and we recover also in this general case the validity of the results obtained by the extension to negative...

  9. Electromagnetic interaction of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Peter R.

    The observation of extraordinary transmission through subwavelength apertures has propelled a great interest in understanding its nature. It defies classical theories of electromagnetic interaction by demanding a closer examination of the surface properties. Traditionally, as surface features become much smaller in size than a single wavelength of interest, the structure is essentially continuous. Any periodic subwavelength corrugation or aperture array should not interact strongly with an incident field and therefore not contribute to any significant transmission through the film. We find that this is not always the case and that we may tune the surface geometry at these scales to affect the overall medium behavior. It is possible that a material may transcend its own natural properties and, in essence, become a metamaterial. The following analysis examines the concepts of metamaterials from a fundamental viewpoint. It does not seek to disrupt classical theories but instead demonstrates their validity to describe a new phenomenon. Several theories have been proposed that offer unique surface interactions as evidence of enhanced transmission. It is proposed that a fundamental Maxwell representation is sufficient in predicting the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with a metamaterial. In particular, a formalism has been developed to analyze enhanced transmission through a metallic grating structure. To experimentally validate this model, a fabrication procedure has been developed that allows for the production of quality thick film structures with subwavelength features. Finally, the analysis of metamaterials looks towards the RF spectrum to demonstrate a novel design to achieve conformal waveguides and antennas.

  10. The HPS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Balossino, Ilaria; Battaglieri, Marco; Bondi, Mariangela; Buchanan, Emma; Calvo, Daniela; Celentano, Andrea; Charles, Gabriel; Colaneri, Luca; D'Angelo, Annalisa; De Napoli, Marzio; De Vita, Raffaella; Dupre, Raphael; Ehrhart, Mathieu; Filippi, Alessandra; Garcon, Michel; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Guidal, Michel; Holtrop, Maurik; Iurasov, Volodymyr; Kubarovsky, Valery; McCarty, Kyle; McCormick, Jeremy; Osipenko, Mikhail; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Randazzo, Nunzio; Rauly, Emmanuel; Raydo, Benjamin; Rindel, Emmanuel; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosier, Philippe; Sipala, Valeria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Szumila-Vance, Holly; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) is searching for a new gauge boson, the so-called "heavy photon". Through its kinetic mixing with the Standard Model photon, this particle could decay into an electron-positron pair. It would then be detectable as a narrow peak in the invariant mass spectrum of such pairs, or, depending on its lifetime, by a decay downstream of the production target. The HPS experiment is installed in Hall-B of Jefferson Lab. This article presents the design and performance of one of the two detectors of the experiment, the electromagnetic calorimeter, during the runs performed in 2015-2016. The calorimeter's main purpose is to provide a fast trigger and reduce the copious background from electromagnetic processes through matching with a tracking detector. The detector is a homogeneous calorimeter, made of 442 lead-tungsten (PbWO$_4$) scintillating crystals, each read-out by an avalanche photodiode coupled to a custom trans-impedance amplifier.

  11. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment-all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, 'space-coiling' metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials ('meta-liquids'), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  12. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  13. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  14. Approach on electromagnetic wave threshold value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From survey, measurement and self-impression in electromagnetic environment and with the aid of typical standard analysis, proposed that the community showed lay stress on electromagnetic pollution and propose tolerable electromagnetic radiation value

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  16. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Thomas Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...

  17. Stored electromagnetic energy and quality factor of radiating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Miloslav; Jelinek, Lukas; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the old yet unsolved problem of defining and evaluating the stored electromagnetic energy-a quantity essential for calculating the quality factor, which reflects the intrinsic bandwidth of the considered electromagnetic system. A novel paradigm is proposed to determine the stored energy in the time domain leading to the method, which exhibits positive semi-definiteness and coordinate independence, i.e. two key properties actually not met by the contemporary approaches. The proposed technique is compared with an up-to-date frequency domain method that is extensively used in practice. Both concepts are discussed and compared on the basis of examples of varying complexity.

  18. Master Equation for Electromagnetic Dissipation and Decoherence of Density Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Haba, Z.; Kleinert, H.

    2000-01-01

    We set up a forward--backward path integral for a point particle in a bath of photons to derive a master equation for the density matrix which describes electromagnetic dissipation and decoherence. As an application, we recalculate the Weisskopf-Wigner formula for the natural line width of an atomic state at zero temperature and find, in addition, the temperature broadening caused by the decoherence term.

  19. Macroscopic electromagnetic response of metamaterials with toroidal resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Savinov, V.; Fedotov, V. A.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2013-01-01

    Toroidal dipole, first described by Ia. B. Zeldovich [Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1184 (1957)], is a distinct electromagnetic excitation that differs both from the electric and the magnetic dipoles. It has a number of intriguing properties: static toroidal nuclear dipole is responsible for parity violation in atomic spectra; interactions between static toroidal dipole and oscillating magnetic dipole are claimed to violate Newton's Third Law while non-stationary charge-current configurations involving...

  20. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  1. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  2. Opacity of electromagnetically induced transparency for quantum fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis-Blostein, P

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of a pair of quantized fields inside a medium of three-level atoms in $\\Lambda$ configuration. We calculate the stationary quadrature noise spectrum of the field after propagating through the medium, in the case where the probe field is in a squeezed state and the atoms show electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We find an oscillatory transfer of the initial quantum properties between the probe and pump fields which is most strongly pronounced when both fields have comparable Rabi frequencies. This implies that the quantum state measured after propagation can be completely different from the initial state, even though the mean values of the field are unaltered.

  3. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  4. Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabashimiye, Georges; Ghimire, Shambhu; Wu, Mengxi; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.; Reis, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Strong-field laser excitation of solids can produce extremely nonlinear electronic and optical behaviour. As recently demonstrated, this includes the generation of high harmonics extending into the vacuum-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. High harmonic generation is shown to occur fundamentally differently in solids and in dilute atomic gases. How the microscopic mechanisms in the solid and the gas differ remains a topic of intense debate. Here we report a direct comparison of high harmonic generation in the solid and gas phases of argon and krypton. Owing to the weak van der Waals interaction, rare (noble)-gas solids are a near-ideal medium in which to study the role of high density and periodicity in the generation process. We find that the high harmonic generation spectra from the rare-gas solids exhibit multiple plateaus extending well beyond the atomic limit of the corresponding gas-phase harmonics measured under similar conditions. The appearance of multiple plateaus indicates strong interband couplings involving multiple single-particle bands. We also compare the dependence of the solid and gas harmonic yield on laser ellipticity and find that they are similar, suggesting the importance of electron–hole recollision in these solids. This implies that gas-phase methods such as polarization gating for attosecond pulse generation and orbital tomography could be realized in solids.

  5. Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.

  6. Casimir-Polder forces on moving atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Scheel, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Polarisable atoms and molecules experience the Casimir-Polder force near magnetoelectric bodies, a force that is induced by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field and the matter. Atoms and molecules in relative motion to a magnetoelectric surface experience an additional, velocity-dependent force. We present a full quantum-mechanical treatment of this force and identify a generalised Doppler effect, the time delay between photon emission and reabsorption, and the Roentgen interaction as its three sources. For ground-state atoms, the force is very small and always decelerating, hence commonly known as quantum friction. For atom and molecules in electronically excited states, on the contrary, both decelerating and accelerating forces can occur depending on the magnitude of the atomic transition frequency relative to the surface plasmon frequency.

  7. Atomic secrecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An article, The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It, Why We're Telling It, by Howard Morland was to be published in The Progressive magazine in February, 1979. The government, after learning of the author's and the editors' intention to publish the article and failing to persuade them to voluntarily delete about 20% of the text and all of the diagrams showing how an H-bomb works, requested a court injunction against publication. Acting under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, US District Court Judge Robert W. Warren granted the government's request on March 26. Events dealing with the case are discussed in this publication. Section 1, Progressive Hydrogen Bomb Case, is discussed under the following: Court Order Blocking Magazine Report; Origins of the Howard Morland Article; Author's Motives, Defense of Publication; and Government Arguments Against Disclosure. Section 2, Access to Atomic Data Since 1939, contains information on need for secrecy during World War II; 1946 Atomic Energy Act and its effects; Soviet A-Bomb and the US H-Bomb; and consequences of 1954 Atomic Energy Act. Section 3, Disputed Need for Atomic Secrecy, contains papers entitled: Lack of Studies on H-Bomb Proliferation; Administration's Position on H-Bombs; and National Security Needs vs Free Press

  8. On steady electromagnetic equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, B.

    1986-12-01

    The existence of steady electromagnetic equilibrium states predicted by an extended Lorentz invariant formulation of Maxwell's equations is analyzed. General equilibrium solutions are outlined which lead to integrated field quantities of the system, such as total charge qo, magnetic moment Mo, mass mo and angular momentum so. The quantization of moMo/qo in terms of Bohr magnetons is shown to be equivalent to the proposed resonance condition of circulating self-confined radiation. Exact equilibrium solutions were deduced in two simple cases, thereby leading to a so of the same order as that of the electron, and to a qo one order of magnitude larger than the electronic charge. A variational procedure is suggested in search for states of minimum charge, under the subsidiary quantum conditions on moMo/qo and so, i.e., by varying the profile of the electric space charge distribution.

