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Sample records for atomic-bomb survivors relationship

  1. Relationship between anthropometric factors, radiation exposure, and colon cancer incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors.

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    Semmens, Erin O; Kopecky, Kenneth J; Grant, Eric; Mathes, Robert W; Nishi, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Sakata, Ritsu; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Yamada, Michiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Davis, Scott; Kodama, Kazunori; Li, Christopher I

    2013-01-01

    We examined colon cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors to investigate whether excess body weight after the bombings alters sensitivity to radiation effects. Of the 56,064 Japanese atomic bomb survivors with follow-up through 2002 with self-reported anthropometric data obtained from periodic mail surveys, 1,142 were diagnosed with colon cancer. We evaluated the influence of body mass index (BMI) and height on radiation-associated colon cancer risk using Poisson regression. We observed a similar linear dose-response relationship for the 56,064 subjects included in our analysis and the entire cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors [excess relative risk (ERR) per Gray (Gy) = 0.53, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.86]. Elevation in earliest reported BMI, BMI reported closest to colon cancer diagnosis, and time-varying BMI were associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer [relative risk (RR) per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI = 1.14, 95 % CI 1.03-1.26; RR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05-1.27; and RR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27, respectively]. Height was not significantly related to colon cancer risk. Inclusion of anthropometric variables in models had little impact on radiation risk estimates, and there was no evidence that sensitivity to the effect of radiation on colon cancer risk depended on BMI. Radiation exposure and BMI are both risk factors for colon cancer. BMI at various times after exposure to the atomic bombings does not significantly influence the relationship between radiation dose and colon cancer risk, suggesting that BMI and radiation impact colon cancer risk independently of each other.

  2. Resilience among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

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    Knowles, A

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the experience of atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Never has the world experienced such extreme devastation as with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in August 1945. Although significant quantitative research has been completed about the medical effects following radiation, the literature lacks qualitative exploration from a holistic health perspective. This was a qualitative descriptive study, using methods of narrative analysis, oral history and ethnography. The sample for this research included eight individuals who were exposed to the atomic bombings in Japan and currently reside in the United States. Findings provide insight to the resilience that the survivors exhibited immediately following the bomb, as well as throughout the 65 years following the event. From ethnographic data and interviews with survivors, a thematic structure was developed that depicts the essential elements of the atomic bomb experience. Two ways of being in the world followed the bombing: surviving and thriving, with resilience serving as a lever, allowing for fluid movement over time across the continuum. Individuals experiencing surviving exhibited anxiety about their personal and family members' health, expressed mistrust, and felt a stigma associated with being a survivor. For those who were thriving, peace activism, overcoming and forgiveness were typically displayed. Findings from this study add to the disaster nursing literature and highlight the role resilience plays in the atomic bomb survivors' life perspective. © 2011 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors.

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    Ozasa, Kotaro; Takahashi, Ikuno; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2017-02-24

    The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and atomic bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of atomic bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease. Among the atomic bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those who were exposed at younger ages. These effects are thought to reflect the nature of whole body irradiation. But, some findings remain inconsistent, possibly because of possible misclassification in death certificate diagnoses in the Life Span Study as well as selected information from the Adult Health Study which was limited to participants, focused on specific outcomes, and gathered in selected periods of follow-up. Therefore, a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the results from both groups is necessary.

  4. Future population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki.

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    Yokota, Kenichi; Mine, Mariko; Shibata, Yoshisada

    2013-01-01

    The Nagasaki University Atomic Bomb Survivor Database, which was established in 1978 for elucidating the long-term health effects of the atomic bombing, has registered since 1970 about 120,000 atomic bomb survivors with a history of residence in Nagasaki city. Since the number of atomic bomb survivors has steadily been decreasing, prediction of future population is important for planning future epidemiologic studies, and we tried to predict the population of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki city from 2008 to 2030. In addition, we evaluated our estimated population comparing with the actual number from 2008 to 2011.

  5. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

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    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  6. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

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    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan); Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi (and others)

    2001-06-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  7. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

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    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

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    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  9. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

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    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  10. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

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    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  11. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

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    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  12. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors predicted from laboratory animals

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    Carnes, Bruce A.; Grahn, Douglas; Hoel, David

    2003-01-01

    Exposure, pathology and mortality data for mice, dogs and humans were examined to determine whether accurate interspecies predictions of radiation-induced mortality could be achieved. The analyses revealed that (1) days of life lost per unit dose can be estimated for a species even without information on radiation effects in that species, and (2) accurate predictions of age-specific radiation-induced mortality in beagles and the atomic bomb survivors can be obtained from a dose-response model for comparably exposed mice. These findings illustrate the value of comparative mortality analyses and the relevance of animal data to the study of human health effects.

  13. Outcome and status of microsatellite stability in Japanese atomic bomb survivors with early gastric carcinoma.

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    Yamamoto, Manabu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    In the decade after the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. However, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased, while that of leukemia decreased after this period. We evaluated the clinical outcome of early gastric cancer and microsatellite stability over a long-term period in atomic bomb survivors. The results of surgical treatment for early gastric cancer were reviewed for 117 atomic bomb survivors and 394 control patients between 1995 and 2006. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression was performed to evaluate the status of microsatellite stability in 57 atomic bomb survivors and 82 control patients. The long-term survival rate for early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly lower than that in control patients (p atomic bomb survivorship was related to defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression. The prognosis of early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was poor and was related to age and sex, rather than to being an atomic bomb survivor. Furthermore, a higher rate of defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was observed in the survivors.

  14. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

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    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age.

  15. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

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    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study.

  16. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

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    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya.

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors.

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    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-08-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed IN UTERO : , and children of atomic bomb survivors (F1). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose-response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed IN UTERO : is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  18. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

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    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality in the Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors and Controls

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    Neel, James V.; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, William J.

    1974-01-01

    A continuing study of mortality rates among children born to survivors of the atomic bombings and a suitable group of controls has been updated; the average interval between birth and verification of death or survival is 17 years. The mortality experience is now based on 18,946 children liveborn to parents one or both of whom were proximally exposed, receiving jointly an estimated dose of 117 rem; 16,516 children born to distally exposed parents receiving essentially no radiation; and 17,263 children born to parents not in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombings. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on child's survival can be demonstrated either by a contingency χ2 type of analysis or regression analysis. On the basis of the regression data, the minimal gametic doubling dose of radiation of this type for mutations resulting in death during (on the average) the first 17 years of life among liveborn infants conceived 0–13 years after parental exposure is estimated at 46 rem for fathers and 125 rem for mothers. On the basis of experimental data, the gametic doubling dose for chronic, low-level radiation would be expected to be three to four times this value for males and as much as 1000 rem for females. PMID:4822470

  20. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

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    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  1. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

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    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  2. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors

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    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-ping; Young, Lauren F.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34 + Lin−) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  3. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

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    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The long-term outcome of atomic bomb survivors with gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Kameyama, Toshifumi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Okazaki, Jin; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2009-12-01

    During the decade following the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. Subsequently, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased while that of leukemia decreased. We examined the long-term clinical outcome of gastric cancer and second primary cancer in atomic bomb survivors. Results of surgical treatment of gastric cancer were reviewed in 231 atomic bomb survivors and 759 control patients between 1995 and 2006. Long-term prognosis of gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly poorer than that in control patients (P < 0.05). In a multivariate analysis, age, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastases, and curability were found to be significant and independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer. The incidence of second primary cancer after gastric cancer was significantly higher in survivors than in control patients (P < 0.01), because the number of elderly patients in the survivors was higher. Gastric cancer in survivors had a significantly poorer prognosis. Although the frequency of second primary cancer after gastric cancer in survivors was higher than that in control patients, it did not influence the prognosis.

  5. [Cohort studies of the atomic bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been evaluating the risk of atomic bomb radiation for various diseases since the beginning of its former organization, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. Cohorts of atomic-bomb survivors, in-utero survivors, and survivors' offspring have been followed up. The risk of all solid cancers at 1 Gy was estimated as ERR = 0.47 and EAR = 52/10,000 person-years for people who were exposed at 30 years of age and had reached 70 years of age, based on the cancer incidence during 1958-1998. The risk seemed to be increased in the in-utero survivors, but was rather lower than the risk for the survivors exposed at a young age. Effects on the offspring of survivors have not been shown to be significant. Continuing the research is important in order to more accurately estimate and understand radiation-induced health effects.

  6. Heterogeneity of variation of relative risk by age at exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark P

    2009-08-01

    General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060).

  7. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  8. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  9. Risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in people exposed to ionizing radiation: a retrospective cohort study of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Soda, Midori; Takasaki, Yumi; Tawara, Masayuki; Joh, Tatsuro; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Yamamura, Masaomi; Yoshida, Yoshiharu; Koba, Takashi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, Dale L; Suyama, Akihiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Tomonaga, Masao

    2011-02-01

    The risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been fully investigated among people exposed to ionizing radiation. We investigate MDS risk and radiation dose-response in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using two databases of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: 64,026 people with known exposure distance in the database of Nagasaki University Atomic-Bomb Disease Institute (ABDI) and 22,245 people with estimated radiation dose in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS). Patients with MDS diagnosed from 1985 to 2004 were identified by record linkage between the cohorts and the Nagasaki Prefecture Cancer Registry. Cox and Poisson regression models were used to estimate relationships between exposure distance or dose and MDS risk. There were 151 patients with MDS in the ABDI cohort and 47 patients with MDS in the LSS cohort. MDS rate increased inversely with exposure distance, with an excess relative risk (ERR) decay per km of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.0; P atomic bomb survivors 40 to 60 years after radiation exposure. Clinicians should perform careful long-term follow-up of irradiated people to detect MDS as early as possible.

  10. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))

    1984-03-01

    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  11. Characteristic expression of fukutin in gastric cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Trang T B; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Manabu; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi; Mukai, Shoichiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 70 years have passed since the atomic bombs were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. To elucidate potential biomarkers and possible mechanisms of radiation-induced cancer, the expression of FKTN, which encodes fukutin protein and causes Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, was analyzed in gastric cancer (GC) tissue samples from atomic bomb survivors. Expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 10 was also evaluated, as it has previously been observed that positive fukutin expression was frequently noted in CD10-positive GC cases. In the first cohort from Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-Bomb Survivors Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=92), 102 (53%) of the GC cases were positive for fukutin. Expression of fukutin was not associated with exposure status, but was associated with CD10 expression (P=0.0001). The second cohort was from Hiroshima University Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan; n=86), and these patients were also in the Life Span Study cohort, in which atomic bomb radiation doses were precisely estimated using the DS02 system. Expression of fukutin was detected in 58 (67%) of GC cases. GC cases positive for fukutin were observed more frequently in the low dose-exposed group than in the high dose-exposed group (P=0.0001). Further studies with a larger cohort, including precise radiation dose estimation, may aid in clarifying whether fukutin could serve as a potential biomarker to define radiation-induced GC in atomic-bomb survivors.

  12. Radiation Effects on Cognitive Function Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed at or After Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Michiko; Landes, Reid D; Mimori, Yasuyo; Nagano, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate radiation effects on longitudinal pre-dementia cognitive decline among participants who developed dementia as well as on those who did not develop dementia during follow-up. Measuring cognitive function with the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument approximately every 2 years, we followed 1844 atomic bomb survivors participating in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1992 to 2011. Participants were adolescents or older when exposed to between 0 and 4 Gy. Approximately 15% and 40% of participants were exposed to ≥1 Gy and atomic bomb survivors exposed at or after adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  14. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Biological Profiles of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Su-Young; Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2008-01-01

    In 1945, many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. This study compared the biological profiles of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Daegu and Kyungbuk, Republic of Korea with those of a representative sample of Koreans obtained during a similar period. We evaluated anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, blood chemistry, and urinalysis of survivors (n=414) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=414) recruited from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2005. Univariate analyses revealed significantly higher systolic blood pressure, white blood cell count, and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase levels (patomic bomb survivors were adversely affected by radiation exposure. PMID:19119455

  16. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  17. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  18. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  19. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Nishi, Nobuo; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikiko; Konda, Manami; Shore, Roy E

    2010-01-14

    To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received atomic bomb radiation. About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, Patomic bomb survivors.

  20. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in Asia: a viewpoint from nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Masako; Tomonaga, Masao

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known environmental risk factor for a variety of cancers including hematological malignancies, such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and multiple myeloma. Therefore, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors (surviving victims who were exposed to ionizing radiation emitted from the nuclear weapons), several cancer-screening tests have been provided annually, with government support, to detect the early stage of malignancies. An M-protein screening test has been used to detect multiple myeloma at an early stage among atomic bomb survivors. In the screening process, a number of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in addition to multiple myeloma, have been identified. In 2009 and 2011, we reported the age- and sex-specific prevalence of MGUS between 1988 and 2004 and the possible role of radiation exposure in the development of MGUS using the screening data of more than 1000 patients with MGUS among approximately 52,000 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The findings included: (1) a significant lower overall prevalence (2.1%) than that observed in Caucasian or African-origin populations; (2) a significantly higher prevalence in men than in women; (3) an age-related increase in the prevalence; (4) a significantly higher prevalence in people exposed to higher radiation doses only among those exposed at age 20 years or younger; and (5) a lower frequency of immunoglobulin M MGUS in Japanese patients than in patients in Western countries. The large study of MGUS among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors has provided important findings for the etiology of MGUS, including a possible role of radiation exposure on the cause of MGUS and an ethnicity-related difference in the characteristics of MGUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence supporting radiation hormesis in atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-12-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for a large systematic bias in the measured baseline cancer mortality rate, which can have a major effect on the ERR values. Cancer rates are highly variable from year to year and between adjacent regions and so the likelihood of such a bias is high. Calculations show that a correction for such a bias can lower the ERRs in the atomic bomb survivor data to negative values for intermediate doses. This is consistent with the phenomenon of radiation hormesis, providing a rational explanation for the decreased risk of cancer observed at intermediate doses for which there is no explanation based on the LNT model. The recent atomic bomb survivor data provides additional evidence for radiation hormesis in humans.

  2. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  3. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  4. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M P

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  5. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M P [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College, London W2 1PG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mark.little@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-06-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  6. Organ dose conversions from ESR measurements using tooth enamel of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Dose conversions were studied for dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors based upon electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of tooth enamel. Previously analysed data had clarified that the tooth enamel dose could be much larger than other organ doses from a low-energy photon exposure. The radiation doses to other organs or whole-body doses, however, are assumed to be near the tooth enamel dose for photon energies which are dominant in the leakage spectrum of the Hiroshima atomic bomb assumed in DS02. In addition, the thyroid can be a candidate for a surrogate organ in cases where the tooth enamel dose is not available in organ dosimetry. This paper also suggests the application of new Japanese voxel phantoms to derive tooth enamel doses by numerical analyses.

  7. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  8. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  9. Estimation of radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Kamada, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Kasumi (Japan); Ito, C. [Hiroshima A-bomb Casualty Council Health Management Promotion Center, Senda-machi Naka-ku (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The present study presents the Hiroshima University Registry of atomic bomb survivors, of which the total number is about 270,000, and application of absorbed doses. From this registry, we picked up 49,102 survivors and applied organ doses based on the dosimetry system 1986 (DS86), which is named the Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). The applied dose data are based on the tables listed in the DS86 final report such as the free-in-air kermas, the house shielding factors, and organ dose factors for the active bone marrow and the breast. Calculations for the 13 other organs provided in DS86 are possible. To obtained the organ doses for each survivor, it is necessary to obtain information concerning (1) place exposed, (2) whether they were shielded or not, and (3) age. ABS93D body transmission factors for active bone marrow for neutrons and gamma rays agreed with DS 86 to within a few percent. Of the survivors studied, 35, 123 of them were used for the relative risk estimation of leukemia mortality, adopting the same method as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) for comparison. For the observation period from 1968 to 1989, the analyzed relative risks for leukemia mortality at 1 Gy by shielded kerm and by active bone marrow dose are 2.01 and 2.37, respectively, which are consistent with the RERF results. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  11. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  12. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  13. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people.

  14. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  15. Metabolic Profile as a Potential Modifier of Long-Term Radiation Effects on Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomonori; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-09-01

    Immune system impairments reflected by the composition and function of circulating lymphocytes are still observed in atomic bomb survivors, and metabolic abnormalities including altered blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels have also been detected in such survivors. Based on closely related features of immune and metabolic profiles of individuals, we investigated the hypothesis that long-term effects of radiation exposure on lymphocyte subsets might be modified by metabolic profiles in 3,113 atomic bomb survivors who participated in health examinations at the Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in 2000-2002. The lymphocyte subsets analyzed involved T-, B- and NK-cell subsets, and their percentages in the lymphocyte fraction were assessed using flow cytometry. Health examinations included metabolic indicators, body mass index, serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin A1c, as well as diabetes and fatty liver diagnoses. Standard regression analyses indicated that several metabolic indicators of obesity/related disease, particularly high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, were positively associated with type-1 helper T- and B-cell percentages but were inversely associated with naïve CD4 T and NK cells. A regression analysis adjusted for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol revealed a radiation dose relationship with increasing NK-cell percentage. Additionally, an interaction effect was suggested between radiation dose and C-reactive protein on B-cell percentage with a negative coefficient of the interaction term. Collectively, these findings suggest that radiation exposure and subsequent metabolic profile changes, potentially in relationship to obesity-related inflammation, lead to such long-term alterations in lymphocyte subset composition. Because this study is based on cross-sectional and exploratory analyses, the implications regarding radiation exposure, metabolic

  16. Non-cancer Diseases of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined non-cancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  17. Invited commentary: missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Grant, E J; Cullings, H M; Shore, R E

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study is a long-term epidemiologic cohort study of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. In this issue of the Journal, Richardson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(6):562-568) suggest that those who died in the earliest years of follow-up were more likely to have a missing dose of radiation exposure assigned, leading to a bias in the radiation risk estimates. We show that nearly all members of the cohort had shielding information recorded before the beginning of follow-up and that much of the alleged bias that Richardson et al. describe simply reflects the geographic distribution of shielding conditions for which reliable dosimetry was impossible.

  18. Radiation dose and cataract surgery incidence in atomic bomb survivors, 1986-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi; Grant, Eric J; Masunari, Naomi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Minamoto, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

    2012-10-01

    To examine the incidence of clinically important cataracts in relation to lens radiation doses between 0 and approximately 3 Gy to address risks at relatively low brief doses. Informed consent was obtained, and human subjects procedures were approved by the ethical committee at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Cataract surgery incidence was documented for 6066 atomic bomb survivors during 1986-2005. Sixteen risk factors for cataract, such as smoking, hypertension, and corticosteroid use, were not confounders of the radiation effect on the basis of Cox regression analysis. Radiation dose-response analyses were performed for cataract surgery incidence by using Poisson regression analysis, adjusting for demographic variables and diabetes mellitus, and results were expressed as the excess relative risk (ERR) and the excess absolute risk (EAR) (ie, measures of how much radiation multiplies [ERR] or adds to [EAR] the risk in the unexposed group). Of 6066 atomic bomb survivors, 1028 underwent a first cataract surgery during 1986-2005. The estimated threshold dose was 0.50 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10 Gy, 0.95 Gy) for the ERR model and 0.45 Gy (95% CI: 0.10 Gy, 1.05 Gy) for the EAR model. A linear-quadratic test for upward curvature did not show a significant quadratic effect for either the ERR or EAR model. The linear ERR model for a 70-year-old individual, exposed at age 20 years, showed a 0.32 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.53) [corrected] excess risk at 1 Gy. The ERR was highest for those who were young at exposure. These data indicate a radiation effect for vision-impairing cataracts at doses less than 1 Gy. The evidence suggests that dose standards for protection of the eye from brief radiation exposures should be 0.5 Gy or less. © RSNA, 2012.

  19. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  20. Characteristic miR-24 Expression in Gastric Cancers among Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yutaka; Oue, Naohide; Pham, Trang T B; Yamamoto, Manabu; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi; Mukai, Shoichiro; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Hida, Eisuke; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yasui, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced cancers, we analyzed the expression profiles of microRNAs extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) gastric cancer (GC) tissue samples from atomic bomb survivors. The expression levels of miR-21, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, miR-143, and miR-145 were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of microRNAs was measured by qRT-PCR in a Hiroshima University Hospital cohort comprising 32 patients in the high-dose-exposed group and 18 patients in the low-dose-exposed group who developed GC after the bombing. The GC cases showing high expression of miR-24, miR-143, and miR-145 were more frequently found in the high-dose-exposed group than in the low-dose-exposed group. We next performed qRT-PCR of miR-24, miR-143, and miR-145 in a cohort from the Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-Bomb Survivors Hospital comprising 122 patients in the high-dose-exposed group and 48 patients in the low-dose-exposed group who developed GC after the bombing. High expressions of miR-24 and miR-143 were more frequently found in the high-dose-exposed group than in the low-dose-exposed group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only high expression of miR-24 was an independent predictor for the exposure status. These results suggest that the measurement of miR-24 expression from FFPE samples is useful to identify radiation-associated GC.

  1. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  2. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure.

  3. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors.

  4. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors.

  5. Missing doses in the life span study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Wing, Steve; Cole, Stephen R

    2013-03-15

    The Life Span Study of atomic bomb survivors is an important source of risk estimates used to inform radiation protection and compensation. Interviews with survivors in the 1950s and 1960s provided information needed to estimate radiation doses for survivors proximal to ground zero. Because of a lack of interview or the complexity of shielding, doses are missing for 7,058 of the 68,119 proximal survivors. Recent analyses excluded people with missing doses, and despite the protracted collection of interview information necessary to estimate some survivors' doses, defined start of follow-up as October 1, 1950, for everyone. We describe the prevalence of missing doses and its association with mortality, distance from hypocenter, city, age, and sex. Missing doses were more common among Nagasaki residents than among Hiroshima residents (prevalence ratio = 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 2.14), among people who were closer to ground zero than among those who were far from it, among people who were younger at enrollment than among those who were older, and among males than among females (prevalence ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.28). Missing dose was associated with all-cancer and leukemia mortality, particularly during the first years of follow-up (all-cancer rate ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.51, 3.08; and leukemia rate ratio = 4.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.72, 10.67). Accounting for missing dose and late entry should reduce bias in estimated dose-mortality associations.

  6. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels.

  7. Effect of radiation on age at menopause among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ritsu; Shimizu, Yukiko; Soda, Midori; Yamada, Michiko; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Hayashi, Mikiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation has been thought to induce ovarian failure and premature menopause. Proximally exposed female atomic bomb survivors were reported to experience menopause immediately after the exposure more often than those who were distally exposed. However, it remains unclear whether such effects were caused by physical injury and psychological trauma or by direct effects of radiation on the ovaries. The objective of this study was to see if there are any late health effects associated with the exposure to atomic bomb radiation in terms of age at menopause in a cohort of 21,259 Life Span Study female A-bomb survivors. Excess absolute rates (EAR) of natural and artificial menopause were estimated using Poisson regression. A linear threshold model with a knot at 0.40 Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.62] was the best fit for a dose response of natural menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years = 19.4/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.4, 30.8) and a linear threshold model with a knot at 0.22 Gy (95% CI: 0.14, 0.34) was the best fit for artificial menopause (EAR at 1 Gy at age of 50 years for females who were exposed at age of 20 years = 14.5/1,000 person-years, 95% CI: 10.2, 20.1). Effect modification by attained age indicated that EARs peaked around 50 years of age for both natural and artificial menopause. Although effect modification by age at exposure was not significant for natural menopause, the EAR for artificial menopause tended to be larger in females exposed at young ages. On the cumulative incidence curve of natural menopause, the median age at menopause was 0.3 years younger in females exposed to radiation of 1 Gy compared with unexposed females. The median age was 1 year younger for combined natural and artificial menopause in the same comparison. In conclusion, age at menopause was thought to decrease with increasing radiation dose for both natural and artificial menopause occurring at least 5 years after the exposure.

  8. Neutron relative biological effectiveness in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nomura, Taisei

    2016-11-01

    The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if a study is to serve as a reference for cancer risk. However, the relatively small neutron component hampered the direct estimation of RBE in LSS data. To circumvent this problem, several strategies have been attempted, including dose-independent constant RBE, dose-dependent variable RBE, and dependence on the degrees of dominance of intermingled γ-rays. By surveying the available literature, we tested the chromosomal RBE of neutrons as the biological endpoint for its equivalence to the microdosimetric quantities obtained using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in various neutron fields. The radiation weighting factor, or quality factor, Qn, of neutrons as expressed in terms of the energy dependence of the maximum RBE, RBEm, was consistent with that predicted by the TEPC data, indicating that the chromosomally measured RBE was independent of the magnitude of coexisting γ-rays. The obtained neutron RBE, which varied with neutron dose, was confirmed to be the most adequate RBE system in terms of agreement with the cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors, using chromosome aberrations as surrogate markers. With this RBE system, the cancer risk in A-bomb survivors as expressed in unit dose of reference radiation is equally compatible with Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities, and may be potentially applicable in other cases of human radiation exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  9. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-05-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the 'integrate-and-fire' algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (i) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (ii) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to (239)Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation-environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking.

  10. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  11. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  12. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hiyama, Keiko; Matsuo, Kakaru; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Nishida, Masashi; Sasaki, Yoshinobu

    2001-06-01

    The results of the ninth medical examination are reported. Atomic bomb survivors who had emigrated to South America as of November 2000 totaled 180 (153 to Brazil, 4 to Paraguay, 7 to Bolivia, 13 to Argentina, and 3 to Peru). Eighty persons (44.4%) were examined (62 in Brazil, 2 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 7 in Argentina, and 3 in Peru). The mean age of the males was 71.3 years, and the mean age of the females was 69.7 years. They had hypertension (24.1%), diabetes (10.1%), cancer (8.9%), heart disease (7.6%), and thyroid disease (2.5%). The most common manifestations of illness were fatigue (69.6%), loss of vigor (65.8%), taking medicine (55.7%), and heat intolerance (53.2%). The incident rates of electrocardiographic abnormalities and urine, blood, and biochemical tests abnormalities were almost the same as at the previous examination, and there was no change in the percentage of those who required detailed tests and treatment. When independence in daily life was judged by the criteria of the nursing care insurance system, 68 persons were judged ''independent'', and 7 persons ''handicapped.'' (K.H.)

  13. Atomic Bomb Survivors Life-Span Study: Insufficient Statistical Power to Select Radiation Carcinogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socol, Yehoshua; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2015-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors life-span study (LSS) is often claimed to support the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH) of radiation carcinogenesis. This paper shows that this claim is baseless. The LSS data are equally or better described by an s-shaped dependence on radiation exposure with a threshold of about 0.3 Sievert (Sv) and saturation level at about 1.5 Sv. A Monte-Carlo simulation of possible LSS outcomes demonstrates that, given the weak statistical power, LSS cannot provide support for LNTH. Even if the LNTH is used at low dose and dose rates, its estimation of excess cancer mortality should be communicated as 2.5% per Sv, i.e., an increase of cancer mortality from about 20% spontaneous mortality to about 22.5% per Sv, which is about half of the usually cited value. The impact of the "neutron discrepancy problem" - the apparent difference between the calculated and measured values of neutron flux in Hiroshima - was studied and found to be marginal. Major revision of the radiation risk assessment paradigm is required.

  14. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure.

  15. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses.

  16. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950-2003: an overview of cancer and noncancer diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Shimizu, Yukiko; Suyama, Akihiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kodama, Kazunori

    2012-03-01

    This is the 14th report in a series of periodic general reports on mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to investigate the late health effects of the radiation from the atomic bombs. During the period 1950-2003, 58% of the 86,611 LSS cohort members with DS02 dose estimates have died. The 6 years of additional follow-up since the previous report provide substantially more information at longer periods after radiation exposure (17% more cancer deaths), especially among those under age 10 at exposure (58% more deaths). Poisson regression methods were used to investigate the magnitude of the radiation-associated risks, the shape of the dose response, and effect modification by gender, age at exposure, and attained age. The risk of all causes of death was positively associated with radiation dose. Importantly, for solid cancers the additive radiation risk (i.e., excess cancer cases per 10(4) person-years per Gy) continues to increase throughout life with a linear dose-response relationship. The sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.53] for all solid cancer at age 70 years after exposure at age 30 based on a linear model. The risk increased by about 29% per decade decrease in age at exposure (95% CI: 17%, 41%). The estimated lowest dose range with a significant ERR for all solid cancer was 0 to 0.20 Gy, and a formal dose-threshold analysis indicated no threshold; i.e., zero dose was the best estimate of the threshold. The risk of cancer mortality increased significantly for most major sites, including stomach, lung, liver, colon, breast, gallbladder, esophagus, bladder and ovary, whereas rectum, pancreas, uterus, prostate and kidney parenchyma did not have significantly increased risks. An increased risk of non-neoplastic diseases including the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems was observed, but whether these are causal

  17. Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood. To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed. The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses. Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P atomic bomb survivors 62 to 66 years after their exposure in childhood. However, radiation exposure is not associated with small

  18. Long-lasting alterations of the immune system by ionizing radiation exposure: implications for disease development among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2008-01-01

    The immune systems of the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors were damaged proportionately to irradiation levels at the time of the bombing over 60 years ago. Although the survivor's immune system repaired and regenerated as the hematopoietic system has recovered, significant residual injury persists, as manifested by abnormalities in lymphoid cell composition and function. This review summarizes the long-lasting alterations in immunological functions associated with atomic-bomb irradiation, and discusses the likelihood that damaging effects of radiation on the immune system may be involved partly in disease development so frequently observed in A-bomb survivors. Significant immunological alterations noted include: (i) attrition of T-cell functions, as reductions in mitogen-dependent proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production; (ii) decrease in helper T-cell populations; and (iii) increase in blood inflammatory cytokine levels. These findings suggest that A-bomb radiation exposure perturbed one or more of the primary processes responsible for T-cell homeostasis and the balance between cell renewal and survival and cell death among naive and memory T cells. Such perturbed T-cell homeostasis may result in acceleration of immunological aging. Persistent inflammation, linked in some way to the perturbation of T-cell homeostasis, is key in addressing whether such noted immunological changes observed in A-bomb survivors are in fact associated with disease development.

  19. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  20. Long-term trend of thyroid cancer risk among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors: 60 years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Ito, Masahiro; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood and adolescence is a topic of public concern. To characterize the long-term temporal trend and age-at-exposure variation in the radiation-induced risk of thyroid cancer, we analyzed thyroid cancer incidence data for the period from 1958 through 2005 among 105,401 members of the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. During the follow-up period, 371 thyroid cancer cases (excluding those with microcarcinoma with a diameter 50 years after exposure. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Mutations detected in the repetitive sequences in the children of the atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Kodaira, Mieko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    We have been examining genetic effects of radiation in the children of the atomic bomb survivors. In a pilot study, 50 exposed families with 64 children and 50 control families with 60 children were examined for trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations at 3 loci and mutations at 6 minisatellite loci. Average dose of the 51 exposed parents was 1.8 Sv. By examining 124 children of 100 families, 65 germ cells derived from exposed parents and 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents were examined. The trinucleotide repeat expansions in genes of certain human genetic diseases show remarkable variation both within the cells of a single individual and among affected members of a single family which have been interpreted as mitotic and meiotic instability. We examined the regions with triplet repeats in the FMR-1, AR and DM genes causative for fragile X syndrome, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and myotonic dystrophy. No mutations were detected in 177 regions derived from 65 germ cells of exposed parents and 443 regions from 183 germ cells of non-exposed parents. No effects on the instability of the triplet repeats in the germ cells derived from exposed or unexposed individuals were observed. In the examinations of the 6 minisatellite loci of Pc-1, {lambda}TM-18, ChdTC-15, p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1, and CEB-1, we detected single mutations at each of the p{lambda}g3 and {lambda}MS-1, and 4 mutations at the CEB-1 locus which had occurred in the 65 gametes in the exposed parents. Thus, mutation rates per gamete at the p{lambda}g3, {lambda}MS-1 and CEB-1 were 1.5%, 1.5% and 6.2%. On the other hand, mutations in these 3 loci in the 183 gametes of non-exposed parents were 0, 11 and 11, that is, the mutation rates per gamete were 0%, 6.0% and 6.0%. No significant difference was observed in the mutation rate at each of the 3 loci between 2 groups of parents. These preliminary results suggest that A-bomb exposure seems not to affect the germline instability at these 3 loci. (J.P.N).

  2. Ionizing radiation exposure and the development of soft-tissue sarcomas in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartzis, Dino; Nishi, Nobuo; Cologne, John; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Hayashi, Mikiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Miles, Edward F; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi

    2013-02-06

    Very high levels of ionizing radiation exposure have been associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. The effects of lower levels of ionizing radiation on sarcoma development are unknown. This study addressed the role of low to moderately high levels of ionizing radiation exposure in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. Based on the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, 80,180 individuals were prospectively assessed for the development of primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Colon dose in gray (Gy), the excess relative risk, and the excess absolute rate per Gy absorbed ionizing radiation dose were assessed. Subject demographic, age-specific, and survival parameters were evaluated. One hundred and four soft-tissue sarcomas were identified (mean colon dose = 0.18 Gy), associated with a 39% five-year survival rate. Mean ages at the time of the bombings and sarcoma diagnosis were 26.8 and 63.6 years, respectively. A linear dose-response model with an excess relative risk of 1.01 per Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 2.46; p = 0.019) and an excess absolute risk per Gy of 4.3 per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI: 1.1 to 8.9; p = 0.001) were noted in the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is one of the largest and longest studies (fifty-six years from the time of exposure to the time of follow-up) to assess ionizing radiation effects on the development of soft-tissue sarcoma. This is the first study to suggest that lower levels of ionizing radiation may be associated with the development of soft-tissue sarcoma, with exposure of 1 Gy doubling the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma development (linear dose-response). The five-year survival rate of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma in this population was much lower than that reported elsewhere.

  3. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma in the Retroperitoneum in an Atomic Bomb Survivor: Report of a Case

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    Yukio Nakamura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Kosei-Nenkin Hospital (Osaka, Japan in November 2006; his chief complaint was a 10-kg loss in body weight over 3 months prior to admission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed three masses in the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently underwent surgery. The final histopathological diagnosis of tumors 1 and 2 was malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum, and tumor 3 was a well-differentiated liposarcoma. By the presence of the liposarcoma, tumor 1 and 2 were thought to be the dedifferentiated areas of liposarcomas. At the age of 16, the patient had been exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima towards the end of the Second World War. We postulate that in this case, radiation from the atomic bomb may have played an important role in the development of the sarcomas.

