Nielsen, H B
2009-01-01
This article is about my memories from the discovery that the Veneziano model describes in fact interacting strings. I came to the understanding of that the dual or Veneziano model is really a model of strings independently of L. Susskind and Y. Nambu. A characteristic feature of my approach was that I used thinking of very high order "fishnet" or planar Feynman diagrams as the way of at first describing the development of the strings. A chain of constituents leads to planar diagrams dominating when only neighbours on the chain interact significantly. The article also mentions the works of Ziro Koba and mine about extending the Veneziano model first to five external particles - as Bardakci and Ruegg, Chan Tsou, and Goebel and Sakita also did - and subsequently to an arbitrary number n of external mesons.
Ballonet String Model of Molecules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gavril NIAC
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Strings of ballonets, modelling rows of orbitals, are assembled to molecule models by crossing them properly. The ballonets at the ends of the strings of 2, 3, 4 or 5 spheres represent bonding orbitals of hydrogen with other elements like C, N or O (the proton being inside the sphere, as well as nonbonding orbitals. The ballonets between them are modelling bonding orbitals among elements other than hydrogen - except the double bond in diborane, the atomic cores laying at the junction of two or more spheres.Advantages of elastic sphere models range from self-adjusting bond angles to resistance when closing cycles like cyclopropane or modeling double bonds.Examples comprise alkanes, including platonic hydrocarbons, ethene, acetylene, and some inorganic molecules.
Sigma models and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors present a pedagogical discussion of conformally invariant two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models and their relation to string theory. They show how to calculate the Weyl anomaly coefficients in the bosonic, supersymmetric and heterotic sigma models and explain their interpretation as string theory equations of motion for spacetime background fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thermally activated motion of screw dislocations is the rate-determining mechanism for plastic deformation and fracture of body centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys. Recent experimental observations by S.G. Roberts' group at Oxford showed that ductile-brittle behaviour of bcc vanadium, tungsten, pure iron, and iron-chromium alloys is controlled by an Arrhenius process in which the energy for thermal activation is proportional to the formation energy for a double kink on a b= 1/2 screw dislocation, where b is the Burgers vector of the dislocation. Interpreting these experimental observations and extending the analysis to the case of irradiated materials requires developing a full quantitative treatment for perfect and kinked screw dislocations. Modelling screw dislocations also presents a challenge for the development of interatomic potentials. Recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations have revealed that the ground-state structure of the core of screw dislocations in all the bcc transition metals is non-degenerate and symmetric, whereas inter-atomic potentials used in molecular dynamics simulations for these metals often predict a degenerate, symmetry-broken core-structure. In this work we show how, by treating the structure of a screw dislocation within a multistring Frenkel-Kontorova model, we can develop a criterion that guarantees the correct symmetric core of the dislocation. Extending this treatment, we find a systematic recipe for constructing Finnis-Sinclair-type potentials that are able, as a matter of routine, produce non-degenerate core structures of 1/2 screw dislocations. Modelling thermally activated mobility of screw dislocations also requires that the transition pathway between stable core positions of a dislocation is accurately reproduced. DFT data indicates that the shape of the 'Peierls energy barrier' is a single-hump curve, including transitional configurations close to the so-called 'hard' structure. Interatomic potentials have, up
String bit models for superstring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D - 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D - 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring
String bit models for superstring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.
1995-12-31
The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.
Warped models in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warped models, originating with the ideas of Randall and Sundrum, provide a fascinating extension of the standard model with interesting consequences for the LHC. We investigate in detail how string theory realises such models, with emphasis on fermion localisation and the computation of Yukawa couplings. We find, in contrast to the 5d models, that fermions can be localised anywhere in the extra dimension, and that there are new mechanisms to generate exponential hierarchies amongst the Yukawa couplings. We also suggest a way to distinguish these string theory models with data from the LHC. (author)
Coherent backscattering of light off one-dimensional atomic strings
Sørensen, H L; Kluge, K W; Iakoupov, I; Sørensen, A S; Müller, J H; Polzik, E S; Appel, J
2016-01-01
Bragg scattering, well known in crystallography, has become a powerful tool for artificial atomic structures such as optical lattices. In an independent development photonic waveguides have been used successfully to boost quantum light-matter coupling. We combine these two lines of research and present the first experimental realisation of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional (1D) system - two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode - realised by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fibre (TOF), which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about one thousand caesium atoms, an enhancement of more than two orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fibre connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.
Modeling Regular Replacement for String Constraint Solving
Fu, Xiang; Li, Chung-Chih
2010-01-01
Bugs in user input sanitation of software systems often lead to vulnerabilities. Among them many are caused by improper use of regular replacement. This paper presents a precise modeling of various semantics of regular substitution, such as the declarative, finite, greedy, and reluctant, using finite state transducers (FST). By projecting an FST to its input/output tapes, we are able to solve atomic string constraints, which can be applied to both the forward and backward image computation in model checking and symbolic execution of text processing programs. We report several interesting discoveries, e.g., certain fragments of the general problem can be handled using less expressive deterministic FST. A compact representation of FST is implemented in SUSHI, a string constraint solver. It is applied to detecting vulnerabilities in web applications
Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2)L x SU(2) R x U(1)B-L are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed
Observable Quantities in Cosmological Models with Strings
Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Stelmach, Jerzy
2004-01-01
The Friedman equation for the universe with arbitrary curvature $(k = 0, \\pm 1)$, filled with mutually noninteracting pressureless dust, radiation, cosmological constant, and strings is considered. We assume the string domination scenario for the evolution of the latter component. Moreover, we discuss the simplest possibility for the scaling of the string energy density: $\\varrho \\propto R^{-2}$. For such models we write down the explicit solution of the Friedman equation. We realize that cor...
Modelling of sucker rod string
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hojjati, M.H. [Mazandaran Univ., (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lukasiewicz, S.A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering
2005-12-01
Rod pumping is used extensively in the oil well industry as a method of artificial lift. In order to analyze the performance of oil wells, the force and displacement at the polished rod are measured using a dynamometer. The data is applied to the boundary conditions when calculating the forces and displacement at the bottom of the rod string that defines the conditions of the pump, pumping effectiveness and production rate. This study proposed a transfer matrix method to model the dynamic behavior of the sucker string rod. The main reason for developing the method was to simplify the currently used mathematical method with a simple matrix operation in which the bottom-hole force-displacement values are obtained as a product of data vectors at the polished rod end by a transfer matrix. The problem was solved using D'Alembert's systems solution equation and the adaptive filter matrix method. The proposed method reduces calculation time because a more efficient matrix operation is used without losing accuracy. This study showed that it is possible to use the transfer matrix to calculate load-displacement relations a hundred or more times in one stroke, which is beneficial when developing tools to control oil wells, such as wellhead controllers. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.
Loop gas model for open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The open string with one-dimensional target space is formulated in terms of an SOS, or loop gas model on a random surface. We solve an integral equation for the loop amplitude with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions imposed on different pieces of its boundary. The result is used to calculate the mean values of order and disorder operators, to construct the string propagator and find its spectrum of excitations. The latter is not sensitive either to the string tension Λ or to the mass μ of the 'quarks' at the ends of the string. As in the case of closed strings, the SOS formulation allows us to construct a Feynman-diagram technique for the string interaction amplitudes. (orig.)
Gauge invariant actions for string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banks, T.
1986-06-01
String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs.
Gauge invariant actions for string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
String models of unified interactions are elegant sets of Feynman rules for the scattering of gravitons, gauge bosons, and a host of massive excitations. The purpose of these lectures is to describe the progress towards a nonperturbative formulation of the theory. Such a formulation should make the geometrical meaning of string theory manifest and explain the many ''miracles'' exhibited by the string Feynman rules. There are some new results on gauge invariant observables, on the cosmological constant, and on the symmetries of interacting string field theory. 49 refs
Contemplation on composite and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Relations between composite models and string models are clarified. The subjects to discuss include 1) philosophy, 2) space-time, 3) matter, 4) symmetry, 5) dynamics, 6) principle, 7) predictions, 8) tests and 9) current and future problems. (author)
Strings, Integrable Systems, Geometry and Statistical Models
Marshakov, A
2004-01-01
The role of integrable systems in string theory is discussed. We remind old examples of the correspondence between stringy partition functions or effective actions and integrable equations, based on effective application of the matrix model technique. Then we turn to a new example, coming from the Nekrasov deformation of the Seiberg-Witten prepotential. In the last case the deformed theory is described by a different statistical model, which becomes equivalent to a partition function of a topological string. The full partition function of string theory arises therefore always as a certain "quantization" of its quasiclassical geometry.