  9. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  10. Electromagnetic Gyrokinetic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, W

    2003-11-19

    A new electromagnetic kinetic electron {delta} particle simulation model has been demonstrated to work well at large values of plasma {beta} times the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The simulation is three-dimensional using toroidal flux-tube geometry and includes electron-ion collisions. The model shows accurate shear Alfven wave damping and microtearing physics. Zonal flows with kinetic electrons are found to be turbulent with the spectrum peaking at zero and having a width in the frequency range of the driving turbulence. This is in contrast with adiabatic electron cases where the zonal flows are near stationary, even though the linear behavior of the zonal flow is not significantly affected by kinetic electrons. zonal fields are found to be very weak, consistent with theoretical predictions for {beta} below the kinetic ballooning limit. Detailed spectral analysis of the turbulence data is presented in the various limits.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and life

    CERN Document Server

    Presman, A S

    1970-01-01

    A broad region of the electromagnetic spectrum long assumed to have no influence on living systems under natural conditions has been critically re-examined over the past decade. This spectral region extends from the superhigh radio frequencies, through de­ creasing frequencies, to and including essentially static electric and magnetic fields. The author of this monograph, A. S. Presman, has reviewed not only the extensive Russian literatur!;"l, but also al­l most equally comprehensively the non-Russian literature, dealing with biological influences of these fields. Treated also is literature shedding some light on possible theoretical foundations for these phenomena. A substantial, rapidly increasing number of studies in many laboratories and countries has now clearly established bio­ logical influences which are independent of the theoretically predictable, simple thermal effects. Indeed many of the effects are produced by field strengths very close to those within the natural environment. The author has,...

  12. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μν, of the order of 10-11 μB would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μν≅10-18 μB, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10-10 μB. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μν, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe- scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the νe, extending down to 2x10-11 μB. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  14. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  15. Agrobotanical Exhibition Garden of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill Gavriilovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Every once in a while, when I have a rare opportunity to visit unique natural and botanical sites, I publish my "Notes of a Hunter of plants" based on what I’ve seen in our country (Tkachenko, 2002, and 2012 a and abroad (Tkachenko, 2007, 2008 a, and 2013. However, I believe it is more important to share what I’ve managed to see and understand, i.e. what such visits, especially visits to botanical gardens around the world, mean to me. Analysis and discussion of such visits to foreign gardens are important and useful for the colleagues, who work in that field; I hope my personal experience and the knowledge it brings would be interesting and helpful. First of all, I believe it will help us evaluate and understand future perspectives and to implement best ideas and know-hows in our botanical gardens, what will help our gardens to evolve and to keep stakes high (Tkachenko, 2008 b, 2009 and , b, 2010 a, b, c, d, 2012 b, 2014. The significance of discussing world experience in creating botanical gardens and public gardens is vital. This article presents unique and relatively new creation of our Chinese colleagues―Agrobotanical Exhibition Garden near the city of Ürümqi (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

  16. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  17. Reflection-less device allows electromagnetic warp drive

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking properties of artificially structured materials is the negative refraction, an optical feature that known natural materials do not exhibit. Here, we propose a simple design, composed of two parallel layers of materials with different refraction indices $n_1=-n_2$, that constructs perfect reflection-less devices. The electromagnetic waves can tunnel from one layer to the other, a feature that resembles a truncation of the physical space leading to an electromagnetic warp drive. Since the refractive indices do not require any large values, this method demonstrates for the first time the practical feasibility of guiding electromagnetic fields in complete absence of reflection phenomena and without degradation of transmission efficiency at all.

  18. Quantum theory of dispersive electromagnetic modes

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, P D

    1999-01-01

    A quantum theory of dispersion for an inhomogeneous solid is obtained, from a starting point of multipolar coupled atoms interacting with an electromagnetic field. The dispersion relations obtained are equivalent to the standard classical Sellmeir equations obtained from the Drude-Lorentz model. In the homogeneous (plane-wave) case, we obtain the detailed quantum mode structure of the coupled polariton fields, and show that the mode expansion in all branches of the dispersion relation is completely defined by the refractive index and the group-velocity for the polaritons. We demonstrate a straightforward procedure for exactly diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in one, two or three-dimensional environments, even in the presence of longitudinal phonon-exciton dispersion, and an arbitrary number of resonant transitions with different frequencies. This is essential, since it is necessary to include at least one phonon (I.R.) and one exciton (U.V.) mode, in order to accurately represent dispersion in transparent solid ...

  19. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  20. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  1. A modified electromagnetic wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to find an alternative to the usual electromagnetic wave equation: that is, we want to find a different equation with the same solutions. The final goal is to solve electromagnetic problems with iterative methods. The curl curl operator that appears in the electromagnetic wave equation is difficult to invert numerically, and this cannot be done iteratively. The addition of a higher order term that emphasizes the diagonal terms in the operator may help the solution of the problem, and the new equation should be solvable by an iterative algorithm. The additional mode is suppressed by suitable boundary conditions. (author) 5 figs., 9 refs

  2. A primer on electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Frezza, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This book is a concise introduction to electromagnetics and electromagnetic fields that covers the aspects of most significance for engineering applications by means of a rigorous, analytical treatment. After an introduction to equations and basic theorems, topics of fundamental theoretical and applicative importance, including plane waves, transmission lines, waveguides, and Green's functions, are discussed in a deliberately general way. Care has been taken to ensure that the text is readily accessible and self-consistent, with conservation of the intermediate steps in the analytical derivations. The book offers the reader a clear, succinct course in basic electromagnetic theory. It will also be a useful lookup tool for students and designers.

  3. Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Papas, Charles Herach

    1965-01-01

    While there are so many books on general electromagnetic theory for graduate-level students, there are significantly fewer that concentrate on the radiation aspects as does this well-known work. Interfacing physics and electrical engineering, Dr. Papas's clearly written text discusses highly important topics in the theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and antennas in a way that reveals the inherent simplicity of the basic ideas and their logical development from the Maxwell field equation.Chapter 1: Maxwell's field equations and those parts of electromagnetic field theory necessary for u

  4. Electromagnetic foundations of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Faria, J A Brandao

    2008-01-01

    The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline. Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundament

  5. Left Handed Materials: A New Paradigm in Structured Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new paradigm has emerged exhibiting reverse electromagnetic properties. Novel composite and micro-structured materials (metamaterials) have been designed to control electromagnetic radiation. Such substances have been called as Left Handed Material (LHM) with simultaneous negative permittivity and negative permeability and negative refractive index as well. Left handed materials are of importance because of their ability to influence the behavior of electromagnetic radiation and to display properties beyond those available in naturally occurring materials. Typically these are sub-wavelength artificial structures where the dimensions are very small compared to the working wavelength. These dimensions are normally of the order of λ/10 where λ is the wavelength of electromagnetic wave propagating in the material. Emergence of this new paradigm leads to some very interesting consequences, such as, to create lenses that are not diffraction limited, cloaking, sensors (chemical, biological and individual molecule), optical and radio communication. This new development in structured electromagnetic materials has had a dramatic impact on the physics, optics and engineering communities. (author)

  6. Spontaneous emission of two interacting atoms near an interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehua Wang

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous emission rate of two interacting excited atoms near a dielectric interface is studied using the photon closed-orbit theory and the dipole image method.The total emission rate of one atom during the emission process is calculated as a function of the distance between the atom and the interface.The results suggest that the spontaneous emission rate depends not only on the atomic-interface distances,but also on the orientation of the two atomic dipoles and the initial distance between the two atoms.The oscillation in the spontaneous emission rate is caused by the interference between the outgoing electromagnetic wave emitted from one atom and other waves arriving at this atom after traveling along various classical orbits.Each peak in the Fourier transformed spontaneous emission rate corresponds with one action of photon classical orbit.

  7. Coherently walking, rocking and blinding single neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the preparation and detection, but most importantly in the coherent manipulation of single neutral atoms have allowed the observation of intriguing phenomena of quantum physics in recent years. We discuss developments to prepare and detect single neutral atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice potential with single site resolution. Moreover, using two different experimental techniques, a state-dependent optical lattice potential on the one hand and a high-finesse optical cavity on the other hand, we have obtained coherent control over single neutral atoms. The former has enabled us to observe the quantum walk of atoms in position space, and to coherently control the motion of trapped atoms via microwave radiation. The latter offers a means to non-destructively detect the atomic spin state, thereby revealing quantum jumps of single atoms, or the altered optical properties of single atoms when subject to electromagnetically-induced transparency.

  8. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  9. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary

  10. Electromagnetic identification of dielectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Yanenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic features and parameters of dielectric materials, which are used in light industry and stomatology. The results of measuring are analyzed and the method of authentication is offered.

  11. Classical electromagnetism in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    This graduate-level physics textbook provides a comprehensive treatment of the basic principles and phenomena of classical electromagnetism. While many electromagnetism texts use the subject to teach mathematical methods of physics, here the emphasis is on the physical ideas themselves. Anupam Garg distinguishes between electromagnetism in vacuum and that in material media, stressing that the core physical questions are different for each. In vacuum, the focus is on the fundamental content of electromagnetic laws, symmetries, conservation laws, and the implications for phenomena such as radiation and light. In material media, the focus is on understanding the response of the media to imposed fields, the attendant constitutive relations, and the phenomena encountered in different types of media such as dielectrics, ferromagnets, and conductors. The text includes applications to many topical subjects, such as magnetic levitation, plasmas, laser beams, and synchrotrons.

  12. Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadiku, Matthew NO

    2009-01-01

    Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...

  13. Electromagnetic Wormholes via Handlebody Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Allan; Kurylev, Yaroslav; Lassas, Matti; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2008-07-01

    Cloaking devices are prescriptions of electrostatic, optical or electromagnetic parameter fields (conductivity {σ(x)} , index of refraction n( x), or electric permittivity {ɛ(x)} and magnetic permeability {μ(x)}) which are piecewise smooth on {mathbb{R}^3} and singular on a hypersurface {Σ} , and such that objects in the region enclosed by {Σ} are not detectable to external observation by waves. Here, we give related constructions of invisible tunnels, which allow electromagnetic waves to pass between possibly distant points, but with only the ends of the tunnels visible to electromagnetic imaging. Effectively, these change the topology of space with respect to solutions of Maxwell’s equations, corresponding to attaching a handlebody to {mathbb{R}^3} . The resulting devices thus function as electromagnetic wormholes.