  4. Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sadakane, Atsuko; Takahashi, Ikuno; Utada, Mai; Shimizu, Yukiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates. Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death. Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62

  5. Solid Cancer Incidence among the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Brenner, Alina; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Sadakane, Atsuko; Utada, Mai; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Milder, Caitlin M; Soda, Midori; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. A total of 80,205 subjects had individual dose estimates and 25,239 were not in either city at the time of the bombings. The follow-up period was 1958-2009, providing 3,079,484 person-years of follow-up. Cases were identified by linkage with population-based Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cancer Registries. Poisson regression methods were used to elucidate the nature of the radiation-associated risks per Gy of weighted absorbed colon dose using both excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models adjusted for smoking. Risk estimates were reported for a person exposed at age 30 years with attained age of 70 years. In this study, 22,538 incident first primary solid cancer cases were identified, of which 992 were associated with radiation exposure. There were 5,918 cases (26%) that occurred in the 11 years (1999-2009) since the previously reported study. For females, the dose response was consistent with linearity with an estimated ERR of 0.64 per Gy (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.77). For males, significant upward curvature over the full dose range as well as restricted dose ranges was observed and therefore, a linear-quadratic model was used, which resulted in an ERR of 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28) at 1 Gy and an ERR of 0.010 (95% CI: -0.0003 to 0.021) at 0.1 Gy. The shape of the ERR dose response was significantly different among males and females (P = 0.02). While there was a significant decrease in the ERR with increasing attained age, this

  6. A comparison of clinicopathological features and prognosis in prostate cancer between atomic bomb survivors and control patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Koichi; Teishima, Jun; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Akita, Tomoyuki; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Takeshima, Yukio; Arihiro, Koji; Tanaka, Junko; Yasui, Wataru; Matsubara, Akio

    2017-07-01

    An atomic bomb (A-bomb) was dropped on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945. Although numerous studies have investigated cancer incidence and mortality among A-bomb survivors, only a small number have addressed urological cancer in these survivors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer (PCa) in A-bomb survivors. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of PCa were retrospectively reviewed in 212 survivors and 595 control patients between November 1996 and December 2010. The histopathological and clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of PCa were also evaluated in 69 survivors and 162 control patients. Despite the higher age at diagnosis compared with the control group (P=0.0031), survivors were more likely to have been diagnosed with PCa from a health check compared with the control group (Pbomb exposure was not found to be an independent predictor for prognosis by multivariate analysis (OS, P=0.7800; CS, P=0.8688). The clinicopathological features of patients who underwent a prostatectomy were similar except for the diagnosis opportunity between the two groups. Progression-free survival rates were similar between the two groups (P=0.5630). A-bomb exposure was not a significant and independent predictor for worsening of progression-free prognosis by multivariate analysis (P=0.3763). A-bomb exposure does not appear to exert deleterious effects on the biological aggressiveness of PCa and the prognosis of patients with PCa.

  7. Estimates of Radiation Effects on Cancer Risks in the Mayak Worker, Techa River and Atomic Bomb Survivor Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Dale L; Sokolnikov, Mikhail E; Krestinina, Lyudmila Yu; Stram, Daniel O

    2017-04-01

    For almost 50 y, the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivor studies has been the primary source of the quantitative estimates of cancer and non-cancer risks that form the basis of international radiation protection standards. However, the long-term follow-up and extensive individual dose reconstruction for the Russian Mayak worker cohort (MWC) and Techa River cohort (TRC) are providing quantitative information about radiation effects on cancer risks that complement the atomic bomb survivor-based risk estimates. The MWC, which includes ~26 000 men and women who began working at Mayak between 1948 and 1982, is the primary source for estimates of the effects of plutonium on cancer risks and also provides information on the effects of low-dose rate external gamma exposures. The TRC consists of ~30 000 men and women of all ages who received low-dose-rate, low-dose exposures as a consequence of Mayak's release of radioactive material into the Techa River. The TRC data are of interest because the exposures are broadly similar to those experienced by populations exposed as a consequence of nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl. In this presentation, it is described the strengths and limitations of these three cohorts, outline and compare recent solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates and discussed why information from the Mayak and Techa River studies might play a role in the development and refinement of the radiation risk estimates that form the basis for radiation protection standards. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Lung, Laryngeal and Other Respiratory Cancer Incidence among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors: An Updated Analysis from 1958 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Grant, Eric; Brenner, Alina V; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Utada, Mai; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases. Ten additional years of follow-up, improved radiation dose estimates, revised smoking data, and updated migration information were used to investigate the joint effects of radiation and smoking using Poisson regression methods. For nonsmokers, the sex-averaged excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) for lung cancer (at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) was estimated as 0.81 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.18) with a female-to-male ratio of 2.83. There was no evidence of curvature in the radiation dose-response relationship overall or by sex. Lung cancer risks increased with pack-years of smoking and decreased with time since quitting smoking at any level of radiation exposure. Similar to the previously reported study, which followed cohort members through 1999, the ERR/Gy for lung cancer was significantly higher for low-to-moderate smokers than for heavy smokers, with little evidence of any radiation-associated excess risk in heavy smokers. Of 2,446 lung cancer cases, 113 (5%) could be attributed to radiation exposure. Of the 1,165 lung cancer cases occurring among smokers, 886 (76%) could be attributed to smoking. While there was little evidence of a radiation effect for laryngeal cancer, a nonsignificantly elevated risk of other respiratory cancers was observed. However, significant smoking effects were observed for both laryngeal (ERR per 50 pack-years = 23.57; 95% CI: 8.44, 71.05) and other respiratory cancers (ERR per 50

  9. Long-Term Effects of Radiation Exposure and Metabolic Status on Telomere Length of Peripheral Blood T Cells in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Misumi, Munechika; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ohishi, Waka; Hayashi, Tomonori; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-10-01

    In a series of studies of atomic bomb survivors, radiation-dose-dependent alterations in peripheral T-cell populations have been reported. For example, reduced size in naïve T-cell pools and impaired proliferation ability of T cells were observed. Because these alterations are also generally observed with human aging, we hypothesized that radiation exposure may accelerate the aging process of the T-cell immune system. To further test this hypothesis, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of telomere length, a hallmark of cellular aging, of naïve and memory CD4 T cells and total CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood of 620 atomic bomb survivors as it relates to age and radiation dose, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with flow cytometry. Since telomere shortening has been recently demonstrated in obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and diseases, the modifying effects of metabolic status were also examined. Our results indicated nonlinear relationships between T-cell telomere length and prior radiation exposure, i.e., longer telomeres with lower dose exposure and a decreasing trend of telomere length with individuals exposed to doses higher than 0.5 Gy. There were associations between shorter T-cell telomeres and higher hemoglobin Alc levels or fatty liver development. In naïve and memory CD4 T cells, radiation dose and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were found to positively interact with telomere length, suggesting that the decreasing trend of telomere length from a higher radiation dose was less conspicuous in individuals with a higher HDL cholesterol. It is therefore likely that radiation exposure perturbs T-cell homeostasis involving telomere length maintenance by multiple biological mechanisms, depending on dose, and that long-term-radiation-induced effects on the maintenance of T-cell telomeres may be modified by the subsequent metabolic conditions of individuals.

  10. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2012-11-01

    We previously noted that among atomic bomb survivors (ABS), the relative frequency of cases of adult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC) was significantly greater in those with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. In contrast, the frequency of PTC cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF(V600E)) was significantly lower in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. We also found that among ABS, the frequency of PTC cases with no detectable gene alterations in RET, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), BRAF, or RAS was significantly higher in patients with relatively higher radiation exposure than those with lower radiation exposure. However, in ABS with PTC, the relationship between the presence of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fused with other gene partners and radiation exposure has received little study. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the relative frequency of rearranged ALK in ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, would be greater in those having relatively higher radiation exposures. The 105 subjects in the study were drawn from the Life Span Study cohort of ABS of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were diagnosed with PTC between 1956 and 1993. Seventy-nine were exposed (>0 mGy), and 26 were not exposed to A-bomb radiation. In the 25 ABS with PTC, and with no detectable gene alterations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF, or RAS, we examined archival, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PTC specimens for rearrangement of ALK using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5' RACE). We found rearranged ALK in 10 of 19 radiation-exposed PTC cases, but none among 6 patients with PTC with no radiation exposure. In addition, solid/trabecular-like architecture in PTC was closely associated with ALK rearrangements, being observed in

  11. (41)Ca in tooth enamel. Part I: a biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, A; Rühm, W; Rugel, G; Nakamura, N; Arazi, A; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Maier, H J; Korschinek, G

    2010-08-01

    The detection of (41)Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, (41)Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable (40)Ca. Thus any (41)Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural (41)Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean (41)Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 +/- 0.05) x 10(-14) in the control samples and increased to 2 x 10(-14) for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The (41)Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that gamma-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).

  12. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamite, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46-68 years). Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  13. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  14. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease.

  15. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors.

  16. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  17. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Masahiro; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Miura, Shiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-12-07

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A

  18. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN, which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread, which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05. The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively. The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15. Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40. Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005 independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for

  19. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  20. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U. S. and Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako (Hiroshima Atomic-Bomb Survivors Health Clinic (Japan)); Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki

    1982-06-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%.

  1. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  2. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  3. Evaluation of adverse events in atomic bomb survivors receiving curative-intent radiation therapy from 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yoshiko; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Imano, Nobuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of radiation therapy (RT) in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors (ABS), we evaluated the frequency of RT-associated adverse events (AEs) in ABS. We selected patients who underwent curative external-beam RT (EBRT) at Hiroshima University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2010 and were born before August 1946; the patients were divided into ABS and non-ABS groups, which groups received identical treatments without stratification. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 ABS and 753 non-ABS patients. The median age was 72 years. The median observation durations were 41 and 37 months for the ABS and non-ABS groups, respectively. The ABS group had higher frequencies of women, breast cancer patients, and concurrent chemotherapy and had a lower incidence of only acute hematological AEs. However this tendency disappeared when breast cancer patients were excluded, and no significant differences were observed between the ABS and non-ABS groups regarding Grade ⩾ 3 other acute and late AEs. The overall cumulative incidence of Grade ⩾ 3 late AEs did not significantly differ between the ABS and non-ABS groups. Notable increases in AEs were not observed during or after RT among ABS. This study clarified that stratification is not required when treating ABS with RT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro

    1999-05-01

    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  5. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, H. (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Yamakido, M.; Ito, C.; Yamada, H.

    1982-01-01

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%.

  6. Improved method for analysis of RNA present in long-term preserved thyroid cancer tissue of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Mukai, Mayumi; Koyama, Kazuaki; Taga, Masataka; Ito, Reiko; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Since many thyroid cancer tissue samples from atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have been preserved for several decades as unbuffered formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, molecular oncological analysis of such archival specimens is indispensable for clarifying the mechanisms of thyroid carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors. Although RET gene rearrangements are the most important targets, it is a difficult task to examine all of the 13 known types of RET gene rearrangements with the use of the limited quantity of RNA that has been extracted from invaluable paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of A-bomb survivors. In this study, we established an improved 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method using a small amount of RNA extracted from archival thyroid cancer tissue specimens. Three archival thyroid cancer tissue specimens from three different patients were used as in-house controls to determine the conditions for an improved switching mechanism at 5' end of RNA transcript (SMART) RACE method; one tissue specimen with RET/PTC1 rearrangement and one with RET/PTC3 rearrangement were used as positive samples. One other specimen, used as a negative sample, revealed no detectable expression of the RET gene tyrosine kinase domain. We established a 5' RACE method using an amount of RNA as small as 10 ng extracted from long-term preserved, unbuffered formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid cancer tissue by application of SMART technology. This improved SMART RACE method not only identified common RET gene rearrangements, but also isolated a clone containing a 93-bp insert of rare RTE/PTC8 in RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded thyroid cancer specimens from one A-bomb survivor who had been exposed to a high radiation dose. In addition, in the papillary thyroid cancer of another high-dose A-bomb survivor, this method detected one novel type of RET gene rearrangement whose partner gene is acyl coenzyme A binding domain 5, located on chromosome 10p

  7. (41)Ca in Tooth Enamel. Part II: A means for retrospective biological neutron dosimetry in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Cullings, H; Egbert, S D; El-Faramawy, N; Faestermann, T; Kaul, D; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Nakamura, N; Roberts, J; Rugel, G

    2010-08-01

    (41)Ca is produced mainly by absorption of low-energy neutrons on stable (40)Ca. We used accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure (41)Ca in enamel of 16 teeth from 13 atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to the bomb within 1.2 km from the hypocenter in Hiroshima. In our accompanying paper (Wallner et al., Radiat. Res. 174, 000-000, 2010), we reported that the background-corrected (41)Ca/Ca ratio decreased from 19.5 x 10(-15) to 2.8 x 10(-15) with increasing distance from the hypocenter. Here we show that the measured ratios are in good correlation with gamma-ray doses assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the same enamel samples, and agree well with calculated ratios based on either the current Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) or more customized dose estimates where the regression slope as obtained from an errors-in-variables linear model was about 0.85. The calculated DS02 neutron dose to the survivors was about 10 to 80 mGy. The low-energy neutrons responsible for (41)Ca activation contributed variably to the total neutron dose depending on the shielding conditions. Namely, the contribution was smaller (10%) when shielding conditions were lighter (e.g., outside far away from a single house) and was larger (26%) when they were heavier (e.g., in or close to several houses) because of local moderation of neutrons by shielding materials. We conclude that AMS is useful for verifying calculated neutron doses under mixed exposure conditions with gamma rays.

  8. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  9. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures.

  10. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllnberger, H; Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Walsh, L

    2012-05-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates.

  11. Dose-responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoellnberger, H.; Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences, Neuherberg (Germany); Walsh, L. [BfS-Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose-response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the model description of the data. Instead of applying the usual approach of identifying one preferred model for each data set, a set of plausible models was applied, and a sub-set of non-nested models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. Subsequently, this sub-set of non-nested models was used to perform multi-model inference (MMI), an innovative method of mathematically combining different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. This procedure thereby produces more reliable risk estimates based on a more comprehensive appraisal of model uncertainties. For CVD, MMI yielded a weak dose-response (with a risk estimate of about one-third of the LNT model) below a step at 0.6 Gy and a stronger dose-response at higher doses. The calculated risk estimates are consistent with zero risk below this threshold-dose. For mortalities related to cardiovascular diseases, an LNT-type dose-response was found with risk estimates consistent with zero risk below 2.2 Gy based on 90% confidence intervals. The MMI approach described here resolves a dilemma in practical radiation protection when one is forced to select between models with profoundly different dose-responses for risk estimates. (orig.)

  12. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  13. Cytogenetic Reconstruction of Gamma-Ray Doses Delivered to Atomic Bomb Survivors: Dealing with Wide Distributions of Photon Energies and Contributions from Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Hamasaki, Kanya; Cullings, Harry M; Cordova, Kismet A; Awa, Akio

    2017-08-11

    Retrospective estimation of the doses received by atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors by cytogenetic methods has been hindered by two factors: One is that the photon energies released from the bomb were widely distributed, and since the aberration yield varies depending on the energy, the use of monoenergetic (60)Co gamma radiation to construct a calibration curve may bias the estimate. The second problem is the increasing proportion of newly formed lymphocytes entering into the lymphocyte pool with increasing time intervals since the exposures. These new cells are derived from irradiated precursor/stem cells whose radiosensitivity may differ from that of blood lymphocytes. To overcome these problems, radiation doses to tooth enamel were estimated using the electron spin resonance (ESR; or EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance) method and compared with the cytogenetically estimated doses from the same survivors. The ESR method is only weakly dependent on the photon energy and independent of the years elapsed since an exposure. Both ESR and cytogenetic doses were estimated from 107 survivors. The latter estimates were made by assuming that although a part of the cells examined could be lymphoid stem or precursor cells at the time of exposure, all the cells had the same radiosensitivity as blood lymphocytes, and that the A-bomb gamma-ray spectrum was the same as that of the (60)Co gamma rays. Subsequently, ESR and cytogenetic endpoints were used to estimate the kerma doses using individual DS02R1 information on shielding conditions. The results showed that the two sets of kerma doses were in close agreement, indicating that perhaps no correction is needed in estimating atomic bomb gamma-ray doses from the cytogenetically estimated (60)Co gamma-ray equivalent doses. The present results will make it possible to directly compare cytogenetic doses with the physically estimated doses of the survivors, which would pave the way for testing whether or not there are any systematic

  14. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Agbovon, Césaire; Laurier, Dominique; de Vathaire, Florent

    2015-08-01

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10(-4) person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10(-4) person-years/Gy(2)) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards.

  15. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  16. Male Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Risk in the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors - Differences in Excess Relative and Absolute Risk from Female Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark P; McElvenny, Damien M

    2017-02-01

    There are well-known associations of ionizing radiation with female breast cancer, and emerging evidence also for male breast cancer. In the United Kingdom, female breast cancer following occupational radiation exposure is among that set of cancers eligible for state compensation and consideration is currently being given to an extension to include male breast cancer. We compare radiation-associated excess relative and absolute risks of male and female breast cancers. Breast cancer incidence and mortality data in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors were analyzed using relative and absolute risk models via Poisson regression. We observed significant (p ≤ 0.01) dose-related excess risk for male breast cancer incidence and mortality. For incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 15 and 5, respectively, of relative risk for male compared with female breast cancer incidence, the former borderline significant (p = 0.050). In contrast, for incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 20 and 10, respectively, of female absolute risk compared with male, both statistically significant (p male breast cancer following radiation exposure exceeds by at least a factor of 5 that of many other malignancies. There is evidence of much higher radiation-associated relative risk for male than for female breast cancer, although absolute excess risks for males are much less than for females. However, the small number of male cases and deaths suggests a degree of caution in interpretation of this finding. Citation: Little MP, McElvenny DM. 2017. Male breast cancer incidence and mortality risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors - differences in excess relative and absolute risk from female breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 125:223-229; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP151.

  17. Significance of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplifications in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: associations with radiation exposure and histologic grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Meirmanov, Serik; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2008-05-15

    It has been postulated that radiation induces breast cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Oncogene amplification is an important mechanism during breast carcinogenesis and also serves as an indicator of genomic instability (GIN). The objective of this study was to clarify the association of oncogene amplification in breast cancer in A-bomb survivors with radiation exposure. In total, 593 breast cancers were identified in A-bomb survivors from 1968 to 1999, and the association between breast cancer incidence and A-bomb radiation exposure was evaluated. Invasive ductal cancers from 67 survivors and 30 nonsurvivors were analyzed for amplification of the HER2 and C-MYC genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and expression levels of hormone receptors were analyzed by immunostaining. The incidence rate increased significantly as exposure distance decreased from the hypocenter (hazard ratio per 1-km decrement, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.30-1.66). The incidence of HER2 and C-MYC amplification was increased significantly in the order of the control group, the distal group (P = .0238), and the proximal group (P = .0128). Multivariate analyses revealed that distance was a risk factor for the coamplification of C-MYC and HER2 in breast cancer in survivors (odds ratio per 1-km increment, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01-0.63). The histologic grade of breast cancers became significantly higher in the order of the control group, the distal group, and the proximal group and was associated with oncogene amplifications. The current results suggested that A-bomb radiation may affect the development of oncogene amplification by inducing GIN and may be associated with a higher histologic grade in breast cancer among A-bomb survivors. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  18. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Nakashima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For young atomic-bomb (A-bomb survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, α1 globulin, and α2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.

  19. DS02R1: Improvements to Atomic Bomb Survivors' Input Data and Implementation of Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) and Resulting Changes in Estimated Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, H M; Grant, E J; Egbert, S D; Watanabe, T; Oda, T; Nakamura, F; Yamashita, T; Fuchi, H; Funamoto, S; Marumo, K; Sakata, R; Kodama, Y; Ozasa, K; Kodama, K

    2017-01-01

    Individual dose estimates calculated by Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) for the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors are based on input data that specify location and shielding at the time of the bombing (ATB). A multi-year effort to improve information on survivors' locations ATB has recently been completed, along with comprehensive improvements in their terrain shielding input data and several improvements to computational algorithms used in combination with DS02 at RERF. Improvements began with a thorough review and prioritization of original questionnaire data on location and shielding that were taken from survivors or their proxies in the period 1949-1963. Related source documents varied in level of detail, from relatively simple lists to carefully-constructed technical drawings of structural and other shielding and surrounding neighborhoods. Systematic errors were reduced in this work by restoring the original precision of map coordinates that had been truncated due to limitations in early data processing equipment and by correcting distortions in the old (WWII-era) maps originally used to specify survivors' positions, among other improvements. Distortion errors were corrected by aligning the old maps and neighborhood drawings to orthophotographic mosaics of the cities that were newly constructed from pre-bombing aerial photographs. Random errors that were reduced included simple transcription errors and mistakes in identifying survivors' locations on the old maps. Terrain shielding input data that had been originally estimated for limited groups of survivors using older methods and data sources were completely re-estimated for all survivors using new digital terrain elevation data. Improvements to algorithms included a fix to an error in the DS02 code for coupling house and terrain shielding, a correction for elevation at the survivor's location in calculating angles to the horizon used for terrain shielding input, an improved method for truncating

  20. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  1. Genomic instability in the epidermis induced by atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation: a long-lasting health effect in A-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruke, Yuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Sekine, Ichiro

    2009-08-15

    Radiation etiology is suggested in the occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Any genotoxicity, including ionizing radiation, can induce a DNA damage response (DDR), leading to genomic instability (GIN), which allows the accumulation of mutations during tumorigenesis. In this study, the authors evaluated the presence of GIN in the epidermis of survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. In total, 146 BCCs, including 23 cases arising from nonexposed skin, were identified in survivors from 1968 to 1999. The incidence rate (IR) of BCC was calculated with stratification by distance in kilometers from the hypocenter ( or =3 km). Nineteen epidermal samples surrounding BCC at the nonexposed sites were collected and tested for p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) expression with immunofluorescence. 53BP1 rapidly forms nuclear foci at the sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Because 1 manifestation of GIN is the induction of endogenous DSBs, the level of 53BP1-focus formation (DDR type) can be considered as a marker for GIN. : The incidence rate of BCC increased significantly as exposure distance approached the hypocenter. Of the 7 epidermal samples from the proximal group ( or =3 km) and all samples from the control group predominantly expressed the stable type of 53BP1 expression in the epidermis. : The current results demonstrated the endogenous activation of DDR in the epidermis surrounding BCC in the proximal group, suggesting the presence of a GIN in the survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation, which may indicate a predisposition to cancer.

  2. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Urabe, Takeshi [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  3. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Jun [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo [and others

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor`s health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.).

  4. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  5. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Hiroaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku

    1995-11-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0{+-}8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor`s handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.).

  6. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-06-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Report on the results of the eleventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakido, Michio [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dohy, Hiroo; Neriishi, Kazuo [and others

    1998-01-01

    The 11th medical examination of A-bomb survivors was conducted in 1997. Two medical teams conducted health examinations in Los Angeles and Seattle, and in San Francisco and Hawaii, respectively. The total number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America as of the end of July 1997 was 1,060, an increase of 17 over that confirmed in 1995. The number of survivors exposed <2,000-m from the hypocenter was 234, accounting for 22.1% of the total. The confirmed number of in-utero exposed survivors was 26. As to the past medical history information, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and heart disease were frequently observed in the <2,000-m group. Frequent subjective symptoms include complete exhaustion or fatigue, loss of vigor, blurring of vision, itching of the skin, which were reported in more than 40% of the survivors. The frequencies of nocturia, nervousness, severe headache, and excessive sweating in cold weather were higher in the <2,000-m group. Chest pain was seen frequently in the <2,000-m group for males, but no difference was observed in females. Nocturia was observed in more than half of the males in the <2,000-m group. There were 99 cases (22.8%) with fasting plasma glucose level of 110 mg/dl or above, consisting of 39 males (32.0%) and 60 females (19.2%). Abnormal HbA1c levels were observed in 33 cases (7.6%), including 12 males (9.8%) and 11 females (6.7%). The proportion of cases with abnormal HbA1c levels was higher in males. No difference by exposure status was observed either for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c. The disease of the highest prevalence was hyperlipidemia (57.4%), followed by hypertension (35.0%), obesity (27.2%), liver disease (21.9%), thyroid disease (20.0%), gastrointestinal disease (20.7%), heart disease (13.4%) and urological disease (12.9%). Malignant tumors were observed in two cases in L.A., two in Seattle, and one in S.F. Cancer will be important issue in the future examinations. (K.H.)

  8. Right bundle branch block without overt heart disease predicts higher risk of pacemaker implantation: the study of atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Saburo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Makita, Naomasa; Ichimaru, Shinichiro; Kaku, Takashi; Haruta, Daisuke; Hida, Ayumi; Sera, Nobuko; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Maemura, Koji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the clinical course of complete right bundle branch block (RBBB) or RBBB with axis deviation (AD) in terms of subsequent pacemaker implantation for high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block or sick sinus syndrome (SSS). Among the 16,170 atomic-bomb survivors in our biennial health examination between July 1967 and December 2010, we detected 520 newly-acquired RBBB subjects with no organic heart disease, and selected 1038 age- (at RBBB diagnosis) and sex-matched subjects without RBBB to serve as comparison subjects. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of pacemaker implantation due to all causes, AV block or SSS between RBBB and comparison subjects and between RBBB subjects with and without AD. The risk of pacemaker implantation for RBBB was 4.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-12.58; P=0.001), 3.77 (95% CI, 1.09-13.07; P=0.036), and 6.28 (95% CI, 1.24-31.73, P=0.026) when implantation was for all causes, AV block and SSS, respectively. RBBB subjects with AD had a higher risk for all-cause pacemaker implantation than subjects without AD (HR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.00-9.13, P=0.049). RBBB subjects with AD were younger than subjects without AD at the time of RBBB diagnosis (59.4±7.6 vs 74.4±3.1 years old, P=0.019), and their progression from diagnosis to pacemaker implantation took longer (15.1±6.6 vs 6.4±3.0 years, P=0.032). RBBB, especially with AD, progresses to AV block and SSS that requires pacemaker implantation; the mechanisms by which the conduction defect progresses differ among patients with and without AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Shinichi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Okada, Fumio; Hara, Tokihiro; Ueno, Kouki

    1997-06-01

    The medical examination was carried out in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru on 80, 4, 7, 11 and 3 survivors, respectively, from Oct. 30 to Nov. 15, 1996. They (43 males and 62 females) were 66.5 years old in average. The examination involved physical measurements, blood and urine analyses, electrocardiography, health questionnaire and consultation with blood pressure measurement. Results were as follows: Anamnesis; hypertension (51.4%), heart diseases (23.8%), cancer (21.0%), diabetes (19.0%), hemorrhoids (19.0%), stroke (18.1%), stomach ulcer (12.4%) and others: Present major disease; hypertension (23.8%), diabetes (6.7%), heart diseases (6.7%), cancer (6.7%) and others. Loss of vigor (63.8%), complete exhaustion or fatigue (63.8%), heat intolerance (60.0%), numbness or tingling (43.8%), failure of memory (42.9%) and many others were recognized as subjective symptoms. Blood pressure measurement gave hypertensive findings in 31.4%. Normal ECG was found in 67.7%. Cases judged to be necessary for further examinations or for treatment were in 46.7%. This examination was concluded to be continued. (K.H.)

  10. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J C; Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Cullings, H M

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy(-1) (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection.

  11. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, H.M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy{sup -1} (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  12. Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-Term Health Effects of Atom Bomb on Japan Not as Bad as Feared: Study Survivors of ... 2011 at a nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan, after an earthquake triggered a massive tsunami shows ...

  13. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  14. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  15. A novel RET rearrangement (ACBD5/RET) by pericentric inversion, inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2), in papillary thyroid cancer from an atomic bomb survivor exposed to high-dose radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Koyama, Kazuaki; Mukai, Mayumi; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-11-01

    During analysis of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) among atomic bomb survivors, a cDNA fragment of a novel type of RET rearrangement was identified in a PTC patient exposed to a high radiation dose using the improved 5' RACE method. This gene resulted from the fusion of the 3' portion of RET containing tyrosine kinase domain to the 5' portion of the acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 5 (ACBD5) gene, by pericentric inversion inv(10)(p12.1;q11.2); expression of the fusion gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. ACBD5 gene is ubiquitously expressed in various human normal tissues including thyroid. Full-length cDNA of the ACBD5-RET gene was constructed and then examined for tumorigenicity. Enhanced phosphorylation of ERK proteins in the MAPK pathway was observed in NIH3T3 cells transfected with expression vector encoding the full-length ACBD5/RET cDNA, while this was not observed in the cells transfected with empty expression vector. Stable NIH3T3 transfectants with ACBD5-RET cDNA induced tumor formation after their injection into nude mice. These findings suggest that the ACBD5-RET rearrangement is causatively involved in the development of PTC.

  16. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  17. Effects of NKG2D haplotypes on the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on natural killer and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazue; Hayashi, Tomonori; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-06-01

    NKG2D is a primary activating receptor that triggers cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells against tumor and virus-infected cells. We previously identified the NKG2D haplotypes in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p. Two major haplotype alleles, LNK1 and HNK1, were closely related to low and high natural cytotoxic activity phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the haplotype of HNK1/HNK1 has revealed a decreased risk of cancer compared with LNK1/LNK1. In the present study, using flow cytometry, we evaluated the functional effects of NKG2D haplotypes and five htSNPs in terms of the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among 732 atomic-bomb survivors. NKG2D expression on NK cells showed significant increases, in the order of LNK1/LNK1, LNK1/HNK1 and HNK1/HNK1 haplotypes (p for trend=0.003), or with major homozygous, heterozygous, and minor homozygous genotypes for individual htSNPs (p for trend=0.02-0.003). The same trend was observed for NKG2D expression on CD8 T cells. Our findings indicate that the NKG2D haplotypes are associated with the expression levels of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells, resulting in inter-individual variations in human cytotoxic response. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Nagasaki atomic bomb exposure on myelodysplastic syndrome patients who are treated with azacitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Tatsuro; Horio, Kensuke; Shigematsu, Kazuto

    2015-05-01

    High-dose radiation exposure greatly increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), however the clinical characteristics of MDS among atomic bomb survivors have not been thoroughly investigated to date. We designed this study to identify these characteristics. We retrospectively evaluated data from 13 atomic bomb survivors with MDS and 15 elderly patients with de novo MDS who were diagnosed between April 2011 and April 2013 at the Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital. All patients were treated with azacitidine (AZA; a hypomethylating agent) and overall survival rates were estimated. No clear difference was observed in the clinical response to AZA between the two groups. However, atomic bomb survivors had a survival disadvantage, independent of their karyotype. Minute genetic alterations caused by exposure to atomic radiation can adversely affect the response to AZA, even 66 years after the exposure. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who were exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masatoshi; Iwanaga, Masako; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Jo, Tatsuro; Horio, Kensuke; Takasaki, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Yasuhisa; Tsushima, Hideki; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Imanishi, Daisuke; Taguchi, Jun; Sawayama, Yasushi; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that radiation exposure is a causative factor of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, little is known about whether radiation exposure is also a prognostic factor of MDS. We investigated the impact of radiation exposure on the prognosis of MDS in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors using the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised version (IPSS-R). Subjects were 140 patients with primary MDS diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 and evaluable for IPSS, IPSS-R, and exposure distance. Of those, 31 were exposed at atomic bomb survivors, but exposure distance was not associated with any poor outcomes. These suggest that exposure to the greater dose of atomic bomb radiation is associated with developing poor cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, which might consequently lead to overt leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. PMID:6349145

  1. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  3. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  4. Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2017-04-27

    Physics, History, and the German Atomic Bomb. This paper examines the German concept of a nuclear weapon during National Socialism and the Second World War. Zusammenfassung: Physik, Geschichte und die deutsche Atombombe. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die deutsche Vorstellung einer nuklearen Waffe während des Nationalsozialismus und des Zweiten Weltkrieges. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission–Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal. PMID:9576897

  6. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. Late effect of atomic bomb radiation on myeloid disorders: leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2012-03-01

    Leukemia was the first malignancy linked to radiation exposure in atomic bomb survivors. Clear evidence of the dose-dependent excess risk of three major types of leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia [AML], and chronic myeloid leukemia) was found, especially in people exposed at young ages. Such leukemia risks were at their highest in the late 1950s, and declined gradually thereafter over the past 50 years. Findings from recent risk analyses, however, suggest the persistence of AML risk even after 1990, and evidence of increased risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) due to atomic bomb radiation has recently been shown. High-risk MDS and forms involving complex chromosomal aberrations were found to be much more frequent in people exposed to higher radiation doses. These lines of epidemiological evidence suggest that the risk of radiation-induced hematological malignancies has persisted for six decades since the initial exposure.

  8. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  9. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  12. Neutron-induced 63Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shinozaki, Kenji; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for 63Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in 63Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in 63Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of 63Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the 63Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  13. By emotion, no atomic bomb and no blackhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-10-01

    As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. As for me, I believe when there is atomic bomb, than anytime it has to blow out the world each time of we are living. So the atomic bomb we thinking is just accident and not by the atomic theory. Also when there is blackhole, than there must be the wall to block me forever and never to walk again. So there are no blackhole. And these two subject is the best two subject for the physic.

  14. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  15. Is Einstein the Father of the Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2009-05-01

    Soon after the American atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the notion took hold in the popular mind that Albert Einstein was ``the father of the bomb.'' The claim of paternity rests on the belief that E=mc2 is what makes the release of enormous amounts of energy in the fission process possible and that the atomic bomb could not have been built without it. This is a misapprehension. Most physicists have known that all along. Nevertheless in his reaction to the opera Dr. Atomic, a prominent physicist claimed that Einstein's discovery that matter can be transformed into energy ``is precisely what made the bomb possible.'' In fact what makes the fission reaction and one of its applications,the atomic bomb, possible is the smaller binding energies of fission products compared to the binding energies of the nuclei that undergo fission.The binding energies of nuclei are a well understood consequence of the numbers and arrangements of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and of quantum-mechanical effects. The realization that composite systems have binding energies predates relativity. In the 19th century they were ascribed to potential and other forms of energy that reside in the system. With Einstein they became rest mass energy. While E=mc2 is not the cause of fission, measuring the masses of the participants in the reaction does permit an easy calculation of the kinetic energy that is released.

  16. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue.