Spontaneous excitation of a uniformly accelerated atom in the cosmic string spacetime
Zhou, Wenting; Yu, Hongwei
2016-04-01
We study, in the cosmic string spacetime, the average rate of change of energy for an atom coupled to massless scalar fields and uniformly accelerated in a direction parallel to the string in vacuum. We find that both the noninertial motion and the nontrivial global spacetime topology affect the atomic transition rates, so an accelerated atom (an Unruh detector) does feel the string contrary to claims in the literature. We demonstrate that the equivalence between the effect of uniform acceleration and that of thermal radiation on the transition rates of the atom, which is valid in the Minkowski spacetime, holds only on the string.
The strings connection: MSSM-like models from strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics (BCTP) and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)
2014-05-15
String theory constructions towards the MSSM allow us to identify some general properties that could be relevant for tests at the LHC. They originate from the geometric structure of compactification and the location of fields in extra-dimensional space. Within the framework of the heterotic MiniLandscape we extract some generic lessons for supersymmetric model building. Among them is a specific pattern of SUSY breakdown based on mirage mediation and remnants of extended supersymmetry. This leads to a split spectrum with heavy scalars of the first two families of quarks and leptons and suppressed masses for gauginos, top partners and Higgs bosons. The models exhibit some specific form of hidden supersymmetry consistent with the high mass of the Higgs boson and all presently available experimental constraints. The most compelling picture is based on precision gauge coupling unification that might be in the kinematic reach of the LHC. (orig.)
Spontaneous excitation of a static atom in a thermal bath in cosmic string spacetime
Cai, Huabing; Zhou, Wenting
2015-01-01
We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate Cu-Zr liquid alloys using molecular dynamics simulation and well-accepted embedded atom method potentials over a wide range of chemical composition and temperature as model metallic glass-forming (GF) liquids. As with other types of GF materials, the dynamics of these complex liquids are characterized by “dynamic heterogeneity” in the form of transient polymeric clusters of highly mobile atoms that are composed in turn of atomic clusters exhibiting string-like cooperative motion. In accordance with the string model of relaxation, an extension of the Adam-Gibbs (AG) model, changes in the activation free energy ΔGa with temperature of both the Cu and Zr diffusion coefficients D, and the alpha structural relaxation time τα can be described to a good approximation by changes in the average string length, L. In particular, we confirm that the strings are a concrete realization of the abstract “cooperatively rearranging regions” of AG. We also find coexisting clusters of relatively “immobile” atoms that exhibit predominantly icosahedral local packing rather than the low symmetry packing of “mobile” atoms. These two distinct types of dynamic heterogeneity are then associated with different fluid structural states. Glass-forming liquids are thus analogous to polycrystalline materials where the icosahedrally packed regions correspond to crystal grains, and the strings reside in the relatively disordered grain boundary-like regions exterior to these locally well-ordered regions. A dynamic equilibrium between localized (“immobile”) and wandering (“mobile”) particles exists in the liquid so that the dynamic heterogeneity can be considered to be type of self-assembly process. We also characterize changes in the local atomic free volume in the course of string-like atomic motion to better understand the initiation and propagation of these fluid excitations
(m,n)-Strings In IIB Matrix Model
Parvizi, Shahrokh; Fatollahi, Amir H.
1999-01-01
By adding gauge fields to the D-string classical solution, which have non-zero contribution to commutators in continuum limit (extreme large $N$), we introduced $(m,n)$-strings in IIB matrix model. It is found that the size of matrices depends on the value of the electric field. The tension of these strings appears in $SL(2,Z)$ invariant form. The interaction for parallel and angled strings are found in agreement with the string theory for small electric fields.
Gauge models of fermionic discrete 'strings'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new class of constrained hamiltonian systems with a finite number of bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom is proposed. Coordinates of these systems are divided into two groups of independent variables analogous to the left and right movers of the standard closed fermionic string theory. Hamiltonians are obtained by gauging some subgroups of the linear (super) canonical transformations for the left and right variables. It is argued that some of the new models can be regarded as discrete analogs of the standard fermionic string theory. The extension of the models obtained by adding ghost variables is also constructed as a prerequisite to quantizing them. 13 refs
$k$ Strings from Various Perspectives: QCD, Lattices, String Theory and Toy Models
Shifman, M.
2005-01-01
I review the status of the issue of the k-string tension in Yang-Mills theory. After a summary of known facts I discuss a weakly coupled four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory that supports non-Abelian strings and can, in certain aspects, serve as a toy model for QCD strings. In the second part of the talk I present original results obtained in a two-dimensional toy model which provides some evidence for the sine formula.
Some Exact Solutions of Magnetized viscous model in String Cosmology
Singh, C P
2012-01-01
In this paper we study anisotropic Bianchi-V universe with magnetic field and bulk viscous fluid in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the equation of state for a cloud of strings and a relationship between bulk viscous coefficient and expansion scalar. The bulk viscous coefficient is assumed to be inversely proportional to the expansion scalar. It is interesting to examine the effects of magnetized bulk viscous string model in early and late stages of the evolution of the universe. This paper investigates the different string models like geometrical(Nambu string), Takabayashi (p-string) and Reddy string models by taking certain physical conditions. The introduction of magnetic field or bulk viscosity or both results in rapid change in scale factors as well as in the classical potential. The presence of viscosity prevents the universe to be empty in its future evolution. The physical and geometrical aspects of each string model are discussed in detail.
Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raj Bali; Shuchi Dave
2001-04-01
We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition ρ= i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.
Light Z' in Heterotic String Standard-like Models
Athanasopoulos, P; Mehta, V M
2014-01-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC supports the hypothesis that the Standard Model provides an effective parameterisation of all subatomic experimental data up to the Planck scale. String theory, which provides a viable perturbative approach to quantum gravity, requires for its consistency the existence of additional gauge symmetries beyond the Standard Model. The construction of heterotic--string models with a viable light $Z^\\prime$ is, however, highly constrained. We outline the construction of standard--like heterotic--string models that allow for an additional Abelian gauge symmetry that may remain unbroken down to low scales. We present a string inspired model, consistent with the string constraints.
Exotic hadron and string junction model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M4, B5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)
The nucleation model of strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we discuss a model of interacting strings at finite densities based on nucleation theory, the study of formation of droplets in a supersaturated gas, the analogy being between drops of various sizes and strings with various excitation number. The interaction of the strings is considered to be the usual merging and splitting. We do not assume equilibrium a priori but find equilibrium configurations of strings as a result of their dynamics. We study these configurations as we change the energy density, and find the presence of two phases. A low density 'gas' phase, in which the energy is in strings in the fundamental or the first few excited levels, and a high density 'liquid' phase in which the number of strings is low, all the energy being carried by few very excited strings. For the gas phase we also discuss the thermodynamics of the system. (author). 21 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
Willden, Jeff
2001-01-01
"Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…
Bianchi-Type Ⅱ String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xing-Xiang
2004-01-01
The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi-type Ⅱ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity are obtained, where an equation of state, p = kλ, and a relation between metric potentials, R = ASn, are adopted. The physical features of the models are also discussed. In special cases the model reduces to the string models without viscosity that was previously given in the literatures.
String field theory inspired phantom model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An exact solution to the Friedmann equations with a stringy inspired phantom field is constructed. The Universe is considered as a slowly decaying D3-brane, which is described in the string field theory framework. The notable features of the concerned exactly solvable stringy dark energy (DE) model are a ghost sign of the kinetic term and a special polynomial form of the effective tachyon potential. Cosmological consequences of adding the cold dark matter (CDM) to this model are investigated as well. Solutions with large initial value of the CDM energy density attracted by the exact solution without the CDM are constructed numerically. In contrast to the ACDM model the Hubble parameter in our model is not a monotonic function of time. For specific initial data the DE state parameter UJDE is also not monotonic function of time. For these cases there are two separate domains of time where U'DE being less than - 1 is close to - 1. Stability conditions, under which the constructed solution is stable with respect to small fluctuations of the initial conditions, including the CDM energy density, are found. Keywords: string field theory, cosmology, tachyon, phantom, dark energy, cold dark matter, Big Rip (authors)
A model of interacting strings and the Hagedorn phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this letter we introduce a model of interacting string in which the usual ideal gas approximations are not made. The model is constructed in analogy with nucleation models, the formation of droplets in a supersaturate gas. We consider the strings to be interacting and their number not fixed. The equilibrium configuration is the one for which the time derivatives of the number of strings in the various energies vanishes. We evaluate numerically the equilibrium configurations for various values of the energy density. We find that a density of order one in planck units there is a sharp transition, from a 'gas' phase in which there are many strings, all in the massless or first few excited states, to a 'liquid' phase in which all strings have coalesced into one (or few) highly excited string. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs
McLeod, Roger David; McLeod, David Matthew
2009-05-01
Our hydrogen atom interacts with a neutron star. Its stringy TW/SW electron is cut by a neutrino scissor that instantly becomes its end anti-node. The string has one extra neutrino in 100,000. Antimatter remains concealed. Our Dumbo Proton of a TW state is similarly cut. Inside the star, electron string/spring compresses 100,000 and 1836 times more, to proton's linear mass density. Electrostatics encourages that caboose, stringy electron, to couple with a cut proton. Linear charge densities neutralize while composite length contracts 20%. The writhing string evicts an antineutrino at closure on Pauli's authority, becoming Mickey Neutron, with looped quarks. Unstable Mickey Neutron has his ear notch forced into an ear notch of stable Dumbo Proton, achieving immortality in this deuteron marriage. Tritium is in a m'enage a trois. Alpha Nucleus has a # grid. Meta state Ne-20 predicts alpha eviction to O-16. Schr"odinger finally prevails, so string theory and Wave Mechanics can prosper.