  14. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  15. Electromagnetic field theories for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Salam, Md Abdus

    2014-01-01

    A four year Electrical and Electronic engineering curriculum normally contains two modules of electromagnetic field theories during the first two years. However, some curricula do not have enough slots to accommodate the two modules. This book, Electromagnetic Field Theories, is designed for Electrical and Electronic engineering undergraduate students to provide fundamental knowledge of electromagnetic fields and waves in a structured manner. A comprehensive fundamental knowledge of electric and magnetic fields is required to understand the working principles of generators, motors and transformers. This knowledge is also necessary to analyze transmission lines, substations, insulator flashover mechanism, transient phenomena, etc. Recently, academics and researches are working for sending electrical power to a remote area by designing a suitable antenna. In this case, the knowledge of electromagnetic fields is considered as important tool.

  16. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  17. Introduction to engineering electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Ho [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Kyongkido (Korea, Republic of). School of Information and Communication Engineering

    2013-11-01

    This book provides students with the missing link that can help them master the basic principles of electromagnetics. The concept of vector fields is introduced by starting with clear definitions of position, distance, and base vectors. The symmetries of typical configurations are discussed in detail, including cylindrical, spherical, translational, and two-fold rotational symmetries. To avoid serious confusion between symbols with two indices, the text adopts a new notation: a letter with subscript 1-2 for the work done in moving a unit charge from point 2 to point 1, in which the subscript 1-2 mimics the difference in potentials, while the hyphen implies a sense of backward direction, from 2 to 1. This book includes 300 figures in which real data are drawn to scale. Many figures provide a three-dimensional view. Each subsection includes a number of examples that are solved by examining rigorous approaches in steps. Each subsection ends with straightforward exercises and answers through which students can check if they correctly understood the concepts. A total 350 of examples and exercises are provided. At the end of each section, review questions are inserted to point out key concepts and relations discussed in the section. They are given with hints referring to the related equations and figures. The book contains a total of 280 end-of-chapter problems.

  18. Introduction to engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    This text provides students with the missing link that can help them master the basic principles of electromagnetics. The concept of vector fields is introduced by starting with clear definitions of position, distance, and base vectors. The symmetries of typical configurations are discussed in detail, including cylindrical, spherical, translational, and two-fold rotational symmetries. To avoid serious confusion between symbols with two indices, the text adopts a new notation: a letter with subscript 1-2 for the work done in moving a unit charge from point 2 to point 1, in which the subscript 1-2 mimics the difference in potentials, while the hyphen implies a sense of backward direction, from 2 to 1. This text includes 300 figures in which real data are drawn to scale. Many figures provide a three-dimensional view. Each subsection includes a number of examples that are solved by examining rigorous approaches in steps. Each subsection ends with straightforward exercises and answers through which students can c...

  19. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  20. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  1. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  2. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    2005-01-01

    We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

  3. Electromagnetic force distribution inside matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud; Zakharian, Armis R.; Wright, Ewan M.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, we solve Maxwell's equations numerically and compute the distribution of electromagnetic fields and forces inside material media. The media are generally specified by their dielectric permittivity epsilon(w) and magnetic permeability mu(w), representing small, transparent dielectric and magnetic objects such as platelets and micro-beads. Using two formulations of the electromagnetic force-density, one due to H. A. Lorentz [Collected Papers 2, 16...

  4. Advanced Model of Electromagnetic Launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Leubner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An advanced 2D model of electromagnetic launcher is presented respecting the influence of eddy currents induced in the accelerated ferromagnetic body. The time evolution of electromagnetic field in the system, corresponding forces acting on the projectile and time evolutions of its velocity and current in the field circuit are solved numerically using own application Agros2d. The results are then processed and evaluated in Wolfram Mathematica. The methodology is illustrated with an example whose results are discussed.

  5. Multiforms, dyadics, and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the four-dimensional formalism with an extended toolbox of operation rules, allowing readers to define more general classes of electromagnetic media and to analyze EM waves that can exist in them. End-of-chapter exercises. Formalism allows readers to find novel classes of media. Covers various properties of electromagnetic media in terms of which they can be set in different classes.

  6. Relativistically expanding cylindrical electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Gourgouliatos, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    We study relativistically expanding electromagnetic fields of cylindrical geometry. The fields emerge from the side surface of a cylinder and are invariant under translations parallel to the axis of the cylinder. The expansion velocity is in the radial direction and is parametrized by $v=R/(ct)$. We consider force-free magnetic fields by setting the total force the electromagnetic field exerts on the charges and the currents equal to zero. Analytical and semi-analytical separable solutions ar...

  7. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, Burra G.

    2005-01-01

    We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in...

  8. Electromagnetic holographic imaging of bioimpedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dexter G.; Ko, Harvey W.; Lee, Benjamin R.; Partin, Alan W.

    1998-05-01

    The electromagnetic bioimpedance method has successfully measured the very subtle conductivity changes associated with brain edema and prostate tumor. This method provides noninvasive measurements using non-ionizing magnetic fields applied with a small coil that avoids the use of contact electrodes. This paper introduces results from combining a holographic signal processing algorithm and a low power coil system that helps provide the 3D image of impedance contrast that should make the noninvasive electromagnetic bioimpedance method useful in health care.

  9. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetoelectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Kramers-Kronig relations. The prescriptions of the phenomenological approach are derived from the canonical theory.

  10. DYNAMICAL MODEL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the dynamic model of the rocket motor electromagnetic type, consisting of a source of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency band and a conical cavity in which electromagnetic waves are excited. The processes of excitation of electromagnetic oscillations in a cavity with conducting walls, as well as the waves of the YangMills field have been investigated. Multi-dimensional transient numerical model describing the processes of establishment of electromagnetic oscillations in a cavity with the conducting wall was created Separately, the case of standing waves in the cavity with conducting walls been tested. It is shown that the oscillation mode in the conducting resonator different from that in an ideal resonator, both in the steady and unsteady processes. The mechanism of formation of traction for the changes in the space-time metric, the contribution of particle currents, the Yang-Mills and electromagnetic field proposed. It is shown that the effect of the Yang-Mills field calls change the dielectric properties of vacuum, which leads to a change in capacitance of the resonator. Developed a dynamic model, which enables optimal traction on a significant number of parameters. It was found that the thrust increases in the Yang-Mills field parameters near the main resonance frequency. In the presence of thermal fluctuations and the Yang-Mills field as well the traction force changes sign, indicating the presence of various oscillation modes

  11. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in strongly interacting Rydberg Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Ates, C; Pohl, T

    2011-01-01

    We develop an efficient Monte-Carlo approach to describe the optical response of cold three-level atoms in the presence of EIT and strong atomic interactions. In particular, we consider a "Rydberg-EIT medium" where one involved level is subject to large shifts due to strong van der Waals interactions with surrounding Rydberg atoms. We find excellent agreement with much more involved quantum calculations and demonstrate its applicability over a wide range of densities and interaction strengths. The calculations show that the nonlinear absorption due to Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions exhibits universal behavior.

  12. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  13. Atomic arias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  14. The Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.; Steel, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project, a NASA-funded tactile exhibit for the visually impaired community was launched in July 2009 at the Martin Luther King Library in D.C. The exhibit is part of the global FETTU exhibit, a project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, Crab Nebula, Whirlpool Galaxy, and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the NASA-funded Braille/tactile book Touch the Invisible Sky. Multiple geographic locations and venue types have been targeted for the displays. The FETTU-tactile exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy, bridging a gap in learning. This exhibit is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under proposal 08-EPO08-0068 issued through the Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Atoms at the Science Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCompte, Robert G. [AEC Division of Technical Information; Wood, Burrell L. [AEC Division of Special Projects

    1968-01-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission has prepared this booklet to help young science fair exhibitors, their science teachers, project counselors, and parents. The booklet suggests some of the numerous nuclear topics on which students can base meaningful science projects. It offers all exhibitors advice on how to plan, design, and construct successful exhibits.

  16. Atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  17. Liu Hong: no trivial on exhibitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To Work for Tomorrow Liu Hong, General Manager of TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd, has set up TUTTI Exhibition Service (Xiamen) Co., Ltd in 2001, when exhibition industry firstly appear in Xiamen. Furthermore, the company has developed rapidly in recent years. As Liu Hong regards, exhibition industry, as well as advertisement industry, is an industry filled with challenges and followed

  18. Designing Meta Material Slabs Exhibiting Negative Refraction Using Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a topology optimization based approach for designing meta materials exhibiting a desired negative refraction with high transmission at a given angle of incidence and frequency. The approach considers a finite slab of meta material consisting of axis-symmetric designable unit...... cells subjected to an exterior field. The unit cell is designed to achieve the desired properties based on tailoring the response of the meta material slab underthe exterior field. The approach is directly applicable to physical problems modeled by the Helmholtz equation, such as acoustic, elastic...... and electromagnetic wave problems. Acoustic meta materials with unit cell size on the order of half the wave length are considered as examples. Optimized designs are presented and their performance under varying frequency and angle of incidence is investigated....

  19. Coherence in a cold atom photon transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have realized an all-optical photon transistor using a cold atomic gas. This approach relies on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in conjunction with the strong interaction among atoms excited to high-lying Rydberg states. The transistor is gated via a so-called Rydberg spinwave, in which a single Rydberg excitation is coherently shared by the whole ensemble. In its absence the incoming photon passes through the atomic ensemble by virtue of EIT while in its presence the photon is scattered rendering the atomic gas opaque. An important current challenge is to preserve the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave during the operation of the transistor, which would enable for example its coherent optical read-out and its further processing in quantum circuits. With a combined field theoretical and quantum jump approach and by employing a simple model description we investigate systematically and comprehensively how the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave is affected by photon scattering. W...