  17. The Last Act: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Air And Space Museum.

    This text was to have been the script for the National Air and Space Museum's exhibition of the Enola Gay, focusing on the end of World War II and the decision of the United States to use of the atomic bomb. The Enola Gay was a B-29 aircraft that carried the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. The atomic bomb brought a…

  18. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  19. Workshop report on atomic bomb dosimetry-residual radiation exposure: recent research and suggestions for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Beck, Harold L; Cullings, Harry M; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Kaul, Dean C; Maruyama, Satoshi; Reeves, Glen I; Ruehm, Werner; Sakaguchi, Aya; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stram, Daniel O; Tonda, Tetsuji; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Young, Robert W

    2013-08-01

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  20. Role Playing: The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Noel C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how a role playing exercise can be used to teach students in a college level history course about the use of the atomic bomb in World War II. Information is presented on general use of role playing in history courses, objectives, questions to consider about use of the atomic bomb, and course evaluation. For journal availability, see so…

  1. Statistical analysis of the main diseases among atomic bomb survivors. Study of inpatients in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, 1981 - 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tadao; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Nambu, Shigeru

    1988-03-01

    Diseases found in 2,104 consequetive inpatients between April 1981 and March 1986 were statistically analyzed. The incidence of disease increased in the following order: diabetes mellitus > heart disease > cerebrovascular disorder > malignancy > hypertensive disease > arteriosclerosis > osteoarthritis. Malignancy is the most common cause of death or the highest mortality rate, followed by heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder, and liver cirrhosis. For the number of autopsy, the order of diseases was: malignancy, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, respiratory tract disease, endocrine disease, and hematopoietic disease; for the incidence of autopsy, the order was: liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disorder, malignancy, and heart disease. Malignancy accounted for 23 % of the inpatients. The incidence of malignancy increased in the following organs: stomach > liver > colon > lung > breast > biliary tract > esophagus. The incidence of leukemia was low. There was no definitive correlation between the incidence of malignancy and exposure distance, although the incidence of breast cancer tended to be high in the group exposed at less than or equal to2,000 m from the hypocenter. According to age class, gastric cancer was frequent in patients less than 40 years and more than 60 years. Liver cancer was the most common in the sixtieth decade of life of men. The incidence of lung cancer increased with advancing age; the incidence of breast cancer was higher in younger patients. (Namekawa, K.).

  2. Effects of IL-10 haplotype and atomic bomb radiation exposure on gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Ito, Reiko; Cologne, John; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Imai, Kazue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Nakachi, Kei

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the cancers that reveal increased risk of mortality and incidence in atomic bomb survivors. The incidence of gastric cancer in the Life Span Study cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) increased with radiation dose (gender-averaged excess relative risk per Gy = 0.28) and remains high more than 65 years after exposure. To assess a possible role of gene-environment interaction, we examined the dose response for gastric cancer incidence based on immunosuppression-related IL-10 genotype, in a cohort study with 200 cancer cases (93 intestinal, 96 diffuse and 11 other types) among 4,690 atomic bomb survivors participating in an immunological substudy. Using a single haplotype block composed of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (comprising the major haplotype allele IL-10-ATTA and the minor haplotype allele IL-10-GGCG, which are categorized by IL-10 polymorphisms at -819A>G and -592T>G, +1177T>C and +1589A>G), multiplicative and additive models for joint effects of radiation and this IL-10 haplotyping were examined. The IL-10 minor haplotype allele(s) was a risk factor for intestinal type gastric cancer but not for diffuse type gastric cancer. Radiation was not associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. In diffuse type gastric cancer, the haplotype-specific excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation was statistically significant only in the major homozygote category of IL-10 (ERR = 0.46/Gy, P = 0.037), whereas estimated ERR for radiation with the minor IL-10 homozygotes was close to 0 and nonsignificant. Thus, the minor IL-10 haplotype might act to reduce the radiation related risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. The results suggest that this IL-10 haplotyping might be involved in development of radiation-associated gastric cancer of the diffuse type, and that IL-10 haplotypes may explain individual differences in the radiation-related risk of gastric cancer. © 2013 by Radiation Research Society

  3. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  4. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  5. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  6. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  7. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  8. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.27 to 1.46 kilometers from the hypocenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hoshi, M; Kondo, S

    1987-04-01

    Sixteen ornamental tile samples were collected from 1982 to 1983 from the rooftops of two buildings at Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Quartz grains 50-150 microns in size extracted from the samples were analyzed for their thermoluminescence (TL) intensities. Conversion of TL intensity to 60Co gamma exposure resulted in the following estimates: 40.5 to 27.6 mC kg-1 (157 to 107 R) for five samples (one each) collected from five sites at distances of 1.27 to 1.34 km from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb detonated in 1945; 23.7 +/- 1.4 mC kg-1 (92 +/- 5 R) for three samples from one site at a distance of 1.39 km; 21.4 to 17.0 mC kg-1 (83 to 66 R) for three samples (one sample per site) from three sites at distances of 1.40 to 1.43 km; 19.8 +/- 1.3 mC kg-1 (77 +/- 5 R) for four samples from one site at a distance of 1.45 km; and 13.2 mC kg-1 (51 R) for one sample at a distance of 1.46 km. At face value, these estimates are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than previous estimates based on the tentative 1965 radiation dose estimates for atomic bomb survivors (a tentative dosimetry model proposed in 1965), but agree within +32% to -13% (+15% on the average) with recent estimates using modern computational techniques using an improved model of the atomic bomb explosion.

  9. Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb: An Excursion into Character Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2006-01-01

    This article asserts the importance of character education through the utilization of historical storytelling in the social studies classroom. After briefly noting the value of the historical story in this regard, a specific, ready-made example is provided concerning Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb and includes a crucial set of follow-up…

  10. Interpreting the Atomic Age: Scientific News Coverage of the Atomic Bomb in Representative Newspapers and Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwis, Gail L.

    A study examined the coverage of the scientific aspects of the atomic bomb in four representative newspapers (New York "Times," New York "Herald Tribune," Chicago "Daily Tribune," and Boston "Daily Globe") and in 14 general mass circulation magazines in the time period immediately following the dropping of the bomb. Among the conclusions of the…

  11. Nuclear shadows on silvered walls: Atomic Bomb Cinema, from 1935 to 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The cinema and the atomic bomb are two of the most significant technological innovations of the past-century - their influence on culture has provoked tremendous political, academic, and popular debate. The point at which these two technologies intersect is what the author calls Atomic Bomb Cinema.' Since 1945 almost six hundred films with images of nuclear weapons have been released in the US, and they have been virtually ignored by everyone but the film going public. This study shows how Bomb films' use recurring themes and formal structures, and therefore must be treated as a coherent body of films; identifies historical, mythological, and contemporary motifs; and analyzes these films from two points of view: interdisciplinary (history, politics, economics, sociology, and aesthetics) and cross-cultural (American, Japanese, British, and Australian). The most important element of Atomic Bomb Cinema is the Apocalyptic Imagination; film makers use it to structure their narratives and explore a wide range of ideological issues. In contrast to commonly held beliefs, Atomic Bomb Cinema is undeniably part of a process that helps people to understand the threat of nuclear war. In this instance, the cinema is one cultural institution that contributes to a healthy society.

  12. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  13. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them.

  14. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period.

  15. Romantic relationships of emerging adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Marsland, Anna L; Marshal, Michael P; Tersak, Jean M

    2009-07-01

    To assess whether childhood cancer survivors experience difficulties in their romantic relationships during emerging adulthood (18-25 years) and to identify who may be at risk for long-term social sequelae. Emerging adult survivors of childhood cancer (n=60) and controls without a history of chronic illness (n=60) completed an online assessment of their romantic relationships, including perceived relationship satisfaction. Severity of initial treatment was rated by healthcare providers for participants with cancer. Although survivors of childhood cancer do not differ from demographically similar controls in satisfaction with, conflict in, and duration of romantic relationships, they reported fewer romantic relationships and greater distress at relationship end. Within the survivor group, higher trait anxiety, older age at diagnosis, and more severe treatment intensity increased risk for relationship difficulties, including lower relationship satisfaction and more distress at break-up. Findings appear to support the overall social resilience of survivors of childhood cancer. Certain subsets of survivors, however, may be at greater risk for difficulties in their close relationships as adults and therefore may be appropriate targets for intervention. Healthcare providers should routinely assess developmentally salient issues like love/romance that are important markers of identity development and ultimately impact long-term quality of life for survivors. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  17. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  18. Multiple endocrine tumors in A-bomb survivors, autopsy cases, Hiroshima. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Fujikura, Toshio (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-03-01

    Multiple endocrine tumors (MET) were observed in 27 of 4,136 autopsy cases (0.3%) of the fixed population including Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and the control group. The thyroid was the most common organ in which MET occurred, followed by the ovary. Thirteen cases, including two cases of three MET, had MET in both the tyroid and the ovary, 11 of which had been exposed to one rad or more of atomic bomb.

  19. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  20. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  1. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb; Kettenreaktion. Die Geschichte der Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-07-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  2. Towards a "Common" View of Difficult Past? The Representation of Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Trilateral Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The centrality of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese collective memory has been often perceived by the country's neighbours, i.e. the People's Republic of China and South Korea, as a pillar of the country's (alleged) "victim consciousness" and amnesia in regard to the suffering inflicted on others. For this reason, the…

  3. The Office of Censorship's Attempt to Control Press Coverage of the Atomic Bomb during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Patrick S.

    The Office of Censorship's struggle to keep journalists from revealing the development of the first atomic bomb, the sites where the development was taking place, and the fact that the bomb might be available for use in the war, was desperate and in many ways heroic. Soon after it was created on December 19, 1941, the office issued a voluntary…

  4. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  5. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  6. Ending the War against Japan: Science, Morality, and the Atomic Bomb. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Don

    This unit presents students with dilemmas faced by U.S. policymakers with three distinct options for U.S. policy toward Japan. Background readings provide students with information on the U.S. decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945. By exploring a spectrum of alternatives, students gain a deeper understanding of the values underlying…

  7. Persistent distress after psychological exposure to the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoshiharu; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Kawamura, Noriyuki; Miyazaki, Takao; Kikkawa, Takehiko

    2011-11-01

    Although there is speculation that individuals living in the vicinity of nuclear disasters have persistent mental health deterioration due to psychological stress, few attempts have been made to examine this issue. To determine whether having been in the vicinity of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion in the absence of substantial exposure to radiation affected the mental health of local inhabitants more than half a century later. Participants were randomly recruited from individuals who lived in the vicinity of the atomic bomb explosion in uncontaminated suburbs of Nagasaki. This sample (n = 347) was stratified by gender, age, perception of the explosion and current district of residence. Controls (n = 288) were recruited from among individuals who had moved into the area from outside Nagasaki 5-15 years after the bombing, matched for gender, age and district of residence. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of those at high risk of mental disorder based on the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, with a cut-off point of 5/6. Other parameters related to individual perception of the explosion, health status, life events and habits were also assessed. Having been in the vicinity of the explosion was the most significant factor (OR = 5.26, 95% CI 2.56-11.11) contributing to poorer mental health; erroneous knowledge of radiological hazard showed a mild association. In the sample group, anxiety after learning of the potential radiological hazard was significantly correlated with poor mental health (Patomic bomb explosion without radiological exposure continued to be associated with poorer mental health more than half a century after the event. Fear on learning about the potential radiological hazard and lack of knowledge about radiological risk are responsible for this association.

  8. Atomic bomb testing and its effects on global male to female ratios at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Fallout from atomic bomb testing may travel great distances before precipitating. Males are born in excess of females in a ratio that approximates 0.515 (M/T: male live births divided by total live births. Radiation increases M/T by causing lethal malformations that affect female more than male foetuses, decreasing total births. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the effects of increased background radiation levels from atomic weapon testing had any widespread effects on M/T and births in the Americas, Europe, Asia and Australasia in relation to the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Annual live births by gender were obtained from a World Health Organization dataset and annual number of atomic bomb tests were also obtained (historical data). Overall, 94.5% of births studied showed a uniform reduction in M/T between the early 1950s to the late 1960s, followed by an increase to the mid-1970s, with a subsequent decline. A negative correlation of M/T with total births was found in 66% of births studied, and these were the regions which exhibited the rising M/T pattern in the 1970s. The birth deficit for countries with significant correlations of total births with M/T (North America, Europe and Asia) was estimated at 10090701. A rising M/T was found in most regions in temporal association with atomic weapon testing. Most of these regions also had an associated decline in total births. Elevated levels of man-made ambient radiation may have reduced total births, affecting pregnancies carrying female pregnancies more than those carrying male pregnancies, thereby skewing M/T toward a higher male proportion.

  9. Twelve cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki (especially seven atomic bombing casualty cases). [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Yasuhi, S.; Ouchuru, S.

    1963-12-01

    Since 1958, there have been 12 cases of multiple myeloma in Nagasaki, and among them were 7 cases representing atomic bombing casualties, with 3 cases being with 2 km distance from the hypocenter. The age of onset was between 51 and 69 years, and the sex ratio was 8:4, it occurring mostly in males. Symptoms were predominantly low back pain and chest pain caused by the bone changes in 8 cases. Two cases complained of general malaise and palpitation which resulted from anemia. One developed persistent epistaris, and another complained of diplopia caused by the paralysis of the oculomotor nerve. Peripheral blood in all cases showed anemia, 9 with hyperchromic and 3 with normochromic or hypochromic anemia. Low platelet counts were seen in 3 cases. All showed leukopenia. All cases showed typical ..gamma..-globulin change with a myeloma peak, and in 4 cases showed an increase of ..beta..-globulin. Bence-Jones proteinuria was present in 5 cases. Average course was 1 year 4 months. Among complications, myeloma nephrosis, aplastic anemia, and pneumonia were the most important ones.

  10. Epidemiological studies on malignant lymphoma in Nagasaki city. Especially in relation to atomic bomb exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Jubashi, Toru; Matsuo, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1987-06-01

    One hundred and eighty-two (182) cases of malignant lymphoma registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to the end of 1977 were studied in relation to atomic bomb exposure. No significant difference in the incidence of malignant lymphoma was found between the exposed and nonexposed groups. One hundred and thirty-one (131) cases excluding Hodgkin's disease and mycosis fungoides were histologically reviewed and classified according to Lymphoma Study Group (L.S.G.) and Working Formulation (W.F.) Classifications. Using the L.S.G. Classification, the three histological types(diffuse large cell, diffuse pleomorphic, and diffuse medium sized cell) occupied 72.7 % and 69.0 % of the exposed and nonexposed groups respectively. No significant difference in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found with an exception of a slightly higher incidence of the diffuse medium sized cell type in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. An evaluation of these results was made in comparison with the results in Hiroshima.

  11. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  12. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SOLID CANCER INCIDENCE AMONG ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS USING A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS. (R824762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. ANALYSIS OF SOLID CANCER INCIDENCE AMONG ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS USING A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF CARCINOGENESIS. (R824762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. The relationship between caregiver impacts and the unmet needs of survivors of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew NE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine E Andrew,1 Monique F Kilkenny,1,2 Rebecca Naylor,3 Tara Purvis,1 Dominique A Cadilhac1,2 1Translational Public Health and Evaluation Division, Stroke and Ageing Research, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, 2Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, 3National Stroke Foundation, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Caregivers play a crucial role in meeting the needs of survivors of stroke. Yet, little is known about how they are impacted by their caregiving role. Objectives: To describe the relationship between survivor long-term unmet needs (>12 months and caregiver impacts, and identify characteristics that are associated with reported moderate to severe impacts on caregivers. Method: This was a cross-sectional survey using data from the Australian Stroke Survivor and Carer Needs Survey. Community dwelling adults 12+ months poststroke and their caregivers participated. Caregivers and survivors were asked about the extent to which the domains of work, leisure and family, and friend and spousal relationships had been impacted using a Likert scale of responses. The extent to which survivor needs were being met was measured over the domains of health, everyday living, work, leisure, and finances, and the total number of unmet needs was calculated. The association between survivor unmet needs and caregiver impacts was assessed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for caregiver and survivor characteristics. Results: Of the 738 completed survivor surveys, 369 contained matched caregiver data (survivors: median age, 71 years; 67% male (caregivers: median age, 64 years; 26% male. For caregivers, the domains of work, leisure, and friendships were most impacted. The odds of a caregiver experiencing moderate to extreme impacts increased with the number of reported survivor unmet needs. This was greatest for spousal (aOR [adjusted odds ratio]: 1.14; 95% CI [confidence interval

  16. Impact of childhood cancer on emerging adult survivors' romantic relationships: a qualitative account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Long, Kristin A; Marsland, Anna L

    2013-02-01

    Research focusing on the long-term sequelae of diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer suggests that although the majority of survivors are not at increased risk for psychopathology, many experience persistent problems in other domains that greatly affect quality of life (QoL). One such domain is social functioning. To date, little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on social functioning and related QoL during emerging adulthood, the developmental period that spans the late teens and early twenties and is characterized, in part, by explorations in love and romantic relationships. To document emerging adult survivors' perceptions of their romantic relationships through a descriptive qualitative study. Recurrent themes from interviews were extracted via qualitative content-based analysis. Eighteen female survivors of childhood cancer, ages 18-25, participated in a phone interview focused on past and present romantic partnerships. Themes from coded transcripts included redefined life priorities and perspective, concerns with disclosure of cancer history and emotions, negative body image as a result of illness and treatment side effects, and worries about fertility and health of future children. Survivors related these concerns to their histories of childhood cancer and discussed the impact on the development and maintenance of romantic relationships. Overall, survivors reported a number of relationship concerns that have the potential to interfere with their ability to move toward emotional and physical intimacy in relationships, a key task of emerging adulthood. These findings suggest a number of testable hypotheses for future research, have the potential to inform the construction of new measures that more accurately evaluate social functioning of childhood cancer survivors, and emphasize the importance of ongoing assessment by health care providers of developmentally salient issues like love/romance. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalina, A Z; Lee, V C; Kandiah, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among gastrointestinal cancer survivors attending the oncology outpatient clinic in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia. A total of 70 gastrointestinal cancer survivors with a mean age of 52.54 +/- 14.59 years (95% CI: 47.48 - 57.60) were included in this study. Results showed that 40% of the patients were classified as having low physical activity. The mean Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA) score was 10.27 +/- 7.36 (95% CI: 8.23-12.31) and nearly half the patients (48.6%) were identified as severely malnourished (Stage C). Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GQLFI) score was 103.57 +/- 23.85 (95% CI: 92.94-114.20), and about 24.3% of the patients were classified as having a low quality of life. Pearson's correlation test showed a highly significant negative relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (r = -0.661, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA), the better the quality of life of the survivors (high total mean score of GQLFI). There was a significant negative relationship between physical activity level and nutritional status score (r = -0.309, pnutritional status (low total mean score of PGSGA). This study shows a significant relationship between nutritional status, physical activity and quality of life among gastrointestinal cancer survivors. Those low in nutritional status have a low quality of life while survivors with higher nutritional status have a better quality of life.

  18. Relationship between self-esteem and living conditions among stroke survivors at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Junko; Sugawara, Kyoko; Goto, Junko; Sekito, Yoshiko

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between self-esteem of stroke survivors at home and their living conditions. Study participants were stroke survivors who lived at home and commuted to one of two medical facilities in the Tohoku region of Japan. Stroke survivors were recruited for the present study when they came to the hospital for a routine visit. The researcher or research assistant explained the study objective and methods to the stroke survivor, and the questionnaire survey was conducted. Survey contents included the Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and questions designed to assess living conditions. A total of 65 participants with complete RSE data were included in the analysis. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 70.9 years (± 11.1), with a mean RSE score of 32.12 (± 8.32). Only a minor decrease in participant self-esteem was observed, even after having experienced a stroke. Factors associated with self-esteem, including "independent bathing" (standardized partial regression coefficient, β = 0.405, P self-esteem in stroke survivors living at home. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Counselling Sexual-Violence Survivors: The Evolution of Female Counsellors' Critical Political Consciousness and the Effects on Their Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Mary Kate

    2011-01-01

    This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…

  20. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lac

  1. Psychology's Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, Denny; Wijsen, Lisa D.

    2017-01-01

    The central role of educational testing practices in contemporary societies can hardly be overstated. It is furthermore evident that psychometric models regulate, justify, and legitimize the processes through which educational testing practices are used. In this commentary, the authors offer some observations that may be relevant for the analyses…

  2. The relationship between stroke survivors' perceived identity and mood, self-esteem and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadatu, Irina; Morris, Reg

    2017-01-11

    To examine change in identity after stroke and to elucidate its relationship with mood and quality of life. To test Higgins' theory of the impact of identity (self-discrepancy) on anxiety and depression. To examine the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationship between identity and outcomes. Sixty-five community-living first-time stroke survivors, mean age 61.58 and time since stroke 5.60 years, were recruited from stroke charities. A cross-sectional study used the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (adapted) and the Barthel Index. Identity was rated more negatively after stroke than before (t(64) = 6.46, p self-esteem (r = -.48, p self-esteem (β = .30, p self-esteem are associated with important outcomes for stroke survivors.

  3. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  4. Quality of relationships and structural properties of social support networks of female survivors of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, P S; Barker, L A

    2002-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the structural properties of the social support networks of female survivors of violence and abuse and to investigate the quality of the relationship, and specific level of satisfaction, survivors have with their social support networks. Participants averaged 5.8 persons in their social support networks. Their levels of satisfaction with the emotional, practical, financial, guidance, and socializing support they received from members of their social support networks were higher with respect to close friends and coworkers than with respect to family members and professionals (e.g., attorneys and social workers). The most common type of support provided by close friends who were themselves victims of abuse was emotional, guidance, and socializing support, and the most satisfying support was the financial and practical help that came from parents or family. An interesting finding was the significant presence of men in the survivors' social support networks. Overall satisfaction with the quality of support from the social support networks was high, and satisfaction with support from men was comparable, if not higher, than support from women. Multiple regression models revealed that satisfaction with support networks was a potent predictor of self-esteem, emotional health, and loneliness. Intimacy, especially in terms of exclusiveness and trust or loyalty, with at least a few members of the support network contributed significantly to the variance in self-esteem, emotional health, and loneliness among the abused women. The size of the support network also emerged as a limited contributor to well-being. Implications and applications are discussed for professionals working with female survivors of abuse.

  5. United States History Simulations, 1925-1964: The Scopes Trial, Dropping the Atomic Bomb on Japan, United States versus Alger Hiss, Mississippi--Summer 1964. ETC Simulations Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrop, Richard W.

    This booklet provides instructions for simulation and role play of historical events in U.S. history from 1925-1964. Included for student research and participation are: the Scopes trial in Tennessee involving supporters of the teaching of evolution in the schools and of creationism; the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan ending World War…

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes in aplastic anemia among atomic bomb survivors. With special reference to immunological mechanisms and bolus methylprednisolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Nobutaka; Inada, Tominari; Asaoku, Hideki; Abe, Kazuhiro; Oguma, Nobuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1986-11-01

    In 6 patients with aplastic anemia and 3 patients with pernicious anemia, lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood were measured, before and after steroid therapy, with a fluorescence-activated cell sorder using various monoclonal antibodies. The ratio of OKT4-positive lymphocytes (T4) to OKT8-positive lymphocytes (T8) in the peripheral blood was reduced in 2 patients (20%). The T4/T8 ratio returned to normal during remission of anemia. Hematological improvement was seen after a large amount of steroid therapy in 3 patients. The number of Tac-positive cells tended to decrease and the T4/T8 ratio tended to return to normal with hematological improvement, although there was no correlation to hydrocortisone reaction. Some patients were supposed to have abnormal number of suppressor and inducer T cells. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and narrative structure among adolescent terrorist-attack survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Filkuková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The structure of trauma narratives is considered to be related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology and thus the capacity to make a coherent narrative after stressful events is crucial for mental health. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand more of the relationship between narrative structure and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. More specifically, we investigated whether internal and external focus, organization, fragmentation, and length differed between two groups of adolescent survivors of a mass shooting, one group with low levels of PTSS and one group with high levels of PTSS. Method: The sample comprised 30 adolescents who survived the shooting at Utøya Island in Norway in 2011. They were interviewed 4–5 months after the shooting and provided a free narrative of the event. PTSS were assessed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (PTSD-RI. Results: We found that survivors with high levels of PTSS described more external events and fewer internal events in their narratives compared with survivors with low levels of symptoms. The analysis also showed that especially narratives containing more descriptions of dialogue and fewer organized thoughts were related to higher levels of PTSS. The groups did not differ in levels of narrative fragmentation or in length of the narratives. Conclusion: Specific attributes of narrative structure proved to be related to the level of PTSS. On the basis of our results, we can recommend that practitioners focus especially on two elements of the trauma narratives, namely, the amount of external events, particularly dialogues, within the narrative and the number of organized thoughts. Participants with high levels of PTSS provided trauma narratives with low amount of organized (explanatory thoughts accompanied by detailed descriptions of dialogues and actions, which is indicative for “here and now” quality of recall and a lack of trauma processing.

  8. The development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth in a dragon boating team for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.

  9. Prognostic Relationships between Microbleed, Lacunar Infarction, White Matter Lesion, and Renal Dysfunction in Acute Ischemic Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae Woong; Jeong, Hye Seon; Choi, Dae Eun; Ham, Young Rok; Na, Ki Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Jei

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that renal dysfunction and cerebral small-vessel disease (SVD), including microbleed, lacunar infarction, and white matter lesion (WML), are associated with poor prognosis after ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic relationship between renal dysfunction and SVD has not been well evaluated in acute ischemic stroke survivors. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the prognostic relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and cerebral SVD after acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of acute ischemic stroke survivors with decreased eGFR (acute ischemic stroke survivors. Both renal impairment and the presence of SVD were predictors of poor poststroke survival. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of heterosexual and LGBTQ cancer survivors' outlooks on relationships, family building, possible infertility, and patient-doctor fertility risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Russell, Andrea; Galvin, Kathleen M; Harper, Maya M; Clayman, Marla L

    2016-10-01

    Little research about cancer-related infertility has examined the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) cancer survivors. This research seeks to understand how LGBTQ survivors are similar to or different from heterosexual survivors with respect to cancer treatments' effects on relationships, plans for parenthood, and fertility preservation decision making. Semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with adolescent or young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (n = 56) were coded for themes. Interviews consisted of questions about pre- and post-diagnosis thoughts about relationships, parenthood, possible infertility, and how information about fertility risks was received. While LGBTQ (n = 22) and heterosexual (n = 34) survivors reported similar challenges when dating post-diagnosis, heterosexual survivors were more likely to report fertility concerns as affecting romantic relationships (p LGBTQ survivors seemed more open to raising non-biological children or not becoming a parent than heterosexual survivors. LGBTQ survivors generally reported being satisfied with or indifferent to the information that they were given regarding fertility loss, despite reporting receiving similar amounts of information as compared to heterosexual patients (p LGBTQ patients' views on relationships, parenthood, and family building seemed to result in less distress when faced with infertility. However, interventions facilitating information exchange about dating, fertility risks, and family building options may be valuable to LGBTQ and heterosexual cancer survivors. LGBTQ cancer survivors may display more adaptive coping with respect to relationships and fertility loss. Oncology professionals may want to proactively introduce positive coping strategies to reduce distress among AYA cancer survivors at risk for infertility.

  11. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  12. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  13. Association between suicidal ideation and exposure to suicide in social relationships among family, friend, and acquaintance survivors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Kwon, Se Won; Kim, Ji Eun

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to suicide in social relationships may be associated with suicidal ideation among survivors. In South Korea, which is known for having the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, exposure to suicide in social relationships can have serious consequences as social relationships are greatly emphasized in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between survivors' suicidal ideation and their exposure to suicide in close relationships. Data collected through a telephone survey of a total of 1,000 men and women selected from across the nation using a stratified sampling method were analyzed. The results show that individuals who lost a family member, friend, or acquaintance in their lifetime are 4.5 times, 3.7 times, 2.2 times, respectively, more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year compared to those without such experience. These findings suggest that special intervention for suicide survivors should be considered for those who experience suicide in close relationships.

  14. Relationships between Sleep Problems and Psychiatric Comorbidities among China's Wenchuan Earthquake Survivors Remaining in Temporary Housing Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Suo; Yan, Zheng; Jing, Pan; Li, Changjin; Zheng, Tiansheng; He, Jincai

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake survivors are a diverse population. This study focused on a special group of earthquake survivors, who had still stayed in temporary housing camps for about 2 years after China's Wenchuan Earthquake rather than those who moved back to rebuild their lives or immigrated to large cities to seek new lives. The research goals were to (1) assess their sleep problems as well as their PTSD, depression and anxiety and (2) examine the relationship between different dimensions of sleep quality and PTSD, depression, and anxiety among these survivors. Three-hundred and eighty seven earthquake survivors who remained in temporary housing camps and had sleep problems were recruited 17–27 months after Wenchuan Earthquake. Four standardized instruments-The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Self-rating Depression Scale, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and face-to-face one-on-one structured interviews were used to assess these survivors' sleep quality, PTSD, depression, and anxiety. It was found that (1) 83.20% of these survivors reported having sleep problems, and 79.33% of them considered insomnia as the most common sleep problem; (2) 12.14% suffered PTSD, 36.43% experienced depression, and 38.24% had anxiety; (3) sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and subjective sleep quality were significantly related to PTSD; (4) habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to depression; and (5) sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to anxiety. Clinic implications of the study are discussed.

  15. The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in severely injured trauma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan L; Pattison, Phillipa

    2004-03-01

    This prospective longitudinal study was designed to investigate the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and the subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a population of severely injured hospitalised trauma survivors. Symptoms of ASD were assessed just prior to discharge in 307 consecutive admissions to a Level 1 Trauma Centre, with PTSD assessments completed at 3 and 12 months post-injury. A well-established structured clinical interview was adopted for both assessments. Only 1% of the sample met criteria for an ASD diagnosis (at a mean of 8 days post-injury), while the incidence of PTSD was 9% at 3 months and 10% at 12 months. Although all ASD symptom clusters contributed to the prediction of subsequent PTSD severity, logistic regression indicated that only re-experiencing and arousal predicted a categorical PTSD diagnosis. The dissociative symptoms that form the core of ASD were rarely endorsed and showed high specificity but low sensitivity, resulting in a high proportion of false negative diagnoses. Reducing the number of dissociative symptoms required for a diagnosis ameliorated, but did not resolve, the problem. In this particular population, the low sensitivity of the ASD diagnosis renders it a poor screening test for use in identifying high risk individuals for early intervention and prevention strategies.

  16. Relationship of obesity with serum concentrations of leptin, CRP and IL-6 in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Zeinab; Moslemi, Dariush; Parsian, Hadi; Khafri, Soraya; Pouramir, Mahdi; Mosapour, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the adverse effect of obesity on quality of life among women with breast cancer, including alteration in some inflammatory markers. The aim of this study was to determine the status of serum levels of leptin, IL-6 and CRP in obese, overweight and normal weight breast cancer survivors in order to determine the relationship between inflammatory markers' levels and obesity. This cross-sectional study was done on 75 women with breast cancer, 30 obese, 15 overweight and 30 normal weight patients. Serum leptin, IL-6, CRP, total protein, albumin and lipid profile as well as anthropometric parameters were measured in three groups. Serum leptin levels of obese patients were significantly higher than those of overweight and normal weight patients (Pobese patients in comparison with normal weight patients (P0.05). Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that leptin was significantly associated with BMI (Pobese patients may exaggerate the inflammation status. As inflammation has the potential to increase the susceptibility of the patients to metastasis development, it is necessary to decline its rate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships among symptoms, psychosocial factors, and health-related quality of life in hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly; Huang, I-Chan; Rizzo, J Douglas; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Wingard, John

    2015-03-01

    The study aims to evaluate the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between physical symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors and to test a conceptual model of psychosocial factors, in addition to physical and psychological symptoms, that might contribute to HRQOL. This is a secondary data analysis using HSCT survivors (N = 662) identified from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Data were collected through mail and phone surveys and medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms on the relationship of physical symptoms with HRQOL. We also tested comprehensive pathways from physical symptoms to HRQOL by adding psychosocial factors (optimism, coping, and social constraints). In the depressive symptom mediation analyses, physical symptoms had a stronger direct effect on physical HRQOL (b = -0.98, p 0.05). Depressive symptoms were associated with mental HRQOL and mediated the relationship between physical symptoms and mental HRQOL. In comprehensive pathways, physical symptoms remained the most significant factor associated with physical HRQOL. In contrast, depressive symptoms had direct effects (b = -0.76, p Psychosocial factors were directly associated with mental HRQOL and indirectly associated with mental HRQOL through depressive symptoms. Physical symptoms are most strongly associated with physical HRQOL, while depressive symptoms and psychosocial factors impact mental HRQOL more than physical HRQOL. Interventions addressing psychosocial factors as well as symptoms may improve the HRQOL of HSCT survivors.

  18. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

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    Mulvihill, J.J.; Byrne, J.

    1989-02-01

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references.

  19. Relationships between Sleep Problems and Psychiatric Comorbidities among China’s Wenchuan Earthquake Survivors Remaining in Temporary Housing Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake survivors are a diverse population. This study focused on a special group of earthquake survivors, who had still stayed in temporary housing camps for about two years after China’s Wenchuan Earthquake rather than those who moved back to rebuild their lives or immigrated to large cities to seek new lives. The research goals were to (1 assess their sleep problems as well as their PTSD, depression and anxiety and (2 examine the relationship between different dimensions of sleep quality and PTSD, depression, and anxiety among these survivors. 387 earthquake survivors who remained in temporary housing camps and had sleep problems were recruited 17 to 27 months after Wenchuan Earthquake. Four standardized instruments-The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, Self-rating Depression Scale, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and face-to-face one-on-one structured interviews were used to assess these survivors’ sleep quality, PTSD, depression and anxiety. It was found that (1 83.20% of these survivors reported having sleep problems, and 79.33% of them considered insomnia as the most common sleep problem; (2 12.14% suffered PTSD, 36.43% experienced depression, and 38.24% had anxiety; (3 sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and subjective sleep quality were significantly related to PTSD; (4 habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to depression; and (5 sleep disturbance, sleep medication use, and daytime dysfunction were significantly related to anxiety. Clinic implications of the study are discussed.

  20. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Post-stroke depression: Prevalence and relationship with disability in chronic stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate (1 the prevalence of operationally defined depressive disorder (ICD-10 in chronic stroke subjects and (2 the relationship of post-stroke depression (PSD with disability. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care university research center. Materials and Methods: Participants were those with first episode of supratentorial stroke of more than 3 months′ duration with impaired balance and gait who had been referred for rehabilitation. Data were collected on demographic data, stroke data (side and type of lesion and post-stroke duration, cognition (mini mental state examination, depressive ideation (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - HRDS, impairment (Scandinavian Stroke Scale, balance (Berg Balance Scale, ambulatory status (Functional Ambulation Category, walking ability (speed, and independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0. We carried out the chi-square test for ordinal variables and the independent t test for continuous variables. Results: Fifty-one patients (M:F: 41:10 of mean age 46.06 ± 11.19 years and mean post-stroke duration of 467.33 ± 436.39 days were included in the study. Eighteen of the 51 participants (35.29% met the criteria for depression. Demographic variables like male gender, being married, living in a nuclear family, urban background, and higher HRDS score were significantly correlated with PSD (P < 0.05. Depression was related to functional disability after stroke but to a statistically insignificant level (P > 0.05 and was unrelated to lesion-related parameters. Conclusion: Depression occurs in one-third of chronic stroke survivors and is prevalent in subjects referred for rehabilitation. PSD is related primarily to demographic variables and only to a lesser extent to functional disability following stroke.