With string model to time series forecasting
Pinčák, Richard; Bartoš, Erik
2015-10-01
Overwhelming majority of econometric models applied on a long term basis in the financial forex market do not work sufficiently well. The reason is that transaction costs and arbitrage opportunity are not included, as this does not simulate the real financial markets. Analyses are not conducted on the non equidistant date but rather on the aggregate date, which is also not a real financial case. In this paper, we would like to show a new way how to analyze and, moreover, forecast financial market. We utilize the projections of the real exchange rate dynamics onto the string-like topology in the OANDA market. The latter approach allows us to build the stable prediction models in trading in the financial forex market. The real application of the multi-string structures is provided to demonstrate our ideas for the solution of the problem of the robust portfolio selection. The comparison with the trend following strategies was performed, the stability of the algorithm on the transaction costs for long trade periods was confirmed.
Linear Sigma Models for Open Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We formulate and study a class of massive N = 2 supersymmetric gauge field theories coupled to boundary degrees of freedom on the strip. For some values of the parameters, the infrared limits of these theories can be interpreted as open string sigma models describing D-branes in large-radius Calabi-Yau compactifications. For other values of the parameters, these theories flow to CFTs describing branes in more exotic, non-geometric phases of the Calabi-Yau moduli space such as the Landau-Ginzburg orbifold phase. Some simple properties of the branes (like large radius monodromies and spectra of worldvolume excitations) can be computed in our model. We also provide simple worldsheet models of the transitions which occur at loci of marginal stability, and of Higgs-Coulomb transitions
Linear sigma models for open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We formulate and study a class of massive N=2 supersymmetric gauge field theories coupled to boundary degrees of freedom on the strip. For some values of the parameters, the infrared limits of these theories can be interpreted as open string sigma models describing D-branes in large-radius Calabi-Yau compactifications. For other values of the parameters, these theories flow to CFTs describing branes in more exotic, non-geometric phases of the Calabi-Yau moduli space such as the Landau-Ginzburg orbifold phase. Some simple properties of the branes (like large radius monodromies and spectra of worldvolume excitations) can be computed in our model. We also provide simple worldsheet models of the transitions which occur at loci of marginal stability, and of Higgs-Coulomb transitions. (author)
Dualities in ABJM Matrix Model from Closed String Viewpoint
Kiyoshige, Kazuki
2016-01-01
We propose a new formalism to study the ABJM matrix model. Contrary to expressing the fractional brane background with the Wilson loops in the open string formalism, our formalism expresses the Wilson loop expectation value from the viewpoint of changing the closed string backgrounds. With this new formalism, we can prove some duality relations in the matrix model.
Justification of the zeta function renormalization in rigid string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A consistent procedure for regularization of divergences and for subsequent renormalization of the string tension is proposed in the framework of the one-loop calculation of the interquark potential generated by the Polyakov endash Kleinert string. In this way, a justification of the formal treatment of divergences by analytic continuation of the Riemann and Epstein endash Hurwitz zeta functions is given. A spectral representation for the renormalized string energy at zero temperature is derived, which enables one to find the Casimir energy in this string model at nonzero temperature very easy. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
String model for the dynamics of glass-forming liquids.
Pazmiño Betancourt, Beatriz A; Douglas, Jack F; Starr, Francis W
2014-05-28
We test the applicability of a living polymerization theory to describe cooperative string-like particle rearrangement clusters (strings) observed in simulations of a coarse-grained polymer melt. The theory quantitatively describes the interrelation between the average string length L, configurational entropy Sconf, and the order parameter for string assembly Φ without free parameters. Combining this theory with the Adam-Gibbs model allows us to predict the relaxation time τ in a lower temperature T range than accessible by current simulations. In particular, the combined theories suggest a return to Arrhenius behavior near Tg and a low T residual entropy, thus avoiding a Kauzmann "entropy crisis." PMID:24880303
Big Bang Models in String Theory
Craps, Ben
2006-01-01
These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the "RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories", CERN, January 16 - January 20, 2006. The school was mainly aimed at Ph.D. students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne...
Big bang models in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These proceedings are based on lectures delivered at the 'RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', CERN, 16-20 January 2006. The school was mainly aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The lectures start with a brief introduction to spacetime singularities and the string theory resolution of certain static singularities. Then they discuss attempts to resolve cosmological singularities in string theory, mainly focusing on two specific examples: the Milne orbifold and the matrix big bang
Non-linear σ-models and string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The connection between σ-models and string theories is discussed, as well as how the σ-models can be used as tools to prove various results in string theories. Closed bosonic string theory in the light cone gauge is very briefly introduced. Then, closed bosonic string theory in the presence of massless background fields is discussed. The light cone gauge is used, and it is shown that in order to obtain a Lorentz invariant theory, the string theory in the presence of background fields must be described by a two-dimensional conformally invariant theory. The resulting constraints on the background fields are found to be the equations of motion of the string theory. The analysis is extended to the case of the heterotic string theory and the superstring theory in the presence of the massless background fields. It is then shown how to use these results to obtain nontrivial solutions to the string field equations. Another application of these results is shown, namely to prove that the effective cosmological constant after compactification vanishes as a consequence of the classical equations of motion of the string theory. 34 refs
Non-linear sigma-models and string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sen, A.
1986-10-01
The connection between sigma-models and string theories is discussed, as well as how the sigma-models can be used as tools to prove various results in string theories. Closed bosonic string theory in the light cone gauge is very briefly introduced. Then, closed bosonic string theory in the presence of massless background fields is discussed. The light cone gauge is used, and it is shown that in order to obtain a Lorentz invariant theory, the string theory in the presence of background fields must be described by a two-dimensional conformally invariant theory. The resulting constraints on the background fields are found to be the equations of motion of the string theory. The analysis is extended to the case of the heterotic string theory and the superstring theory in the presence of the massless background fields. It is then shown how to use these results to obtain nontrivial solutions to the string field equations. Another application of these results is shown, namely to prove that the effective cosmological constant after compactification vanishes as a consequence of the classical equations of motion of the string theory. 34 refs. (LEW)
String networks with junctions in competition models
Avelino, P P; Losano, L; Menezes, J; de Oliveira, B F
2016-01-01
In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to $t^{1/2}$, where $t$ is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.
Chiral String-Soliton Model for the light chiral baryons
Pavlovsky, Oleg
2010-01-01
The Chiral String-Soliton Model is a joining of the two notions about the light chiral baryons: the chiral soliton models (like the Skyrme model) and the Quark-Gluon String models. The ChSS model is based on the Effective Chiral Lagrangian which was proposed in [arXiv:hep-ph/0306216]. We have studied the physical properties of the light chiral baryon within the framework of this ChSS model.
The early years of string theory: The dual resonance model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reviews the past quantum mechanical history of the dual resonance model which is an early string theory. The content of this paper is listed as follows: historical review, the Veneziano amplitude, the operator formalism, the ghost story, and the string story
Some exact solutions of magnetized viscous model in string cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C P Singh
2014-07-01
In this paper, we study anisotropic Bianchi-V Universe with magnetic field and bulk viscous fluid in string cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by using the equation of state (EoS) for a cloud of strings, and a relationship between bulk viscous coefficient and scalar expansion. The bulk viscous coefficient is assumed to be inversely proportional to the expansion scalar. It is interesting to examine the effects of magnetized bulk viscous string model in early and late stages of evolution of the Universe. This paper presents different string models like geometrical (Nambu string), Takabayasi (p-string) and Reddy string models by taking certain physical conditions. We discuss the nature of classical potential for viscous fluid with and without magnetic field. The presence of bulk viscosity stops the Universe from becoming empty in its future evolution. It is observed that the Universe expands with decelerated rate in the presence of viscous fluid with magnetic field whereas, it expands with marginal inflation in the presence of viscous fluid without magnetic field. The other physical and geometrical aspects of each string model are discussed in detail.