  20. Electromagnetic brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present imaging methods of cerebral neuro-activity like brain functional MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) secondarily measure only average activities within a time of the second-order (low time-resolution). In contrast, the electromagnetic brain imaging (EMBI) directly measures the faint magnetic field (10-12-10-13 T) yielded by the cerebral activity with use of multiple arrayed sensors equipped on the head surface within a time of sub-millisecond order (high time-resolution). The sensor array technology to find the signal source from the measured data is common in wide areas like signal procession for radar, sonar, and epicenter detection by seismic wave. For estimating and reconstructing the active region in the brain in EMBI, the efficient method must be developed and this paper describes the direct and inverse problems concerned in signal and image processions of EMBI. The direct problem involves the cerebral magnetic field/lead field matrix and inverse problem for reconstruction of signal source, the MUSIC (multiple signal classification) algorithm, GLRT (generalized likelihood ratio test) scan, and adaptive beamformer. As an example, given are results of magnetic intensity changes (unit, fT) in the somatosensory cortex vs time (msec) measured by 160 sensors and of images reconstructed from EMBI and MRI during electric muscle afferent input from the hand. The real-time imaging is thus possible with EMBI and extremely, the EMBI image, the real-time cerebral signals, can inversely operate a machine, of which application directs toward the brain/machine interface development. (R.T.)

  1. A Compact Microchip-Based Atomic Clock Based on Ultracold Trapped Rb Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Daniel M; Anderson, Dana Z

    2009-01-01

    We propose a compact atomic clock based on ultracold Rb atoms that are magnetically trapped near the surface of an atom microchip. An interrogation scheme that combines electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields can achieve atomic shot-noise level performance of 10^{-13}/sqrt(tau) for 10^6 atoms. The EIT signal can be detected with a heterodyne technique that provides noiseless gain; with this technique the optical phase shift of a 100 pW probe beam can be detected at the photon shot-noise level. Numerical calculations of the density matrix equations are used to identify realistic operating parameters at which AC Stark shifts are eliminated. By considering fluctuations in these parameters, we estimate that AC Stark shifts can be canceled to a level better than 2*10^{-14}. An overview of the apparatus is presented with estimates of duty cycle and power consumption.

  2. Geant4 electromagnetic physics updates for space radiation effects simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivantchenko, Anton; Nieminen, Petteri; Incerti, Sebastien; Santin, Giovanni; Ivantchenko, Vladimir; Grichine, Vladimir; Allison, John; Karamitos, Mathiew

    The Geant4 toolkit is used in many applications including space science studies. The new Geant4 version 10.0 released in December 2013 includes a major revision of the toolkit and offers multi-threaded mode for event level parallelism. At the same time, Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic physics sub-libraries have been significantly updated. In order to validate the new and updated models Geant4 verification tests and benchmarks were extended. Part of these developments was sponsored by the European Space Agency in the context of research aimed at modelling radiation biological end effects. In this work, we present an overview of results of several benchmarks for electromagnetic physics models relevant to space science. For electromagnetic physics, recently Compton scattering, photoelectric effect, and Rayleigh scattering models have been improved and extended down to lower energies. Models of ionization and fluctuations have also been improved; special micro-dosimetry models for Silicon and liquid water were introduced; the main multiple scattering model was consolidated; and the atomic de-excitation module has been made available to all models. As a result, Geant4 predictions for space radiation effects obtained with different Physics Lists are in better agreement with the benchmark data than previous Geant4 versions. Here we present results of electromagnetic tests and models comparison in the energy interval 10 eV - 10 MeV.

  3. Tunable electromagnetic chirality induced by graphene inclusions in multi-layered metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Rizza, Carlo; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electromagnetic response of a novel class of multi-layered metamaterials obtained by alternating graphene sheets and dielectric layers, the whole structure not exhibiting a plane of reflection symmetry along the stacking direction. We show that the electromagnetic response of the structure is characterized by a magneto-electric coupling described by an effective chiral parameter. Exploiting the intrinsic tunability of the graphene-light coupling, we prove that one can tune both the dielectric and the chiral electromagnetic response by varying the graphene chemical potential through external voltage gating.

  4. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  5. Electromagnetic Armor Based on the Principles of Reconnection Electromagnetic Launcher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Haiqing; Li Weitao; Gao Haizhen

    2015-01-01

    Active electromagnetic armor is the latest concept of defense system, and it is highly probable for this technology to be applied to many domains such as future tanks, armored vehicles and the armor of warships. The studies on active electromagnetic defense technology in the world have a history of decades. But, there still exist bottlenecks and the interceptor is one of them. This paper studies the problem of interceptors based on the principles of reconnection electromagnetic launcher and presents a kind of simulation model of it. A small scale laboratory model is made, and related experimental researches and theoretical analyses have been carried out when the projectiles are different kinds of material and shape. Satisfactory results are reached and agree with the theoretical analyses.

  6. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  7. Theory of noncontact friction for atom-surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschura, U. D.; Janke, M.; DeKieviet, M.

    2016-08-01

    The noncontact (van der Waals) friction is an interesting physical effect, which has been the subject of controversial scientific discussion. The direct friction term due to the thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field leads to a friction force proportional to 1 /Z5 (where Z is the atom-wall distance). The backaction friction term takes into account the feedback of thermal fluctuations of the atomic dipole moment onto the motion of the atom and scales as 1 /Z8 . We investigate noncontact friction effects for the interactions of hydrogen, ground-state helium, and metastable helium atoms with α -quartz (SiO2), gold (Au), and calcium difluorite (CaF2). We find that the backaction term dominates over the direct term induced by the thermal electromagnetic fluctuations inside the material, over wide distance ranges. The friction coefficients obtained for gold are smaller than those for SiO2 and CaF2 by several orders of magnitude.

  8. A linear atomic quantum coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Orany, Faisal A A [Department of Mathematics and computer Science, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University 41522, Ismailia (Egypt); Wahiddin, M R B, E-mail: el_orany@hotmail.co, E-mail: faisal.orany@mimos.m, E-mail: mridza@mimos.m [Cyberspace Security Laboratory, MIMOS Berhad, Technology Park Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-04-28

    In this paper we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of which includes a localized atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchange of energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) and with the atom-mode system in the second waveguide via the evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for this system and deduce its wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional coupler the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit a long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions the system can yield the results of the two-mode JCM.

  9. Rydberg Wave Packets and Half-Cycle Electromagnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Chandra S.

    1998-05-01

    This dissertation summarizes an examination of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg wave packets with coherent pulses of THz electromagnetic radiation consisting of less than a single cycle of the electric field. The bulk of the energy is contained in just a half-cycle. Previous work ( R. Jones, D. You, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg atoms by subpicosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 70, 1993. had shown how these half-cycle pulses can be used to ionize the highly excited states of an atom, and that a classical view of electronic motion in the atom explains the ionization mechanism. To further probe the boundary between classical trajectories and quantum mechanics, in this work I investigate dynamical combinations of Rydberg states, or Rydberg wave packets, and how they ionize under the influence of a half-cycle electromagnetic pulse. With time-domain techniques I am able to extract the dynamics of the wave packet from the ionization rate, and to observe wave packet motion in both the electronic radial ( C. Raman, C. Conover, C. Sukenik, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Ionization of Rydberg wavepackets by sub-picosecond half-cycle electromagnetic pulses,'' Phys. Rev. Lett.), vol. 76, 1996.and angular ( C. Raman, T. Weinacht, and P. Bucksbaum, ``Stark wavepackets viewed with half cycle pulses.'' Phys. Rev. A), vol. 55, No. 6, 1997. coordinates. This is the first time a wavepacket technique has been used to view electron motion everywhere on its trajectory, and not just at the nucleus. This is the principal feature of half-cycle pulse ionization. Semiclassical ideas of ionization in conjunction with quantum descriptions of the wave packet, are capable of reproducing the main trends in the data, and in the absence of a rigorous model I rely on these. Experiments of this nature provide examples of the ongoing effort to use the coherent properties of radiation to control electronic motion in an atom, as well as to probe the boundaries between

  10. Binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David

    2009-08-21

    In addition to producing gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves. PMID:19792706

  11. Observation of parity-time symmetry breaking transitions in a dissipative Floquet system of ultracold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; de Melo, Leonardo; Joglekar, Yogesh N; Luo, Le

    2016-01-01

    Open physical systems with balanced loss and gain exhibit a transition, absent in their solitary counterparts, which engenders modes that exponentially decay or grow with time and thus spontaneously breaks the parity-time PT symmetry. This PT-symmetry breaking is induced by modulating the strength or the temporal profile of the loss and gain, but also occurs in a pure dissipative system without gain. It has been observed that, in classical systems with mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic setups with static loss and gain, the PT-symmetry breaking transition leads to extraordinary behavior and functionalities. However, its observation in a quantum system is yet to be realized. Here we report on the first quantum simulation of PT-symmetry breaking transitions using ultracold Li-6 atoms. We simulate static and Floquet dissipative Hamiltonians by generating state-dependent atom loss in a noninteracting Fermi gas, and observe the PT-symmetry breaking transitions by tracking the atom number for each state. W...

  12. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  13. Report on Exhibition Industry in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1. General Characteristics of Shanghai Exhibitions As the leader of economic development in the Yangtze River Delta,Shanghai has basically formed a certain scale and strength in the aspects of urban transportation, exhibition venues, supporting facilities, service levels, etc.