  2. The French atomic bomb tests

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    N. K. Nayak

    1961-10-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the details of two French Atomic Tests. Both were carried out at Hamoudia in the vicinity of Reggane (Sahara, the first on 13th of February 1960 and the second on the 1st April 1960. The nuclear explosive used in both cases was plutonium. In the first test the device was placed on the top of a tower of about 100 meters high whereas in the second test it was placed in a prefabricated shed. According to unofficial reports, the yields of the two tests were about 60Kt and less than 20Kt respectively.

  3. Relationship Intimacy: Associations with Psychological Distress and Work Productivity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    Green, & Garcia, 1998), chronic pain (Gulluoglu, et al., 2006), lymphedema (Norman, et al., 2009), and menopausal symptoms (Carpenter & Andrykowski...Simoes Torpey, H. A., Kallan, M. J., Weber, A. L., et al. (2009). Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment

  4. Restoring relationship between former genocide perpetrators and survivors of genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda through reconciliation villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeza, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, genocide has claimed many lives across the world. In Rwanda, the Genocide against the Tutsi was perpetrated with unprecedented violence and took the lives of more than one million. In the aftermath of the genocide, the interpersonal relationships between genocide survivors and former genocide perpetrators as well as their respective family members was undermined. Through Prison Fellowship Rwanda, former genocide perpetrators and survivors of genocide were brought together in reconciliation villages as a way of restoring their relationships. Drawing on interviews and focus group discussion with members of five reconciliation villages, this study uses a qualitative approach to examine how these villages contribute to the restoration of relationship between conflicting parties in the aftermath of the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. The findings indicate that living together in reconciliation village combined with economic joint activities provided a favorable space in which negative-dehumanizing attitudes were overcome, while positive-re-humanizing attitudes were fostered. Additionally, the village offered members an opportunity for communication, reduced prejudice and fear among them, and generated trust in the community.

  5. The relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms and suicide ideation among child survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liuhua; Chen, Chuansheng; Lin, Chongde; Greenberger, Ellen; Wu, Xinchun; Jiang, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and suicide ideation was examined in a sample of 2,298 child survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Results indicated that intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal symptom clusters, and PTSD total score were significantly associated with suicide ideation. Except for intrusion, other measures of PTSD remained as statistically significant correlates of suicide ideation even after controlling for age, gender, direct exposure, indirect exposure, and depression. Furthermore, results showed that PTSD symptoms had an indirect influence on suicide ideation that was mediated by depression. The findings suggest that avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters of PTSD may be two important indicators of suicide ideation among child survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Implications of the results for intervention and prevention of suicide behavior are discussed.

  6. The caregiving relationship and quality of life among partners of stroke survivors: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Keith G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the majority of stroke survivors return home following their stroke, families play a pivotal role in their care. Few studies have addressed both positive and negative aspects of this role or the broader construct of health-related quality of life (HRQL. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to the context of care in terms of relationship quality, and reciprocity. The present study examined the relationships between caregiver quality of life (HRQL, caregiver role, relationship satisfaction, balance and reciprocity in caregivers of partners who had experienced a stroke. Specific hypotheses were made based on equity theory in social relations. Methods Fifty-six partner caregivers completed a postal survey that included measures of HRQL (SF-36, caregiver role (negative and positive aspects, relationship satisfaction, reciprocity and balance. Data were also collected on the care recipients' quality of life (Stroke Specific Quality of Life scale. Results Compared to a normative sample, caregivers' HRQL was lower for all SF-36 domains. Care recipient and caregiver age, care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly predicted physical component summary scores on the SF-36, while care recipient quality of life and caregiver role (negative significantly correlated with mental component summary scores. Relationship satisfaction and intrinsic rewards of caregiving were found to be important predictors of positive aspects of the caregiver role. Caregivers who viewed their relationship as less balanced in terms of give and take had significantly greater caregiver burden than those who viewed their relationship as more equitable. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of taking a broader approach to examining partner caregiving in the context of stroke, in terms of the caregiving relationship and their influence on the health and well-being of caregivers.

  7. Undetected Scars? Self-Criticism, Attachment, and Romantic Relationships Among Otherwise Well-Functioning Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassri, Dana; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter; Shahar, Golan

    2017-04-27

    Studies have consistently demonstrated the negative impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on intimate relationships. The majority of studies have focused on revictimization in at-risk or clinical samples, with very few addressing the impact of CSA on otherwise well-functioning adults and even fewer investigating the psychological mechanisms involved. To fill this gap, this study focuses on the effect of CSA on "normative" (nonviolent) romantic relationships in otherwise well-functioning young women, and the mediating role of personality dimension self-criticism and attachment in this regard. Specifically, we investigate whether self-criticism and attachment avoidance mediate the relationship between CSA and romantic relationship satisfaction, while also examining the potential reciprocal associations between these variables. The hypothesized mediation model was examined in a 2-wave, 6-month, cross-lagged longitudinal design, using structural equation modeling. Participants were 59 well-functioning (psychologically, socially, occupationally) young women drawn from an earlier study that purposefully oversampled for CSA survivors. For the purpose of the current study, data from women who had been either sexually abused by a familiar perpetrator (n = 30) or had no history of sexual trauma (n = 29) were included. Consistent with expectations, self-criticism mediated the association between CSA and romantic relationship satisfaction over time. In addition, a scarring effect of romantic relationship satisfaction on attachment avoidance was demonstrated. Findings suggest that CSA may lead to elevated levels of self-criticism, which in turn may be linked with reduced satisfaction in romantic relationships, setting in motion a vicious cycle involving relationship satisfaction and attachment avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

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    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte, E-mail: ann-charlotte.waldenstrom@oncology.gu.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Olsson, Caroline [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Al-Abany, Massoud [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tucker, Susan [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  9. The Relationship of Patient-Provider Communication on Quality of Life among African-American and White Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ching; Matthews, Alicia K; Dossaji, Mazahir; Fullam, Francis

    2017-07-01

    Prior research has demonstrated poorer patient-provider communication ratings among African American compared to White patients. The quality of patient-provider communication has been shown to impact treatment outcomes among cancer patients. A secondary data analysis design was used to determine the relationship of six patient-provider communication variables on the physical health quality of life (PHQOL) and mental health quality of life (MHQOL) of African American and White cancer patients (N = 479). We also examined whether the relationship between communication patterns and QOL differed based on race/ethnicity. Mean physical and mental health QOL scores for the sample were 69.8 and 77.6, respectively. After controlling for significant sociodemographic, clinical, and hospital variables, results showed that patients who experienced fewer interpersonal communication barriers who were more satisfied with the information given by providers had higher PHQOL and MHQOL scores. Additionally, patients who felt more comfort in asking questions or had fewer unmet information needs had higher MHQOL. A stratified analysis showed that the relationship of overall satisfaction with information on MHQOL was stronger among African American patients than White patients. Future research should focus on the development of interventions to improve patient-provider communication as a means for enhancing QOL outcomes among cancer survivors.

  10. Do community- and individual-level social relationships contribute to the mental health of disaster survivors?: A multilevel prospective study after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Aida, Jun; Hase, Akihiro; Sato, Yukihiro; Koyama, Shihoko; Tsuboya, Toru; Osaka, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Disasters greatly threaten the health and lives of people all over the world. Japan experienced severe damage following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and some survivors continue to live in prefabricated temporary housing, built collectively in damaged areas. Previous studies have shown that social relationships in such communities have the potential to protect the mental health of disaster survivors. We examined the association between survivors' social support and social participation in 2012 and their psychological distress in 2013 using the K6 scale. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to all 15,979 households in prefabricated temporary housing in eight municipalities in Miyagi prefecture in 2012, and 19,284 adults from 9366 (58.6%) households responded. One year later, 10,880 adults responded to a follow-up survey. Multivariate multilevel linear regression analyses with multiply imputed datasets showed that survivors' psychological distress at follow-up significantly differed between communities (community-level variance [standard error] = 0.38 [0.13]). The variance was reduced to 0.25 [0.09] after considering individual demographic characteristics and psychological distress at baseline. Individual- and community-level social relationships of 7.1% and 15.8%, respectively, explained the difference. After adjusting for covariates including K6 scale at baseline, individual-level social support, community-level social support, and individual-level social participation were significantly associated with low psychological distress at follow-up (coefficients [95% confidence intervals] were: -0.54 [-0.79, -0.30]; -0.43 [-0.72, -0.14]; and -0.22 [-0.40, -0.04], respectively). Community-level social participation was not significantly associated with psychological distress. The present study showed that: 1) survivors' psychological distress varied between temporary housing communities in 2013; 2) individual- and community-level social

  11. Examination of the relationship between the duration and frequency of abuse and the trauma symptoms among survivors of sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Şimşek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a relationship between the presence and severity of trauma symptoms and duration/frequency of abuse and socio-demographic variables exist or not. Methods: Sixty-five children, aged between 5-17 years, who were admitted to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department of Akdeniz University Hospital due to sexual abuse have been enrolled to the study with their mothers. Existing psychopathologies of children were evaluated by Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL and PTSD were evaluated by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA. For identifying PTSD in their parents Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS was used. Results: 84.6% of victims (n = 55 were female and15.4% (n = 10 were male. There was no significant relationship between the frequency and duration of abuse and CAPS B, C, and D scores (P> 0.05. Similarly, no significant relationship was present between the frequency and duration of abuse and CAPS B, C, and D scores of the mothers (P> 0.05. In females, age and education level were positively correlated with the CAPS B, C and D scores. Parents' education level was tending to be lower by decreasing age of victimized children. Conclusion: Multiple factors (personal, familial, and pertaining to abuse may play role in the impact of abuse on mental health of survivors of sexual abuse. Education levels of parents seem to be related with both the abuse risk of children and its impact on the child’s mental health after sexual abuse.

  12. Romantic and Sexual Relationships, Body Image, and Fertility in Adolescent and Young Adult Testicular Cancer Survivors: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the impact of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on AYA testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research. PMID:20638003

  13. Romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility in adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivors: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-08-01

    This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the effect of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research.

  14. Recalled peritraumatic distress in survivors of violent crime: exploring its impact on the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten Jacob Johannes

    2012-11-01

    Several authors have speculated that the lack of consistency regarding the relationship between symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) is caused by third variables. Recalled peritraumatic distress (PD) may operate as a third variable because previous research suggests that both PTSD and PTG correlate with recalled PD. Therefore, the present study explored how recalled PD impacts the relationship between PTSD and PTG. An Internet questionnaire on PTSD symptom severity, recalled PD, and PTG was administered to 678 survivors of violent crime. The results suggested that recalled PD suppresses the association between PTSD symptom severity and PTG. In addition, a significant association between the interaction term of PTSD symptom severity and recalled PD and PTG was observed. Simple slopes tests indicated that self-reported PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with PTG but only among survivors with high levels of PD.

  15. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. METHODS: A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. RESULTS: One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599, while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.

  16. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. 900 residents of the town of L'Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  17. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L’ Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach. PMID:23293608

  18. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Life: Resilience Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Parry, Carla; Chesler, Mark; Fritz, Jennifer; Repetto, Paula

    2005-01-01

    According to The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation, certain family strengths can promote positive outcomes for children undergoing adverse or stressful circumstances. We proposed that chief among these potential strengths are high quality parent-child relationships. Data from self-report questionnaires from 190…

  19. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  20. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950; Geschichte der Strahlenforschung. Ueber Strahlung, Radioaktivitaet und Strahlenschutz. T. 2. Das Damoklesschwert. Jahrzehnt der Atombombe: 1940-1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B.

    2006-07-01

    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  1. Contribution of United Nations in Serbia to protection of women survivors of violence in family and in intimate partner relationships: From international law to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analyses of engagement of the United Nations in Serbia in the field of the prevention and establishment of protection system for women survivors of violence in family and in intimate partner relationships. The scientific objective is to assess the contribution of the UN interventions in this field in Serbia, while the applicative objective is to use the results of the analysis in the planning of State’s interventions for the effective implementation of the Istanbul convention based upon lessons learnt from the UN interventions in this field. The subject of the paper is the analysis of the approach UN in Serbia has adopted over the past decade in establishment of the institutional response to violence against women, as well as the UN’s contribution to setting horizontal and vertical institutional exchange mechanisms among different sectors with mandate to provide services to survivors/ victims, specifically multi-sectoral co-operation model for protection of victims and support to setting institutional basis for the recognition of specialist support services for women survivors of violence. Both aspects are framed within the obligations deriving from the Istanbul convention with the aim to observe the correlation between the UN’s approach and the requirements of this international treaty.

  2. Gender differences in the relationship between maladaptive behaviours and post-traumatic stress disorder. A study on 900 L’Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana eDell'Osso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviours and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviours and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3 were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self Report (TALS-SR.Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behaviour prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behaviour among PTSD survivors. In the latter, significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviours among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviours among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  3. Body mass index and annual increase of body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors; relationship to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Gietema, Jourik A; Vonk, Judith M; Tissing, W J E; Boezen, Hendrika M; Zwart, Nynke; Postma, Aleida

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and/or radiotherapy. METHODS: BMI (weight/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence

  4. Perceptions of Masculinity and Self-Image in Adolescent and Young Adult Testicular Cancer Survivors: Implications for Romantic and Sexual Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Ott, Mary A.; Brames, Mary J.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine adolescent and young adult (AYA) testicular cancer survivors’ subjective understanding of the impact of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood, with a particular emphasis on romantic and sexual relationships. Methods Twenty-one AYA testicular cancer survivors, aged 18 to 34 years, were recruited from outpatient testicular cancer follow-up clinics and completed a semi-structured qualitative interview that assessed the impact of testicular cancer on their romantic and sexual relationships. Results Four themes were identified that reflected survivors’ understanding of the impact of cancer in adolescence and young adulthood: (1) embarrassment leads to delays in care-seeking, (2) testicular cancer makes you feel different from others, (3) being different from others makes you damaged goods, and (4) cancer disclosure is difficult. Conclusions As these themes represent important components of being in a romantic/sexual relationship, either currently or in the future, AYA testicular cancer survivors would benefit from the development of tailored interventions focused on improving these relevant domains. PMID:20878864

  5. Brain tumor survivors speak out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  6. Lucky or Unlucky people: Layoff Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran Malik; Dr. Mehboob Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Perceived workloads after downsizing eradicate the commitment and productivity among layoff survivors. Up to some extent provision of work - life balance opportunities can save the situation. The current study is carried out among layoff survivors of the two giant organizations in Pakistan. A cross - sectional study based on a stratified random sample of 450 survivors assisted to test the relationship. In the first step the relationship of perceived work load increase (WLI), commitment of lay...

  7. Analysis of the Relationship Between Diet and Exercise Beliefs and Actual Behaviors Among Breast Cancer Survivors in Northwest Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Weiner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies have shown that a diet high in fruit and vegetable intake, as well as a routine including daily exercise or physical activity, can independently affect relapse rates and survivorship in breast cancer patients. Fruits and vegetables contain powerful anti-oxidant molecules, capable of preventing tumor formation and proliferation. Exercise can lower circulating levels of estrogen, the female hormone responsible for tumor proliferation in the estrogen-sensitive form of the disease. The most beneficial results have been shown in women who exercise and consume a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We studied the attitudes towards and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable intake and exercise in a cohort of breast cancer survivors in northwest Ohio. Materials and Methods: Data were gathered from a survey sent out by the Northwest Ohio Branch of the Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation. We assessed and evaluated survivors’ self-reported beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding exercise and fruit and vegetable intake. Results: Nearly half of the survivors (46.5% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Eating at least 5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables per day will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 46.8% of those in agreement with the previous statement actually report eating at least 5 fruits and/or vegetables per day. With respect to exercise, 32.9% reported being unsure or in disagreement with the statement “Engaging in regular physical activity will reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” Only 68.5% of those in agreement with the previous statement report any physical activity in the past 30 days. Conclusions: Many breast cancer survivors do not appear to be aware of the benefits of diet and exercise. Further, a large proportion of those who are aware of the benefits do not adapt a healthy diet and exercise as part of their lifestyle. A majority of these survivors

  8. The Dropping of Atomic Bombs on Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In an age when international terrorism poses a threat to peace and stability, the use of not only nuclear, but also biological and chemical weapons are important topics for classroom discussion. In this article, the author explores four approaches to teaching this topic. Examining a controversial topic involves the evaluation of values, the use of…

  9. No blackhole and no atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    2011-11-01

    Title: c=c(1+1=2) The light speed 1+1=2. So we count the number by step by step for one point. When we count the number by one point, we use the number written on the paper. This means this is not number, but the graph and line. The light speed is the truth in physics. I can prove it by number. 10%=0.1 As %=kg So 10kg=0.1 kg=1/10 x 1/10 kg=1/100 And 100%=1 So kg=100%/100 kg=% So 1kg=1%=1/100 E=mc^2 So cx kgx m^2/sec^2= 1kgx cx m^2/sec^2 cx 1/100x m^2/sec^2= 1/100x cx m^2/sec^2 So c/100=c/100 So c=c And c is the truth never changed. Title: By faith, no blackhole As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. There are only human beings and there is no idol that is different existence from human beings, that is true to be. So the nature we see is zero and we, human beings make the zero nature as from no start and no ending. No alpha and omega mean we are idol and that there is no blackhole. Blackhole means the block is existing in the nothing(as we are no alpha and no omega). So the block cannot be existence. So if there is blackhole, then there must be the wall to block me and never walk again. The big bang and evolution mean they are no alpha and no omega and existing by themselves. So they could be existence, but big bang and evolution are just logical fact to be. We need faith as God give us the direction into our spirit.

  10. 《原子弹的初光:原子时代初期美国人的思想与文化》书评%Review on"First light of atomic bomb:the thought and culture of American in early atomic age"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博

    2012-01-01

      The writing of Bowyer"First light of atomic bomb". As the name implies, is a new cultural history and the history of ideas of the works. The book uses the extremely rich data to build the Americans’ perception, psychology and thinking on the atomic bomb from 1945 to 1950, and use of comprehensive information, rigorous attitude, makes the book read like watching America's"Qingmingshanghetu"in fifty's of the last century,.%  鲍耶的著作《原子弹的初光》。顾名思义,是一部新文化史和思想史的著作。全书采用了极其丰富的资料重新构建了1945年至1950年美国人对原子弹的看法、心理与思考,且使用资料之全面,编选之精细,态度之严谨,使得本书让人读起来犹如观看一幅上世纪五十年代末美国的“清明上河图”。

  11. The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    New information is available concerning the carcinogenic effects of radiation and the implications for risk assessment and risk management. This information comes from further follow-up of the epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, patients irradiated medically for cancer and allied conditions, and workers exposed in various occupations. In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors the carcinogenic risks are estimated to be somewhat higher than previously, due to the reassessment of the atomic-bomb dosimetry, further follow-up with increase in the number of excess cancer deaths, particularly in survivors irradiated early in life, and changes in the methods of analysis to compute the age-specific risks of cancer. Because of the characteristics of the atomic bomb survivor series as regards sample size, age and sex distribution, duration for follow-up, person-years at risk, and type of dosimetry, the mortality experience of the atomic bomb survivors was selected by the UNSCEAR Committee and the BEIR V Committee as the more appropriate basis for projecting risk estimates for the general population. In the atomic bomb survivors, the dose-effect relationship for overall cancer mortality other than leukemia is consistent with linearity below 3 Gy, while the dose-effect relationship for leukemia, excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, conforms best to a linear-quadratic function. The shape of the dose-incidence curve at low doses still remains uncertain, and the data do not rule out the possible existence of a threshold for an neoplasm. The excess relative risk of mortality from all cancers combined is estimated to be 1.39 per Gy (shielded kerma), which corresponds to an absolute risk of 10.0 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy; the relative risks is 1.41 at 1 Gy (organ-absorbed dose), and an absolute risk of 13.07 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy. 19 refs.

  12. DBA Survivor

    CERN Document Server

    LaRock, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    DBA Survivor is a book to help new DBAs understand more about the world of database administration. More and more people are moving into the DBA profession, and many are looking for a getting-started guide. Blogs are written about how to be an exceptional DBA and what to do in your first 100 days. This book takes a different approach, injecting some humor into helping you understand how to hit the ground running, and most importantly how to survive as a DBA. And it's not just survival that matters. Author Thomas LaRock wants much more for you than mere survival. He wants you to have excellence

  13. A Study on the Path to Achieve Big Science Projects:Case Studies from Atomic Bomb Manufacturing Project and Manned Space Project%大科学工程的实现路径研究--基于原子弹制造工程和载人航天工程的案例剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继凯; 危怀安

    2015-01-01

    基于原子弹制造工程和载人航天工程的案例剖析发现,原子弹制造工程在实现过程中形成了一条计划型实现路径,载人航天工程则遵循了一条自发型实现路径。两种大科学工程的实现路径在源起、决策和实施过程中都存在明显差异。分析了大科学工程与国家科技重大专项在选择、支撑与修正的实现路径的情况,及在实现路径中充分发挥政府多角色集成效能和激发协同创新机能。%Case studies from atomic bomb manufacturing project and manned space project, the results showed that, a plan achievement path formulated in the atomic bomb manufacturing project, while a spontaneity achieve-ment path followed in the manned space project. There are significant differences in the origins, decision-making and implementation process between the two paths. This offers today's big science projects and national science and technology major projects lots of important inspiration and valuable experience at selecting, supporting and correcting achievement path, exerting government's multi-role integration efficiency and stimulating synergy innova-tion function in the achievement path.

  14. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer : A comparison based on relationship status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy to men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem. social support. and mental health

  15. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer : A comparison based on relationship status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, Marrit A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy to men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem. social support. and mental health

  16. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Process theology's relevance for older survivors of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Pastoral work with survivors of domestic violence may reveal theological struggles. Understandings of scripture that reinforce a sense of powerlessness and alienation from God may contribute to an impaired relationship and limit resources for healing. One framework for re-imaging a relationship with God is process theology. This framework was applied to a case study for one survivor. The application resulted in a line of inquiry that may assist survivors in their healing process.

  18. The relationship between interpersonal traits and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: analyses from Wenchuan earthquake adolescent survivors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Xiang; Ding, Cody

    2011-08-01

    This study explores the relationship between interpersonal traits and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of 617 middle and high school students 16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in China using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Interpersonal Self-Supporting Scale (ISSS). Even when the effects of gender and grade level were controlled for, the results from regression analyses revealed that greater interpersonal independence, interpersonal initiative, interpersonal responsibility, and interpersonal openness are associated with lesser PTSD symptoms 16 months later.

  19. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes.

  20. Science Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates the use of a module used in Mexican schools that focuses on survival on a deserted island. Explores questions related to inhabitants of the island, predator-prey relationships, identification of natural resources, water and food issues, and health considerations. (DDR)

  1. Self-reported physical activity: its correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life in a large cohort of colorectal cancer survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurien M Buffart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA is suggested to be an important non-pharmacologic means to improve health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. We aimed to describe the PA level, its correlates, and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL in colorectal cancer (CRC survivors. METHODS: CRC survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed validated questionnaires on PA, distress, fatigue, and HRQoL. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA levels were calculated by summing the time spent on walking, bicycling, gardening and sports (≥3 MET. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to study which socio-demographic and clinical factors were associated with MVPA. Furthermore, we examined associations between MVPA and physical and mental HRQoL, and whether these associations were mediated by fatigue and distress. RESULTS: Cross-sectional data of 1371 survivors (response: 82% were analysed. Participants were 69.5 (SD 9.7 years old, 56% were male, and survival duration was 3.9 (SD 2.5 years. Participants self-reported on average 95.5 (SD 80.3 min on MVPA per day. Younger age, male sex, being employed, non-smoking, lower BMI, colon cancer (vs. rectal cancer, chemotherapy treatment and having no co-morbidities were associated with higher MVPA (p<0.05. MVPA was positively associated with physical HRQoL (regression coefficient of total association (c = 0.030; se = 0.004 after adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical factors. Fatigue mediated this association between MVPA and physical HRQoL (44% mediated. The association between MVPA and mental HRQoL was not statistically significant after adjusting for socio-demographic and cancer-related factors (c = 0.005; se = 0.004. CONCLUSION: In CRC survivors, clinical factors including the absence of co-morbidity, tumour site and chemotherapy treatment were associated with higher MVPA, in

  2. Social communication mediates the relationship between emotion perception and externalizing behaviors in young adult survivors of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Eren, Senem; Rosema, Stefanie; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Catroppa, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of childhood disability, and is associated with elevated risk for long-term social impairment. Though social (pragmatic) communication deficits may be among the most debilitating consequences of childhood TBI, few studies have examined very long-term communication outcomes as children with TBI make the transition to young adulthood. In addition, the extent to which reduced social function contributes to externalizing behaviors in survivors of childhood TBI remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of social communication difficulty among young adult survivors of childhood TBI (n=34, injury age: 1.0-7.0 years; M time since injury: 16.55 years) and examine relations among aspects of social function including emotion perception, social communication and externalizing behaviors rated by close-other proxies. Compared to controls the TBI group had significantly greater social communication difficulty, which was associated with more frequent externalizing behaviors and poorer emotion perception. Analyses demonstrated that reduced social communication mediated the association between poorer emotion perception and more frequent externalizing behaviors. Our findings indicate that socio-cognitive impairments may indirectly increase the risk for externalizing behaviors among young adult survivors of childhood TBI, and underscore the need for targeted social skills interventions delivered soon after injury, and into the very long-term. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  4. Does Caregiver Well-Being Predict Stroke Survivor Depressive Symptoms? A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joan S.; Clay, Olivio J.; Keltner, Norman L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Perkins, Martinique M.; Roth, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Studies suggest that family caregiver well-being (ie,, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction) may affect stroke survivor depressive symptoms. We used mediation analysis to assess whether caregiver well-being might be a factor explaining stroke survivor depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors and stroke survivor impairments and problems. Methods Caregiver/stroke participant dyads (N=146) completed measures of stroke survivor impairments and problems and depressive symptoms and caregiver depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Mediation analysis was used to examine whether caregiver well-being mediated the relationship between stroke survivor impairments and problems and stroke survivor depressive symptoms. Results As expected, more stroke survivor problems and impairments were associated with higher levels of stroke survivor depressive symptoms (P caregiver life satisfaction (29.29%) and caregiver depressive symptoms (32.95%). Although these measures combined to account for 40.50% of the relationship between survivor problems and impairments and depressive symptoms, the direct effect remained significant. Conclusions Findings indicate that stroke survivor impairments and problems may affect family caregivers and stroke survivors and a high level of caregiver distress may result in poorer outcomes for stroke survivors. Results highlight the likely importance of intervening with both stroke survivors and family caregivers to optimize recovery after stroke. PMID:23340070

  5. Relationships between social factors and physical activity among elderly survivors of the Great East Japan earthquake: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Eiichi; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Murakami, Haruka; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Yokoyama, Yukari; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Akira; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-27

    Physical inactivity is a health issue that often occurs after serious disaster. Social factors, which can be disrupted by disaster, are important determinants of physical activity levels in everyday living. This study was designed to confirm the association between social factors and physical activity among elderly survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. From September 2011 to February 2012, 4316 males and females aged 65 or older participated in a health survey of Great East Japan Earthquake survivors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with the dichotomous dependent variable of physical activity (high versus low) and working status, social network, and place of residence (one's own home versus elsewhere) as independent variables. Participants who had been displaced from their homes were more likely to have low physical activity (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] for men: 1.37, 1.12 to 1.68; for women: 1.30, 1.09 to 1.55). Non-working status was significantly associated with low physical activity (men: 2.03, 1.65 to 2.49; women: 1.94, 1.60 to 2.34). Detriments to the social network were significantly associated with low physical activity (men: 1.71, 1.41 to 2.08; women: 1.79, 1.51 to 2.13). Place of residence and social factors were associated with physical activity levels in elderly survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The findings suggest a need for improvement of social factors to encourage increases in physical activity for elderly persons after disaster.

  6. Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Tracy A; Finley, Erin; Liebschutz, Jane M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify characteristics that facilitate trust in the patient-provider relationship among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). DESIGN Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted to elicit participants' beliefs and attitudes about trust in interactions with health care providers. Using grounded theory methods, the transcripts were analyzed for common themes. A community advisory group, composed of advocates, counselors and IPV survivors, helped interpret themes and interview exerpts. Together, key components of trust were identified. SETTING Eastern Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-seven female survivors of IPV recruited from community-based IPV organizations. MAIN RESULTS Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 56 years, 36% were African American, 32% Hispanic, and 18% white. We identified 5 dimensions of provider behavior that were uniquely important to the development of trust for these IPV survivors: 1) communication about abuse: provider was willing to openly discuss abuse; 2) professional competency: provider asked about abuse when appropriate and was familiar with medical and social histories; 3) practice style: provider was consistently accessible, respected confidentiality, and shared decision making; 4) caring: provider demonstrated personal concern beyond biomedical role through nonjudgmental and compassionate gestures, empowering statements, and persistent, committed behaviors; 5) emotional equality: provider shared personal information and feelings and was perceived by the participant as a friend. CONCLUSIONS These IPV survivors identified dimensions of provider behavior that facilitate trust in their clinical relationship. Strengthening these provider behaviors may increase trust with patients and thus improve disclosure of and referral for IPV. PMID:12911643

  7. Fear of cancer recurrence in survivor and caregiver dyads: differences by sexual orientation and how dyad members influence each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Tripodis, Yorghos; Bazzi, Angela R; Winter, Michael; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify explanatory factors of fear of recurrence (FOR) in breast cancer survivors of different sexual orientations and their caregivers and to assess the directionality in the survivor and caregiver dyads' FOR. We recruited survivors of non-metastatic breast cancer of different sexual orientations and invited their caregivers into this study. Using a telephone survey, we collected data from 167 survivor and caregiver dyads. Using simultaneous equation models and a stepwise selection process, we identified the significant determinants of survivors' and caregivers' FOR and determined the directionality of survivors' and caregivers' FOR. Weighting the model by the inverse propensity score ensured that differences by sexual orientation in age and proportion of life in the caregiver-survivor relationship were accounted for. Caregivers' FOR predicted survivors' FOR, and sexual orientation had a significant effect on survivors' FOR, in that sexual minority women reported less FOR than heterosexual women. Other determinants of survivors' FOR included their medical characteristics, coresidence with caregivers, and caregivers' social support and use of counseling. Caregivers' FOR was related to their social support and survivors' medical characteristics. This study suggests a need for caregiver interventions. Because survivors' FOR is affected by caregivers' FOR, caregiver interventions will likely benefit survivors' FOR. Both sexual minority and heterosexual breast cancer survivors' FOR are affected by their caregivers' FOR, which suggests that the caregivers of breast cancer survivors are central for the survivors' well-being and shall therefore be integrated into the care process.

  8. Who are the cancer survivors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovaldt, H. B.; Suppli, N. P.; Olsen, M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity...... was compared by social position with the non-cancer population. Results: Cancer survivors composed 4% of the Danish population. Somatic comorbidity was more likely among survivors (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.57-1.60) and associated with higher age, male sex, short education, and living alone among survivors....... Conclusions: Among cancer survivors, comorbidity is common and highly associated with social position....

  9. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the ...

  10. Why did the Germans not produce an atomic bomb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2003-04-01

    The question has been examined and debated in books and articles by physicists and historians of science for the past half century. Since 2000,the controversy has been heightened by Michael Frayn's play Copenhagen. Was the reason for the failure that Werner Heisenberg, the leader of Germany's Uranium Project,for moral reasons, gave incomplete and misleading information to the Nazis, such as withholding the knowledge that fissionable plutonium can be produced in a uranium reactor? Was Heisenberg's science the cause, because it resulted in a critically wrong critical mass for fission of tons instead of kilograms? Did he not make the calculation at all because he was convinced, for practical reasons, that a bomb couldn't be assembled in time to be of use to anyone in World War II? And what about Hans Bethe's assertion that Walter Bothe's mistake in ruling out graphite as a moderator, which obliged the Germans to embark on the difficult, long range effort to obtain enough heavy water, doomed even Heisenberg's reactor program to failure? Can the different answers that have been given to these and other questions be reconciled? If not, which are likely to be correct and which should be abandoned? The talk will be a progress report on this investigation.

  11. After Crossroads: The Fate of the Atomic Bomb Target Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, James P.

    2016-04-01

    The atomic tests at Bikini Atoll left a submerged archaeological legacy in the form of sixty-one shipwrecks at or near Bikini, Kwajalein, the California coast, and in two other lesser cases off Oahu and the coast of Washington State. Together they comprise a unique maritime cultural landscape of the Cold War, and the naval aspects of that conflict.

  12. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.

    1993-11-01

    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  13. Obituary Professor Victor Weisskopf - atom-bomb and CERN physicist

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalyell, T

    2002-01-01

    The rise of Nazism brought horror, humiliation, death and torture to so many free-thinking people - Jews, and other minorities. There were some lucky ones, like the Weisskopf family, who were able to escape. Victor Weisskopf was born and brought up in Austria in the spirit of German culture and said that he considered his transfer from Europe to the USA an invaluable source of intellectual enrichment (2 pages).

  14. The Impact of the Atomic Bomb on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbond, Florence

    1974-01-01

    The teachers of social studies must take on the responsibilities of generating a world consciouness, of continuing the search for a world order of government which are not currently transmitted through textbooks. (Author/RM)

  15. Recurrent Education: "Apple Pie" ...or..."Atomic Bomb"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, William L.

    The author conceptualizes recurrent education as organized, structured, institutionally sponsored learning activities with intentional outcomes, which are distributed over the life span of the individual in a recurring way. Some problems to which recurrent education proposes solutions include: alienation at the inter-generational level,…

  16. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The artificial radiocarbon produced by the thermonuclear bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s significantly increased the level of C-14 in the environment. A detailed record of the subsequent changes in the C-14 concentration of the atmosphere can...

  17. Atomic Bomb: Memory and its Power on Japanese Pacifism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    amendments requirements are troubling and defiantly concern the pacifist movement. 97 Shinzo Abe , Junichiro Koizumi’s successor, as prime minister also...to the Yaskuni Shrine , home of twelve class “A” war criminals, the peace museums started to increase the exhibits that show atrocities the Japanese...include the emperor and empress, and an optional visit to the Yasukuni Shrine to honor the war dead and indirectly honor their actions. This change

  18. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30–1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. PMID:25037101

  19. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  20. Rehabilitating torture survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Kastrup, Marianne; Montgomery, Edith;

    2009-01-01

    , "Rehabilitating Torture Survivors", was organized by the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (a rehabilitation clinic and global knowledge and research centre with government support) in collaboration with the Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark...... to rehabilitation, but scientifically rigorous studies of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes for torture survivors are lacking. Therefore, effect studies are urgently warranted. Nevertheless, by combining expertise from different scientific and professional areas, important elements in the problems of torture...... survivors can be addressed from an evidence base generated both from traumatized and non-traumatized patient populations. Thus, trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy and/or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, as well as interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation, should be components...