Stability of sigma-model strings and textures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In flat spacetime, sigma-model strings and textures are both unstable: they tend to collapse (and subsequently decay). With sufficient cosmological expansion, however, they are stable in a generalized sense: a small perturbation will cause them to change their shape, but they do not decay. The current rate of expansion is sufficient to stabilize strings, but not textures. (letter to the editor)
Light $U(1)$s in heterotic string models
Mehta, Viraf M
2015-01-01
We present a novel string-derived $U(1)$ combination that satisfies necessary properties to survive to low scales. We discuss previous attempts at acquiring such an abelian gauge symmetry from two different string embeddings and the pitfalls associated with them. Finally, we give an example of how a satisfactory model may be constructed within our framework.
Color screening masses from string models
Andreev, Oleg
2016-01-01
We use gauge/string duality to estimate the Debye screening mass at non-zero temperature and baryon chemical potential. We interpret this mass as the smallest one in the open string channel. Comparisons are made with the results from holography and lattice QCD.
Composite vector mesons and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author discusses the general question of gauge mesons in extended supergravities, and whether such theories can produce the gauge mesons corresponding to a group at least as large as SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). An exciting conjecture in this direction was made a few years ago by previous authors, who suggested that there might be composite SU(8) gauge mesons in a supergravity model known as the N=8 model. Until we have a consistent, renormalizable theory of supergravity we cannot really obtain any indication of the truth or falseness of that conjecture. One form of the Neveu-Schwarz string model has been shown to be a theory of supergravity; it is finite at the one-loop level and probably in any order of perturbation theory. The discussion is within the framework of this model. The author questions whether massive vector mesons can possibly lose their mass due to interactions. Arguments have been given on both sides of this question, and the author believes that this can occur under certain circumstances. Our conclusions is that the FNNS mechanism will create a gauge symmetry in addition to the rigid symmetry
Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
F Rahaman; S Chakraborty; N Begum; M Hossain; M Kalam
2003-06-01
A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.
The systematic construction of free fermionic heterotic string gauge models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been shown that the string landscape consists of roughly 10500 string vacua. While the construction of all of these models is currently made infeasible by technological limits, systematic construction schemes can be employed to explore regions of the landscape. These surveys can provide insight into the theory that purely analytical analysis cannot. We discuss one such systematic survey scheme being developed and deployed at Baylor University as well as results of a recently launched survey of layer 2 gauge models
String networks in ZN Lotka-Volterra competition models
Avelino, P. P.; Bazeia, D.; Menezes, J.; de Oliveira, B. F.
2014-01-01
In this Letter we give specific examples of ZN Lotka-Volterra competition models leading to the formation of string networks. We show that, in order to promote coexistence, the species may arrange themselves around regions with a high number density of empty sites generated by predator-prey interactions between competing species. These configurations extend into the third dimension giving rise to string networks. We investigate the corresponding dynamics using both stochastic and mean field theory simulations, showing that the coarsening of these string networks follows a scaling law which is analogous to that found in other physical systems in condensed matter and cosmology.
Hybrid adiabatic potentials in the QCD string model
Kalashnikova, Yu S; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.
2003-01-01
The short- and intermediate-distance behaviour of the hybrid adiabatic potentials is calculated in the framework of the QCD string model. The calculations are performed with the inclusion of Coulomb force. Spin-dependent force and the so-called string correction term are treated as perturbation at the leading potential-type regime. Reasonably good agreement with lattice measurements takes place for adiabatic curves excited with magnetic components of field strength correlators.
Toy model for tachyon condensation in bosonic string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study tachyon condensation in a baby version of Witten's open string field theory. For some special values of one of the parameters of the model, we are able to obtain closed form expressions for the stable vacuum state and for the value of the potential at the minimum. We study the convergence rate of the level truncation method and compare our exact results with the numerical results found in the full string field theory. (author)
Discontinuity cylinder model of gravitating U(1) cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laguna-Castillo, P.; Matzner, R.A.
1987-05-15
We introduce a model for an infinite-length, straight U(1) cosmic string as a cylindrical, singular shell enclosing a region of false vacuum. The properties of the geometry for the region exterior to the string are fully determined under the assumption that changes in the scalar and gauge field variables occur only at the cylindrical shell. This is consistent with a limiting form of the scalar potential V(phi) where a minimum at chemically bondphichemically bond = 0 is separated by a large barrier from a global minimum at chemically bondphichemically bond = etanot =0. The introduction of an approximately singular ''surface'' for the string allows the definition of a delta-function stress-energy density that characterizes discontinuities in the fields. We show consistency of the model with the full coupled equations for the metric, and the scalar and gauge fields in curved space-time. It is found that for this model, in the absence of an ''external'' cosmological constant, the exterior geometry of the string approaches Minkowski space-time with a deficit angle, and it is shown that in the limit when the string becomes a line source, i.e., its radius vanishes, the deficit angle reduces to the well-known expression ..delta..theta = 8..pi mu.., with ..mu.. the proper mass per unit length of the string.
Discontinuity cylinder model of gravitating U(1) cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a model for an infinite-length, straight U(1) cosmic string as a cylindrical, singular shell enclosing a region of false vacuum. The properties of the geometry for the region exterior to the string are fully determined under the assumption that changes in the scalar and gauge field variables occur only at the cylindrical shell. This is consistent with a limiting form of the scalar potential V(phi) where a minimum at chemical bondphichemical bond = 0 is separated by a large barrier from a global minimum at chemical bondphichemical bond = etanot =0. The introduction of an approximately singular ''surface'' for the string allows the definition of a δ-function stress-energy density that characterizes discontinuities in the fields. We show consistency of the model with the full coupled equations for the metric, and the scalar and gauge fields in curved space-time. It is found that for this model, in the absence of an ''external'' cosmological constant, the exterior geometry of the string approaches Minkowski space-time with a deficit angle, and it is shown that in the limit when the string becomes a line source, i.e., its radius vanishes, the deficit angle reduces to the well-known expression Δθ = 8πμ, with μ the proper mass per unit length of the string
Unified model for vortex-string network evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe and numerically test the velocity-dependent one-scale string evolution model, a simple analytic approach describing a string network with the averaged correlation length and velocity. We show that it accurately reproduces the large-scale behavior (in particular the scaling laws) of numerical simulations of both Goto-Nambu and field theory string networks. We explicitly demonstrate the relation between the high-energy physics approach and the damped and nonrelativistic limits which are relevant for condensed matter physics. We also reproduce experimental results in this context and show that the vortex-string density is significantly reduced by loop production, an effect not included in the usual 'coarse-grained' approach
String cosmological models in the Brans-Dicke theory for five-dimensional space-time
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Koijam Manihar Singh; Kangujam Priyokumar Singh
2012-01-01
Five-dimensional space-time string cosmological models generated by a cloud of strings with particles attached to them are studied in the Brans-Dicke theory.We obtain two types of interesting models by taking up the cases of geometric strings (or Nambu strings) and p-strings (Takabayasi strings),and study their different physical and dynamical properties.The roles of the scalar field in getting different phases,such as the inflationary phase and the string-dominated phase,are discussed.An interesting feature obtained here is that in one of the models there is a "bounce" at a particular instant of its evolution.
An Integrated Model for Drill-String Dynamics
Tucker, W. R.; Wang, C.
1999-07-01
The vibrational states experienced by the active components of a drilling assembly such as that found in the oil or gas industry are discussed in the context of an integrated mathematical model. The work is motivated by the need to understand the complex vibrational states that such a system can exhibit in order to better control their constructive and destructive potential. The model is expressed in terms of six continuous independent degrees of freedom. Three locate the position of the centroid of the drill-string in space and three permit the dynamical state of the drill-string to be expressed in terms of flexural, torsional and shear strain, together with dilation and stretch. By supplementing the model with appropriate constitutive relations that relate these strains to bending and twisting couples together with shear and compression forces it can fully accommodate the modes of vibration that are traditionally associated with the motion of drill-strings in both straight and curved boreholes discussed in the engineering literature. These include axial motion along the length of the drill-string, torsional or rotational motion and transverse or lateral motion. Attention is given to the boundary conditions appropriate for an active drill-string and BHA stabiliser including an account of frictional simulations at the rock-interface, cutter simulations for different types of drill-bit and interactions between the bore cavity and the drill-string. The model is used to discuss the stability of axisymmetric drill-string configurations in vertical boreholes under both coupled torsional, axial and lateral perturbations as well as general non-perturbative coupled vibrational states under extreme conditions of lateral whirl.
LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological models in f (R, T) gravity
Kanakavalli, T.; Ananda Rao, G.
2016-07-01
Spatially homogeneous and anisotropic LRS Bianchi type-I space time is investigated in the presence of cosmic string source in a modified theory of gravitation formulated by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have solved the field equations using the equations of state for strings and presented cosmological models which describe geometric string, Takabayasi string and Reddy string in this particular theory. Some physical and kinematical parameters of the models are computed and discussed their physical significance.