  14. VNU Exhibitions Asia: Two factors are crucial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Reporter: How to appraises the Chinese exhibition industry market? Jime Essink :The Chinese exhibition market will experience a fast growth in the coming years. This will mainly be the result of an increase of international visitors who

  15. The Eighth China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The annual China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition was held at the China Import and Export Commodity Fair on December 21-27, 2010. This year’s exhibition covered about 160,000 square meters. The world’s most

  16. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  17. CIME School on "Computational Electromagnetism"

    CERN Document Server

    Valli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Presenting topics that have not previously been contained in a single volume, this book offers an up-to-date review of computational methods in electromagnetism, with a focus on recent results in the numerical simulation of real-life electromagnetic problems and on theoretical results that are useful in devising and analyzing approximation algorithms. Based on four courses delivered in Cetraro in June 2014, the material covered includes the spatial discretization of Maxwell’s equations in a bounded domain, the numerical approximation of the eddy current model in harmonic regime, the time domain integral equation method (with an emphasis on the electric-field integral equation) and an overview of qualitative methods for inverse electromagnetic scattering problems. Assuming some knowledge of the variational formulation of PDEs and of finite element/boundary element methods, the book is suitable for PhD students and researchers interested in numerical approximation of partial differential equations and scienti...

  18. Electron microscopy of electromagnetic waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, A.; Baum, P.

    2016-07-01

    Rapidly changing electromagnetic fields are the basis of almost any photonic or electronic device operation. We report how electron microscopy can measure collective carrier motion and fields with subcycle and subwavelength resolution. A collimated beam of femtosecond electron pulses passes through a metamaterial resonator that is previously excited with a single-cycle electromagnetic pulse. If the probing electrons are shorter in duration than half a field cycle, then time-frozen Lorentz forces distort the images quasi-classically and with subcycle time resolution. A pump-probe sequence reveals in a movie the sample’s oscillating electromagnetic field vectors with time, phase, amplitude, and polarization information. This waveform electron microscopy can be used to visualize electrodynamic phenomena in devices as small and fast as available.

  19. Electromagnetic contributions to pseudoscalar masses

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, S; Bernard, C; DeTar, C; Freeland, E; Freeman, W; Foley, J; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, U M; Hetrick, J E; Laiho, J; Levkova, L; Oktay, M; Osborn, J; Sugar, R L; Torok, A; Toussaint, D; Van de Water, R S; Zhou, R

    2013-01-01

    We report on the calculation by the MILC Collaboration of the electromagnetic effects on kaon and pion masses. These masses are computed in QCD with dynamical (asqtad staggered) quarks plus quenched photons at three lattice spacings varying from 0.12 to 0.06 fm. The masses are fit to staggered chiral perturbation theory with NLO electromagnetic terms, as well as analytic terms at higher order. We extrapolate the results to physical light-quark masses and to the continuum limit. At the current stage of the analysis, most, but not all, of the systematic errors have been estimated. The main goal is the comparison of kaon electromagnetic splittings to those of the pion, i.e., an evaluation of the corrections to "Dashen's theorem." This in turn will allow us to significantly reduce the systematic errors in our determination of m_u/m_d.

  20. Electromagnetic nature of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran

    2009-01-01

    Out of the four components of the electromagnetic field, Maxwell's theory only contains two physical degrees of freedom. However, in an expanding universe, consistently eliminating one of the "unphysical" states in the covariant (Gupta-Bleuler) formalism turns out to be difficult to realize. In this work we explore the possibility of quantization without subsidiary conditions. This implies that the theory would contain a third physical state. The presence of such a new (temporal) electromagnetic mode on cosmological scales is shown to generate an effective cosmological constant which can account for the accelerated expansion of the universe. This new polarization state is completely decoupled from charged matter, but can be excited gravitationally. In fact, primordial electromagnetic quantum fluctuations produced during electroweak scale inflation could naturally explain the presence of this mode and also the measured value of the cosmological constant. The theory is compatible with all the local gravity test...

  1. Nonequilibrium Atom-Dielectric Forces Mediated by a Quantum Field

    OpenAIRE

    Behunin, Ryan Orson; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-grainin...

  2. Exploring the Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; de Pree, C.

    2010-06-01

    A tactile/Braille exhibit for the visually impaired community in the USA was launched in July 2009. The exhibit is part of the global From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) project, a Cornerstone of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the travelling tactile/Braille exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, the Crab Nebula, the Whirlpool Galaxy and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the tactile/Braille book Touch the Invisible Sky. We present some of the early observations and findings on the tactile/Braille FETTU exhibit. The new exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy for the underserved visually impaired population.

  3. Generating and Revealing a Quantum Superposition of Electromagnetic Field Binomial States in a Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, R. Lo; Compagno, G; Messina, A.; Napoli, A.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce the $N$-photon quantum superposition of two orthogonal generalized binomial states of electromagnetic field. We then propose, using resonant atom-cavity interactions, non-conditional schemes to generate and reveal such a quantum superposition for the two-photon case in a single-mode high-$Q$ cavity. We finally discuss the implementation of the proposed schemes.

  4. Zeeman Electromagnetically Induced Transparency with crossed pump and probe beams: Small angle dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kaleb; Madkhaly, Samaya; de Medeiros, Dillon; Bali, Samir; Macklin Quantum Information Sciences Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Progress toward undergraduate oriented experiments on image storage in room-temperature atomic vapor using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency is described. Using a scanning longitudinal magnetic field technique we diagnose and suppress stray magnetic fields and polarization impurity. We consider the pump-probe angular dependence of the EIT signal but at much smaller angles of less than a milliradian.

  5. Development Report on Exhibition Industry in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Generat Features of Guangzhou Exhibitions (Ⅰ) Quantity of Exhibitions and Industry Features. Overall, after suf-fering from global financial crisis in 2008 as well as the interference of Beijing Olympic Games and other major events, the exhibition industry in Guangzhou has still not encountered an easy condition in 2009.

  6. Beijing Lack of "Carrier"Exhibition Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An Interview towards Mr. Chu Xiangyin, Vice Chairman of Beijing Subcouncil, CCPIT Reporter: Would you please tell us development of exhibition industry in Beijing? Chu Xiangyin: Beijing Statistical Bureau and us have been designing and analyzing statistical system for exhibition industry from 2003. As the largest exhibition center in Beijing,

  7. Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs

  8. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter readout

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, F

    1999-01-01

    CMS is a general-purpose detector designed for use in the large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The electromagnetic calorimeter will play an important role in electron and photon energy measurements. The benchmark process to evaluate and optimize its performance is H to gamma gamma in the intermediate mass range (90electromagnetic calorimeter and preliminary results obtained from prototype components. (6 refs).

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  10. Electromagnetic geothermometry theory, modeling, practice

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Geothermometry explores, presents and explains the new technique of temperature estimation within the Earth's interior; the Electromagnetic technique will identify zones of geothermal anomalies and thus provides locations for deep drilling. This book includes many case studies from geothermal areas such as Travale (Italy), Soultz-sous-Forêts (France) and Hengill (Iceland), allowing the author and reader to draw conclusions regarding the dominating heat transfer mechanisms, location of its sources and to constrain the locations for drilling of the new boreholes. Covering a to

  11. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  12. Perfectly Reflectionless Omnidirectional Electromagnetic Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Sainath, Kamalesh

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of metamaterial blueprints describing, and fundamental limitations concerning, perfectly reflectionless omnidirectional electromagnetic absorbers (PR-OEMA). Previous attempts to define PR-OEMA blueprints have led to active (gain), rather than passive, media. We explain this fact and unveil new, distinct limitations of true PR-OEMA devices including the appearance of an "electromagnetic horizon" on physical solutions. As practical alternatives, we introduce two new OEMA blueprints. While these two blueprints do not correspond to reflectionless media, they are effective in absorbing incident waves in a manner robust to incident wave diversity.

  13. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  14. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  15. Electromagnetic transition operators, ch. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the basic equations related to the electromagnetic interaction are summarized. A derivation of the operators that are used to calculate electromagnetic transitions and moments is given. Centre-of-mass corrections are treated. The angular-momentum and parity selection rules are discussed. Measurable quantities such as reduced transition rates, lifetimes, branching and mixing ratios are defined. The much-used Weisskopf single-particle estimates of transition strengths are derived. It is shown that the isospin formalism allows to express transition strengths in terms of isoscalar and isovector contributions. This separation can be used for example, to correlate transition rates in isobaric mass multiplets

  16. Pre-Seismic Electromagnetic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yahong

    2007-01-01

    Along with intense rock strain and rock bursting processes at the late stage of earthquake preparation, mechanical-electrical energy conversion appears in the seismogenic region and its nearby rock formations, which correspondingly stimulate certain electromagnetic effects. The paper mainly analyzes the pre-seismic electromagnetic effect of the ionosphere and proposes a method of monitoring VLF radio waves over the additional ionized region and so on. It is deemed that the method is of significance for short and imminent term prediction of strong earthquakes.

  17. Cavity-mediated entanglement between distant atoms: Effect of spatial dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouard, S., E-mail: sbrouard@ull.e [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna E38204, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Estudios Avanzados (IUdEA) en Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Fotonica, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna E38204, Tenerife (Spain); Martinez, R. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna E38204, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-04-11

    The decoherence effect of spatial atomic dispersion on entangled states prepared between two non-interacting atoms that pass through a resonant electromagnetic cavity is studied in detail. Entanglement is shown to oscillate with the atom-field interaction time with an amplitude that decays due to inhomogeneous coupling strength. An upper bound for the entanglement that can be obtained using this procedure is introduced and evaluated numerically for different sets of system parameters. This magnitude depends solely on the overlap between atomic wavefunctions evolved according to two different atom-field interactions. Analytical expressions for the associated decay rate are obtained under different approximations. - Highlights: Preparation of entangled atomic states mediated by a resonant electromagnetic cavity. Decoherent effect of spatial atomic dispersion is studied. Entanglement is evaluated for different sets of system parameters. An upper bound for the entanglement achievable is introduced and discussed. Different analytical approximations for the decay rate are presented.