  1. Psychosomatic status, personality traits, and coping styles of bereaved and non-bereaved survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui eXiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined personality, coping styles, and psychosomatic characteristics and their relationships in bereaved and non-bereaved earthquake survivors. Study design: Cross-sectional surveyMethods: A survey was conducted with a sample of 102 non-bereaved survivors and 79 bereaved survivors from Mianyang, Anyang, and similar districts 2 weeks after Wenchuan earthquake. Survivors completed questionnaires including items about demographics, personality characteristics, coping styles, and psychosomatic status. Results: Bereaved survivors had lower scores for gregariousness, trust, and optimism, but higher scores for depressed mood, loneliness, becoming easily fearful, irritation, and anxiety than non-bereaved survivors. In addition, bereaved participants scored higher for avoiding problems, self-blame, and fantasy coping styles than non-bereaved ones. Personality and coping styles significantly correlated with psychosomatic status in bereaved and non-bereaved survivors. Optimism and openness to feelings personality characteristics, and self-blame, avoiding problems, and rationalization coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of bereaved survivors, while openness to fantasy, optimism, order, and trust personality characteristics, and self-blame and avoiding problems coping styles significantly predicted psychosomatic status of non-bereaved survivors. Conclusion: Earthquake survivors experienced PTSD symptoms and negative emotions. Bereaved survivors experienced more serious PTSD symptoms and negative emotions relative to non-bereaved survivors. Appropriate psychological crisis interventions should be conducted for earthquake survivors, especially bereaved survivors.

  2. Musculoskeletal problems in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Musculoskeletal problems in stoke survivors are common reasons for disability and pain. Shoulder pain is present in 24% of stroke survivors among all complications, second only to depression in 26%. Diagnosis and treatment of the various shoulder pain etiologies can significantly improve quality of life in these patients. This article reviews the common etiologies and treatments of shoulder and hip pain in stroke survivors.

  3. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  4. Coronary calcium score in 12-year breast cancer survivors after adjuvant radiotherapy with low to moderate heart exposure - Relationship to cardiac radiation dose and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjessem, Kristin Holm; Bosse, Gerhard; Fosså, Kristian; Reinertsen, Kristin V; Fosså, Sophie D; Johansen, Safora; Fosså, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We explored the relation between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiac radiation doses in breast cancer survivors (BCS) treated with radiotherapy (RT). Additionally, we examined the impact of other risk factors and biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD). 236 BCS (median age 51years [range 30-70], median observation time 12years [9.2-15.7]), treated with 4-field RT of 50GY, were included and examined in 2004 (T1), 2007 (T2) and 2011 (T3) with clinical examination, blood tests and questionnaires. At T3, cardiac computed tomography was performed with quantification of CAC using Agatston score (AS). For 106 patients cardiac dose volume histograms were available. The cohort-based median of the mean cardiac dose was 2.5 (range 0.5-7.0) Gy. There was no correlation between measures of cardiac dose and AS. AS was correlated with high cholesterol at T1/T2 (p=0.022), high proBNP at T1/T2 (p<0.022) and T3 (p<0.022) and high HbA1c at T3 (p=0.022). In addition, a high AS was significantly associated with hypertension (p=0.022). Age (p<0.001) and cholesterol at T1/T2 (p=0.001) retained significant associations in multivariate analysis. Traditional, modifiable risk factors of CAD correlate with CAC and may be important for the long term risk of CAD after RT. With low to moderate cardiac radiation exposure, a contribution of radiation dose to CAC could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. survivors in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Risk factors of PSD studied were gender, laterality of stroke, post stroke functional ... Among survivors, over 50% have significant disabilities; and in clinical practice ... evaluation; and due to logistic problems and high cost only a few cases from ..... public health education on the need for early presentation of.

  6. Worries of childhood cancer survivors in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; Sang, Jina

    2016-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors worry about many issues related to their cancer history. As they grow older, additional issues may emerge. This study of a sample of Korean young adults aims to understand childhood cancer survivors' worries. A purposeful sample of 28 childhood cancer survivors was recruited through survivor and parent-advocacy foundations and support groups in Korea. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted over the phone or in person. Participants ranged in age from 20 to 36, were diagnosed before age 19, and had completed treatment at the time of the study. Through qualitative interviews, survivors' worries were identified in the following five themes: romantic relationships and marriage, fertility and the health of future children, work and social life, family, and physical health. The study's findings support the importance of understanding the worries of childhood cancer survivors in young adulthood and the need for developing services and programs to help survivors acquire the appropriate social skills and coping strategies to mitigate their worries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The invisible family: a qualitative study of suicide survivors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Su, Pi-Yu; Chiang, Hsien-Hsien; Kuan, Ping-Yin; Lee, Jia-Fu

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study is to describe the commonality of the lived experience of suicide survivors and how it influences their family relationships in Taiwan from a sociocultural perspective. Thirteen suicide survivors have participated in this study. Study results reveal that some survivors blame themselves, some blame others, and some are blamed by their family as part of their need to find a reason for the death. Consequently, family members ignore each other and treat each other as if they are invisible. These Chinese suicide survivors, unlike Western survivors, maintain their strained family connections because of strong cultural influences. Therefore, health professionals should acknowledge the experiences of living with an invisible family when supporting Chinese suicide survivors.

  8. Enhancing Employment Outcomes for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Developmental Work Personality Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…

  9. Relational Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J.; Lyons, Karen S.; Powers, Laurie E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression following stroke is a major problem for survivors and spouses, but few studies have focused on the experiences of couples. This study investigates associations between perceived relationship quality, communication and coping patterns, interpersonal misunderstandings and expectations, and survivors' and spouses' depressive symptoms after…

  10. Community-Based Career Counseling for Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Collaborative Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronister, Krista M.; Harley, Eliza; Aranda, Christina L.; Barr, Leah; Luginbuhl, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) costs women nearly 8 million days of paid work annually. Greater attention to violence survivors' employment and career development can facilitate women escaping abusive relationships and promotes their overall rehabilitation and healing. A first step to increasing attention to survivors' career development includes…

  11. 乳腺癌患者心理应对调节与生活质量相关分析%Relationships between psychological adjustment, coping style and quality of life among breast cancer survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱琳; 黄雪薇

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解乳腺癌患者心理调节、应对方式与生活质量之间的相关性.方法 采用病例对照研究方法,于2008年8月-2010年8月选择广东省广州市3家三级甲等医院确诊的女性乳腺癌患者进行调查,采用Pearson相关分析方法分析患者心理调节、应对方式及生活质量三者间相关性.结果 病例组生活质量的“躯体良好和能力”与应对的“发泄”、“幻想”均呈负相关(P<0.05),生活质量的“心理良好”与应对的“幻想”、“回避与压抑”均呈负相关(P<0.05);对照组生活质量的“社会良好”与应对的“发泄”、“幻想”、“屈服”均呈负相关(P<0.05),生活质量的“社会良好”与应对的“回避与压抑”呈正相关(r =0.259,P<0.05),生活质量的“心理良好”与应对的“屈服”呈正相关(r=0.268,P<0.05).结论 不同病程的乳腺癌患者采取不同的应对方式,长期存活者更倾向于积极乐观的应对调节.%Objective To explore relationships between psychological adjustment,coping style and quality of life among breast cancer survivors. Methods With matched case-control method, 128 female breast cancer patients were randomly recruited in three grade A class Ⅲ hospitals from August 2008 to August 2010 in Guangzhou city, Guangdong province. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between psychological adjustment, coping style and quality of life in the patients. Results In case group,there were inverse correlations between physical well-being and fantacy/abreaction and between psychologic well-being and fancy avoidance,oppression(Ρ<0.05 for all). In control group,there were a significant inverse correlation between social well-being and abreaction(P<0.05) and significant positive correlations between social well-being and avoidance oppression ( P < 0.05) and between psycholic well-being and yielding (P<0.05). Conclusion There are correlations between

  12. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork.......The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork....

  13. Cancer Patients Versus Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the social and emotional implications of different linguistic classifications of individuals with cancer. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to rate their reactions to either cancer patients or cancer survivors. Across studies, participants held more favorable perceptions of the character of cancer survivors relative to cancer patients and displayed more positive attitudes toward the former group. In addition, participants in Study 1 reported greater willingness to interact with cancer survivors compared with cancer patients. Positive perceptions of prognosis did not appear to account for favorable attitudes toward cancer survivors; most participants in Study 2 did not assume that cancer survivors were beyond the treatment phase of their illness or cured of their disease. Findings point to a potentially powerful effect of word choice on reactions to individuals with cancer. PMID:24371366

  14. The impact of childhood cancer: Perceptions of adult survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Klosky, James L; Li, Chenghong; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Brinkman, Tara M; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Phipps, Sean

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe perceptions and associated risk factors of the impact of cancer on functional outcomes, including social relationships, exercise, finances, and religion, among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Evaluable participants included 3001 adult survivors (mean age, 32.5 years; range, 18.3-63.8 years; 24.1 years from diagnosis; 50.8% male; 84.9% Caucasian) who were enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort study. Perceptions of the impact of cancer were assessed using the Brief Cancer Impact Assessment (BCIA). Regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for functional outcomes. The median response on the BCIA was a perception that cancer had minimal impact on the domains assessed. Approximately 33.1% to 46.6% of survivors indicated this response across the 4 subscales, although responses ranged from very positive to very negative impact. Other than diagnosis (with survivors of brain tumors generally indicating a more negative impact of cancer, with subscale estimates of -1.25 for caregiving and finance and -1.01 for social and emotional and an odds ratio of 1.83 for exercise and diet), most variability was because of demographic factors, including sex, age, race, education, and employment. The current findings highlight that many long-term adult survivors perceive minimal impact of childhood cancer on functional aspects of adulthood, including caregiving, finances, exercise, social-emotional relationships, and religion. This suggests that survivors may not be focusing on the influence of likely physical and psychological late effects of their disease in their day-to-day lives. For those who do perceive a negative impact, variability in responses suggests that there are of survivors who may benefit from interventions focused on the achievement of functional goals. Cancer 2017;123:1625-1634. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  15. "I Am Not A Victim. I Am A Survivor": Resilience as a Journey for Female Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Kimmery; Myers-Bowman, Karen

    2017-08-31

    This study was designed to expand our understanding of the positive aspects of coping and resilience in female survivors of child sexual abuse. Research questions focused on women's lived experiences of being survivors of child sexual abuse and how they have experienced resilience, developed healthy intimate relationships, and viewed themselves as sexual beings. Using a qualitative research lens of phenomenology, we captured the essence of survivors' experiences of resilience. Although each woman's experience was unique, similar patterns of processes and outcomes emerged as meaningful in their development of resilient and healthy sexuality and relationship functioning. However, participants emphasized resilience as a process or journey-recovery from trauma, reconceptualization of self, and development of healthy sexuality included deliberate efforts occurring over time. Implications for future research and practice using a positive lens of resilience are provided.

  16. 20 CFR 234.33 - Survivor annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor annuities. 234.33 Section 234.33... PAYMENTS Annuities Due but Unpaid at Death § 234.33 Survivor annuities. Any survivor annuity which is unpaid at the death of the survivor is paid in the same order and amounts as described in § 234.31(a)...

  17. Attitudes Toward Sexual Violence Survivors: Differences Across Professional Sectors in Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Kelly, Scott; Burner, Mary; Anastario, Mike; Gohlke, Grace; Mishori, Ranit; McHale, Thomas; Naimer, Karen

    2016-03-27

    Sexual violence survivors who decide to report their assault interact with health care, law enforcement, and legal and judicial professionals. Professionals' attitudes about sexual violence and survivors play an important role in caring for survivors and in the pursuit of justice. Despite evidence showing the relationship between service provider beliefs and survivor outcomes, relatively little is known about professionals' beliefs about sexual violence or their attitudes toward sexual violence survivors. Between June 2012 and December 2014, our study examined the beliefs and attitudes of 181 professionals from the health care, legal, and law enforcement sectors in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Rift Valley region of Kenya, areas with a high prevalence of sexual violence. To determine correlates of beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and sexual violence survivors, multiple logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics. Respondents who agreed that survivors got what they deserved (7%) or that survivors should feel ashamed (9%) were the minority, while those who would be willing to care for a family member with a history of sexual violence (94%) were the majority. Profession was significantly associated with beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and survivors. Law enforcement professionals were more likely than health professionals and lawyers to indicate that survivors should feel ashamed. Our findings suggest a need for interventions that adequately address potentially harmful beliefs and attitudes of some professionals serving sexual violence survivors.

  18. Reanalysis of cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to low doses of radiation: bootstrap and simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dropkin Greg

    2009-12-01

    latency and risk from 10 mSv are obtained from the 0 - 20 mSv and 5 - 500 mSv subcohorts. Large and significant cancer risks for Japanese survivors exposed to less than 20 mSv external radiation from the atomic bombs in 1945 cast doubt on the ICRP recommended annual occupational dose limit.

  19. Self-reported depression and perceived financial burden among long-term rectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongpison, Yuda; Hornbrook, Mark C; Harris, Robin B; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gerald, Joe K; Grant, Marcia; Bulkley, Joanna E; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Types of surgery for rectal cancer (RC), including permanent ostomy (PO) or temporary ostomy followed by anastomosis (TO) or initial anastomosis (AN), can affect psychological and financial well-being during active treatment. However, these relationships have not been well studied among long-term survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). A mailed survey with 576 long-term RC survivors who were members of Kaiser Permanente was conducted in 2010-2011. Prevalence of current depression was ascertained using a score of ≤45.6 on the Short Form-12 version 2 mental component summary. Perceived financial burden was assessed using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (none) to 10 (severe). Regression analyses were used to measure associations after adjustment for covariates. The overall prevalence of depression was 24% among RC survivors with the highest prevalence among those with a history of PO (31%). The adjusted odds of depression among TO and AN survivors were lower than that among PO survivors, 0.42 (CI95% 0.20-0.89) and 0.59 (CI95% 0.37-0.93), respectively. Twenty-two percent perceived moderate-to-high current financial burden (≥4 points). PO survivors also reported higher mean financial burden than AN survivors (2.6 vs. 1.6, respectively; p = 0.002), but perceived burden comparably to TO survivors (2.3). Self-reported depression was associated with higher perceived financial burden (p < 0.001); surgical procedure history did not modify this relationship. Depression was reported frequently among these long-term RC survivors, particularly among PO survivors. Depression was associated with greater perception of financial burden. Screening for depression and assessing financial well-being might improve care among long-term RC survivors.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    time and life; (2) awareness of time increases, time is verbalized and reflected; and (3) the informants appropriate time. A diagnosis of cancer, even for a survivor, means a confrontation with death. It means a disruption of continuous clock and calendar time. Survivors appropriate time...... and ethnographic interviews with 23 informants. Ten men and 13 women were interviewed twice: 2 weeks after their stay and 18 months later. FINDINGS: Data were analysed from a culture-analytical perspective. Three main themes regarding the survivors' handling and perception of time were found: (1) cancer disrupts...

  1. Attitudes toward Death in Adolescent Offspring of Holocaust Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    This article describes three American adolescents in an Israeli residential treatment program. Biographical data, diagnostic categories, projective test responses, relationships with parents, and some examples of dreams are presented. A final section analyzes some underlying concepts: survivor guilt, repressed aggression, and isolation of affect.…

  2. Lower heart rate variability is associated with cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background : Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom reported by breast cancer survivors and yet the pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue remains largely unknown. Fatigue is associated with lower parasympathetic and higher sympathetic nervous system activity in non-cancer samples, but only one study has demonstrated this same relationship in breast cancer survivors. This study evaluates the relationship between fatigue and basal autonomic nervous system activity as measured by...

  3. Sexual Assault in Bisexual and Heterosexual Women Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Ullman, Sarah E

    Social support is related to sexual minority status and negative psychological impact among sexual assault survivors. We compared bisexual and heterosexual survivors on how different types of social support are connected to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A community sample of bisexual and heterosexual (N = 905) women sexual assault survivors completed three annual surveys. Heterosexual women reported greater perceived social support and fewer negative reactions to disclosure of sexual assault than bisexual women, but there were no differences in frequency of social contact. Perceived social support and frequency of social contact were related to fewer psychological symptoms of PTSD and depression for all women. Heterosexual women had fewer psychological symptoms than bisexual women. Finally, perceived social support mediated the relationship of sexual orientation with depressive symptoms but not with PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that social support and sexual orientation may explain women's post-assault adjustment.

  4. Survivor Perspectives on IPV Perpetrator Interventions: A Systematic Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; Lagdon, Susan

    2016-07-01

    More effective work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be built upon a better understanding of how and why they change their behavior. This article presents a systematic narrative review of female IPV survivor perspectives on the changes brought about by IPV perpetrator programs. Fourteen databases and web search engines were searched and 16 articles reporting relevant qualitative findings were identified. Survivors often reported some level of positive change through their partner's engagement with a program, but the sustainability of this change is unclear and there was also some negative feedback. From the survivors' perspective, key barriers to perpetrator change include alcohol dependency, mental health challenges, relationship dynamics, and their family of origin. Mechanisms by which perpetrators are held to account, namely, survivor validation and judicial measures, were seen as central to the change process. Survivors perceived changes in perpetrator behavior (the use of conflict interruption techniques and new communication skills) and changes in perpetrators' belief systems (adopting new perspectives). Changes in belief systems were associated with more complete desistence from violence and would appear more difficult to effect. The review highlights the complexity in this field, which is discussed by the authors with reference to practice, policy, and research.

  5. Long-term health-related quality of life of stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Kyler M; Ostwald, Sharon K; Cron, Stanley G; Wasserman, Joan

    2013-06-01

    Because treatment for stroke has improved, individuals are living longer with the effects of a stroke. The resulting long-term impairment can affect both stroke survivors' and their caregivers' health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Few studies have examined the HRQOL of stroke survivors and their caregivers greater than 2 years poststroke. The stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers (n = 30 dyads) who had previously completed a 12-month study after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation were assessed at 3-5 years poststroke. The HRQOL and related outcomes were measured for stroke survivors and caregivers. Data from baseline to 12 months were used in conjunction with data from this study. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the change in repeated measures over time. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationship of generic HRQOL to related psychosocial outcomes. The stroke survivors were an average of 4.68 years poststroke. The mean age for stroke survivors and caregivers was 70.8 and 64.9 years, respectively. Most stroke survivors were men (80%) and non-Hispanic White (70%). Among stroke survivors, depression decreased from baseline to 12 months (p = .04) but increased from 12 months to the end of follow-up (p = .003). The caregivers' depression decreased from baseline to all time points (p = .015). Stroke-specific HRQOL showed statistically significant (p caregivers' lower physical HRQOL score (p = .004). Higher depression was associated with lower mental HRQOL score for both caregivers and stroke survivors (p = .003 and p = .011, respectively). Both stroke survivors and caregivers continue to experience negative stroke-related health outcomes for many years after the initial stroke; some of these outcomes even worsen over time. These findings illustrate the need for ongoing psychological and medical evaluation for both long-term stroke survivors and caregivers. Development and testing of targeted behavioral interventions are also

  6. Prolonged use of pancuronium bromide and sensorineural hearing loss in childhood survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P Y; Tyebkhan, J M; Peliowski, A; Ainsworth, W; Robertson, C M

    1999-08-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a significant neurologic morbidity in survivors of neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), with a reported incidence of up to 60%. In a historical cohort study of 37 neonates with CDH, we investigated the use of pancuronium bromide (PB) and common ototoxic drugs during the neonatal period and their relationship to SNHL in childhood survivors. Survivors with SNHL (n = 23) had significantly higher cumulative dose of PB administered during the neonatal illness than survivors without SNHL (n = 14). The cumulative dose and duration of PB use significantly correlated (r = 0.66-0.81) and independently predicted (adjusted r (2) = 0.42-0.64) the greatest intensity (in decibels) and the widest band (lowest frequency in hertz) loss of SNHL. No differences were identified between survivors with and without SNHL regarding demographic and neonatal characteristics (including oxygenation and ventilation variables and the cumulative dose and duration of therapy with aminoglycosides, vancomycin, and furosemide), although survivors with SNHL had received a modestly higher cumulative dose of ethacrynic acid than survivors without SNHL. Although we show that prolonged administration of PB during the neonatal period is associated with SNHL in childhood survivors of CDH, further multicenter studies are required to investigate the possible etiologies of SNHL in this high-risk population.

  7. Shattered Vision: Disenchantment of Couplehood among Female Survivors of Violence in the Shadow of Their Family-of-Origin Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for…

  8. Stroke Survivors Often Struggle with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160835.html Stroke Survivors Often Struggle With Depression Risk was 8 times higher for those who ... Stroke survivors face an increased risk of developing depression, a new study suggests. In the first three ...

  9. A dance intervention for cancer survivors and their partners (RHYTHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kenzik, Kelly M; Oster, Robert A; Lin, Chee Paul; Manne, Sharon; Alvarez, Ronald; Martin, Michelle Y

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a ballroom dance intervention on improving quality of life (QOL) and relationship outcomes in cancer survivors and their partners. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial with two arms (Restoring Health in You (and Your Partner) through Movement, RHYTHM): (1) immediate dance intervention and (2) delayed intervention (wait-list control). The intervention consisted of 10 private weekly dance lessons and 2 practice parties over 12 weeks. Main outcomes were physical activity (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), functional capacity (6 Minute Walk Test), QOL (SF-36), Couples' trust (Dyadic Trust Scale), and other dyadic outcomes. Exit interviews were completed by all participating couples. Thirty-one women survivors (68% breast cancer) and their partners participated. Survivors were 57.9 years old on average and 22.6% African American. Partners had similar characteristics. RHYTHM had significant positive effects on physical activity (p = 0.05), on the mental component of QOL (p = 0.04), on vitality (p = 0.03), and on the dyadic trust scale (p = 0.04). Couples expressed satisfaction with the intervention including appreciating the opportunity to spend time and exercise together. Survivors saw this light-intensity physical activity as easing them into becoming more physically active. Light intensity ballroom dancing has the potential to improve cancer survivors' QOL. Larger trials are needed to build strong support for this ubiquitous and acceptable activity. Ballroom dance may be an important tool for cancer survivors to return to a physically active life and improve QOL and other aspects of their intimate life.

  10. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a... survivor benefits equal to one of the following; whichever is applicable: (1) 55 percent of the...

  11. 31 CFR 29.344 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Survivor benefits. 29.344 Section 29... Benefit Payments § 29.344 Survivor benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments are... months of total service at retirement (for elected survivor benefits) or death (for...

  12. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  13. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  14. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, psocio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  15. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  16. Psychological sequelae of the station nightclub fire: Comparing survivors with and without physical injuries using a mixed-methods analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Ha T Trinh

    Full Text Available Surveying survivors from a large fire provides an opportunity to explore the impact of emotional trauma on psychological outcomes.This is a cross-sectional survey of survivors of The Station Fire. Primary outcomes were post-traumatic stress (Impact of Event Scale - Revised and depressive (Beck Depression Inventory symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine differences in symptom profiles between those with and without physical injuries. The free-response section of the survey was analyzed qualitatively to compare psychological sequelae of survivors with and without physical injuries.104 participants completed the study survey; 47% experienced a burn injury. There was a 42% to 72% response rate range. The mean age of respondents was 32 years, 62% were male, and 47% experienced a physical injury. No significant relationships were found between physical injury and depressive or post-traumatic stress symptom profiles. In the qualitative analysis, the emotional trauma that survivors experienced was a major, common theme regardless of physical injury. Survivors without physical injuries were more likely to experience survivor guilt, helplessness, self-blame, and bitterness. Despite the post-fire challenges described, most survivors wrote about themes of recovery and renewal.All survivors of this large fire experienced significant psychological sequelae. These findings reinforce the importance of mental health care for all survivors and suggest a need to understand factors influencing positive outcomes.

  17. A qualitative focus group study to identify the needs of survivors of stage II and III colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Maria Y; McBride, Mary L; Gotay, Carolyn; Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig C; Relova, Sharon; Tsonis, Miranda; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-12-01

    Prior survivorship research has largely focused on issues faced by survivors of childhood tumors, breast cancers, or hematologic malignancies. Relatively little is known about the needs of other prevalent survivor groups. Our aim was to identify the specific concerns of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the key domains of physical functioning, psychological wellbeing, and social relationships. We conducted focus groups with stage II and III CRC survivors who had completed their primary active anti-cancer treatments. Patients were asked to describe how their diagnosis and treatment impacted their lives, to outline deficiencies in the care that they received, and to suggest ways of addressing any unmet needs. A content analysis was subsequently conducted to identify major themes. Thirty CRC survivors participated in six focus groups. Individuals reported some degree of dissatisfaction with the amount and type of diagnostic and treatment information they received at their initial clinic visit. Distress from toxicities, such as peripheral neuropathy, was also common among the survivors. Similarly, the majority faced challenges adjusting to their lives and daily activities, especially in caring for their colostomy. Having survived CRC, many survivors expressed an interest in advocacy and health promotion of CRC. CRC survivors face many barriers after their cancer treatment. Issues with colostomy are unique to this survivor group. Interventions to improve CRC survivorship care should also incorporate opportunities for patient advocacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Quality of life and symptoms in pediatric brain tumor survivors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macartney, Gail; Harrison, Margaret B; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Stacey, Dawn; McCarthy, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the quality of life of children and youth under the age of 20 who have completed treatment for a pediatric brain tumor. This systematic review was conducted to (a) describe the health-related quality of life (HRQL) outcomes in pediatric brain tumor survivors, (b) identify instruments used to measure HRQL, and (c) determine the relationship between symptoms and HRQL. Using a systematic search and review methodology, databases searched included CINAHL, Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo. No date restrictions were used. Search results elicited 485 articles, of which16 met the inclusion criteria. Compared with their healthy peers, pediatric brain tumor survivors did worse on most measures of physical, psychosocial, social, and cognitive domains of HRQL. Compared with other cancer patients, survivors scored themselves significantly lower on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) social functioning scale, and parents of brain tumor survivors reported lower PedsQL social and total functioning scores for their children. Other variables that were associated with decreased HRQL were degree of hypothalamic tumor involvement, osteopenia, need for special education, older age at diagnosis, greater than 1 year since treatment, and radiation treatment. In these studies, pediatric brain tumor survivors fared worse compared with other cancer survivors or healthy peers on several HRQL domains. Only 3 studies explored the relationship between symptoms, including pain or fatigue, and HRQL in pediatric brain tumor survivors. The relationship between symptoms and HRQL was not well elucidated. More research is needed to explore the multidimensional symptom experience and HRQL outcomes in pediatric brain tumor survivors.

  19. Folate and MMA predict cognitive impairment in elderly stroke survivors: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Linden, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Elderly stroke survivors are at risk of malnutrition and long-term cognitive impairment. Vitamin B-related metabolites, folate and methylmalonic acid, have been implicated in cognitive function. We conducted a study exploring the relationship between blood folate, methylmalonic acid and post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is a cross sectional study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 20 months post-stroke, assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and red blood cell levels of folate. Linear modeling indicated that low levels of blood folate and elevated methylmalonic acid significantly contributed to cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. Half of the stroke survivors were shown to have folate deficiency at 20 months after stroke. Folate deficiency is common long term after stroke and both low folate and elevated methylmalonic acid appear to be associated with long term cognitive impairment, in elderly Swedish stroke survivors.

  20. Mutinous Colonialism: Navigating Self-Other Dichotomy in Octavia Butler's "Survivor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    JubouriAl-Ogaili, Thamer Amer; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the self-other relationship in Octavia Butler's novel "Survivor" (1978). This relationship incarnates the colonial powers brought about the missionaries in their early advent in the fictional place known as "Earth". This place is the foundational setting where the main events take place. The study focuses…

  1. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...... this perspective. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A systematic review of qualitative studies was performed. A literature search in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EMBASE was conducted. Suitability for inclusion was based on selected criteria: published qualitative studies written in English from 1990 to 2008 on stroke...... needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual...

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-20 - Requirements of qualified joint and survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements of qualified joint and survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor annuity. 1.401(a)-20 Section 1.401(a)-20 Internal Revenue... survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor annuity. Q-1: What are the survivor...

  3. Correspondence of Neutralizing Humoral Immunity and CD4 T Cell Responses in Long Recovered Sudan Virus Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Sobarzo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Robust humoral and cellular immunity are critical for survival in humans during an ebolavirus infection. However, the interplay between these two arms of immunity is poorly understood. To address this, we examined residual immune responses in survivors of the Sudan virus (SUDV outbreak in Gulu, Uganda (2000–2001. Cytokine and chemokine expression levels in SUDV stimulated whole blood cultures were assessed by multiplex ELISA and flow cytometry. Antibody and corresponding neutralization titers were also determined. Flow cytometry and multiplex ELISA results demonstrated significantly higher levels of cytokine and chemokine responses in survivors with serological neutralizing activity. This correspondence was not detected in survivors with serum reactivity to SUDV but without neutralization activity. This previously undefined relationship between memory CD4 T cell responses and serological neutralizing capacity in SUDV survivors is key for understanding long lasting immunity in survivors of filovirus infections.

  4. Medical hospitalizations in prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaraj, Jerome; Balakrishnan, Shobana; Umar, Zarish; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S; Pavlovich, Christian P; Wright, Scott M; Khaliq, Waseem

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to explore the context and reasons for medical hospitalizations among prostate cancer survivors and to study their relationship with obesity and the type of prostate cancer treatment. A retrospective review of medical records was performed at an academic institution for male patients aged 40 years and older who were diagnosed and/or treated for prostate cancer 2 years prior to the study's observation period from January 2008 to December 2010. Unpaired t test, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients' characteristics, admission types, and medical comorbidities by body mass index (BMI) and prostate cancer treatment. Mean age for the study population was 76 years (SD = 9.2). Two hundred and forty-five prostate cancer survivors were stratified into two groups: non-obese (BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). The study population's characteristics analyzed by BMI were similar including Gleason score, presence of metastatic disease and genitourinary-related side effects. Only 13 % of admissions were for complaints related to their genitourinary system. Neither the specific treatment that the patients had received for their prostate cancer, nor obesity was associated with the reasons for their medical admission. Survivorship after having a diagnosis of prostate cancer is often lengthy, and these men are at risk of being hospitalized, as they get older. From this inquiry, it has become clear that neither body mass index nor prior therapy is associated with specific admission characteristics, and only a minority of such admissions was directly related to prostate cancer or the genitourinary tract.

  5. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  6. Organized Abuse in Adulthood: Survivor and Professional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2017-02-23

    This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a qualitative study of Australian women disclosing organized abuse in adulthood and the mental health professionals who treat them. Drawing on interviews with survivors and mental health professionals, the paper analyses the fraught relationship between mental health and physical safety for adults subject to organized abuse. The therapeutic progress of adult organized abuse victims can be disrupted by ongoing threats, stalking, and group violence, which in turn reinforces the dissociative responses and pathological attachments that render them vulnerable to revictimization. The paper argues that breaking this cycle requires intervention from multiple agencies, and describes the responses of police, medical services, and child protection services to adult organized abuse from the perspective of survivors and mental health practitioners. Highlighting systemic failures but also opportunities, the paper calls for a coordinated response to organized abuse in adulthood, including inter-agency partnerships to support safety and bolster the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  7. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  8. The longitudinal and dyadic effects of mutuality on perceived stress for stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Kyler M; Swank, Paul R; Vaeth, Patrice; Ostwald, Sharon K

    2013-01-01

    Functional impairment resulting from a stroke frequently requires the care of a family caregiver, often the spouse. This change in the relationship can be stressful for the couple. Thus, this study examined the longitudinal, dyadic relationship between caregivers' and stroke survivors' mutuality and caregivers' and stroke survivors' perceived stress. This secondary data analysis of 159 stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers utilized a cross-lagged, mixed models analysis with the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the dyadic relationship between mutuality and perceived stress over the first year post-discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Caregivers' mutuality showed an actor effect (β = -3.82, p caregivers' mutuality influenced one's own perceived stress but not the stroke survivors' perceived stress. Stroke survivors' perceived stress showed a partner effect and affected caregivers' perceived stress (β = 0.13, p = 0.047). Caregivers' perceived stress did not show a partner effect and did not significantly affect stroke survivors' perceived stress. These findings highlight the interpersonal nature of stress in the context of caregiving for a spouse. Caregivers are especially influenced by perceived stress in the spousal relationship. Couples should be encouraged to focus on positive aspects of the caregiving relationship to mitigate stress.

  9. Stress experienced by stroke survivors and spousal caregivers during the first year after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Sharon K; Bernal, Maria P; Cron, Stanley G; Godwin, Kyler M

    2009-01-01

    This study describes levels of stress in stroke survivors and spousal caregivers and identifies predictors of stress in couples during their first year at home. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 159 stroke survivors and caregivers at discharge and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Other variables tested included stroke survivor function (FIM), health status, mutuality, stroke impact (SIS), caregiver coping (F-COPES), support (MOS Social Support Survey), and preparedness. Repeated measures analyses of PSS scores were conducted with linear mixed models for stroke survivors and caregivers. PSS scores for stroke survivors and caregivers were positively correlated (pcaregivers had higher scores initially and decreased less. Stroke survivor function was a significant predictor of stress for both survivors and caregivers. Preparation was the most powerful predictor of stress in caregivers, whereas mutuality was the strongest predictor for stroke survivors. Good health, social support, and coping were associated with less stress. Stress is increased by poor function and mediated by internal and external buffers including health, the dyadic relationship, coping ability, and social support. More research using a dyadic research approach is needed to better understand stress within couples.

  10. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 4. Section 8. Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-04-19

    Diagnoses . - -5 Chronic Verrucous Endocarditis 2 +Gross diagnosis 9 .l -7 54 ’ >, -54-(8) dull yellow, gray or gray-green f o c i of necrosis...icard ia l adhesions 1 1 3 @-- Chronic verrucous , mi t r a l endo- 1 c a r d i t i s Chronio verrucous t r icuspid, mitral and a o r t i c...there a r e no evi- dences of acute les ions .of the nlyocardium i n these pat ients , despi te the verrucous endocard i t i s . tha t w a s

  11. Longitudinal Linkages between Depressive and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Adolescent Survivors Following the Wenchuan Earthquake in China: A Three-Wave, Cross-Lagged Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Liu-Hua; Wu, Xin-Chun; Lin, Chong-De

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of adolescent survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Two-hundred adolescent survivors were reviewed at 12, 18 and 24-months post-earthquake. Depression and PTSD were assessed by two self-report…

  12. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma.