Dark Strings and their Couplings to the Standard Model
Hyde, Jeffrey M; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2013-01-01
We consider the Standard Model extended by a hidden sector U(1)_X symmetry that is spontaneously broken at the TeV scale by the vacuum expectation value of an additional scalar field. We study "dark string" solutions in this model and their properties due to the Higgs portal and gauge kinetic mixing operators. We find that dark strings effectively interact with Higgs and Z bosons by linear couplings, and with leptons and baryons via Aharonov-Bohm couplings, thus possibly leading to new cosmological constraints on dark matter models with spontaneously broken extra U(1) symmetry factors.
Super no-scale models in string theory
Kounnas, Costas
2016-01-01
We consider "super no-scale models" in the framework of the heterotic string, where the N=4,2,1 --> 0 spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry is induced by geometrical fluxes realizing a stringy Scherk-Schwarz perturbative mechanism. Classically, these backgrounds are characterized by a boson/fermion degeneracy at the massless level, even if supersymmetry is broken. At the 1-loop level, the vacuum energy is exponentially suppressed, provided the supersymmetry breaking scale is small, m_{3/2} << M_{string}. We show that the "super no-scale string models" under consideration are free of Hagedorn-like tachyonic singularities, even when the supersymmetry breaking scale is large, m_{3/2} ~ M_{string}. The vacuum energy decreases monotonically and converges exponentially to zero, when m_{3/2} varies from M_{string} to 0. We also show that all Wilson lines associated to asymptotically free gauge symmetries are dynamically stabilized by the 1-loop effective potential, while those corresponding to non-asymtoticall...
Abelian cosmic string in the Starobinsky model of gravity
Morais Graça, J. P.
2016-03-01
In this paper, I analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian string in the framework of the Starobinsky model. The role played by the quadratic term in the Lagrangian density f(R)=R+η {R}2 of this model is emphasized and the results are compared with the corresponding ones obtained in the framework of Einstein’s theory of gravity. I have found that the angular deficit generated by the string is lowered as the η parameter increases, allowing a well-behaved spacetime for a large range of values of the symmetry-breaking scale.
Abelian Cosmic String in the Starobinsky model of gravity
Graça, J P Morais
2015-01-01
In this paper, I analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian string in the framework of the Starobinsky model. The role played by the quadratic term in the Lagrangian density $f(R) = R + \\eta R^2$ of this model is emphasized and the results are compared with the corresponding ones obtained in the framework of Einstein's theory of gravity. I have found that the angular deficit generated by the string is lowered as the $\\eta$ parameter increases, allowing a well-behaved spacetime for a large range of values of the symmetry-breaking scale.
Spin-orbit couplings in the string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spectrum of mesons with high spins is considered in the rotating string model. It is shown that Thomas precession of quarks spins gives rise to spin-orbit coupling. Predictions of the model agree with the experimental data on mass spectrum of mesons with even parity and even spins
Phase structure of string theory and the Random Energy Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We solve a random energy model with complex replica number and complex temperature values, and discuss the ensuing phase structure. A connection with string models and their phase structure is analyzed from the REM point of view. The REM analysis yields a few integer dimensions as special points of the REM phase diagram. For N = 1 superstrings, there is a distinguished dimension 5
String networks in generalized May-Leonard models
Avelino, P P; Menezes, J; de Oliveira, B F
2013-01-01
Generalized May-Leonard models have proven to be a powerful tool in the study of the dynamics complex biological and ecological systems. In this letter we give specific examples of models leading to the formation of string networks. We show that, in order to promote coexistence, the species may arrange themselves around regions with a high number density of empty sites generated by predator-prey interactions between competing species. These configurations extend into the third dimension giving rise to string networks. We investigate the corresponding dynamics using both stochastic and mean field theory simulations, showing that the coarsening of these string networks follows a scaling law which is analogous to that found in other physical systems in condensed matter and cosmology.
Models in theory building: the case of early string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The history of the origins and first steps of string theory, from Veneziano's formulation of his famous scattering amplitude in 1968 to the 'first string revolution' in 1984, provides rich material for discussing traditional issues in the philosophy of science. This paper focusses on the initial phase of this history, that is the making of early string theory out of the 'dual theory of strong interactions' motivated by the aim of finding a viable theory of hadrons in the framework of the so-called S-matrix theory of the Sixties: from the first two models proposed (the Dual Resonance Model and the Shapiro-Virasoro Model) to all the subsequent endeavours to extend and complete the theory, including its string interpretation. As is the aim of this paper to show, by representing an exemplary illustration of the building of a scientific theory out of tentative and partial models this is a particularly fruitful case study for the current philosophical discussion on how to characterize a scientific model, a scientific theory, and the relation between models and theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that a considerable decrease in a total cross-section of the elastic scattering of relativistic electrons by a crystal atomic string can take place at certain values of particle incidence angles. This effect is similar to the Ramsauer-Townsend effect of slow electrons scattering by an atom. It is shown that the decrease in the angle of particles incidence on the atomic string essentially changes the process of particles scattering. The phenomena of the particle rainbow scattering and orbiting may occur in this case. 14 refs., 5 figs
String Cosmological Models in Five-Dimensional Spacetimes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Sanjay Oli
2009-01-01
We present some classes of solutions for dust matter coupled to the string cloud in five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. The solutions have one or two distinct singularities depending upon the sign of the constant of integration. Some of the classes of models exhibit inflation in the initial stage. The behaviour of associated parameters has been discussed in detail.
Factorization in Dual Models and Functional Integration in String Theory
Mandelstam, Stanley
2008-01-01
This article contains a summary of the author's contributions, one in collaboration with K. Bardakci, to dual models and string theory prior to the mid-seventies. Other workers' contributions, during and subsequent to this period, are mentioned in order to relate our work to the general development of the subject
Scattering of Long Folded Strings and Mixed Correlators in the Two-Matrix Model
Bourgine, J. -E.; Hosomichi, K.; Kostov, I.; Matsuo, Y
2007-01-01
We study the interactions of Maldacena's long folded strings in two-dimensional string theory. We find the amplitude for a state containing two long folded strings to come and go back to infinity. We calculate this amplitude both in the worldsheet theory and in the dual matrix model, the Matrix Quantum Mechanics. The matrix model description allows to evaluate the amplitudes involving any number of long strings, which are given by the mixed trace correlators in an effective two-matrix model.
Recent developments in string model-building and cosmology
Cicoli, Michele
2016-01-01
In this talk I discuss recent developments in moduli stabilisation, SUSY breaking and chiral D-brane models together with several interesting features of cosmological models built in the framework of type IIB string compactifications. I show that a non-trivial pre-inflationary dynamics can give rise to a power loss at large angular scales for which there have been mounting observational hints from both WMAP and Planck. I then describe different stringy embeddings of inflationary models which ...
Three-generation asymmetric orbifold models from heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using Z3 asymmetric orbifolds in heterotic string theory, we construct N=1 SUSY three-generation models with the standard model gauge group SU(3)C×SU(2)L×U(1)Y and the left-right symmetric group SU(3)C×SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1)B−L. One of the models possesses a gauge flavor symmetry for the Z3 twisted matter
Open strings in the SL(2, R) WZWN model with solution for a rigidly rotating string
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Larsen, A.L.
2003-01-01
consider open string boundary conditions corresponding to a certain field-dependent gluing condition. This allows us to consider open strings with constant energy and angular momentum. Classically, these open strings naturally generalize the open strings in flat Minkowski space. For rigidly rotating open...... strings, we show that the torsion leads to a bending and an unfolding. We also derive the SL(2, R) Regge relation, which generalizes the linear Minkowski Regge relation. For "high" mass, it takes the form L ≈ ± M/H, where H is the scale of the SL(2, R) group manifold....
Numerical Study of the Simplest String Bit Model
Chen, Gaoli
2016-01-01
String bit models provide a possible method to formulate string as a discrete chain of point-like string bits. When the bit number $M$ is large, a chain behaves as a continuous string. We study the simplest case that has only one bosonic bit and one fermionic bit. The creation and annihilation operators are adjoint representations of $U\\left(N\\right)$ color group. We show that the supersymmetry reduces the parameter number of a Hamiltonian from seven to three and, at $N=\\infty$, ensures continuous energy spectrum, which implies the emergence of one spatial dimension. The Hamiltonian $H_{0}$ is constructed so that in large $N$ limit it produces a worldsheet spectrum with one grassmann worldsheet field. We concentrate on numerical study of the model in finite $N$. For the Hamiltonian $H_{0}$, we find that the would-be ground energy states disappear at $N=\\left(M-1\\right)/2$ for odd $M\\leq11$. Such a simple pattern is spoiled if $H$ has an additional term $\\xi\\Delta H$ which does not affect the result of $N=\\inf...
Collective String Field Theory of Matrix Models in the BMN Limit
Koch, Robert de Mello; Jevicki, Antal; Rodrigues, Joao P.