  18. Estabilització en freqüència d'un làser a transicions de Rydberg utilitzant "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency"

    OpenAIRE

    Grimau Puigibert, Marcel·lí

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n>>1 have extraordinary atomic properties including tunable long range dipole-dipole interactions that lead to the so called Rydberg blockade. Atoms excited to these particular levels have been shown to be excellent candidates to implement several quantum information tasks, from two-qubit gates to single photon sources. In this work, we demonstrate Electromagnetic Induced Transparency (EIT) using Rydberg levels in a hot gas of rubidium atom...

  19. Observation of atom wave phase shifts induced by van der Waals atom-surface interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wave-like (coherent) behaviour with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift ca...

  20. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition. The media......The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  1. Maxwell electromagnetism as an emergent phenomenon in condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, J; Moessner, R

    2016-08-28

    The formulation of a complete theory of classical electromagnetism by Maxwell is one of the milestones of science. The capacity of many-body systems to provide emergent mini-universes with vacua quite distinct from the one we inhabit was only recognized much later. Here, we provide an account of how simple systems of localized spins manage to emulate Maxwell electromagnetism in their low-energy behaviour. They are much less constrained by symmetry considerations than the relativistically invariant electromagnetic vacuum, as their substrate provides a non-relativistic background with even translational invariance broken. They can exhibit rich behaviour not encountered in conventional electromagnetism. This includes the existence of magnetic monopole excitations arising from fractionalization of magnetic dipoles; as well as the capacity of disorder, by generating defects on the lattice scale, to produce novel physics, as exemplified by topological spin glassiness or random Coulomb magnetism.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. PMID:27458263

  2. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Exhibitions are the primary medium for the public communication of science in museums. Recently, there has been an interest in explaining the educational mechanisms of exhibitions in terms of meaning making, interaction and space; however these concepts have not yet been integrated into one...... consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  3. Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Graglia, Roberto D

    2016-01-01

    Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.

  4. Nonrelativistic atom-photon interaction beyond the multipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, D.J.; Wijers, C.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the interaction between the hydrogen atomic orbitals and the quantized modes of the electromagnetic field within the domain of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge. Contrary to the conventional dipole approximation and higher-order multipole approximations, whi

  5. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book

  6. Could Atomic clocks be affected by neutrinos?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanafi, Hanaa

    2016-01-01

    An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard in order to derive a time standard since time is the reciprocal of frequency. If the electronic transition frequencies are in an "optical region", we are talking in this case about optical atomic clocks. If they are in an "microwave region" these atomic clocks are made of the metallic element cesium so they are called Cesium atomic clocks. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known despite the different perturbations that can affect them, a lot of researches were made in this domain to show how the transitions can be different for different type of perturbations..Since atomic clocks are very sensitive devices, based on coherent states (A coherent state tends to loose coherence after interacting). One question can arise (from a lot of questions) which is why cosmic neutrinos are not affecting these clocks? The answer to this question requir...

  7. Non-exponential decay of atomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishkhanyan, A M

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of non-exponential decay of various quantum quasi-stationary systems. This effect can occur at the times which are greater than the lifetime of a considered system. The mechanism for non-exponential depletion of an initial quasi-stationary state is the cutting of the energy spectrum of final continuous states at long times. We first consider the known examples of cold emission of electrons from metal, tunneling alpha-decay of atomic nuclei, and spontaneous decay in two-level systems. The new physical situations discussed are the single-photon atomic ionization by a weak electromagnetic field and tunneling ionization of atoms by a strong low-frequency electromagnetic field. In both cases the decay obeys a power-law dependence on the (long) interaction time. We find that the most promising possibility for observing non-exponential decay at long times is the single-photon ionization of negative atomic ions near the threshold.

  8. Radiation leakage from electromagnetic oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Khalil

    2015-10-01

    Results & Discussions: The measurements have been done at some houses in Erbil city, according to the source of background radiation exist before measuring data. Our data compared with standard safe range of radiation data. Results showed that there is radiation leak form all type of electromagnetic oven and all at the order of safety compared with standard value.

  9. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  10. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled‐source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de‐risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect.

  11. Landau levels for electromagnetic wave

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that the frequencies of propagating electromagnetic wave (photon) in rotating dielectric media obey Landau quantization. We show that the degeneracy of right and left helicities of photons is broken on the lowest Landau level. In spatially homogeneous system this level is shown to be helical, i.e. left and right helical photons counter-propagate.

  12. Einstein: Distant parallelism and electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelit, M.; Rosen, N.

    1985-03-01

    Einstein's approach to unified field theories based on the geometry of distant parallelism is discussed. The simplest theory of this type, describing gravitation and electromagnetism, is investigated. It is found that there is a charge-current density vector associated with the geometry. However, in the static spherically symmetric case no singularity-free solutions for this vector exist.

  13. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  14. Coupling Electromagnetism to Global Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that an alternative to the standard scalar QED is possible. In this new version there is only global gauge invariance as far as the charged scalar fields are concerned although local gauge invariance is kept for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic coupling has the form $j_\\mu (A^{\\mu} +\\partial^{\\mu}B)$ where $B$ is an auxiliary field and the current $j_\\mu$ is $A_{\\mu}$ independent so that no "sea gull terms" are introduced. In a model of this kind spontaneous breaking of symmetry does not lead to photon mass generation, instead the Goldstone boson becomes a massless source for the electromagnetic field. Infrared questions concerning the theory when spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place and generalizations to global vector QED are discussed. In this framework Q-Balls and other non topological solitons that owe their existence to a global U(1) symmetry can be coupled to electromagnetism and could represent multiply charged particles now in search in the LHC. Finally, we give an exam...

  15. Hall Viscosity and Electromagnetic Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos, Carlos; Son, Dam Thanh

    2011-01-01

    We show that, for Galilean invariant quantum Hall states, the Hall viscosity appears in the electromagnetic response at finite wave numbers q. In particular, the leading q dependence of the Hall conductivity at small q receives a contribution from the Hall viscosity. The coefficient of the q^2 term in the Hall conductivity is universal in the limit of strong magnetic field.

  16. Electromagnetic Levitation of a Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, R.; Neves, F.; de Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching experiment that explores the levitation of a disc of ferromagnetic material in the presence of the magnetic field produced by a single electromagnet. In comparison to the classical experiment of the levitation of a sphere, the main advantage of the proposed laboratory bench is that the uniform magnetic field…

  17. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: ► Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). ► Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. ► Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. ► EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. ► Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  18. Delta-N Electromagnetic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Loan, Mushtaq

    1999-01-01

    The EM ratio for a free Delta electromagnetic transition is discussed within the frame work of nonrelativistic approach. Such an approach gives a good account of data for a free Delta but is less important for an intrinsically relativistic nuclear many body problem.

  19. Electromagnetic transfer information in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settimio Grimaldi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only recently has the critical importance of electromagnetic (EM field interactions in biology and medicine been recognized. We review the phenomenon of resonance signaling, discussing how specific frequencies modulate cellular function to restore or maintain health. Evidence: Application of EM tuned signals represents more than merely a new tool in Information Medicine. It can also be viewed in the larger context of Electromagnetic Medicine, the all-encompassing view that elevates the electromagnetic over the biochemical. The discovery by Zhadin that ultrasmall magnetic intensities are biologically significant suggests that EM signaling is endogenous to cell regulation, and consequently that the remarkable effectiveness of EM resonance treatments reflects a fundamental aspect of biological systems. The concept that organisms contain mechanisms for generating biologically useful electric signals is not new, dating back to the 19th century discovery of currents of injury by Matteucci. The corresponding modern-day version is that ion cyclotron resonance magnetic field combinations help regulate biological information. Prospects: The next advance in medicine will be to discern and apply those electromagnetic signaling parameters acting to promote wellness, with decreasing reliance on marginal biochemical remediation and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Some Student Conceptions of Electromagnetic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Wai Meng; Gunstone, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Introductory electromagnetism is a central part of undergraduate physics. Although there has been some research into student conceptions of electromagnetism, studies have been sparse and separated. This study sought to explore second year physics students' conceptions of electromagnetism, to investigate to what extent the results from the present…

  1. Quantum Correlations Among Superradiant Bose–Einstein Condensate Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Taşgın, Mehmet Emre; Öztop, B.; Oktel, M. Ö.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür Esat

    2009-01-01

    Quantum correlations among atoms in superradiant Bose–Einstein condensates are discussed. It is shown that atoms in the superradiant atomic condensate can exhibit continuous variable quantum entanglement analogous to Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)type quantum correlations. Comparison to quantum entanglement in the Dicke model in thermal equilibrium is provided.