  13. Incest Survivor Mothers: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreklewetz, Christine M.; Piotrowski, Caroline C.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 16 incest-survivor mothers with daughters between the ages of 9-14 found the mothers described themselves as very protective and often overly-protective parents, wanting to parent differently, and better, than they were parented. Many survivors strive to be the "perfect mother" including over-protecting and over-nurturing…

  14. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  15. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  16. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine survivo

  17. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...

  18. The role of social support in the family and community integration of right-hemisphere stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Nichole; Koch, Lynn; Coeling, Harriet; Ayers, Denise

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to understand better the communicative processes by which social support can assist right-hemisphere stroke survivors in the process of community integration. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 12 right-hemisphere stroke survivors and their family caregivers. The transcribed interviews revealed 7 challenges (physical, cognitive-perceptual, emotional, relationship, employment, financial, and challenges to activities of daily living) and three types of resources (formal external, informal external, and internal). Stroke survivors' internal resources were shown to be essential for facilitating community integration. Implications for researchers and health care providers are discussed within the framework of Hobfoll's (1988) conservation of resources theory.

  19. CARESS: Couples’ Arousal Relationship Satisfaction Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    necessary, we can improve the HRQOL ( health related quality of life ) enjoyed by prostate cancer survivors and their partners. Award initiated July 15...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, relationship, quality of life 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...psychosocial education, and couples’ counseling as necessary, we can improve the HRQOL enjoyed by PCa survivors and their partners. Progress-To

  20. Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Mills

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between these markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h at intensities progressing from low (40% to moderate (65-70% of VO2max for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI. In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

  1. Re-authoring life narratives of trauma survivors: Spiritual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Manda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the exploration of the impact of trauma on trauma survivors in South Africa has been focused mainly on the bio-psychosocial aspects. The bio-psychosocial approach recognises that trauma affects people biologically, socially and psychologically. In this article, the author explores a holistic understanding of the effects of trauma on people from communities historically affected by political violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a participatory action research design (PAR as a way of working through trauma, a longitudinal study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg from 2009–2013. At the end of the study, life narratives were documented and published. The textual analysis of these life narratives reveals that, besides the bio-psychosocial effects that research participants experienced during and after the trauma, they also sustained moral and spiritual injuries. Trauma took its toll in their lives emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, morally and in their relationships with themselves, others and God. From these findings, the author argues that the bio-psychosocial approach is incomplete for understanding the holistic effects of trauma on the whole person. Therefore, he recommends the integration of the moral and spiritual aspects of trauma to come up with a holistic model of understanding the effects of trauma on traumatised individuals. The holistic model will enhance the treatment, healing and recovery of trauma survivors. This, in turn, will alleviate the severe disruption of many aspects of psychological functioning and well-being of trauma survivors caused by the effects of trauma.

  2. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Reactivity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two main components of the stress system are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axes. While cortisol has been commonly used as a biomarker of HPA functioning, much less attention has been paid to the role of the SAM in this context. Studies have shown that long-term breast cancer survivors display abnormal reactive cortisol patterns, suggesting a dysregulation of their HPA axis. To fully understand the integrity of the stress response in this population, this paper explored the diurnal and acute alpha-amylase profiles of 22 breast cancer survivors and 26 women with no history of cancer. Results revealed that breast cancer survivors displayed identical but elevated patterns of alpha-amylase concentrations in both diurnal and acute profiles relative to that of healthy women, F (1, 39 = 17.95, p < 0.001 and F (1, 37 = 7.29, p = 0.010, respectively. The average area under the curve for the diurnal and reactive profiles was 631.54 ± 66.94 SEM and 1238.78 ± 111.84 SEM, respectively. This is in sharp contrast to their cortisol results, which showed normal diurnal and blunted acute patterns. The complexity of the stress system necessitates further investigation to understand the synergistic relationship of the HPA and SAM axes.

  3. Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity in Cancer-Related Fatigue: More Evidence for a Physiological Substrate in Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue is a notable clinical problem in cancer survivors, and understanding its pathophysiology is important. This study evaluated relationships between fatigue and both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activity in breast cancer survivors. Norepinephrine and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated at rest, as well as during and after a standardized laboratory speech and mental arithmetic stressor. The participants, 109 women who had completed treatment for stage 0-IIIA brea...

  4. Navigating stroke care: the experiences of younger stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Euan; Daniel, Katie; Wolfe, Charles D A; McKevitt, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although stroke is associated with ageing, a significant proportion of strokes occur in younger people. Younger stroke survivors have experienced care available as inappropriate to their needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to how the social context shapes their experiences of care. We investigated this question with younger stroke survivors in Greater London, UK. We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals aged between 24 and 62 years. Interviews were analysed thematically, with interpretation informed by Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital and habitus. In the acute care setting it was implicit for participants that expertise and guidance was to be prioritised and largely this was reported as what was received. Individuals' cultural capital shaped expectations to access information, but health care professionals' symbolic capital meant they controlled its provision. After discharge, professional guidance was still looked for, but many felt it was limited or unavailable. It was here that participants' social, cultural and economic capital became more important in experiences of care. The field of stroke shaped younger stroke survivors' experiences of care. Navigating stroke care was contingent on accessing different forms of capital. Differences in access to these resources influenced longer term adjustment after stroke. Stroke care can be conceptualised as a temporal field of social activity and relationships which shapes variations in experiences of care among younger stroke survivors, and differences in expectations of support at different time points after stroke. On entering the field of stroke participants reported needing health care professional guidance and expertise to manage the acute event, yet difficulties accessing information in hospital limited the agency of some individuals wanting to take an active role in their recovery. After discharge from hospital variations in experiences of care among participants were more evident

  5. 5 CFR 838.711 - Maximum former spouse survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum former spouse survivor annuity... Orders Awarding Former Spouse Survivor Annuities Limitations on Survivor Annuities § 838.711 Maximum former spouse survivor annuity. (a) Under CSRS, payments under a court order may not exceed the...

  6. 20 CFR 225.21 - Survivor Tier I PIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor Tier I PIA. 225.21 Section 225.21... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS PIA's Used in Computing Survivor Annuities and the Amount of the Residual Lump-Sum Payable § 225.21 Survivor Tier I PIA. The Survivor Tier I PIA is used in computing the tier...

  7. 5 CFR 831.645 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.645 Elections between survivor...” does not include Survivor Benefit Payments from a military retirement system or social...

  8. 5 CFR 831.641 - Division of a survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division of a survivor annuity. 831.641... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.641 Division of a survivor annuity. (a... comply with a court order under subpart Q, a survivor annuity may be divided into a combination of...

  9. 5 CFR 837.702 - Offset from supplemental survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset from supplemental survivor annuity... survivor annuity. (a) OPM will reduce a supplemental survivor annuity (an annuity under 5 U.S.C. 8341) based on the service of an individual who performed CSRS-Offset service, if the survivor annuitant...

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Tara O., E-mail: thenderson@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Olive, Aliza [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Mertens, Ann [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meadows, Anna [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hammond, Sue [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Whitton, John [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Inskip, Peter D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Diller, Lisa [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children' s Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  11. Multiple behavioral risk factors among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer in the Survivor Health and Resilience Education (SHARE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercyak, Kenneth P; Donze, Jessica R; Prahlad, Sowmya; Mosher, Revonda B; Shad, Aziza T

    2006-11-01

    Health-compromising behaviors among survivors of childhood cancer may increase their risks of cancer recurrence and the onset of chronic disease in adulthood. Regardless of whether such behaviors occur singly or in combination with one another, multiple behavioral risk factors must be identified and addressed early to promote better health outcomes within this special population. Adolescent survivors may be especially vulnerable, as reported rates of smoking and other risky behaviors are at or near levels of their healthy peers. The psychological literature suggests stress may play a role in risk behavior initiation and maintenance, including multiple behavioral risks, and that adolescent survivors are stress-prone. This report focuses on the prevalence and co-occurrence of three behavioral risk factors (cigarette use, insufficient physical activity, and non-adherence to sun protection recommendations) and describes stress-health behavior relationships in this special population. All patients in this study (n = 75) were adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and completed a baseline assessment of their health behaviors and stress as part of a randomized controlled trial of health promotion. Twenty-eight percent of the patients reported one of three risk factors, 12% reported two of three risk factors, and 7% reported all three risk factors. Non-adherence to sun protection was the single most common risk factor; physical inactivity and non-adherent sun protection were the most common co-occurring risk factors. Greater age and stress were significantly associated with the presence of more behavioral risk factors. The evidence suggests interventions to reduce multiple health-compromising behaviors in these patients are warranted, and that efforts to address these patients' personal and family stress levels are important as well. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  13. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  14. Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Marblé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every crime becomes a collectivecrime when indifference is added tohorror. When no help from others ispossible, the question becomes oneof survival, which, in turn, gives riseto the different ways of thinking thesurvivor. The article examines thelatter on the basis of a clinical caseand of various paradigmatic works.

  15. STUDI KOMITMEN ORGANISASIONAL: PEKERJA CONTINGENT DAN SURVIVOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenika Walani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, contingent and survivor workers have emerged as a common reality in business activities. Unfortunately, contingent worker has high job insecurity on his employment status. On the other side, downsizing activities can result in decreasing job security of survivor worker. As a consequence, both contingent and survivor workers very potential have low organizational commitment. However, organizations still have an opportunity to give their workers an exclusive treatment for building organizational commitment without ignoring the fact that workers have other commitment foci.

  16. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  17. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  18. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  19. Religious Practice and Spirituality in the Psychological Adjustment of Survivors of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    Religion and spirituality are resources regularly used by patients with cancer coping with diagnosis and treatment, yet there is little research that examines these factors separately. This study investigated the relationships between religious practice and spirituality and quality of life (QoL) and stress in survivors of breast cancer. The sample…

  20. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  1. Exploring the meaning and role of spirituality for women survivors of intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Rountree, Michele A

    2010-01-01

    Literature on trauma, coping and spirituality has introduced new questions about protective factors in the healing process for intimate partner abuse survivors (IPA). This qualitative study explores the relationship between spirituality and IPA with three focus groups of twenty-two women IPA survivors residing in a shelter. A content analysis revealed central themes that explicate the meaning and role spirituality plays for participants. Viewed as a salient dimension, spirituality provides strength, influences outcomes and assists in the regulation of behavioral responses in a positive manner in terms of participants' traumatic IPA victimization. Practice implications are discussed.

  2. Living as a Colorectal Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Colorectal Cancer After Treatment Living as a Colorectal Cancer Survivor For many people with colorectal cancer, treatment ... cancer screening tests. Typical follow-up schedules after colorectal cancer Even if you have completed treatment, you will ...

  3. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  4. Managing chronic pain in survivors of torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amris, Kirstine; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2015-01-01

    All generalist and specialist clinicians are likely to encounter torture survivors among refugees and asylum seekers. A minority of people survive torture and a smaller minority reach a developed country; those who do tend to be the more resilient and resourceful. They have many health, social...... and welfare problems; persistent pain in the musculoskeletal system is one of the most common. There is little specific evidence on pain in survivors of torture; the guidelines on interdisciplinary specialist management are applicable. Most of the literature on refugee survivors of torture has an exclusive...... focus on psychological disorders, with particularly poor understanding of pain problems. This article summarizes the current status of assessment and treatment of pain problems in the torture survivor....

  5. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. The Survivor Syndrome: Aftermath of Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Steven H.; Delage, Claude; Labib, Nadia; Gault, George

    1997-01-01

    Downsizing can result in remaining staff developing "survivor syndrome," experiencing low morale, stress, and other psychosocial problems. If downsizing is necessary, precautions include managing perceptions and communications and empowering employees to take career ownership. (SK)

  7. Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Working Thyroid Cancer After Treatment Living as a Thyroid Cancer Survivor For many people with thyroid cancer, treatment ... Cancer Treatments Are No Longer Working More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. Secondhand Smoke Still Plagues Some Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the study published June 22 in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . "Cancer patients and survivors must be ... Akinboro said in a journal news release. SOURCE: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention , news release, June 22, 2017 HealthDay ...

  9. Depression among caregivers of stroke survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Anu; Palomäki, Heikki; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Kaste, Markku

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms among caregivers of stroke survivors and to determine which patient- or stroke-related factors are associated with and can be used to predict...

  10. Survivor-Defined Practice in Domestic Violence Work: Measure Development and Preliminary Evidence of Link to Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A; Thomas, Kristie; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Heimel, Deborah; Woulfe, Julie; Chong, Siu Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Survivor-defined practice, characterized by an emphasis on client choice, partnership, and sensitivity to the unique needs, contexts, and coping strategies of individual survivors, is an aspirational goal of the domestic violence (DV) movement, assumed to be a key contributor to empowerment and other positive outcomes among survivors. Despite its central role in DV program philosophy, training, and practice, however, our ability to assess its presence and its presumed link to well-being has been hampered by the absence of a way to measure it from survivors' perspectives. As part of a larger university-community collaboration, this study had two aims: (a) to develop a measure of survivor-defined practice from the perspective of participants, and (b) to assess its relationship to safety-related empowerment after controlling for other contributors to survivor well-being (e.g., financial stability and social support). Results supported the reliability and validity of the Survivor-Defined Practice Scale (SDPS), a nine-item measure that assesses participants' perception of the degree to which their advocates help them achieve goals they set for themselves, facilitate a spirit of partnership, and show sensitivity to their individual needs and styles. The items combined to form one factor indicating that the three theoretical aspects of survivor-defined practice may be different manifestations of one underlying construct. Results also support the hypothesized link between survivor-defined practice and safety-related empowerment. The SDPS offers DV programs a mechanism for process evaluation that is rigorous and rooted in the feminist empowerment philosophy that so many programs espouse.

  11. Trends in cancer survivors' experience of patient-centered communication: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chawla, Neetu; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2016-12-01

    Two Institute of Medicine reports almost a decade apart suggest that cancer survivors often feel "lost in transition" and experience suboptimal quality of care. The six core functions of patient-centered communication: managing uncertainty, responding to emotions, making decisions, fostering healing relationships, enabling self-management, and exchanging information, represent a central aspect of survivors' care experience that has not been systematically investigated. Nationally representative data from four administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was merged with combined replicate weights using the jackknife replication method. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess (1) characteristics of cancer survivors (N = 1794) who report suboptimal patient-centered communication and (2) whether survivors' patient-centered communication experience changed from 2007 to 2013. One third to one half of survivors report suboptimal patient-centered communication, particularly on core functions of providers helping manage uncertainty (48 %) and responding to emotions (49 %). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, survivors with more education (Wald F = 2.84, p = .04), without a usual source of care (Wald F = 11.59, p trend = .04), this trend did not remain significant in fully adjusted models. Despite increased attention to survivorship, many survivors continue to report suboptimal communication with their health care providers. Survivorship communication should include managing uncertainty about future risk and address survivors' emotional needs. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication should focus on survivors without a usual source of care and in poorer health.

  12. Burden and Cognitive Appraisal of Stroke Survivors' Informal Caregivers: An Assessment of Depression Model With Mediating and Moderating Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chen; Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a model of depression that concerns the role of burden and cognitive appraisal as mediators or moderators of outcomes among stroke survivor caregivers. A total of 105 informal caregivers of stroke survivor completed the self-report measures of Caregiver Burden Inventory, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Cognitive Impact of Appraisal Scale. The Glasgow Coma Scale and Barthel Index were used by the researcher to examine the physical functional status of the survivor. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling was used to estimate the parameters of a depression model that included mediating or moderating effects. The model shows that burden and impact of cognitive appraisal have a significant direct and indirect impact on depression, while survivor physical functional status does not have a direct impact. The model also demonstrates that burden and impact of cognitive appraisal separately play a mediating role between survivor physical functional status and caregiver depression. In addition, cognitive appraisal has a moderating influence on the relationship between burden and depression. Overall, survivor physical functional status, burden, and cognitive appraisal were the predictors of caregiver depression, explaining 47.1% of the variance. This study has shown that burden and cognitive appraisal are mediators that more fully explain the relationship between patient severity and caregiver depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. "Nothing about me, without me": participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G; Ochocka, J; Griffin, K; Lord, J

    1998-12-01

    Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors is reviewed. We begin by tracing the origins of and defining both participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid. In so doing, the degree of correspondence between the assumptions/values of participatory action research and those of self-help/mutual aid for psychiatric consumer/survivors is examined. We argue that participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid share four values in common: (a) empowerment, (b) supportive relationships, (c) social change, and (d) learning as an ongoing process. Next, selected examples of participatory action research with psychiatric consumer/survivor-controlled self-help/mutual aid organizations which illustrate these shared values are provided. We conclude with recommendations of how the key values can be promoted in both the methodological and substantive aspects of future participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.

  14. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, PhuongThao D

    2016-05-19

    Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural schemas. The findings underscore the importance of considering contextual factors such as cultural norms and societal values in efforts to assist trafficked survivors reintegrate into their communities.

  15. Older women breast cancer survivors: decision making, sources of information and wellness activities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nor Aini; Muhamad, Mazanah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study ??s to profile older breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. In a survey study, ? custom made questionnaire was administered to 69 breast cancer patients and survivors between 60 and 84 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic group recorded was Chinese, followed by Malay and Indian. The majority of women were married (87%) and had children (84.1%). Just over half (53.6%) had primary and secondary education, whereas 24.7% had higher education. Fifty five percent of the study participants made their own decision on treatment, 60.8% exercised at least 3 times in a week, and 56.6% sought information from specialists. Our study suggests that older breast cancer survivors are aware of the importance of exercise in their daily lives and make attempts to be cancer free (e.g. doing exercise, recreational activity and have good relationships with friends and family).

  16. Towards malecentric communication: sensitizing health professionals to the realities of male childhood sexual abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teram, Eli; Stalker, Carol; Hovey, Angela; Schachter, Candice; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2006-06-01

    This article extends earlier reports of an ongoing qualitative inquiry on childhood sexual abuse survivors' experiences with health professionals. In this paper, we aim to enhance understanding of male survivors' experience. While male and female participants express similar anxieties and fears about their encounters with health professionals, there are gender-based differences related to the perceptions of victimhood and manhood; guilt and shame; homophobia; disclosure of abuse; and the expression of vulnerability. The implications of these differences for sensitive health care practice are analyzed within the context of gender relationships and the differential socialization of men. Malecentric communication is proposed as a method for addressing the specific experiences of male survivors in their encounters with health professionals.

  17. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  18. A clinical practice model for treatment of college-aged incest survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, E E

    1990-05-01

    Adult incest survivors frequently exhibit signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Many clinicians have geared their group treatment of incest survivors to address these manifestations. Given the nature of the sexual abuse, the early developmental periods in which some trauma occurs, the past and current relationship between the victim and the perpetrator, and the dynamics inherent in this violation and betrayal of trust, love, and power within the family unit, additional clinical concerns and safeguards must be considered. In addition, the struggles of college-aged incest survivors to come to terms with their history of sexual abuse often mirror the developmental tasks faced by their peers--autonomy, intimacy, sexuality, and formation of personal values and ethics. To focus solely on the incest without also considering these developmental issues may solidify a gridlock between inadequate resolution of the developmental issues and the continued victimization of the student incest survivor. The author discusses a time-limited group treatment for college-aged incest survivors that uses a modified posttraumatic stress disorder model as a conceptual framework and addresses both sets of concerns.

  19. Psychological Functioning, Post-Traumatic Growth, and Coping in Parents and Siblings of Adolescent Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Sack, Andrea M; Menna, Rosanne; Setchell, Sarah R; Maan, Cathy; Cataudella, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    To examine psychological functioning, post-traumatic growth (PTG), coping, and cancer-related characteristics of adolescent cancer survivors' parents and siblings.
. Descriptive, correlational.
. Children's Hospital of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
. Adolescents who finished cancer treatment 2-10 years prior (n = 31), as well as their parents (n = 30) and siblings (n = 18). 
. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological distress, PTG, life satisfaction, coping, and cancer-related characteristics.
. Psychological functioning, PTG, and coping.
. Parents' and siblings' PTG levels were similar to survivors' PTG levels; however, parents reported higher PTG than siblings. Parents who used less avoidant coping, were younger, and had higher life satisfaction experienced less psychological distress. Parents whose survivor children used more active coping reported less psychological distress. Siblings who were older used more active coping, and the longer it had been since their brother or sister was diagnosed, the less avoidant coping they used. 
. Childhood and adolescent cancer affects survivors' siblings and parents in unique ways.
. Relationship to the survivor, use of coping strategies, life satisfaction, and time since diagnosis affect family members' postcancer experiences.

  20. A Review of Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment in Stroke Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zulkifly, Mohd Faizal; Ghazali, Shazli Ezzat; Che Din, Normah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we aimed to identify the risk factors that may influence cognitive impairment among stroke survivors, namely, demographic, clinical, psychological, and physical determinants. A search from Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted for papers published from year 2004 to 2015 related to risk factors of cognitive impairment among adult stroke survivors. A total of 1931 articles were retrieved, but only 27 articles met the criteria and were reviewed. In more than half of the articles it was found that demographical variables that include age, education level, and history of stroke were significant risk factors of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. The review also indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, types of stroke and affected region of brain, and stroke characteristics (e.g., size and location of infarctions) were clinical determinants that affected cognitive status. In addition, the presence of emotional disturbances mainly depressive symptoms showed significant effects on cognition. Independent relationships between cognition and functional impairment were also identified as determinants in a few studies. This review provided information on the possible risk factors of cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. This information may be beneficial in the prevention and management strategy of cognitive impairments among stroke survivors. PMID:27340686

  1. A Review of Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment in Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zulkifly, Mohd Faizal; Ghazali, Shazli Ezzat; Che Din, Normah; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    In this review, we aimed to identify the risk factors that may influence cognitive impairment among stroke survivors, namely, demographic, clinical, psychological, and physical determinants. A search from Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted for papers published from year 2004 to 2015 related to risk factors of cognitive impairment among adult stroke survivors. A total of 1931 articles were retrieved, but only 27 articles met the criteria and were reviewed. In more than half of the articles it was found that demographical variables that include age, education level, and history of stroke were significant risk factors of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. The review also indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, types of stroke and affected region of brain, and stroke characteristics (e.g., size and location of infarctions) were clinical determinants that affected cognitive status. In addition, the presence of emotional disturbances mainly depressive symptoms showed significant effects on cognition. Independent relationships between cognition and functional impairment were also identified as determinants in a few studies. This review provided information on the possible risk factors of cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. This information may be beneficial in the prevention and management strategy of cognitive impairments among stroke survivors.

  2. Health Behavior Change Interventions for Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Gemma; Gravestock, Helen L; Hough, Rachael E; King, Wendy M; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-06-01

    It is important that teenage and young adult (TYA) cancer survivors adopt a healthy lifestyle, since health vulnerabilities associated with their diagnosis and treatment may be exacerbated by poor health behaviors. This review aims to synthesize the current literature on health behavior change interventions created specifically for TYA-aged cancer survivors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases were searched for studies investigating interventions targeting one or more health behaviors, including: physical activity, diet, smoking cessation, and alcohol consumption. Studies were eligible for review if the study population were defined as TYA cancer survivors and the mean age of the sample was younger than 30 years of age. Twelve studies were identified, of which nine were randomized controlled trials. Physical activity was the most commonly targeted health behavior. Six of the 12 interventions included within this review were successful in changing health behavior. Due to the heterogeneity of intervention characteristics, the relationship between intervention efficacy or outcome and intervention content, delivery mode, or theoretical framework was not discernible. Nevertheless, trends emerged relating to the delivery and content of health behavior interventions designed specifically for TYA cancer survivors. More research is required to identify the most effective means of promoting health behavior change among the TYA cancer survivor population. Specifically, future research should focus on providing evidence of the efficiency and feasibility of interventions that use online technologies to facilitate remote intervention delivery and peer support.

  3. Proteomic profiles in acute respiratory distress syndrome differentiates survivors from non-survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Bhargava

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS continues to have a high mortality. Currently, there are no biomarkers that provide reliable prognostic information to guide clinical management or stratify risk among clinical trial participants. The objective of this study was to probe the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF proteome to identify proteins that differentiate survivors from non-survivors of ARDS. Patients were divided into early-phase (1 to 7 days and late-phase (8 to 35 days groups based on time after initiation of mechanical ventilation for ARDS (Day 1. Isobaric tags for absolute and relative quantitation (iTRAQ with LC MS/MS was performed on pooled BALF enriched for medium and low abundance proteins from early-phase survivors (n = 7, early-phase non-survivors (n = 8, and late-phase survivors (n = 7. Of the 724 proteins identified at a global false discovery rate of 1%, quantitative information was available for 499. In early-phase ARDS, proteins more abundant in survivors mapped to ontologies indicating a coordinated compensatory response to injury and stress. These included coagulation and fibrinolysis; immune system activation; and cation and iron homeostasis. Proteins more abundant in early-phase non-survivors participate in carbohydrate catabolism and collagen synthesis, with no activation of compensatory responses. The compensatory immune activation and ion homeostatic response seen in early-phase survivors transitioned to cell migration and actin filament based processes in late-phase survivors, revealing dynamic changes in the BALF proteome as the lung heals. Early phase proteins differentiating survivors from non-survivors are candidate biomarkers for predicting survival in ARDS.

  4. A qualitative insight into self-management experience among Chinese breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huilin; Sit, Janet W H; Cheng, Karis K F

    2017-07-01

    With increasing awareness in the chronic nature of cancer, promoting the engagement of breast cancer survivors in self-management has become a priority of cancer care reform initiatives. This study aimed to reveal Chinese breast cancer survivors' views and experiences of self-management in extended survivorship. Archived interview transcripts from 19 breast cancer survivors (<5 years since diagnosis) were subjected to a secondary analysis. Each transcript was re-examined through qualitative content analysis. Three categories were established to represent the perceptions of the participants on their self-management tasks related to health and well-being, emotions, and roles and relationships. Managing health and well-being covers modifying lifestyle, taking traditional Chinese medicine, attending regular follow-ups, managing symptoms, and adhering to hormonal therapy. Managing emotions involves maintaining a positive attitude and utilizing supportive resources. Managing roles and relationships comprises adjusting to life as cancer survivors, maintaining marital relationships, and performing familial and other social roles. Most participants actively participated in various self-management tasks and behaviors that can help improve their health and prevent cancer recurrence. They may exhibit optimal self-management in their emotions and most health aspects but may exert limited efforts in managing their different roles during survivorship. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effect of Population Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Medical Care of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Deirdre A; Smith, Ken R; Ness, Kirsten K; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Stephanie M; Nathan, Paul C; Hudson, Melissa M; Leisenring, Wendy M; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-03-01

    To determine the independent contribution of population socioeconomic and health system factors on childhood cancer survivors' medical care and screening. 7899 childhood cancer survivors in the United States and Canada enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Population-level factors were derived from U.S. Area Health Resource File or 201 Canadian Census. Health service utilization and individual-level factors were self-reported. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the effect of population factors on medical care (any care vs. no care; risk-based care vs. general care) and indicated echocardiogram or mammogram, adjusting for individual sociodemographic and health status. After adjusting for individual factors, population factors had a nominal impact on childhood cancer survivors' medical care and screening. Higher population median income was associated with risk-based survivor-focused care versus general care (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.09) among all participants, but not among U.S. residents only (OR 1.03, 95% CI, 0.99-1.07). For U.S. residents, the number of CCSS centers within the geographic area was associated with greater odds of receiving risk-based survivor-focused medical care (OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.04-1.20). Areas with higher median income had higher rates of echocardiogram screening among survivors at risk of cardiomyopathy (for every $10,000 increase in median income, there is a 12% increase in odds of echocardiogram screening; 95% CI 1.05-1.20). A positive relationship was identified between greater number of physicians and surgeons in the county of residence and recommended echocardiogram (for every additional 1000 physicians and surgeons: OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.01-1.23). We found no association between population-level factors and mammography screening. Population socioeconomic disparities moderately affect childhood cancer survivors' risk-based medical care and screening after accounting

  6. Dose-effect relationships, epidemiological analysis and the derivation of low dose risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H P [Bennekom (Netherlands); Chadwick, K H, E-mail: kennethhchadwick@aol.com [Cowan Head, Kendal (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    This paper expands on our recent comments in a letter to this journal about the analysis of epidemiological studies and the determination of low dose RBE of low LET radiation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2009 J. Radiol. Prot. 29 445-7). Using the assumption that radiation induced cancer arises from a somatic mutation (Chadwick and Leenhouts 2011 J. Radiol. Prot. 31 41-8) a model equation is derived to describe cancer induction as a function of dose. The model is described briefly, evidence is provided in support of it, and it is applied to a set of experimental animal data. The results are compared with a linear fit to the data as has often been done in epidemiological studies. The article presents arguments to support several related messages which are relevant to epidemiological analysis, the derivation of low dose risk and the weighting factor of sparsely ionising radiations. The messages are: (a) cancer incidence following acute exposure should, in principle, be fitted to a linear-quadratic curve with cell killing using all the data available; (b) the acute data are dominated by the quadratic component of dose; (c) the linear fit of any acute data will essentially be dependent on the quadratic component and will be unrelated to the effectiveness of the radiation at low doses; consequently, (d) the method used by ICRP to derive low dose risk from the atomic bomb survivor data means that it is unrelated to the effectiveness of the hard gamma radiation at low radiation doses; (e) the low dose risk value should, therefore, not be used as if it were representative for hard gamma rays to argue for an increased weighting factor for tritium and soft x-rays even though there are mechanistic reasons to expect this; (f) epidemiological studies of chronically exposed populations supported by appropriate cellular radiobiological studies have the best chance of revealing different RBE values for different sparsely ionising radiations.

  7. From the atomic bomb to the Landau Institute autobiography top non-secret

    CERN Document Server

    Khalatnikov, Isaak M

    2012-01-01

    The book is an expanded autobiography of the famous theoretical physicist Isaak Khalatnikov. He worked together with L.D. Landau at the Institute for Physical Problems lead by P.L. Kapitza. He is the co-author of L.D. Landau in a number of important works. They worked together in the frame of the so-called Nuclear Bomb Project. After the death of L.D. Landau, I.M. Khalatnikov initiated the establishment of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, named in honour of L.D. Landau, within the USSR Academy of Sciences. He headed this institute from the beginning as its Director. The institute inherited almost all traditions of the Landau scientific school and played a prominent role in the development of theoretical physics. So, this is a story about how the institute was created, how it worked, and about the life of the physicists in the "golden age" of the Soviet science. A separate chapter is devoted to today´s life of the institute and the young generation of physicists working now in science. It is an historic...

  8. Atomic "bomb testing": the Elitzur-Vaidman experiment violates the Leggett-Garg inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Emary, Clive; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object—in a dramatic scenario, a bomb—without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality—a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

  9. Defence Science Research, Higher Education and the Australian Quest for the Atomic Bomb, 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the efforts of the Australian government to create an atomic research and development program after World War II. Describes initial cooperation with Britain and the push for the transformation of Australian higher and secondary education in service of national scientific development. Discusses effects of the end of Commonwealth…

  10. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  11. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2006-04-01

    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  12. Historical Report Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker (Operation Crossroads). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-07-25

    MESSMORE, C. D., Y3c PORTER, R. A., Y3c DIPAOLA, A., GMlc OSTERGOOD, K., GMlc SMITH, P. R., TCic GILLIAM, W. F., CM2c SKINNER , F. V., Flc BRYSON...DOWELL, W. E. ’ * " "’ BROCKWAY, L. I. MELLEN R. H. 7"’. > BROOKS, P. J. MOORE, W. J. r.^:/’. BURBAGE, G. H. MORGART, J. M. :V/ vV"■< BURRUS , R. C

  13. Science and Security before the Atomic Bomb: The Loyalty Case of Harald U. Sverdrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, Naomi; Rainger, Ronald

    In the summer of 1941, Harald Sverdrup, the Norwegian-born Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in La Jolla, California, was denied security clearance to work on Navy-sponsored research in underwater acoustics applied to anti-submarine warfare. The clearance denial embarrassed the world renown oceanographer and Arctic explorer, who repeatedly offered his services to the U.S. government only to see scientists of far lesser reputation called upon to aid the war effort. The official story of Sverdrup's denial was the risk of blackmail over relatives in occupied Norway. Declassified documents tell a different story. Although Sverdrup's integrity was defended on the highest levels of U.S. science, doubt was cast upon him by members of his own institution, who accused him of being a Nazi sympathiser. Personal distrust, rooted in scientific and intellectual disagreement, spilled over into questions about Sverdrup's loyalty and judgement. These doubts were considered sufficient grounds for withholding clearance, until Roger Revelle, a former student of Sverdrup now working within the Navy, was able to obtain a limited clearance for Sverdrup to develop techniques to forecast surf conditions during amphibious assaults. After the war, this work was credited with saving many lives, but at the time it placed Sverdrup out of the mainstream of Navy-sponsored oceanographic research. In being denied access to major areas of scientific work, Sverdrup's position as a leader of American oceanography was undermined. The loyalty case of Harald Sverdrup illustrates the emergence of an institutional apparatus through which the U.S. military began to control and shape the organisation of American science in the twentieth century. Military sponsorship of scientific research, begun during the open conflicts of World War II and continuing into the simmering tensions of the Cold War, involved explicit control by the U.S. military of who had access to critical information. This in turn meant who could do science in conjunction with the military. As the U.S. Navy became the principal sponsor of oceanography in the post-war years, clearance to do military work became to a great extent clearance to do oceanography. Choices about who could be trusted were also choices about who would do science, and what kind of science they would do.

  14. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio Shunji; Muraishi; Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Takase, Keiichirou; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Ohta, Michiya

    1999-12-01

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  15. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  16. Psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer: the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gisela; Rebholz, Cornelia E; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Bergstraesser, Eva; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the degree of psychological distress in adult childhood cancer survivors in Switzerland and to characterize survivors with significant distress. Childhood cancer survivors who were age younger than 16 years when diagnosed between 1976 and 2003, had survived more than 5 years, and were currently age 20 years or older received a postal questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Raw scores were transformed into T scores according to the German norm sample, and the proportion of participants being at increased risk for psychological distress was calculated (case rule: T > or = 63). t tests and univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used for statistical analyses. One thousand seventy-six survivors (63.% of eligible survivors, 71.9% of contacted survivors) returned the questionnaire, 987 with complete data on BSI. Comparison with the norm populations showed lower T scores (T < 50) in the Global Severity Index (GSI; T = 46.2), somatization (T = 47.6), obsessive-compulsive tendencies (T = 46.9), and anxiety (T = 48.4). However, more childhood cancer survivors (especially women) had increased distress for GSI (14.4%), interpersonal sensitivity (16.5%), depression (13.4%), aggression (16.9%), and psychotic tendencies (15.6%) than the expected 10% from the norm population. Caseness was associated with female sex, being a single child, older age at study, and self-reported late effects, especially psychological problems. Results show that childhood cancer survivors, on average, have less psychological distress than a norm population but that the proportion of survivors at risk for high psychological distress is disproportionally large. Monitoring psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors may be desirable during routine follow-up, and psychological support should be offered as needed.