2002-01-01
We develop a systematic procedure for deriving canonical string field theory from large N matrix models in the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase limit. The approach, based on collective field theory, provides a generalization of standard string field theory.
Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anil Kumar Yadav; Vineet Kumar Yadav; Lallan Yadav
2011-04-01
Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein’s ﬁeld equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein’s ﬁeld equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale function. Solutions for particular forms of cosmic scale functions are also obtained. Some physical and geometrical aspects of the models are discussed.
Nielsen, Holger B
2014-01-01
Bosonic string theory with the possibility for an arbitrary number of strings - i.e. a string ?eld theory - is formulated by a Hilbert space (a Fock space), which is just that for massless noninteracting scalars. We earlier presented this novel type of string ?eld theory, but now we show that it leads to scattering just given by the Veneziano model amplitude. Generalization to strings with fermion modes would presumably be rather easy. It is characteristic for our formulation /model that: 1) We have thrown away some null set of information compared to usual string ?eld theory, 2)Formulated in terms of our \\objects" (= the non-interacting scalars) there is no interaction and essentially no time development(Heisenberg picture), 3) so that the S-matrix is in our Hilbert space given as the unit matrix, S=1, and 4) the Veneziano scattering amplitude appear as the overlap between the initial and the ?nal state described in terms of the \\objects". 5) The integration in the Euler beta function making up the Veneziano...
The search for a realistic flipped SU(5) string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an extensive search for a class of flipped SU(5) models built within the free fermionic formulation of the heterotic string. We describe a set of algorithms which constitute the basis for a computer program capable of generating systematically the massless spectrum and the superpotential of all possible models within the class we consider. Our search through the huge parameter space to be explored is simplified considerably by the constraint of N=1 spacetime supersymmetry and the need for extra Q, anti Q representations beyond the standard ones in order to possibly achieve string gauge coupling unification at scales of O(1018 GeV). Our results are remarkably simple and evidence the large degree of redundancy in this kind of constructions. We find one model with gauge group SU(5)xU(1)sub(Y tilde)xSO(10)hxSU(4)hxU(1)5 and fairly acceptable phenomenological properties. We study the D- and F-flatness constraints and the symmetry breaking pattern in this model and conclude that string gauge coupling unification is quite possible. (orig.)
Local models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe local Calabi-Yau geometries with two isolated singularities at which systems of D3- and D7-branes are located, leading to chiral sectors corresponding to a semi-realistic visible sector and a hidden sector with dynamical supersymmetry breaking. We provide explicit models with a 3-family MSSM-like visible sector, and a hidden sector breaking supersymmetry at a meta-stable minimum. For singularities separated by a distance smaller than the string scale, this construction leads to a simple realization of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking in string theory. The models are simple enough to allow the explicit computation of the massive messenger sector, using dimer techniques for branes at singularities. The local character of the configurations makes manifest the UV insensitivity of the supersymmetry breaking mediation
Dilaton stabilization in three-generation heterotic string model
Beye, Florian; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kuwakino, Shogo
2016-09-01
We study dilaton stabilization in heterotic string models. By utilizing the asymmetric orbifold construction, we construct an explicit three-generation model whose matter content in the visible sector is the supersymmetric standard model with additional vectorlike matter. This model does not contain any geometric moduli fields except the dilaton field. Model building at a symmetry enhancement point in moduli space enlarges the rank of the hidden gauge group. By analyzing multiple hidden gauge sectors, the dilaton field is stabilized by the racetrack mechanism. We also discuss a supersymmetry breaking scenario and F-term uplifting.
Generic formula of soft scalar masses in string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive formula of soft supersymmetry breaking scalar masses from 4-dimensional string models within a more generic framework. We consider effects of extra gauge symmetry breakings including an anomalous U(1) breaking through flat directions, that is, D-term and F-term contributions, particle mixing effects and heavy-light mass mixing effects. Some phenomenological implications are discussed based on our mass formula. (author)
Canonical and path integral quantization of string cosmology models
Cavaglia, M; Ungarelli, C.
1999-01-01
We discuss the quantisation of a class of string cosmology models that are characterized by scale factor duality invariance. We compute the amplitudes for the full set of classically allowed and forbidden transitions by applying the reduce phase space and the path integral methods. We show that these approaches are consistent. The path integral calculation clarifies the meaning of the instanton-like behaviour of the transition amplitudes that has been first pointed out in previous investigati...
Lovelock black hole thermodynamics in a string cloud model
Lee, Tae-Hun; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.(Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 54001, 4000, Durban, South Africa); Baboolal, Dharmanand
2015-01-01
The Lovelock theory is an extension of general relativity to higher dimensions. We study the Lovelock black hole for a string cloud model in arbitrary dimensional spacetime, and in turn also analyze its thermodynamical properties. Indeed, we compute the mass, temperature and entropy of the black hole and also perform a thermodynamical stability analysis. The phase structure suggests that the Hawking-Page phase transition is achievable. It turns out that the presence of the Lovelock terms and/...
2011-03-01
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the last 10 years in the quantitative understanding of gauge/string duality. For the first time it now appears that it will be possible to find the exact solution of a 4-dimensional interacting quantum field theory. This should have important implications for our understanding of other strongly coupled gauge theories such as Quantum Chromodynamics. The most studied is the most symmetric example of a gauge-string duality—the correspondence between the maximally supersymmetric gauge theory in flat 4 dimensions and superstring theory in a curved space AdS5×S5, also refered to as AdS/CFT duality. The solvability of this model, allowing us for example to compute the dimensions of gauge invariant operators for any value of the coupling, is due to its hidden integrability. At weak coupling this integrability is seen by identifying the dilatation operator which acts on single trace operators in the gauge theory with the Hamiltonian of an integrable 1-dimensional spin chain. At strong coupling, where the operators of the gauge theory are most easily identifiable as string states, integrability is manifested by the underlying integrability of the sigma model defined on the string world sheet. As a result, the exact quantum spectrum is determined by a set of thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations. These remarkable developments are based on a wide range of techniques from quantum field theory, condensed matter theory and mathematical physics and were reviewed in a special issue published two years ago: Kristjansen C, Staudacher M and Tseytlin A (ed) 2009 Integrability and the AdS/CFT correspondence J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 250301 The present special issue is an update: it contains three long reviews by Didina Serban, Benoit Vicedo and Dmytro Volin that cover recent developments and also present a few particular directions in a detailed pedagogical manner. It starts with a review by Serban [1], where the integrabilitity of the
Numerical study of the simplest string bit model
Chen, Gaoli; Sun, Songge
2016-05-01
String bit models provide a possible method to formulate a string as a discrete chain of pointlike string bits. When the bit number M is large, a chain behaves as a continuous string. We study the simplest case that has only one bosonic bit and one fermionic bit. The creation and annihilation operators are adjoint representations of the U (N ) color group. We show that the supersymmetry reduces the parameter number of a Hamiltonian from 7 to 3 and, at N =∞ , ensures a continuous energy spectrum, which implies the emergence of one spatial dimension. The Hamiltonian H0 is constructed so that in the large N limit it produces a world sheet spectrum with one Grassmann world sheet field. We concentrate on the numerical study of the model in finite N . For the Hamiltonian H0, we find that the would-be ground energy states disappear at N =(M -1 ) /2 for odd M ≤11 . Such a simple pattern is spoiled if H has an additional term ξ Δ H which does not affect the result of N =∞ . The disappearance point moves to higher (lower) N when ξ increases (decreases). Particularly, the ±(H0-Δ H ) cases suggest a possibility that the ground state could survive at large M and M ≫N . Our study reveals that the model has stringy behavior: when N is fixed and large enough, the ground energy decreases linearly with respect to M , and the excitation energy is roughly of order M-1. We also verify that a stable system of Hamiltonian ±H0+ξ Δ H requires ξ ≥∓1 .
Bianchi Type Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xing-Xiang
2004-01-01
The Bianchi type Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are presented. To obtaina determinate model, an equation of state p = κλ and a relation between metric potentials B = Cn are assumed. Thephysical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuouslyexpanding universe with a big-bang start, and the relation between the coefficient of bulk viscosity and the energy densityis ζ∝1 p1/2.
Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans Peter Nilles
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches.