  2. Atomic alchemy: Weak decays of muonic and pionic atoms into other atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of weak transitions between electromagnetic bound states, for example, (π+e-)→(μ+e-)νμ, and the exclusive weak decay of a muonic atom into an electronic atom, (Zμ-)→(Ze-)νμ bar νe, are calculated. For Z=80, relativistic effects are shown to increase the latter rate by a factor of 50 compared to the results of a nonrelativistic calculation. It is argued that the conditions for producing the muonic decay in neon gas (Z=10), where the branching ratio for the decay per captured muon is 1.7x10-9, can be realized using cyclotron traps, though the prospect for a practical experiment seems remote. In lead the same ratio would be approximately ∼1x10-6. In addition to providing detailed information on the high momentum tail of the wave functions in atomic physics, these decays of QED bound states provide a simple toy model for investigating kinematically analogous situations in exclusive heavy hadronic decays in quantum chromodynamics, such as B→K*γ or B→πeν

  3. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit;

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  4. Superposition of Stationary Wave Fields Via Atom Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizbullah; Ali, khan Anwar; Khan, Naveed; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Amin Bacha, Bakht

    2015-03-01

    We investigate one-dimensional position microscopy of a three-level atom moving through a stationary wave region under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency. The precise position information of an atom is observed on the resonance absorption and dispersion distribution spectrum of a weak probe field. Single and multiple localization peaks are observed in specific directions of the corresponding wave numbers and phase of the standing wave fields. The strength of space-independent Rabi frequency reduces the position uncertainty in the localized peaks without disturbing the probability of the atom. In a hot atomic medium the localized probability of an atom is reduced which depends upon the temperature of that medium. Our results provide useful applications in the development of laser cooling, atom nanolithography and Bose-Einstein condensation.

  5. Exhibit Engineering: A new research perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Foss Mortensen

    2010-01-01

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for thisdevelopment is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enac...

  6. Particle Physics in Intense Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kurilin, A V

    1999-01-01

    The quantum field theory in the presence of classical background electromagnetic fields is reviewed. We give a pedagogical introduction to the Feynman-Furry method of describing non-perturbative interactions with very strong electromagnetic fields. A particular emphasis is given to the case of the plane-wave electromagnetic field for which the charged particles' wave functions and propagators are presented. Some general features of quantum processes proceeding in the intense electromagnetic background are argued. We also discuss the possibilities of searching new physics through the investigations of quantum phenomena induced by the strong electromagnetic environment.

  7. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  8. Electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonglai; Guptal, Mool C; Dudley, Kenneth L; Lawrence, Roland W

    2007-02-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding characteristics of carbon nanofiber-polystyrene composites were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz (Ku-band). It was observed that the shielding effectiveness of such composites was frequency independent, and increased with increasing carbon nanofiber loading within Ku-band. The experimental data exhibited that the shielding effectiveness of the polymer composite containing 20 wt% carbon nanofibers could reach more than 36 dB in the measured frequency region, indicating such composites can be applied to the potential EMI shielding materials. In addition, the results showed that the contribution of reflection to the EMI shielding effectiveness was much larger than that of absorption, implying the primary EMI shielding mechanism of such composites was reflection of electromagnetic radiation within Ku-band. PMID:17450793

  9. Enhanced characterization of reservoir hydrocarbon components using electromagnetic data attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-12-23

    Advances in electromagnetic imaging techniques have led to the growing utilization of this technology for reservoir monitoring and exploration. These exploit the strong conductivity contrast between the hydrocarbon and water phases and have been used for mapping water front propagation in hydrocarbon reservoirs and enhancing the characterization of the reservoir formation. The conventional approach for the integration of electromagnetic data is to invert the data for saturation properties and then subsequently use the inverted properties as constraints in the history matching process. The non-uniqueness and measurement errors may however make this electromagnetic inversion problem strongly ill-posed, leading to potentially inaccurate saturation profiles. Another limitation of this approach is the uncertainty of Archie\\'s parameters in relating rock conductivity to water saturation, which may vary in the reservoir and are generally poorly known. We present an Ensemble Kalman Filter framework for efficiently integrating electromagnetic data into the history matching process and for simultaneously estimating the Archie\\'s parameters and the variance of the observation error of the electromagnetic data. We apply the proposed framework to a compositional reservoir model. We aim at assessing the relevance of EM data for estimating the different hydrocarbon components of the reservoir. The experimental results demonstrate that the individual hydrocarbon components are generally well matched, with nitrogen exhibiting the strongest improvement. The estimated observation error standard deviations are also within expected levels (between 5 and 10%), significantly contributing to the robustness of the proposed EM history matching framework. Archie\\'s parameter estimates approximate well the reference profile and assist in the accurate description of the electrical conductivity properties of the reservoir formation, hence leading to estimation accuracy improvements of around

  10. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  11. Significantly improving electromagnetic performance of nanopaper and its shape-memory nanocomposite by aligned carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haibao; Gou, Jan

    2012-04-01

    A new nanopaper that exhibits exciting electrical and electromagnetic performances is fabricated by incorporating magnetically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Electromagnetic CNTs were blended with and aligned into the nanopaper using a magnetic field, to significantly improve the electrical and electromagnetic performances of nanopaper and its enabled shape-memory polymer (SMP) composite. The morphology and structure of the aligned CNT arrays in nanopaper were characterized with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). A continuous and compact network of CNFs and aligned CNTs indicated that the nanopaper could have highly conductive properties. Furthermore, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of the SMP composites with different weight content of aligned CNT arrays was characterized. Finally, the aligned CNT arrays in nanopapers were employed to achieve the electrical actuation and accelerate the recovery speed of SMP composites.

  12. Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is defocused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  13. Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jingshan; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud, and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is de-focused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  14. Stiff spinning torus of electromagnetic two-body motion

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, J

    2005-01-01

    We study an orbit of the electromagnetic two-body problem that involves a fast (stiff) spinning motion about a circular orbit. We give a multiscale method of solution that solves for the fast timescale first. The solvability condition of the asymptotic expansion demands resonances for the fast dynamics. The stiff resonant tori are found precisely in the atomic magnitude and agree with many features of the Bohr atom in quantitative and qualitative detail; We calculate every first emission line of the first 13 observable spectroscopic series of hydrogen within a few percent deviation. The resonant orbits have angular momenta that are approximate multiples of Planck's constant and the emitted frequencies are given by a difference of two linear eigenvalues. This Lorentz-invariant two-body dynamics exhibts the phenomenon of resonant dissipation, i.e., the metastable dynamics radiates the center-of-mass energy while the particles perform fast spinning oscillations of small amplitude about a circular orbit, a collec...

  15. Sub-Doppler Laser Cooling using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peiru; Anderson, Dana Z; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2016-01-01

    We propose a sub-Doppler laser cooling mechanism that takes advantage of the unique spectral features and extreme dispersion generated by the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT is a destructive quantum interference phenomenon experienced by atoms with multiple internal quantum states when illuminated by laser fields with appropriate frequencies. By detuning the lasers slightly from the "dark resonance", we observe that, within the transparency window, atoms can be subject to a strong viscous force, while being only slightly heated by the diffusion caused by spontaneous photon scattering. In contrast to other laser cooling schemes, such as polarization gradient cooling or EIT-sideband cooling, no external magnetic field or strong external confining potential is required. Using a semiclassical approximation, we derive analytically quantitative expressions for the steady-state temperature, which is confirmed by full quantum mechanical numerical simulations. We find that the lowest ...

  16. manipulation of spin squeezing condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-Song Li; Ji-Bing Yuan; Le-Man Kuang

    2013-01-01

    We propose a scheme to coherently control spin squeezing of atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) via the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We study quantum dynamics of the mean spin vector and spin squeezing. It is shown that the mean spin vector and spin squeezing of the BEC can be controlled and manipulated by adjusting the external coupling fields or/and internal nonlinear interactions of the BEC. It is indicated that the spin squeezing can be generated rapidly in the dynamical process and maintained in a long time interval. It is found that a larger effective Rabi coupling between atoms and lasers can produce a stronger spin squeezing, and the squeezing can maintain a longer time interval.

  17. Electromagnetic normal modes and Casimir effects in layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2014-01-01

    We derive a general procedure for finding the electromagnetic normal modes in layered structures. We apply this procedure to planar, spherical and cylindrical structures. These normal modes are important in a variety of applications. They are the only input needed in calculations of Casimir interactions. We present explicit expression for the condition for modes and Casimir energy for a large number of specific geometries. The layers are allowed to be two-dimensional so graphene and graphene-like sheets as well as two-dimensional electron gases can be handled within the formalism. Also forces on atoms in layered structures are obtained. One side-result is the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction between two atoms.

  18. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  19. Canadian Indigenous Arts Exhibited in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangCheng

    2004-01-01

    A beautiful collection of Canadian Inuit wall hangings, titled “Culture on Cloth,” was exhibited at the Capital Library in Beijing from October 12 to 22, 2004. The exhibition was composed of 19 works by women artists from Baker Lake, Nunavut, Canada.

  20. Exhibition of Paintings By Fu Yiyao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoHui

    2004-01-01

    The CPAFFC mounted an exhibition of paintings by Fu Yiyao at the China National Museum of Fine Arts from April 15 to 26. As one of the activities to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the CPAFFC, the exhibition aimed to further promote the

  1. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  2. Exhibition Economy Set to Boost City Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Awell-developed exhibition industry is usually regarded as an important cri terion in measuring a city's economic and social development level. In recent years, much attention has been paid to exhibition economy for its positive effect on dining, transportation, tourism, advertising, and shopping.

  3. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  5. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  6. Gigahertz Dielectric Polarization of Substitutional Single Niobium Atoms in Defective Graphitic Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Guo, Junjie; Guan, Pengfei; Qin, Gaowu; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    We synthesize two Nb/C composites with an order of magnitude difference in the density of single niobium atoms substituted into defective graphitic layers. The concentration and sites of single Nb atoms are identified using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory. Comparing the experimental complex permittivity spectra reveals that a representative dielectric resonance at ∼16  GHz originates from the intrinsic polarization of single Nb atom sites, which is confirmed by theoretical simulations. The single-atom dielectric resonance represents the physical limit of the electromagnetic response of condensed matter, and thus might open up a new avenue for designing electromagnetic wave absorption materials. Single-atom resonance also has important implications in understanding the correlation between the macroscopic dielectric behaviors and the atomic-scale structural origin. PMID:26551823

  7. Recognizing Atoms in Atomically Engineered Nanostructures: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, J.W.; Bouchard, A.; Horn, K.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Swartzentruber, B.S.