  17. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body. Genbaku hoshasen no jintai eikyo 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.).

  18. Interest in Health Behavior Intervention Delivery Modalities Among Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily C; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Cox, Matthew G; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Carmack, Cindy L; Blalock, Janice A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-02-11

    Effective, broad-reaching channels are important for the delivery of health behavior interventions in order to meet the needs of the growing population of cancer survivors in the United States. New technology presents opportunities to increase the reach of health behavior change interventions and therefore their overall impact. However, evidence suggests that older adults may be slower in their adoption of these technologies than the general population. Survivors' interest for more traditional channels of delivery (eg, clinic) versus new technology-based channels (eg, smartphones) may depend on a variety of factors, including demographics, current health status, and the behavior requiring intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that predict cancer survivors' interest in new technology-based health behavior intervention modalities versus traditional modalities. Surveys were mailed to 1871 survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Participants' demographics, diet and physical activity behaviors, interest in health behavior interventions, and interest in intervention delivery modalities were collected. Using path analysis, we explored the relationship between four intervention modality variables (ie, clinic, telephone, computer, and smartphone) and potential predictors of modality interest. In total, 1053 respondents to the survey (56.3% response rate); 847 provided complete data for this analysis. Delivery channel interest was highest for computer-based interventions (236/847, 27.9% very/extremely interested) and lowest for smartphone-based interventions (73/847, 8.6%), with interest in clinic-based (147/847, 17.3%) and telephone-delivered (143/847, 16.9%) falling in between. Use of other technology platforms, such as Web cameras and social networking sites, was positively predictive of interest in technology-based delivery channels. Older survivors were less likely to report interest in smartphone-based diet interventions

  19. Psychosocial aspects of survivors of childhood cancer or leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, L; Zarri, D; Caprino, D

    2005-12-01

    The majority of childhood cancer patients can expect nowadays to be cured and the percentage is now between 70% and 80%. The number of long-term survivors, off- threatment for at least 5 years, is rising rapidly and is becoming a new population, which needs a special care. It is becoming increasingly important to know how to prevent and treat the physical late effects as well as the psychosocial ones. The oldest among these patients are now in their 40's. How will their old age be like? Are they really cured? The aim of this study is to present a detailed survey of the literature on this topic as well as the authors' personal experience. Several techniques of psychological investigation for this population are highlighted. The semistructured interviews are mostly used for mono-institutional research, while the narrative dialogues are useful for small groups of patients. Questionnaires are usually conducted by epidemiologists for large groups of survivors. Tests are used for specific items such as defense mechanisms, self-esteem, relationships within the family, fear, and panic. The evaluation of the post-traumatic stress disorder is considered and the most important literature data are reported. It is also stressed the need of prevention of any type of psychosocial distress. In conclusion, most of the survivors appear to lead normal adult lives, to have obtained high school degrees, good jobs, and several have families and children. Nevertheless, a small percentage show some psychological or social problems, such as anxiety, depression, fear over the future or over relapse, a second primary, or sterility. The most vulnerable among them are females, people in poor financial conditions, the unemployed and those with poor educations.

  20. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  1. Sixteen-year follow-up of childhood avalanche survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Edda Bjork; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Dyregrov, Atle; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Elklit, Ask; Resnick, Heidi; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind

    2016-01-01

    Background Every year a substantial number of children are affected by natural disasters worldwide. However, data are scarce on long-term psychological impact of natural disasters on children's health. Identifying risk factors and outcomes associated with the long-term sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can provide a gateway to recovery as well as enhancement of preventive measures. Objective Among childhood avalanche survivors, we aimed to investigate risk factors for PTSD symptoms and the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and PTSD symptoms in adulthood. Methods Childhood survivors (aged 2–19 at the time of exposure) of two avalanches were identified through nationwide registers 16 years later. The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess current PTSD symptoms. One-way ANOVA was used to explore PTSD symptoms by background and trauma-specific factors, as well as associations with current SES. Predictors of PTSD symptoms were examined by multivariable regression analysis. Results Response rate was 66% (108/163). Results from univariate ANOVA analysis revealed that female sex was associated with PTSD symptoms (F=5.96, punemployment and/or disability (F=3.04, p<0.05). In a multivariable regression model, when adjusting for age and sex, lack of social support (t=4.22, p<0.001) and traumatic reactions of caregivers (t=2.49, p<0.05) in the aftermath of the disaster independently predicted PTSD 16 years post-trauma. Conclusions Lingering PTSD symptoms after childhood exposure to a disaster may negatively influence socioeconomic development in adulthood. Strengthening children's support systems post-disaster may prevent the long-term sequelae of symptoms. Highlights of the article PTSD symptoms following avalanche exposure during childhood were associated with poorer socioeconomic status in adulthood. Lack of social support and traumatic reactions of caregivers in the aftermath of avalanches predicted PTSD symptoms among childhood

  2. Comprehensive Care Model for Sex Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Naomi M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify aftercare services for domestic minor of sex trafficking (DMST) survivors provided by U.S. residential treatment centers. A qualitative research study was conducted with aftercare program personnel from five U.S. residential treatment centers for DMST survivors. Interviews were conducted with staff from five different residential treatment centers providing services exclusively to domestic minor sex trafficking survivors. Participants described the range of services offered to address survivors' posttrafficking needs. Participants' responses assisted in expanding an existing care model to include education re-entry, family reunification, family reconciliation, and emergency substance use services. This study led to the refinement of an aftercare service delivery model and laid the foundation to develop best practice guidelines for providing aftercare services to DMST survivors. Sex trafficking is a global health problem affecting our youth today. Nurses have a vital role in combatting sex trafficking by raising awareness about the problem and restoring the lives of sex trafficking victims by implementing innovative care programs. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Health Management of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Juan Chen; Zhendong Chen

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is defined as a chronic disease.Increasing amounts of attention have been paid to the health management of breast cancer survivors. An important issue is how to find the most appropriate method of follow-up in order to detect long-term complications of treatment, local recurrence and distant metastasis and to administer appropriate treatment to the survivors with recurrence in a timely fashion. Different oncology organizations have published guidelines for following up breast cancer survivors. However, there are few articles on this issue in China. Using the published follow-up guidelines,we analyzed their main limitations and discussed the content,follow-up interval and economic benefits of following up breast cancer survivors in an effort to provide suggestions to physicians.Based on a large number of clinical trials, we discussed the role of physical examination, mammography, liver echograph, chest radiography, bone scan and so on. We evaluated the effects of the above factors on detection of distant disease, survival time,improvement in quality of life and time to diagnosis of recurrence.The results of follow-up carried out by oncologists and primary health care physicians were compared. We also analyzed the correlation factors for the cost of such follow-up. It appears that follow-up for breast cancer survivors can be carried out effectively by trained primary health care physicians. If anything unusual arises, the patients should be transferred to specialists.

  4. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew M.; Novotny, Paul J.; Patten, Christi A.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Yang, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal–Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors. PMID:18243406

  5. Humor and Trauma-Related Psychopathology Among Survivors of Terror Attacks and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Weinberg, Michael; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Ataria, Yochai; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationships between humor and trauma-related psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and anxiety symptoms) among 105 dyads consisting of Israelis who were injured during terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). An actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied as part of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis aimed at examining the associations between the use of different styles of humor and trauma-related psychopathology. Consistent with our hypotheses, results suggested that benign styles of humor were associated with survivors' lower levels of trauma-related symptoms (actor effects) and also had a buffering effect for the spouse (partner effects). More specifically, the use of self-enhancing humor by survivors was negatively associated with spousal symptoms and the use of affiliative humor by spouses was negatively associated with psychopathology symptoms reported by survivors. The results of this study shed light on the role that benign humor may play in coping with traumatic events while taking into account the dyadic relationships among survivors and their spouses. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew M; Novotny, Paul J; Patten, Christi A; Rausch, Sarah M; Garces, Yolanda I; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors.

  7. For Stroke Survivors, Exercise Is Good for The Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163721.html For Stroke Survivors, Exercise Is Good for the Brain: Review ... HealthDay News) -- A structured exercise program can help stroke survivors recover not only physically but mentally as ...

  8. Healthcare Needs, Experiences and Satisfaction after Terrorism: A Longitudinal Study of Survivors from the Utøya Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Eilin Stene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health outreach programs have been developed in order to ensure that needs are met after disasters. However, little is known about survivors’ experiences with post-terror healthcare. In the present study, our objectives were to 1 describe survivors’ experiences with post-terror healthcare, 2 identify factors associated with reports of unmet healthcare needs, and 3 examine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, healthcare experiences and satisfaction.Methods: Our study comprised three waves of semi-structured interviews with 261/490 (53% survivors of the Utøya mass shooting. We applied Pearson’s chi-squared tests (categorical variables and independent t-tests (continuous variables to compare survivors by whether or not they reported higher perceived needs than received help for psychological reactions and physical health problems, respectively. Ordinal regression analyses were applied to examine whether socio-demographic characteristics and healthcare experiences were associated with dissatisfaction. Results: Altogether 127 (49% survivors reported very high/high help needs for psychological reactions, and 43 (17% for attack-related physical health problems. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, somatic symptoms and less social support. Survivors with immigrant backgrounds and injured survivors who were not admitted to hospital reported unmet needs for physical health problems more often. After adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, immigrant origin was associated with dissatisfaction with post-terror healthcare. After additionally adjusting for healthcare experiences, poor rating of the overall organization and accessibility of healthcare remained significantly associated with dissatisfaction.Conclusions: Most survivors were satisfied with the post-terror healthcare they received, yet our findings indicate that increased

  9. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  10. Recommendations for Obesity Clinical Trials in Cancer Survivors: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligibel, Jennifer A; Alfano, Catherine M; Hershman, Dawn; Ballard, Rachel M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Courneya, Kerry S; Daniels, Elvan C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Frank, Elizabeth S; Goodwin, Pamela J; Irwin, Melinda L; Levit, Laura A; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Minasian, Lori M; O'Rourke, Mark A; Pierce, John P; Stein, Kevin D; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hudis, Clifford A

    2015-11-20

    Observational evidence has established a relationship between obesity and cancer risk and outcomes. Interventional studies have demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis, and guidelines recommend weight management and regular physical activity in cancer survivors; however, lifestyle interventions are not a routine part of cancer care. The ASCO Research Summit on Advancing Obesity Clinical Trials in Cancer Survivors sought to identify the knowledge gaps that clinical trials addressing energy balance factors in cancer survivors have not answered and to develop a roadmap for the design and implementation of studies with the potential to generate data that could lead to the evidence-based incorporation of weight management and physical activity programs into standard oncology practice. Recommendations highlight the need for large-scale trials evaluating the impact of energy balance interventions on cancer outcomes, as well as the concurrent conduct of studies focused on dissemination and implementation of interventions in diverse populations of cancer survivors, including answering critical questions about the degree of benefit in key subgroups of survivors. Other considerations include the importance of incorporating economic metrics into energy balance intervention trials, the need to establish intermediate biomarkers, and the importance of integrating traditional and nontraditional funding sources. Establishing lifestyle change after cancer diagnosis as a routine part of cancer care will require a multipronged effort to overcome barriers related to study development, funding, and stakeholder engagement. Given the prevalence of obesity and inactivity in cancer survivors in the United States and elsewhere, energy balance interventions hold the potential to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality in millions of patients, and it is essential that we move forward in determining their role in cancer care with the same care and

  11. Survivors' perspective of life after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaine Kareny da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this interpretive case study was to understand meanings of the experience of illness from the perspective of eight survivors of stroke. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and qualitative thematic analysis. The experience of stroke generated negative feelings such as fear of death, disability, loss of autonomy and inability to work. Social support of family and religion was essential to cope with the changes in everyday life and inefficiency of the health care network experienced by the participants. Lack of guidance was identified, especially from nurses, for home care of patients. The results of the study suggest the need to strengthen health education on predictive symptoms of stroke, awareness of the impacts of this disease on the life of survivors, and the need for multidisciplinary health care teams to encourage proactivity of survivors' family members.

  12. 26 CFR 1.417(a)(3)-1 - Required explanation of qualified joint and survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor annuity. 1.417(a)(3)-1 Section 1.417(a)(3)-1 Internal... joint and survivor annuity and qualified preretirement survivor annuity. (a) Written explanation requirement—(1) General rule. A plan meets the survivor annuity requirements of section 401(a)(11) only if...

  13. Participants' Perception of Therapeutic Factors in Groups for Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Inese; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated member-perceived curative factors in an incest-survivor group, comparing therapeutic factors reported in closed, time-limited incest survivor group to those in Bonney et al.'s open, long-term survivor group and to Yalom's therapy groups. Findings suggest that relative importance of curative factors may be related to group stages.…

  14. 22 CFR 19.11-1 - Kinds of survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kinds of survivor benefits. 19.11-1 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11-1 Kinds of survivor benefits. If a participant or former participant dies in active service or after retirement, regular survivor annuities...

  15. 5 CFR 842.613 - Division of a survivor annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Division of a survivor annuity. 842.613... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Survivor Elections § 842.613 Division of a survivor annuity. (a) The maximum combined total of all current and former spouse...

  16. 5 CFR 843.313 - Elections between survivor annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections between survivor annuities. 843... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.313 Elections between survivor annuities. (a) A current spouse annuity... retirement system for Government employees” does not include Survivor Benefit Payments from a...

  17. 31 CFR 29.346 - Reduction for survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduction for survivor benefits. 29... Federal Benefit Payments § 29.346 Reduction for survivor benefits. (a) If a retiree designates a base for a survivor annuity that is greater than or equal to the unreduced Federal Benefit Payment,...

  18. 5 CFR 837.603 - Increased survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increased survivor benefits. 837.603... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Death Benefits § 837.603 Increased survivor benefits. (a) Supplemental survivor annuity. (1) If an annuitant reemployed subject to the provisions of this part dies...

  19. Osteoporosis is less frequent in endometrial cancer survivors with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Akira; Makita, Kazuya; Akahane, Tomoko; Yamagami, Wataru; Makabe, Takeshi; Yokota, Megumi; Horiba, Yuko; Ogawa, Mariko; Yanamoto, Shigehisa; Deshimaru, Rhota; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported an association between dyslipidemia and endometrial cancers. Osteoporosis is also reported to relate with some cancers. A common etiologic event has been proposed between dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. However, the pattern of interrelationships among dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and endometrial cancer is not well understood. To improve the quality of life of endometrial cancer survivors, these relationships should be determined. This study included 179 Japanese menopausal women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, including 114 women with incident endometrial cancer and 65 without endometrial cancer. The women were categorized according to dyslipidemia status. Bone mineral density was measured and compared between groups. Osteoporosis was statistically more frequent in women with hypertriglyceridemia who did not have endometrial cancer. In contrast, osteoporosis was statistically less frequent in women with hypertriglyceridemia who had endometrial cancer. In this cross-sectional study in a Japanese population, osteoporosis was associated with hypertriglyceridemia in post-menopausal women without endometrial cancer, but was less frequent in endometrial cancer survivors with hypertriglyceridemia.

  20. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion.

  1. The Survivor Master Narrative in Sexual Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Shane D; Taylor, S Caroline; Norma, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    This article is based on data drawn from 90 Victoria Police operational files covering the period 2004-2008. Several thematic responses by sexual assault survivors are described as forming a master narrative of "identity shock." It is argued that the "minor/serious" sexual assault legal distinction is meaningless to survivors and conceals a shared felt experience. It is also argued that sexual assault is fundamentally a "public issue" of betrayal of citizen trust--not just a collection of "private troubles"--and that effective resolutions require more than individualized therapeutic and criminal justice measures.

  2. A comparison study on mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Li, N

    2014-12-01

    Suicide has become a major public health problem worldwide. For every suicide there are six suicide survivors, a term referring to family members or friends of a person who has died by suicide. Within the literature there has been ongoing debate regarding the bereavement process and if it differs in survivors of suicide as opposed to survivors of those who have died from accidental death. There are scarcely any published reports on comparison between these two groups of survivors in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the difference of mental health status between suicide survivors and survivors of accidental deaths in China. We used a cross-sectional study design to collect data of survivors. Consecutive sampling was used and 92 suicide survivors and 64 survivors of accidental deaths were interviewed. The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised was used to assess the survivors' mental health status. After controlling for demographic variables and time interval between death and interview, no significant differences were found on mental health status between these two groups of survivors. Several explanations might account for the lack of differences. Further studies employing qualitative measures and suicide-specific instruments are needed to explore the bereavement of Chinese suicide survivors.

  3. Gravidez após morte perinatal: sobre a relação da mãe com o bebê sobrevivente Pregnancy after perinatal death: concerning the relationship of mother with the survivor baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Vidal

    2010-10-01

    hospitalization and six months after discharge. The sample of the selected subjects was chosen from the relative criterion to the accompaniment by 24 hours of internments with equal or superior duration of 30 days. This article if relates one of four histories of constructed lives. The result was the production of knowledge on the state of maternal mood in mothers of premature babies after hospital discharge through the identification of emotional reactions characteristics of a work of mourning linked to specific perinatal loss in its relationship with the syndromes of the "baby of substitution" and "vulnerable child".

  4. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ≥60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  5. Child Survivor of War: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysircar, Gargi

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the history of a Bosnian survivor of war living in the U.S. using the extended case method. Clinical issues related to acculturative stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and identity are analyzed. Suggested treatment includes existential therapy and its cognitive--behavioral applications, didactic education on trauma,…

  6. Imminent ovarian failure in childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, G. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Kamps, W. A.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reproductive history and the prevalence of imminent ovarian failure (IOF) in female childhood cancer survivors. Reproductive history and ovarian function were evaluated by questionnaires (n = 124) and by measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and o

  7. Examining the Personal Resources of Layoff Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the process of burnout and engagement in layoff survivors. Job demands (job insecurity and work overload) and resources (social support, optimism, career adaptability, and career management self-efficacy) were examined as predictors of burnout and engagement. The sample consisted of 203 adults currently working at…

  8. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both

  9. A Spiritual Framework in Incest Survivors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Kelli; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    Through an examination of recent incest treatment development, this article emphasizes the theoretical concept of "integration" within the treatment process for female adult incest survivors. Spirituality as a therapeutic foundation is discussed with examples of therapeutic techniques. A case study illustrates the psycho-spiritual process of…

  10. Ebola Survivor and Her Pregnancy Outcome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-14

    Dr. Moon Kim, a medical epidemiologist at the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, discusses an Ebola virus disease survivor and the delivery of her baby.  Created: 12/14/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/14/2016.

  11. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  12. Survivors of Downsizing: Helpful and Hindering Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.; Jordan, Sharalyn; Erlebach, Anne C.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one downsizing survivors from both the private and public sector were interviewed to determine incidents that either helped or hindered their transition through 1 or more organizational downsizings. A critical incident technique was used to analyze and organize the data around themes that emerged, themes were represented by both positive…

  13. Cartel (In)Stability on "Survivor" Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the use of popular culture in business education by examining cartel behavior of contestants in the television show "Survivor." Examples depict incentives to form cartels and to cheat on cartel decisions. Ways to integrate the material into business courses are described. (SK)

  14. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both chem

  15. Work productivity in brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael; Hansen, Jennifer A; Calvio, Lisseth C; Johnson, Leigh; Ronquillo, Jonne G

    2007-07-01

    To determine the association of symptom burden to work limitation among working survivors of malignant brain tumors. Working adults with malignant brain tumors (n = 95) and a non-cancer comparison (n = 131) group completed a web-based questionnaire. Measures of demographics, tumor type and treatment, fatigue, emotional distress, cognitive limitations, and factors that can positively impact work, including health behaviors and problem solving, were obtained. Survivors of malignant brain tumors reported higher levels of work limitations and time off from work than the non-cancer group. Higher levels of symptom burden, lower levels of health behaviors, and more negative problem solving orientation were characteristic of the brain tumor survivor group. These variables were not differentially associated with work limitations among brain cancer survivors or the comparison group. Depressive symptoms, fatigue, cognitive limitations, sleep, and negative problem solving orientation were independently associated with work limitations, accounting for 65% of the variance in work limitations. Despite higher levels of burden, poorer health behaviors, and negative problem solving coping style, modifiable factors account for most of the variance in work limitations for both groups. Efforts to modify these variables should be evaluated.

  16. Suicide Survivors' Perceptions of the Treating Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin M.; Luoma, Jason B.; Dunne, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Examines survivors' attitudes and perceptions of the clinicians who treated their loved one at the time of death. The 71 respondents were relatives or friends of individuals who had died of suicide. Only 11% reported that clinicians attempted to contact them before the death. Discusses implications of findings for clinical practice, legal issues,…

  17. Emotional concerns and treatment of male partners of female sexual abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, S

    1994-11-01

    Many men are discovering that they are involved with women who were sexually abused as children. However, male partners of female sexual abuse survivors have thus far received little attention in the literature. As these men increasingly seek treatment with concerns of their own, social workers must become familiar with their emotional experiences and treatment needs. This article outlines the major concerns expressed by 20 male partners of sexual abuse survivors. These concerns included conflicts about expressing needs, frustration with various aspects of their relationships, guilt and shame at having feelings, questions about how to deal with relatives, and sexual issues. The author recommends a treatment approach that combines attention to both the individual's and the couple's concerns and uses insight and the safety of the therapeutic relationship to promote growth. The importance of further outreach to partners of women who were sexually abused as children and the need for increased attention to other partner populations are highlighted.

  18. Suicide Disclosure in Suicide Attempt Survivors: Does Family Reaction Moderate or Mediate Disclosure's Effect on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts.

  19. Associations between adjuvant endocrine therapy and onset of physical and emotional concerns among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Londen, G J; Beckjord, E B; Dew, M A; Cooper, K L; Davidson, N E; Bovbjerg, D H; Donovan, H S; Thurston, R C; Morse, J Q; Nutt, S; Rechis, R

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer survivors often receive long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) to reduce recurrence risk. Adherence to AET is suboptimal, which may be due to the experience of symptoms and/or concerns. Few studies have comprehensively assessed self-reported concerns between those who currently, previously or have never received AET. The study objective is to describe self-reported physical and emotional concerns of breast cancer survivors who are current, prior, or never-recipients of AET. Secondary analysis was performed on a subset of survey data collected in the 2010 LIVESTRONG Survey. Breast cancer survivors (n = 1,013, mean 5.4 years post-diagnosis) reported on 14 physical and eight emotional concerns that began after diagnosis and were experienced within 6 months of participation in the survey. Bivariate analyses examined the prevalence of each concern by AET status. The relationships between AET and burden of physical or emotional concerns were modeled with logistic regression. More than 50% of the participants reported currently experiencing cognitive issues, fatigue, fear of recurrence, emotional distress, and identity/grief issues. Thyroid dysfunction and stigma concerns were more common among participants with prior AET (p physical, but not emotional concerns. A higher number of concerns was associated with younger age, having children, receipt of chemotherapy, longer duration of cancer treatment, and shorter time since diagnosis (p physical and emotional concerns, many of which persisted after treatment. These findings suggest the importance of developing individualized, supportive resources for breast cancer survivors.

  20. Homocysteine as a potential biochemical marker for depression in elderly stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela C. Pascoe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elderly stroke survivors have been reported to be at risk of malnutrition and depression. Vitamin B-related metabolites such as methylmalonic acid and homocysteine have been implicated in depression. Objective: We conducted a study exploring the relationship between homocysteine and post-stroke depression. Design: Three methodologies were used: Observational cohort study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149 1.5 years post-stroke, assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Results: Homocysteine significantly correlated with depressive symptomatology in stroke survivors (β = 0.18*. Individuals with abnormal levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine were almost twice more likely to show depressive symptomatology than those with normal levels (depressive symptoms 22%; no depressive symptoms 12%. Comparison of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels with literature data showed fewer stroke survivors had vitamin deficiency than did reference individuals (normal range 66%; elevated 34%. Conclusions: Homocysteine is significantly associated with depressive symptomatology in elderly Swedish stroke survivors.

  1. Return to work predictors of stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Celia H; Godwin, Kyler M; Hersch, Gayle I; Hyde, Leslie K; Irabor, Jocelyn J; Ostwald, Sharon K

    2017-01-01

    Return to work is an issue of concern for stroke survivors and their spouses. Ramifications may include loss of income and self-efficacy. This study describes the return to work patterns of stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers post stroke. One hundred fifty-nine dyads were examined for their return to work patterns at baseline (post hospital discharge) and then at 3 month intervals for one year. Relationships were determined between work and gender, age, ethnicity, education, type of insurance, type of stroke, location of stroke, motor and cognitive functional status, depression, mutuality, and life satisfaction. Low levels of return to work by stroke survivors (7.5%) and a small decrease in the amount of working caregivers (from 45.3% to 40.35%) were found one year post baseline. Variables that predicted return to work changed over the five data points except for younger age for the caregiver, which was consistently significant across all data points. Three case scenarios representative of working patterns are offered. Further research is needed regarding the return to work needs of stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers, particularly what role the occupational therapist may play in facilitating that process.

  2. Differences in parent and teacher rating of everyday executive function in pediatric brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochos, G C; Semerjian, C H; Walsh, K S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to compare executive function (EF) outcomes in pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors compared with healthy children (HC) across multiple settings. This retrospective cross-sectional study of BT survivors and age- and gender-matched HC analyzed scale patterns of parent and teacher ratings of EF (Behavior Ratings of Executive Function; BRIEF). We also analyzed relationships between groups and raters (parent/teacher) and clinical elevations across EF domains on the BRIEF. Group differences in aspects of EF emerged from parent ratings in working memory (WM), while significant interactions from teacher ratings emerged on nearly all EF scales. Parents reported impaired cognitive/behavioral flexibility in the BT group four times more than parents of HC. Teachers rated survivors significantly more poorly as a group on the majority of EF domains, and indicated clinical impairment in cognitive/behavioral flexibility, emotional regulation, self-starting/initiation, WM, and planning and organization (P/O) four to ten times more often than the teachers of HC. Overall, teacher ratings of EF impairment in pediatric BT survivors were significantly greater than parent ratings, who reported far fewer EF problems. Possible explanations for inter-rater discrepancies include potential reporting bias/response shift in parents and/or differences in EF demands across settings.

  3. Belonging and ‘Unbelonging’: Jewish refugee and survivor women in 1950s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000. This article considers how these refugee and survivor women tried to find a place for themselves within 1950s Britain. Looking at their experiences of arrival, work and home, it reflects upon the discrimination and hostility they faced, and they ways they tried to deal with this. Finally it discusses what this meant for their sense of belonging or ‘unbelonging’. PMID:28190937

  4. Functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction among community-dwelling female stroke survivors in Ibadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzat, T K; Olaleye, O A; Akinwumi, O B

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is not gender-discriminatory. Yet, the subject of stroke among females has apparently not received significant attention from clinical researchers. The consequences of stroke include functional and psychosocial sequelae which may cause disability, hinder community reintegration and restrict participation. The inter-relationships among functional ability, community reintegration and participation restriction of community-dwelling, female stroke survivors in Ibadan were assessed in this descriptive study. Fifty-two community-dwelling female stroke survivors (mean age = 56.55±9.91 years) were surveyed using consecutive sampling technique. Their functional ability level was measured using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) while London Handicap Scale (LHS) was used to assess their participation restriction. Data were analyzed using Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (rho) and Mann-Whitney U test at p = 0.05. Significantly positive correlations (preintegration (r = 0.54; p = 0.01) as well as between participation restriction and community reintegration (r = 0.34; p = 0.05). Individuals with left hemiplegia had significantly higher mean rank scores in functional ability (30.41) than those who had right hemiplegia (mean rank scores = 21.94). Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the community. A similar study which compares male and female stroke survivors in the same community is thus necessary.

  5. Quality of life and its correlates in caregivers of stroke survivors from a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher O; Okoye, Emmanuel C; Nwankwo, M Joseph; Akosile, Claudius O; Mbada, Chidozie E

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed at determining the quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of stroke survivors in a Nigeria population and some patient and caregiver-related variables that may be associated with it. A survey of the QOL of volunteering informal caregivers of stroke survivors in purposively selected tertiary health centres from South-Eastern Nigeria was done using the SF-12 questionnaire. Caregivers rated their QOL fairly well. Older age, female gender and closeness in relationship to survivor were caregivers' variables that were significantly related to poorer QOL scores. Being a woman close relative is associated with lower mental health scores while being an older close relative contributed to lower physical health score (P Caregivers' scores on the physical and mental health domains correlated moderately with each other (r = 0.52) and highly with their overall QOL scores (r = 0.81 and 0.88). Caring for stroke survivors in Nigeria seems to have adverse effects on the QOL of closer relatives who are either women or older. There is a need for clinicians to help those caregivers at risk find ways of improving and optimizing their QOL.

  6. Emotional processing in survivors of the Jupiter cruise ship disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S; Yule, W; Williams, R

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-three survivors of the Jupiter cruise ship disaster completed the Impact of Events Scale, a measure of intrusion and avoidance, as well as measures of arousal and affect at two points in time: between 3 and 7 months (Time 1) and between 12 and 14 months (Time 2) following the event. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between intrusion and avoidance and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The results suggest that although higher scores on intrusion and avoidance are strongly associated with poorer psychological outcome at each point in time, it is only intrusion which may be predictive of later symptoms. Avoidance would seem to be a response to early distress. These data are discussed with reference to a cognitive--emotional processing model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzias,Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of ...

  8. Profiles of adult survivors of severe sexual, physical and emotional institutional abuse in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Mark; Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara A.; Flanagan-Howard, Roisín; Flanagan, Edel; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Adult survivors of institutional abuse were interviewed with a comprehensive assessment protocol which included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Institutional Child Abuse Processes and Coping Inventory, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV axis I disorders and personality disorders, the Trauma Symptoms Inventory, a Life Problems Checklist, the Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory and the Kansas Marital ...

  9. Self-presentation and physical activity in breast cancer survivors: the moderating effect of social cognitive constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; Mage = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12-24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors' MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.

  10. Correspondence of physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption among prostate cancer survivors and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, S; Manne, S L; Kashy, D; Heckman, C J; Zaider, T; Kissane, D W; Kim, I; Lee, D; Olekson, G

    2015-11-01

    A healthy diet and physical activity are recommended for prostate cancer survivors. Interdependence theory suggests that the spousal relationship influences those health behaviours and the degree of correspondence may be an indicator of this influence. This study evaluated the correspondence between prostate cancer survivors and spouses regarding physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption. Baseline data from an ongoing randomised control trial were utilised. Men who had been treated for prostate cancer within the past year and their partners (N = 132 couples) completed self-report measures of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, relationship satisfaction and support for partner's healthy diet and physical activity. Couples reported similar fruit/vegetable consumption and physical activity as indicated by high levels of correspondence. Greater fruit/vegetable correspondence was related to higher relationship satisfaction (F = 4.14, P = 0.018) and greater patient (F = 13.29, P cancer survivors and spouses may influence each other's diet and exercise behaviours. Couple-based interventions may promote healthy behaviours among this population.

  11. Relationships and Recovery for Young Adult Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal routine" may include anything from bicycle riding, swimming, skiing; and any number of team sports with and without contact. Your doctor can advise you which leisure activities you can go back to and when it is time to do ...

  12. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Sklar, Charles A; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Veiga, Lene H S; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our

  13. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2010-08-18

    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  14. Qualitative study to explore the health and well-being impacts on adults providing informal support to female domestic violence survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Gene; Taket, Ann; Williamson, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Domestic violence (DV) is hazardous to survivors' health, from injuries sustained and from resultant chronic physical and mental health problems. Support from friends and relatives is significant in the lives of DV survivors; research shows associations between positive support and the health, well-being and safety of survivors. Little is known about how people close to survivors are impacted. The aim of this study was exploratory, with the following research question: what are the health and well-being impacts on adults who provide informal support to female DV survivors? Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews conducted face to face, by telephone or using Skype. A thematic analysis of the narratives was carried out. Setting Community-based, across the UK. Participants People were eligible to take part if they had had a close relationship (either as friend, colleague or family member) with a woman who had experienced DV, and were aged 16 or over during the time they knew the survivor. Participants were recruited via posters in community venues, social media and radio advertisement. 23 participants were recruited and interviewed; the majority were women, most were white and ages ranged from mid-20s to 80. Results Generated themes included: negative impacts on psychological and emotional well-being of informal supporters, and related physical health impacts. Some psychological impacts were over a limited period; others were chronic and had the potential to be severe and enduring. The impacts described suggested that those providing informal support to survivors may be experiencing secondary traumatic stress as they journey alongside the survivor. Conclusions Friends and relatives of DV survivors experience substantial impact on their own health and well-being. There are no direct services to support this group. These findings have practical and policy implications, so that the needs of informal supporters are legitimised and met. PMID

  15. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  16. Determinants of adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines among African American breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lindsey A; Chung, Yunmi; Wonsuk, Yoo; Fontenot, Brittney; Ansa, Benjamin E; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rate for breast cancer is higher among African American (AA) women than for women of other racial/ethnic groups. Obesity, also higher among AA women, may increase the risk of breast cancer development and recurrence. Lifestyle factors such as healthy nutrition can reduce the rate of obesity and breast cancer. This study examined the determinants of adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines among AA breast cancer survivors. AA breast cancer survivors (n=240) were recruited from a breast cancer support group to complete a lifestyle assessment tool for this cross-sectional study. Chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between adherence to nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines and potential predictors of adherence. Majority of the survivors met the guideline for red and processed meat (n=191, 83.4%), but did not meet the guideline for fruits and vegetables (n=189, 80.4%). For survivors with annual household incomes $50,000 (OR= 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.80). Poor physical functioning (OR= 38.48, 95% CI: 2.26, 656.58), sleep disturbances (OR= 60.84, 95% CI: 1.61, 2296.02), and income > $50,000 (OR= 51.02, 95% CI: 1.13, 2311.70) were associated with meeting the guideline for red and processed meat. Many AA breast cancer survivors are not meeting the nutrition-related cancer prevention guidelines. For this population, more interventions that enhance access to and consumption of healthy diets are needed.