Phenomenological Hints from a Class of String Motivated Model Constructions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use string theory constructions towards the generalisation of the supersymmetric standard model of strong and electroweak interactions. Properties of the models depend crucially on the location of fields in extradimensional compact space. This allows us to extract some generic lessons for the phenomenological properties of the low energy effective action. Within this scheme we present a compelling model based on local grand unification and mirage mediation of supersymmetry breakdown. We analyse the properties of the specific model towards its possible tests at the LHC and the complementarity to direct dark matter searches
Abelian cosmic string in the extended Starobinsky model of gravity
Graça, J P Morais
2016-01-01
We analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian cosmic string taking into account an extension of the Starobinsky model, where the action of general relativity is replaced by $f(R) = R - 2\\Lambda + \\eta R^2 + \\rho R^m$, with $m > 2$. As an interesting result, we find that the angular deficit which characterizes the cosmic string decreases as the parameters $\\eta$ and $\\rho$ increase. We also find that the cosmic horizon due to the presence of a cosmological constant is affected in such a way that it can grows or shrinks, depending on the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field and on the value of the cosmological constant
Little string theory from a double-scaled matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following Lin and Maldacena, we find exact supergravity solutions dual to a class of vacua of the plane wave matrix model by solving an electrostatics problem. These are asymptotically near-horizon D0-brane solutions with a throat associated with NS5-brane degrees of freedom. We determine the precise limit required to decouple the asymptotic geometry and leave an infinite throat solution found earlier by Lin and Maldacena, dual to Little String Theory on S5. By matching parameters with the gauge theory, we find that this corresponds to a double scaling limit of the plane wave matrix model in which N→∞ and the 't Hooft coupling λ scales as ln4(N), which we speculate allows all terms in the genus expansion to contribute even at infinite N. Thus, the double-scaled matrix quantum mechanics gives a Lagrangian description of Little String Theory on S5, or equivalently a ten-dimensional string theory with linear dilaton background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Within the framework of c=1 matrix models, we consider multi-matrix models, i.e. the quantum mechanics of multi-matrix models. A connection is established between a D-matrix model and a D-dimensional gas of fermions (bosons) for odd (even) values of D. A statistical mechanical analysis yields the scaling law for the free energy, and hence the susceptibility exponents for the various models. The exponents turn out to be positive for the multi-matrix models, suggesting that these could represent models of 2D gravity coupled to c>1 matter. However, a lower-bound on the mass-gap exponents is found (i.e. an upper bound on the Hausdorff dimension) which may render this identification unlikely. Nevertheless, we find certain qualitative features which would be expected of a c>1 theory. For instance, in addition to the positive susceptibility exponent, we find that whereas in the c=1 case the density of states itself diverges as one approaches the critical point, in the D-matrix models various derivatives of the density of states diverge, with the order of the derivative depending on D. This qualitatively different behaviour of the density of states could be a signal of the conjectured 'phase transition' at c=1. (orig.)
Production of charm in the quark-gluon strings model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quark-gluon strings model based on the 1/Nf - expansion in QCD is applied to the production of the charmed particles D(D-bar)-mesons and Λc+-hyperons. It is demonstrated that the model describes quantitatively the basic characteristics of the inclusive charm production generation. Experimental data indicate to the nonlinearity of the Ψ-mesons Regge trajectory with a close to zero intercept (αΨ(0) ∼ 0). The model predictions for the inclusive spectra of the charmed particles are given in a wide energy range
Solvable models of strings in homogeneous plane wave backgrounds
Blau, Matthias; Papadopoulos, G; Tseytlin, Arkady A; Blau, Matthias; Loughlin, Martin O'; Papadopoulos, George; Tseytlin, Arkady A.
2003-01-01
We solve closed string theory in all regular homogeneous plane-wave backgrounds with homogeneous NS three-form field strength and a dilaton. The parameters of the model are constant symmetric and anti-symmetric matrices k_{ij} and f_{ij} associated with the metric, and a constant anti-symmetric matrix h_{ij} associated with the NS field strength. In the light-cone gauge the rotation parameters f_{ij} have a natural interpretation as a constant magnetic field. This is a generalisation of the standard Landau problem with oscillator energies now being non-trivial functions of the parameters f_{ij} and k_{ij}. We develop a general procedure for solving linear but non-diagonal equations for string coordinates, and determine the corresponding oscillator frequencies, the light-cone Hamiltonian and level matching condition. We investigate the resulting string spectrum in detail in the four-dimensional case and compare the results with previously studied examples. Throughout we will find that the presence of the rotat...
D-term spectroscopy in realistic heterotic-string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent emergence of free fermionic heterotic string models with solely the MSSM charged spectrum below the string scale reinforces the motivation to investigate the pheneomelogical characteristics of this class of string models, which possess an underlying Z2xZ2 orbifold structure. An important property of the Z2xZ2 orbifold is the cyclic permutation symmetry between the three twisted sectors. If preserved in the three-generation models the cyclic permutation symmetry results in a family universal anomalous U(1)A, which is instrumental in explaining squark degeneracy, provided that the dominant component of supersymmetry breaking arises from the U(1)A D term. Interestingly, the contribution of the family-universal DA term to the squark masses may be intrafamily nonuniversal, and may differ from the usual (universal) boundary conditions assumed in the MSSM. We contemplate how DA-term spectroscopy may be instrumental in studying superstring models irrespective of our ignorance of the details of supersymmetry breaking. We examine the possible effect of the intrafamily nonuniversality on the resulting SUSY spectrum and the values of the strong coupling, effective weak mixing angle, and W-gauge boson mass, up to a two-loop accuracy, in the two models (universal and nonuniversal). We find that nonuniversality relaxes the constraint of color and charge breaking minima which appears in the universal case. In addition, it predicts a 3% smaller value of αs due to different threshold masses obtained in the latter scenario. Finally, we present the experimentally allowed predictions of the two models in an M0 and M1/2 parameter space. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
CMB anomalies from an inflationary model in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent Planck measurements show some CMB anomalies on large angular scales, which confirms the early observations by WMAP. We show that an inflationary model, in which before the slow-roll inflation the Universe is in a superinflationary phase, can generate a large-scale cutoff in the primordial power spectrum, which may account for not only the power suppression on large angular scales, but also a large dipole power asymmetry in the CMB. We discuss an implementation of our model in string theory. (orig.)
Topological B-model and ${\\hat c}=1$ String Theory
Hyun, S; Park, J D; Yi, S H; Hyun, Seungjoon; Oh, Kyungho; Park, Jong-Dae; Yi, Sang-Heon
2005-01-01
We study the topological B-model on a deformed $\\Z_2$ orbifolded conifold by investigating variation of complex structures via quantum Kodaira-Spencer theories. The fermionic/brane formulation together with systematic utilization of symmetries of the geometry gives rise to a free fermion realization of the amplitudes. We derive Ward identities which solve the perturbed free energy exactly. We also obtain the corresponding Kontsevich-like matrix model. All these confirm the recent conjecture on the connection of the theory with ${\\hat c}=1$ type 0A string theory compactified at the radius $R=\\sqrt{\\alpha'/2}$.
Non self-conjugate strings, singular strings and rigged configurations in the Heisenberg model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We observe a different type of complex solutions in the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain starting from N = 12, where the central rapidity of some of the odd-length strings becomes complex so that not all the strings self-conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N − 2)/2 singular solutions for M = 4, M = 5 down-spins and at most (N2 − 6N + 8)/8 singular solutions for M = 6, M = 7 down-spins in an even-length chain with N ⩾ 2M. Correspondence of the non self-conjugate string solutions and the singular string solutions to the rigged configurations has also been shown. (paper)
Perturbation theory for string sigma models
Bianchi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
In this thesis we investigate quantum aspects of the Green-Schwarz superstring in various AdS backgrounds relevant for the AdS/CFT correspondence, providing several examples of perturbative computations in the corresponding integrable sigma-models. We start by reviewing in details the supercoset construction of the superstring action in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$, pointing out the limits of this procedure for $AdS_4$ and $AdS_3$ backgrounds. For the $AdS_4 \\times CP^3$ case we give a thorough derivation of an alternative action, based on the double-dimensional reduction of eleven-dimensional super-membranes. We then consider the expansion about the BMN vacuum and the S-matrix for the scattering of worldsheet excitations in the decompactification limit. To evaluate its elements efficiently we describe a unitarity-based method resulting in a very compact formula yielding the cut-constructible part of any one-loop two-dimensional S-matrix. In the second part of this review we analyze the superstring action on $AdS_4 \\ti...
From topological strings to minimal models
Foda, Omar
2015-01-01
We glue four refined topological vertices to obtain a $U(2)$ web partition function $\\mathcal{W}_{\\, \\bf V \\, W \\, \\Delta} [q, t, R]$, where ${\\bf V}$ and ${\\bf W}$ are two pairs of Young diagrams, ${\\bf \\Delta}$ is a set of K\\"ahler parameters, $q$ and $t$ are deformation parameters, and $R$ is the radius of the $M$-theory circle. We show that there is 1. a choice of ${\\bf \\Delta}$, $q$ and $t$ as functions of $R$ and two co-prime integers $p$ and $p^{\\prime}$ , and 2. a restriction of ${\\bf V}$ and ${\\bf W}$ to partition pairs that obey $p$- and $p^{\\prime}$-dependent conditions, such that we obtain a restricted version of $\\mathcal{W}_{\\, \\bf V \\, W \\, \\Delta} [q, t, R]$ that 1. is manifestly free of non-physical singularities, and 2. reduces in the $R \\! \\rightarrow \\! 0$ limit to a building block of restricted versions of the 4D $U(2)$ quiver instanton partition functions. The latter are equal, using the AGT correspondence, to conformal blocks of Virasoro $A$-series minimal models parameterised by $p$ an...