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia Laboratov Directed Research & Development project to develop a technique that can identifi atoms in atomically engineered nanostructures. The report provides a detailed description of the experimental measurement techniques and subsequent image analysis procedures used in the identification process, followed by examples of the technique's successful application to several atomic surface features. Use of this technique requires the experimental measurement of both constant-current topographic and multi-bias conductance data from an atomic surface with the scanning tunneling microscope. These measurements are rendered as a collection of topographic and single-bias conductance images of the surface. Image pixels are then grouped into classes by a computed grouping algorithm, according to the shared conductance characteristics exhibited at each pixel. The image pixels are then color-coded by class to produce a false-color image of the scanned surface that chemically distinguishes surface electronic features over the entire area of the measured atomic surface.

  8. Covariant jump conditions in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Itin, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    A generally covariant four-dimensional representation of Maxwell's electrodynamics in a generic material medium can be achieved straightforwardly in the metric-free formulation of electromagnetism. In this setup, the electromagnetic phenomena described by two tensor fields, which satisfy Maxwell's equations. A generic tensorial constitutive relation between these fields is an independent ingredient of the theory. By use of different constitutive relations (local and non-local, linear and non-linear, etc.), a wide area of applications can be covered. In the current paper, we present the jump conditions for the fields and for the energy-momentum tensor on an arbitrarily moving surface between two media. From the differential and integral Maxwell equations, we derive the covariant boundary conditions, which are independent of any metric and connection. These conditions include the covariantly defined surface current and are applicable to an arbitrarily moving smooth curved boundary surface. As an application of ...

  9. Electromagnetic force distribution inside matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Wright, Ewan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Finite Difference Time Domain method, we solve Maxwell's equations numerically and compute the distribution of electromagnetic fields and forces inside material media. The media are generally specified by their dielectric permittivity epsilon(w) and magnetic permeability mu(w), representing small, transparent dielectric and magnetic objects such as platelets and micro-beads. Using two formulations of the electromagnetic force-density, one due to H. A. Lorentz [Collected Papers 2, 164 (1892)], the other due to A. Einstein and J. Laub [Ann, Phys. 331, 541 (1908)], we show that the force-density distribution inside a given object can differ substantially between the two formulations. This is remarkable, considering that the total force experienced by the object is always the same, irrespective of whether the Lorentz or the Einstein-Laub formula is employed. The differences between the two formulations should be accessible to measurement in deformable objects.

  10. Electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifeh, M M; Franz, M

    2013-07-12

    It has been suggested recently, based on subtle field-theoretical considerations, that the electromagnetic response of Weyl semimetals and the closely related Weyl insulators can be characterized by an axion term θE·B with space and time dependent axion angle θ(r,t). Here we construct a minimal lattice model of the Weyl medium and study its electromagnetic response by a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. We confirm the existence of the anomalous Hall effect expected on the basis of the field theory treatment. We find, contrary to the latter, that chiral magnetic effect (that is, ground state charge current induced by the applied magnetic field) is absent in both the semimetal and the insulator phase. We elucidate the reasons for this discrepancy.

  11. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  12. Synthetic aperture controlled source electromagnetics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.; Snieder, R.; Slob, E.; Hunziker, J.W.; Singer, J.; Sheiman, J.; Rosenquist, M.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled‐source electromagnetics (CSEM) has been used as a de‐risking tool in the hydrocarbon exploration industry. Although there have been successful applications of CSEM, this technique is still not widely used in the industry because the limited types of hydrocarbon reservoirs CSEM can detect. In this paper, we apply the concept of synthetic aperture to CSEM data. Synthetic aperture allows us to design sources with specific radiation patterns for different purposes. The ability to detec...

  13. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genuis, Stephen J., E-mail: sgenuis@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta (Canada); Lipp, Christopher T. [Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many people report symptoms when near devices emanating electromagnetic fields(EMF). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) research has generated conflicting outcomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recent evidence suggests pathophysiological change in some individuals with EHS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EHS patients consistently report profound social and personal challenges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinicians need to be apprised of the EHS condition and potential interventions.

  14. Neutrinos and electromagnetic gauge invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, F.; Silva-Sobrinho, J.A. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tonasse, M.D. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1996-02-01

    It is discussed a recently proposed connection among electromagnetic gauge invariance U(1){sub em} and the nature of the neutrino mass terms in the framework of SU(3){sub C} x G{sub W} x U(1){sub N}, G{sub W} SU(3){sub L}, extensions of the Standard Model. The impossibility of that connection, also in the case G{sub W} = SU(4){sub L}, is demonstrated. (author). 7 refs.

  15. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  16. Some Solutions of Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiksa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of the electromagnetic field by means of potentials under the Lorentz condition are described in this paper. The solution represented by the superposition of TM and TE modes is well known. It is explained why this solution has been exclusively accepted. The possibility of applying the Coulomb gauge is discussed. Due to the noncovariant field requirement, application of the Coulomb condition is unavoidable in quantum theory. In both cases, the longitudinal modes with their possible applications are described.

  17. Electromagnetism Tutorial (Tutorial de Eletromagnetismo)

    CERN Document Server

    Dantas, Christine C

    2009-01-01

    The present tutorial aims at covering the fundamentals of electromagnetism, in a condensed and clear manner. Some solved and proposed exercises have been included. The reader is assumed to have knowledge of basic electricity, partial derivatives and multiple integrals. ----- O presente tutorial visa cobrir os fundamentos do eletromagnetismo, de forma condensada e clara. Alguns exercicios resolvidos e propostos foram incluidos. Assume-se conhecimento de eletricidade basica, derivadas parciais e integrais multiplas.

  18. Dark Energy, Gravitation and Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    B. G. Sidharth

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the fact that the existence of dark energy causing the accelerated expansion of the universe has been confirmed by the WMAP and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we re-examine gravitation itself, starting with the formulation of Sakharov and show that it is possible to obtain gravitation in terms of the electromagnetic charge of elementary particles, once the ZPF and its effects at the Compton scale are taken into account.

  19. On Degenerate Metrics and Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Searight, T P

    2003-01-01

    A theory of degenerate metrics is developed and applied to the problem of unifying gravitation with electromagnetism. The approach is similar to the Kaluza-Klein approach with a fifth dimension, however no ad hoc conditions are needed to explain why the extra dimension is not directly observable under everyday conditions. Maxwell's theory is recovered with differences only at very small length scales, and a new formula is found for the Coulomb potential that is regular everywhere.

  20. Electromagnetic signals from planetary collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2003-01-01

    Planet-planet collisions are expected during the early stages of the formation of extra-solar planets, and are also possible in mature planetary systems through secular planet-planet perturbations. We investigate the electromagnetic signals accompanied with these planetary collisions and their event rate, and explore the possibility of directly detecting such events. A typical Earth-Jupiter collision would give rise to a prompt EUV-soft-X-ray flash lasting for hours and a bright IR afterglow ...

  1. Implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a metamaterial controlled with auxiliary waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  2. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  3. Teach us atom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  4. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  5. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  6. Laser cooling of rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Stephen Anthony

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and experimental work concerning radiation forces on atoms, with particular reference to rubidium atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. After a short history of the field of laser cooling, a review of the semiclassical theory of mechanical interactions between two-level atoms and electromagnetic radiation is given. Different formulations of the semiclassical theory are discussed, including a new formulation in terms of momentum transfer amongst the pl...

  7. Atom-light interactions in quasi-1D nanostructures: a Green's function perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Asenjo-Garcia, A; Chang, D E; Kimble, H J

    2016-01-01

    Based on a formalism that describes atom-light interactions in terms of the classical electromagnetic Green's function, we study the optical response of atoms and other quantum emitters coupled to one-dimensional photonic structures, such as cavities, waveguides, and photonic crystals. We demonstrate a clear mapping between the transmission spectra and the local Green's function that allows to identify signatures of dispersive and dissipative interactions between atoms, gaining insight into recent experiments.

  8. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  9. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  10. Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  11. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... analysis of how the proposed project will impact long term regional transmission expansion plans; (iii) An... data that represent system operating conditions. (i) Exhibit I—Project Cost and Financing. (1)...

  12. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commands of a Unified Command will forward exhibit requests of the above types to the Unified Commander concerned, via the chain of command. (3) The official OASD(PA) Request Form for Armed Forces...

  13. The Report of Virtual Exhibition Software Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main structure and key techniques of our Vir tual ExhibitionSoftware are summarized. It demonstrates the practice of Softwa re Engineering during the development of our project and discusses the use of UML in it.

  14. Footprints of China Auto Internatienal Exhibition Tour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ November 2008,the Sixth China Auto International(Algeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour is ready.Since the first session was held in 1995,the Chinese auto enterprises have been to Vietnam,Cambodia,Syria,and Russian.

  15. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  16. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  17. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  18. Exhibition: Urban Now. City Life in Congo

    OpenAIRE

    De Boeck, Filip; Baloji, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    This exhibition by photographer Sammy Baloji and anthropologist Filip De Boeck offers an exploration of different urban sites in Congo, through the media of photography and video. Focusing upon the “urban now”, a moment suspended between the broken dreams of a colonial past and the promises of neoliberal futures, the exhibition offers an artistic and ethnographic investigation of what living – and living together – might mean in Congo’s urban worlds. As elsewhere on the African continent,...

  19. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  20. Simple applications of Noether's first theorem in quantum mechanics and electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Harvey R.; Holland, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Internal global symmetries exist for the free non-relativistic Schr\\"{o}dinger particle, whose associated Noether charges--the space integrals of the wavefunction and the wavefunction multiplied by the spatial coordinate--are exhibited. Analogous symmetries in classical electromagnetism are also demonstrated.