  17. A qualitative study of the experience of obstetric fistula survivors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebresilase YT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yenenesh Tadesse Gebresilase Programme Quality Department, Vita, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors' perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants' understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric

  18. Development of the life impact burn recovery evaluation (LIBRE) profile: assessing burn survivors' social participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazis, Lewis E; Marino, Molly; Ni, Pengsheng; Soley Bori, Marina; Amaya, Flor; Dore, Emily; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeff C; Shie, Vivian; Acton, Amy; Jette, Alan M

    2017-05-10

    Measuring the impact burn injuries have on social participation is integral to understanding and improving survivors' quality of life, yet there are no existing instruments that comprehensively measure the social participation of burn survivors. This project aimed to develop the Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile (LIBRE), a patient-reported multidimensional assessment for understanding the social participation after burn injuries. 192 questions representing multiple social participation areas were administered to a convenience sample of 601 burn survivors. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to identify the underlying structure of the data. Using item response theory methods, a Graded Response Model was applied for each identified sub-domain. The resultant multidimensional LIBRE Profile can be administered via Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) or fixed short forms. The study sample included 54.7% women with a mean age of 44.6 (SD 15.9) years. The average time since burn injury was 15.4 years (0-74 years) and the average total body surface area burned was 40% (1-97%). The CFA indicated acceptable fit statistics (CFI range 0.913-0.977, TLI range 0.904-0.974, RMSEA range 0.06-0.096). The six unidimensional scales were named: relationships with family and friends, social interactions, social activities, work and employment, romantic relationships, and sexual relationships. The marginal reliability of the full item bank and CATs ranged from 0.84 to 0.93, with ceiling effects less than 15% for all scales. The LIBRE Profile is a promising new measure of social participation following a burn injury that enables burn survivors and their care providers to measure social participation.

  19. Social support, coping strategies and health-related quality of life among primary caregivers of stroke survivors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunhong; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy T; McCoy, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    To examine the relationships of social support and coping strategies to health-related quality of life among primary caregivers of stroke survivors in China. Caring for a stroke survivor is highly stressful, which can negatively affect a caregiver's physical and psychological well-being. Stroke caregivers generally report more somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, sleep disorders and social isolation. They generally have poorer quality of life than the general population. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study. A quasi-random, point of reference sample of 121 survivor-caregiver dyads was recruited from three community health centres and six health service stations in a city in central China. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews at participants' homes using structured questionnaires. Higher educational levels, planning and active coping were positively associated with health-related quality of life. The number of chronic conditions, hours of care per day and functional dependence of the survivor were negatively related to quality of life. Active coping strategies predicted better health-related quality of life. Findings suggest that intervention programmes should be developed to enhance caregivers of stroke survivors' coping skills and improve social support for these caregivers in China. Community healthcare providers may need to help caregivers strengthen strategies that are effective (planning, active coping, seeking instrumental and emotional support) and change those that are not helpful (venting, denial and self-blame). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quality of life in osteosarcoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, D B; Goorin, A; Gebhardt, M C; Gupta, L; Stier, N; Harmon, D; Mankin, H

    1994-11-01

    Charts of 89 osteosarcoma survivors from Massachusetts General Hospital and The Children's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Center, who had received primary treatment more than 1 year previously and had no evidence of disease, were reviewed. Sixty-two patients, mean 12 years from diagnosis, agreed to structured interviews. Rates of psychopathology did not differ significantly from the general population. High distress was noted in 13%. Twenty-three normal progeny had been born postchemotherapy to eight women and the wives of five male patients. One pregnancy was complicated by doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Only two with previous childhood tumors believed themselves infertile. All felt the effort to save the limb was worthwhile. In most, ongoing pain was mild; phantom pain and neuralgia common. Most survivors were in good mental and physical health with the capacity to bear children.

  1. Ethics of research on survivors of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, Soraya; Pienaar, Willem P; Williams, David; Stein, Daniel J

    2004-08-01

    Essential elements of all research include balance of risks and benefits, unbiased selection of research samples, and assurance of the rights of individual participants. This paper highlights some key ethical issues and summarizes recent evidence relating to participation in, and conduct of, trauma-focused studies with special reference to vulnerable populations (eg, women and children, refugees, survivors of human rights violations, and survivors of trauma in the developing world). A concise ethical framework, rather than rigid guidelines (that may not be applicable to all trauma studies), may be a more useful point of reference for investigators and ethics committees or institutional review boards. Despite the increased empiric data available to inform ethical dilemmas regarding trauma research, more cost-burden analysis research in varying trauma populations and careful investigation of factors that contribute to risk and benefit is required.

  2. Caregivers of multiple myeloma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtin, Sandra; Lilleby, Kathryn; Spong, Jacy

    2013-12-01

    Patients living with multiple myeloma (MM) face complex decisions throughout their journey relative to their diagnosis, options for treatment, and how their disease and treatment choices may affect them physically, emotionally, financially, and spiritually. Patients considering a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation face specific self-management challenges. The availability of a reliable caregiver is a prerequisite to transplantation eligibility. Currently, the majority of clinical management is episodic and provided in the outpatient setting. Therefore, the bulk of care for patients living with MM is provided by the patient together with his or her caregivers. Caregivers face similar challenges to those faced by the patient living with MM. They are required to take in complex information, perform often complicated or technical procedures such as line care or injections, assist the patient with activities of daily living, and attend the myriad of appointments required. Understanding the dynamics of the patient-caregiver relationship, the strengths and weaknesses unique to that relationship, common elements of caregiver stress or strain, and available tools and strategies to promote a sense of control and enhance self-management skills may improve the health-related quality of life for both the patient with MM and his or her caregiver.

  3. Survivors' experiences from a train crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2011-01-01

    Rarely described are people's lived experiences from severe injury events such as train crashes. The number of train crashes named disasters with ≥10 killed and/or ≥100 nonfatally injured grows globally and the trend shows that more people survive these disasters today than did so in the past. This results in an increased number of survivors needing care. The aim of the study was to explore survivors' experiences from a train crash. Narrative interviews were performed with 14 passengers 4 years after a train crash event. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Experiences were captured in three main themes: (1) Living in the mode of existential threat describes how the survivors first lost control, then were thrown into a state of unimaginable chaos as they faced death. (2) Dealing with the unthinkable described how survivors restored control, the central role of others, and the importance of reconstructing the event to move forward in their processing. (3) Having cheated death shows how some became shackled by their history, whereas others overcame the haunting of unforgettable memories. Furthermore, the result shows how all experienced a second chance in life. Experiencing a train crash meant that the passengers experienced severe vulnerability and a threat to life and interdependence turned out to play a crucial role. Focusing on helping other passengers on site was one way to regain the loss of control and kept the chaos at bay. Family, friends, and fellow passengers turned out to be extremely important during the recovery process why such closeness should be promoted and facilitated.

  4. Communicating Tsunami Preparedness Through the Lessons Learned by Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlow, I.

    2015-12-01

    Often times science communication is reactive and it minimizes the perceptions of the general public. The Tsunami of New Dreams is a film with the testimonies of survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Production of the film spanned over five years and dozens of interviews, and is based on a unique geographic, demographic and experiential sampling of the local population. This documentary feature film underscores the importance of Earth science and science communication in building sustainable communities. The film is a lesson in survival and sustainability, and it provides a simple but powerful testimony of what to do and what not to do before and during a tsunami. The film also highlights the direct relationship that exists between disaster survival rates and the knowledge of basic Earth science and preparedness facts. We hope that the human stories presented in the film will serve as a strong motivator for general audiences to learn about natural hazards, preparedness, and Earth science. These engaging narratives can touch the minds and hearts of general audiences much faster than technical lectures in a classroom. Some of the testimonies are happy and others are sad, but they all present the wide range of beliefs that influenced the outcomes of the natural disaster. The interviews with survivors are complemented with unique archival footage of the tsunami and unique footage of daily life in Aceh. Hand-drawn illustrations are used to recreate what survivors did immediately after the earthquake, and during the extreme moments when they faced the tsunami waves. Animated visuals, maps and diagrams enhance the understanding of earthquake and tsunami dynamics. The film is a production of the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) in collaboration with the International Center for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies (ICAIOS) in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The film is scheduled for release in late 2015. This is a unique

  5. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  6. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

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    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  7. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Kiyeun; Lee, Seungyeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional...

  8. Sixteen-year follow-up of childhood avalanche survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda Bjork Thordardottir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every year a substantial number of children are affected by natural disasters worldwide. However, data are scarce on long-term psychological impact of natural disasters on children's health. Identifying risk factors and outcomes associated with the long-term sequelae of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD can provide a gateway to recovery as well as enhancement of preventive measures. Objective: Among childhood avalanche survivors, we aimed to investigate risk factors for PTSD symptoms and the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and PTSD symptoms in adulthood. Methods: Childhood survivors (aged 2–19 at the time of exposure of two avalanches were identified through nationwide registers 16 years later. The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess current PTSD symptoms. One-way ANOVA was used to explore PTSD symptoms by background and trauma-specific factors, as well as associations with current SES. Predictors of PTSD symptoms were examined by multivariable regression analysis. Results: Response rate was 66% (108/163. Results from univariate ANOVA analysis revealed that female sex was associated with PTSD symptoms (F=5.96, p<0.05. When adjusted for age and sex, PTSD symptoms were associated with lower education (F=7.62, p<0.001, poor financial status (F=12.21, p<0.001, and unemployment and/or disability (F=3.04, p<0.05. In a multivariable regression model, when adjusting for age and sex, lack of social support (t=4.22, p<0.001 and traumatic reactions of caregivers (t=2.49, p<0.05 in the aftermath of the disaster independently predicted PTSD 16 years post-trauma. Conclusions: Lingering PTSD symptoms after childhood exposure to a disaster may negatively influence socioeconomic development in adulthood. Strengthening children's support systems post-disaster may prevent the long-term sequelae of symptoms.

  9. Family doctor-driven follow-up for adult childhood cancer survivors supported by a web-based survivor care plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, R.; Barf, H. A.; Groenier, K. H.; Kremer, L. C.; van der Meer, K.; Tissing, W. J. E.; Postma, A.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate family doctor-driven follow-up for adult childhood cancer survivors, we developed a survivor care plan (SCP) for adult survivors and their family doctors. The SCP was accessible for survivors and their family doctors on a secure website and as a printed booklet. It included data on dia

  10. The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM) with Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    . Subquestions 4-8 are addressed in a qualitative investigation in three parts: 1. with focus on the participants’ experience of the BMGIM therapy, 2. with focus on the imagery, 3. with focus on the interrelationship between music and imagery. METHOD The quantitative investigation: Clinical trial......SHORT SUMMARY MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the influence of ten individual BMGIM sessions on mood and quality of life in cancer survivors? - The investigation addresses the following sub-questions: 1) Can ten BMGIM sessions improve the mood of the participants? 2) Can ten BMGIM sessions improve...... configuration of cancer survivors in GIM? 6) How does the imagery develop and/or is re-configured during GIM therapy? 7) What elements are there that describe the relationship between the music and the imagery transformations? Subquestions 1-3 are addressed in a quantitative investigation with 10 hypotheses...

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors Attending Support Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gonzalez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Bárbara; Buelna, Christina; West, Demy; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    There is limited research on the relationship between Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and socioeconomic status (SES) among long-term cancer survivors. The goal of this study was to assess Global HRQoL among 102 adult cancer survivors attending support groups in San Diego County and to examine differences by SES and acculturation. Community-based participatory research methods were followed to recruit a purposive sample of English and Spanish-speaking adult cancer survivors attending cancer support groups. Self-report questionnaires assessing age, acculturation (i.e., language), SES (i.e., income and education), cancer history, and Global HRQoL measured by the FACT-G were administered. Multivariate regression examined the relationship between SES and acculturation with HRQoL, adjusting for covariates. Participants were 58.8 years on average (SD = 10.06) and varied in terms of SES. Most participants (91.5 %) were women, 51.7 % were non-Hispanic white, and 48.3 % were Hispanic/Latino. Global HRQoL scores in the study sample were lower compared to previously reported studies. After adjusting for covariates, SES and acculturation were not significantly related to HRQoL. Stage at diagnosis was significantly related to HRQoL measures in adjusted analyses. HRQoL did not vary by SES or acculturation. There is a need to increase access to linguistically and culturally appropriate cancer care and supportive care services. Future studies may find existing support group settings useful for targeting psychosocial issues for more advanced stage cancer survivors.

  12. Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B

    2014-08-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver.

  13. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors.

  14. Does Q223R Polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Influence on Anthropometric Parameters and Bone Density in Childhood Cancer Survivors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer survivors are in augmented risk for developing obesity. For many factors leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphism play an important role in the development and metabolism not only of fat, but also, bone tissue. The aim of the analysis was to find the relationships between Q223R, leptin levels, and anthropometric parameters. Patients and Methods. In the study 74 cancer survivors participated (ALL n=64, lymphomas n=10, and the control group consisted of 51 healthy peers. Leptin blood concentration was determined by ELISA method. To estimate leptin receptor gene polymorphism, RFLP method was used. Bone mineral density (BMD and content (BMC, fat, and lean tissue measurements were obtained by DXA. Results. We found no correlations between serum leptin concentrations and anthropometric parameters nor BMD. Serum leptin concentrations were significantly lower in the group of cancer survivors compared to controls; however, in those overweight from examined group we found leptin levels higher than those in nonoverweight. Genotype Q223R was not associated with higher leptin levels, BMI, BMD, body fat or lean tissue. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the relationship between BMD and Q223R polymorphism in childhood cancer survivors. Further analysis, based on a larger group of patients, is needed to confirm these findings.

  15. The taste of trauma: reflections of ageing Shoah survivors on food and how they (reinscribe it with meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kasstan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic research in the UK’s only support facility for ageing Jewish Shoah survivors, this paper charts the ‘foodways’ in a Centre where satiety is experienced as an emotional as well as a physical need. How the experience of genocidal violence and displacement give rise to particular tastes of trauma is explored, firstly through the symbolism of bread which is metaphorically leavened with meanings and memories of survival – both in Judaism and for the survivors interviewed. Bread is positioned as a true reflection of lived experience for survivors of both ghettoes and concentration camps, who construct a specific and salient relationship with food. This illustrates the perceived difference between them and members of the Centre who escaped the Nazi regime as refugees or by the Kindertransport. Foods associated with the concentration or extermination camps are (reinscribed with new meanings, as a steaming bowl of Polish barley soup ultimately embodies the ingredients of memory but also the recipe of survival. It can also stew the nostalgia of pre-war lives for Eastern European Jews and their recollections of the heym (Yiddish, home. Food is a conscious strategy of care in the Centre that mediates the embodied trauma of participants, and this paper draws on comparative examples to argue that refugee and survivor communities more generally may possess culturally-significant relationships with food that remain poorly understood.

  16. Reduced fractional anisotropy does not change the shape of the hemodynamic response in survivors of severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Helen S; Garzon, Benjamin; Xu, Jian; Berntsen, Erik M; Skandsen, Toril; Håberg, Asta K

    2010-05-01

    The hemodynamic response (HDR) function is the basis for standard functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. HDR is influenced by white matter inflammation. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by diffuse white matter injury, but the effect of this on the HDR has not been investigated. The aims of the present study were to describe the HDR in visual cortex and examine its relationship with the microstructure of the optic radiation in severe TBI survivors and controls. Ten severe TBI survivors without visual impairments, but with known diffuse axonal injury, and 9 matched controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fMRI. From the fMRI time series obtained during brief randomized visual stimuli, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes for each subject were estimated in V1, and group HDR curves were produced. Standard between-group analysis of BOLD activation in V1 + V2 was performed. For each individual the optic radiations were identified and fractional anisotropy (FA) plus mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC(mean)) values for these tracts were calculated. Group HDR curves from the visual cortex were fully transposable between TBI survivors and controls, despite a significant reduction in FA in the optic radiation in TBI survivors. A significant correlation between BOLD signal in the visual cortex and FA values in the optical tract was present in controls, but not in TBI survivors. Between-group comparisons showed that TBI survivors had increased areas of activation in V1 and V2. The HDR appears to be intact in traumatic white matter damage, supporting the validity of using standard fMRI methodology to study neuroplasticity in TBI.

  17. [Long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors in the Murcia Region: preferences and attitudes of Primary Care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárceles-Álvarez, A; Ortega-García, J A; Fuster-Soler, J L; Rivera-Pagán, G A; Bermúdez-Cortés, M; Gomariz-Peñalver, V; Monzó-Nuñez, E; López-Hernández, F A

    2015-10-01

    To assess attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of primary medical care professionals as regards the follow-up of Childhood Cancer Survivors (CCS) and the introduction of a Long-Term Follow-Up Program for Childhood Cancer Survivors in the Region of Murcia (PLASESCAP-MUR). Descriptive cross-sectional study using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. These questionnaires were sent to all primary medical care professionals in Murcia Health District 1. Response rate of 58% (100/172), with 71% and 22% being family physicians and pediatricians, respectively, of whom 49% provided medical care to a CCS in the last 5 years, with 84% reporting that they never or rarely received a detailed report of overall assessment of the survivor. More than 75% found that access to detailed follow-up information was quite or very useful; 95% prefer to consult experts when providing medical care to survivors, and 80% believe that improving the quality of the environment may decrease the morbidity and mortality of the survivors. A statistically significant relationship was found between the length of practicing medicine and the perception of the importance of environmental factors. It seems to be important to increase the training of primary care professionals for the long-term follow-up of CCS, as well as having the detailed information through a personalized long-term follow-up of each survivor. PLASESCAP-MUR offers an integrated follow-up to CCS in a model of shared care between Long Term Monitoring Units and Primary Care Units. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, David; Kluding, Patricia; Porter, Charles; Fabian, Carol; Klemp, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) has been used to assess risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and low VO2max has recently been associated with increased mortality from breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of breast cancer survivors with 2 or more risk factors for CVD exhibiting a low VO2max and to determine whether sub-maximal endpoints which could be applied more readily to intervention research would correlate with the maximal treadmill test. We performed a single VO2max test on a treadmill with 30 breast cancer survivors age 30-60 (mean age 50.5 ± 5.6 years) who had 2 or more cardiac risk factors for CVD not related to treatment and who had received systemic therapy and or left chest radiation. Submaximal VO2 endpoints were assessed during the VO2max treadmill test and on an Arc trainer. Resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was also assessed by echocardiogram (ECHO) or multi-gated acquisition scan (MUGA). A majority (23/30) of women had a VO2max below the 20th percentile based on their predicted normal values. The group mean resting LVEF was 60.5 ± 5.0%. Submaximal VO2 measures were strongly correlated with the maximal test including; 1) 85% age predicted maximum heart rate VO2 on treadmill, (r = .89; p testing endpoints showed a strong correlation with the VO2max test in breast cancer survivors and is a good candidate for testing interventions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. Working with Victims of Persecution: Lessons from Holocaust Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joanne

    2001-01-01

    Among populations experiencing the trauma and stress of persecution, most is known about Holocaust survivors. Through examining the long-term effects of massive psychic trauma gleaned from research on Holocaust survivors and their children, this article addresses the skills, techniques, and insights about current refugee populations that can be…

  20. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  1. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  2. A Model Psychoeducational Group for Survivors of Organizational Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Pamela F.; Smith, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a one-day psychoeducational group for survivors of a recent organizational downsizing. Principal goal of the group is to prevent "Layoff Survivor Syndrome" through instruction and group exercises designed to normalize common responses and increase awareness of positive coping strategies. Provides descriptions of group…

  3. Early myocardial deformation abnormalities in breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, B.F.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Haan, A.F.J. de; Korte, C.L. de; Bellersen, L.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Kapusta, L.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the role of 2D myocardial strain (rate) imaging in the detection of early subclinical cardiotoxicity in breast cancer survivors treated with an anthracycline-based chemotherapeutic regimen. 57 adult breast cancer survivors were analyzed 1 year after therapy. All patients underwent biomar

  4. Poststroke spasticity: sequelae and burden on stroke survivors and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorowitz, Richard D; Gillard, Patrick J; Brainin, Michael

    2013-01-15

    Among the estimated 20% to 40% of stroke survivors who develop spasticity, the burden of this condition on patients, caregivers, and society is substantial. Stroke survivors with spasticity may experience reductions in their ability to perform activities of daily living and in their health-related quality of life. The occurrence of spasticity in stroke survivors may also result in an increased burden on their caregivers, who exhibit poorer physical and emotional health as compared with the general population. The responsibilities that caregivers have to the stroke survivor--in terms of providing medical care, protecting from falls, and assisting with feeding and hygiene, among other tasks of daily living--must be balanced with their responsibilities to other family members and to themselves. Caregivers of stroke survivors often report a feeling of confinement with little opportunity for relief, and although social support can be helpful, it is frequently limited in its availability. In terms of the socioeconomic burden of spasticity after stroke, recent data point to a 4-fold increase in health care costs associated with stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity. Thus, it is important to reduce the burden of spasticity after stroke. Consequently, effective spasticity treatment that reduces spasticity and the level of disability experienced by stroke survivors will likely increase their functioning and their health-related quality of life and will also result in a diminished burden on their caregivers.

  5. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  6. Helping survivors to adjust after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    The concept of "cancer survivorship" has received considerable attention over the past three years as increasing numbers of people live with and beyond cancer. Previously, attention may have focused more on treatments for cancer and the likelihood of their success. In recent years, interest has moved to the after-effects of treatment, and how people can return to their lives while recovering. This article discusses the various ways in which cancer and its treatment may affect survivors, and how nurses, in both hospital and the community, can help them to adjust and recover.

  7. The epidemiology of long- and short-term cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Christensen, Linda; Bruera, Eduardo;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In this study, we present data from a population-based cohort of incident cancer patients separated in long- and short-term survivors. Our aim was to procure denominators for use in the planning of rehabilitation and palliative care programs. Material and methods. A registry......-linkage cohort study. All cancer patients, diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 from a 470 000 large population, were followed individually from diagnosis to death or until 31 December 2008. Long-term survivors lived five years or more after the time of the cancer diagnosis (TOCD). Short-term survivors died less than...... five years after TOCD. Results. The cohort comprised 24 162 incident cancer patients with 41% long-term survivors (N = 9813). Seventy percent of the cohort was 60 + years at TOCD. The 14 349 short-term survivors' median survival was 0.6 year, and 78% died less than two years after TOCD. A 12 years...

  8. Older breast cancer survivors' views and preferences for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Sarah; Lavelle, Katrina

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity improves quality of life and physical functioning among breast cancer patients and survivors. However, previous studies have tended to focus on younger patients, despite higher incidence and lower survival among older breast cancer survivors. In this study we explored physical activity preferences of older breast cancer survivors to inform the development of future targeted interventions. Twenty-nine female breast cancer survivors (1 to 5 years postdiagnosis) aged 59 to 86 (mean 66.54, SD 6.50) took part in either a semistructured interview or a focus group exploring physical activity patterns, motivators, facilitators, barriers, and preferences. The main factors influencing physical activity were body image, weight issues, vitality, mood, and the desire to carry on as normal. Preference was expressed for activities that were gentle, tailored to age and cancer-related abilities, holistic, involving other older breast cancer survivors, and with an instructor who was knowledgeable about both breast cancer and aging.

  9. Health Promotion Among Older Cancer Survivors With Prior Disabling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heather; Kang, Sook Jung

    2013-01-01

    Older cancer survivors, who often cope with multiple disabling conditions, can find health promotion challenging. This study's purpose was to explore predictors of health promotion for older cancer survivors with a disabling condition that existed prior to their cancer diagnosis. The 92 cancer survivors were predominantly women with preexisting neuromuscular impairments and an average age of 69 years. Half were breast cancer survivors, and 58% were 6 or more years since their cancer diagnosis. In hierarchical regression analyses, self-efficacy for health promotion and social support were the strongest predictors of the total HPLPII and its subscales. The findings suggest that nursing interventions to assist older cancer survivors with multiple chronic conditions in building their social support and perceived self-efficacy may help them lead more healthy lives. PMID:22765516

  10. Survivor identity after colorectal cancer: antecedents, prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Meng, Xingqiong; Youl, Pip; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2012-09-01

    Cancer survivor identity has become a dominant paradigm in describing people with cancer and in driving the focus of programmes and research in supportive care. This study investigated antecedents of survivor identity adoption and population-based prevalence. A prospective survey of a population-based sample of 1966 (57% response) patients with colorectal cancer assessed socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, optimism, benefit finding, cancer threat appraisal, psychological distress and satisfaction with life at 5 months post-diagnosis as predictors of survivor identity 5 years subsequently. Prevalence of survivor identity at 5 years post-diagnosis and psychological and lifestyle outcomes (n = 786) were later assessed. Fifty-five per cent of people identified as a cancer survivor, 39.4% as a person who had had (or has) cancer, 1.4% as a cancer patient and 1.2% as a cancer victim. People who were older and who reported higher personal growth after diagnosis were more likely to assume a survivor identity at 5 years. At 5 years, survivors had higher benefit finding and better satisfaction with life. Cancer survivors uniquely reported a significant decrease in somatization and acceptance, and increases in satisfaction with life and physical activity over time. For patients with colorectal cancer, the cancer survivor identity is common but not universal 5 years after diagnosis; and may evolve from looking for benefit after cancer through personal growth. People who adopt a cancer survivor identity report more positive adjustment outcomes after cancer and this has implications for the design of clinical and community support interventions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. ANUITAS LAST SURVIVOR UNTUK KASUS TIGA ORANG TERTANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pada asuransi multiple life, terdapat dua istilah berdasarkan status kematian dari kumpulan tertanggung yaitu joint life dan last survivor. Perbedaan status multiple life ini pada asuransi adalah waktu pemberian uang pertanggungannya. Suatu status dikatakan joint life jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat orang pertama meninggal dan status dikatakan life survivor jika pemberian uang pertanggungan dilakukan pada saat semuanya telah meninggal. Untuk mendapatkan uang pertanggungan, tertanggung haruslah membayarkan sejumlah premi. Jika ingin mengkonversikan premi tunggal menjadi premi berkala diperlukan anuitas. Untuk kasus asuransi last survivor kita akan menggunakan anuitas last survivor. Hasil akhir dari proses penelitian penulis akan menghasilkan rumusan matematika nilai sekarang anuitas awal dan anuitas akhir  untuk kasus dua orang dan tiga orang pada status last survivor.In multiple life insurance, there are two terms based on the status of the death of the insured is a collection of joint life and last survivor. The difference is in the status of multiple life insurance is the timing of cash coverage. A status is said to be a joint life insurance money if provision was made during the first die and life survivor status if the provision of insurance money made at the time are all dead. To get the sum insured, the insured must pay a premium. If you want to convert into a single premium be regular premium, annuity required. For the last survivor insurance cases we will use the last survivor annuity. The end result of the research process will generate mathematical formulas of present value due annuity and immediate annuity for the case of two and three people in the last survivor status.

  12. Predicting physical activity and outcome expectations in cancer survivors: an application of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip M; Blanchard, Chris M; Nehl, Eric; Baker, Frank

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of autonomous and controlled motives drawn from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Intrinsic Motivation and Self-determination in Human Behavior. Plenum Press: New York, 1985; Handbook of Self-determination Research. University of Rochester Press: New York, 2002) towards predicting physical activity behaviours and outcome expectations in adult cancer survivors. Participants were cancer-survivors (N=220) and a non-cancer comparison cohort (N=220) who completed an adapted version of the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire modified for physical activity behaviour (TSRQ-PA), an assessment of the number of minutes engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) weekly, and the anticipated outcomes expected from regular physical activity (OE). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that autonomous motives was the dominant predictor of OEs across both cancer and non-cancer cohorts (R(2adj)=0.29-0.43), while MVPA was predicted by autonomous (beta's ranged from 0.21 to 0.34) and controlled (beta's ranged from -0.04 to -0.23) motives after controlling for demographic considerations. Cancer status (cancer versus no cancer) did not moderate the motivation-physical activity relationship. Collectively, these findings suggest that the distinction between autonomous and controlled motives is useful and compliments a growing body of evidence supporting SDT as a framework for understanding motivational processes in physical activity contexts with cancer survivors.

  13. Aging, obesity, and post-therapy cognitive recovery in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhezhou; Zheng, Ying; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

    2017-02-14

    Therapy-induced cognitive impairment is prevalent and long-lasting in cancer survivors, but factors affecting post-therapy cognitive recovery are unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the associations of age, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and physical activity (PA) with post-therapy cognitive changes in a population-based breast cancer (BC) survivor cohort. We collected information on PA, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences of 1286 BC survivors aged 20-75. We assessed their cognitive functions, including immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency, and attention, at 18 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations of age, BMI, WHR and PA with mean changes in cognitive scores from 18- to 36-month follow-up interview. We found that the post-therapy cognitive changes differed by age and obesity status. Verbal fluency and attention improved in younger patients aged therapy cognitive change. Due to the novelty of our findings and the limitations of our study, further research, including intervention trials, is warranted to confirm the causal relationship between obesity and cognitive impairments.

  14. Cross-sectional study of social support and psychological distress among displaced earthquake survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Chie; Matsunaga, Atsushi; Nagata, Satoko

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to explore the relationship between different types and sources of social support and psychological distress by age and sex among survivors living in temporary housing 10 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Self-reported questionnaires/structured interviews administered from January to March 2012 recorded demographic characteristics, damage involving participants' families, social support, and psychological distress. Data on 296 participants aged 20 years or more from nine temporary housing complexes in Otsuchi were analyzed; K6 scores indicating psychological distress averaged 5.1 (standard deviation, 5.9; range, 0-24). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated differences among types and sources of social support with regard to psychological distress by age and sex among disaster survivors. For men aged less than 65 years, social support by family was related to lower psychological distress. For women aged 65 years or more, emotional support from family, informational and instrumental support, and social companionship from friends in their own temporary housing complexes were related to less psychological distress. Differences in age and sex were related to different sources of social support in relation to psychological distress. It is necessary to pay more attention to those who lost family members in the disaster, especially men aged less than 65 years. It may also be necessary to support survivors in making friends when they relocate to temporary housing, especially women aged 65 years or more. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. Negative and positive life changes following treatment completion: Chinese breast cancer survivors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huilin; Sit, Janet W H; Cheng, Karis K F

    2016-02-01

    Although we acknowledge the negative and positive aspects of the cancer survivorship experience, we have little information on this issue from the perspective of Chinese breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of negative and positive life changes following treatment completion among this population. Using purposive sampling, 29 breast cancer survivors were selected from the attendees of a local cancer self-help organization in middle China and proceeded with semi-structured in-depth interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Two predetermined categories were identified to represent participant perception of the breast cancer survivorship experience, namely, negative life changes and positive life changes. The first category included fear of recurrence, symptom experience, poor body image, altered sexuality and intimacy, and financial burden. The second category consisted of new life perspective, personal growth, and enhanced relationships with family. Our findings contribute to the emerging evidence on the duality of breast cancer survivorship. This enhanced understanding of the specific negative and positive changes experienced by Chinese breast cancer survivors can assist health professionals in addressing survivorship issues by designing appropriate interventions to minimize negative consequences and enhance positive growth.

  16. Correlation between lung scintigraphy and long-term outcome in survivors of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kubota, Akio; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Oue, Takaharu; Kitayama, Yasuhiro; Yagi, Makoto

    2006-09-01

    Lung scintigraphy has been used to evaluate the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, the relationship between lung scintigraphy and long-term outcome of CDH remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether lung scintigraphy correlates with long-term pulmonary morbidity and nutritional status in survivors of CDH. Consecutive 31 survivors of CDH were enrolled in this study. The initial scan was performed at 1-2 months when the patients were ready for discharge and the follow-up scan was performed following an approximately 1-year interval. The regional ventilation and perfusion were evaluated using (133)Xe-inhalation and intravenous (99m)Tc-MAA injection, respectively. The ventilation and perfusion of the ipsilateral lung was expressed as a percentage of that of the contralateral lung. Physical growth at 1 and 2 years, and pulmonary morbidity were reviewed from medical records. The ventilation and perfusion of the ipsilateral lung at the follow-up scan increased significantly from those at the initial scan. Ten patients had pulmonary morbidity. The ventilation and perfusion of the ipsilateral lung was significantly lower in the patients with pulmonary morbidity compared to the patients without pulmonary morbidity. The initial ventilation and perfusion of the ipsilateral lung were strongly correlated with body weight at 1 and 2 years (ventilation: R = 0.503, P lung scintigraphy is useful to predict long-term pulmonary morbidity and poor nutritional status in survivors of CDH.

  17. Urban sprawl and body mass index among displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaya, Mariana; James, Peter; Rhodes, Jean E; Waters, Mary C; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Existing research suggests that walkable environments are protective against weight gain, while sprawling neighborhoods may pose health risks. Using prospective data on displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors, we provide the first natural experimental data on sprawl and body mass index (BMI). The analysis uses prospectively collected pre- (2003-2005) and post-hurricane (2006-2007) data from the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) project on 280 displaced Hurricane Katrina survivors who had little control over their neighborhood placement immediately after the disaster. The county sprawl index, a standardized measure of built environment, was used to predict BMI at follow-up, adjusted for baseline BMI and sprawl; hurricane-related trauma; and demographic and economic characteristics. Respondents from 8 New Orleans-area counties were dispersed to 76 counties post-Katrina. Sprawl increased by an average of 1.5 standard deviations (30 points) on the county sprawl index. Each one point increase in sprawl was associated with approximately .05kg/m(2) higher BMI in unadjusted models (95%CI: .01-.08), and the relationship was not attenuated after covariate adjustment. We find a robust association between residence in a sprawling county and higher BMI unlikely to be caused by self-selection into neighborhoods, suggesting that the built environment may foster changes in weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  19. Anxiety and depression associated with caregiver burden in caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Melissa S; Gillard, Patrick J; Graham, Glenn D; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Goren, Amir; Varon, Sepi F; Zorowitz, Richard

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety/depression and caregiver burden in informal caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity. Data were collected via online surveys from informal caregivers 18 years or older who cared for stroke survivors. Internet-based survey. 2007 through 2009 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey database or Lightspeed Research general panel respondents (N=153). Not applicable. Anxiety and depression were self-reported by the caregiver as a physician diagnosis. Depression severity was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Caregiver burden was measured by the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS) and the Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale (BCOS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted with anxiety, depression, and the PHQ-9 depression severity categories as a result of each caregiver burden scale. Data were analyzed for 153 informal caregivers; they were mostly women (70.6%) and white (78.4%), with a mean age of 51.6 years. For every 1-point increase in the OCBS Difficulty Scale, the odds of anxiety or depression were 2.57 times as great (Pcaregiver burden increases, caregivers are more likely to have anxiety and depression. Depression severity also increases. Providing treatment to stroke survivors with spasticity that lessens the time and more importantly, the difficulty of caregiving may lead to a reduction in caregiver anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to