Tian, Jialin; Wu, Chunming; Yang, Lin; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Gang; Yuan, Changfu
2016-01-01
Comparative analysis whether considering the lateral inertia or not, aiming at the longitudinal vibration of the drill string in drilling progress, is proposed. In the light of the actual condition, the mechanical model of the drill string about vibration is established on the basis of the theoretical analysis. Longitudinal vibration equation of the drill string is derived from the Rayleigh-Love model and one-dimensional viscoelastic model. According to the Laplace transform method and the re...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theorem concerning fermion interaction is postulated and applied to the problems of atomic (electronic) and nuclear physics. Model building based solely upon the postulate that adjacent like fermions must be singlet paired accounts for the closed shells of both nuclear and atomic structure. The implied antiferromagnetic FCC lattice of protons and neutrons in alternating layers has been found by previous workers to be the lowest-energy solid configuration of nuclear matter (N = P). The buildup of the FCC lattice from a central tetrahedron reproduces all of the shells and subshells of the isotropic harmonic oscillator, which is the basis for the shell model. In atomic structure, the singlet pairing of adjacent electrons implies closed-shell structures uniquely at the six noble gases and the three noble metals, Ni, Pd, and Pt. The basis for the postulate concerning fermions is found in terms of classical electrodynamics; it is a microscopic corollary of Biot-Savart's law that parallel currents attract whereas antiparallel currents repel. (author)
Chern-Simons Theory, Matrix Models, and Topological Strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walcher, J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)
2006-10-21
This book is a find. Marino meets the challenge of filling in less than 200 pages the need for an accessible review of topological gauge/gravity duality. He is one of the pioneers of the subject and a clear expositor. It is no surprise that reading this book is a great pleasure. The existence of dualities between gauge theories and theories of gravity remains one of the most surprising recent discoveries in mathematical physics. While it is probably fair to say that we do not yet understand the full reach of such a relation, the impressive amount of evidence that has accumulated over the past years can be regarded as a substitute for a proof, and will certainly help to delineate the question of what is the most fundamental quantum mechanical theory. Here is a brief summary of the book. The journey begins with matrix models and an introduction to various techniques for the computation of integrals including perturbative expansion, large-N approximation, saddle point analysis, and the method of orthogonal polynomials. The second chapter, on Chern-Simons theory, is the longest and probably the most complete one in the book. Starting from the action we meet Wilson loop observables, the associated perturbative 3-manifold invariants, Witten's exact solution via the canonical duality to WZW models, the framing ambiguity, as well as a collection of results on knot invariants that can be derived from Chern-Simons theory and the combinatorics of U ({infinity}) representation theory. The chapter also contains a careful derivation of the large-N expansion of the Chern-Simons partition function, which forms the cornerstone of its interpretation as a closed string theory. Finally, we learn that Chern-Simons theory can sometimes also be represented as a matrix model. The story then turns to the gravity side, with an introduction to topological sigma models (chapter 3) and topological string theory (chapter 4). While this presentation is necessarily rather condensed (and the
Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis in Type IIB String Models
Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco
2016-01-01
We present a viable string embedding of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in type IIB sequestered models where the late-time decay of the lightest modulus reheats the universe to relatively low temperatures. We show that if inflation is driven by a blow-up Kaehler modulus, the Affleck-Dine field can become tachyonic during inflation if the Kaehler metric for matter fields has an appropriate inflaton-dependent contribution. We find that the Affleck-Dine mechanism can generate the observed baryon asymm...
Solvable models of strings in homogeneous plane wave backgrounds
Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin; Papadopoulos, George; Tseytlin, Arkady A.
2003-01-01
We solve closed string theory in all regular homogeneous plane-wave backgrounds with homogeneous NS three-form field strength and a dilaton. The parameters of the model are constant symmetric and anti-symmetric matrices k_{ij} and f_{ij} associated with the metric, and a constant anti-symmetric matrix h_{ij} associated with the NS field strength. In the light-cone gauge the rotation parameters f_{ij} have a natural interpretation as a constant magnetic field. This is a generalisation of the s...
Intermediate scales, μ parameter, and fermion masses from string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We address intermediate scales within a class of string models. The intermediate scales occur due to the SM singlets Si acquiring non-zero VEVs due to radiative breaking; the mass squared mi2 of Si is driven negative at μrad due to O(1) Yukawa couplings of Si to exotic particles (calculable in a class of string models). The actual VEV of Si depends on the relative magnitude of the non-renormalizable terms of the type SiK+3/MK in the superpotential. We mainly consider the case in which the Si are charged under an additional non-anomalous U(1)' gauge symmetry and the VEVs occur along F- and D-flat directions. We explore various scenarios in detail, depending on the type of Yukawa couplings to the exotic particles and on the initial boundary values of the soft SUSY breaking parameters. We then address the implications of these scenarios for the μ parameter and the fermionic masses of the standard model. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
String model for AdS gravity and higher spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a string sigma-model with a low-energy limit that describes the anti-de Sitter gravity and spin 3 massless fields in Vasiliev's framelike formalism. The model is based on vertex operators generating vielbein and connection fields in the MacDowell-Mansouri-Stelle-West formulation of gravity. The structure of the vertex operators is based on the hidden symmetry generators in Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring theory, realizing the isometry group of the anti-de Sitter space. The beta-function equations in the sigma-model lead to equations of motion in the MacDowell-Mansouri-Stelle-West gravity with a negative cosmological constant with the anti-de Sitter geometry being the vacuum solution. Generalizations for the higher spin fields are analyzed and equations of motion for spin 3 fields in d=3 in framelike formalism are obtained in the low-energy limit of string theory. These equations correspond to those of sl(3,R) truncated Chern-Simons action based on higher spin algebra hs(1,1).
Supersymmetric standard model from the heterotic string (II)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchmueller, W. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamaguchi, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Lebedev, O.; Ratz, M. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.
2006-06-15
We describe in detail a Z{sub 6} orbifold compactification of the heterotic E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} string which leads to the (supersymmetric) standard model gauge group and matter content. The quarks and leptons appear as three 16-plets of SO(10), two of which are localized at fixed points with local SO(10) symmetry. The model has supersymmetric vacua without exotics at low energies and is consistent with gauge coupling unification. Supersymmetry can be broken via gaugino condensation in the hidden sector. The model has large vacuum degeneracy. Certain vacua with approximate B-L symmetry have attractive phenomenological features. The top quark Yukawa coupling arises from gauge interactions and is of the order of the gauge couplings. The other Yukawa couplings are suppressed by powers of standard model singlet fields, similarly to the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. (Orig.)
Resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings based on maximum entropy model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong
2006-01-01
The resolution of overlapping ambiguity strings (OAS) is studied based on the maximum entropy model.There are two model outputs,where either the first two characters form a word or the last two characters form a word.The features of the model include one word in context of OAS,the current OAS and word probability relation of two kinds of segmentation results.OAS in training text is found by the combination of the FMM and BMM segmentation method.After feature tagging they are used to train the maximum entropy model.The People Daily corpus of January 1998 is used in training and testing.Experimental results show a closed test precision of 98.64% and an open test precision of 95.01%.The open test precision is 3,76% better compared with that of the precision of common word probability method.
Sequestered String Models: Supersymmetry Breaking and Cosmological Applications
Muia, Francesco
2016-01-01
In the present thesis I studied the phenomenology arising from a class of string models called sequestered compactifications, which were born with the aim of getting low-energy SUSY from strings. This is not an easy task if combined with cosmological constraints, since the mechanism of moduli stabilization fixes both the scale of supersymmetric particles and the scale of moduli, which tend to be of the same order. However, if on the one hand supersymmetric particles with TeV mass are desired in order to address the hierarchy problem, on the other hand the cosmological moduli problem requires the moduli to be heavier than 100 TeV. The specific setup of sequestered compactifications makes this hierarchy achievable, at least in principle: as in these models the visible sector is located on a stack of D3-branes at singularities, a physical separation between the visible degrees of freedom and the SUSY-breaking sources takes place. Such decoupling translates into a hierarchy between the scale of SUSY-breaking and ...
A numerical study of the string function using a primitive equation ocean model
Tyler, R. H.; Käse, R.
We use results from a primitive-equation ocean numerical model (SCRUM) to test a theoretical 'string function' formulation put forward by Tyler and Käse in another article in this issue. The string function acts as a stream function for the large-scale potential energy flow under the combined beta and topographic effects. The model results verify that large-scale anomalies propagate along the string function contours with a speed correctly given by the cross-string gradient. For anomalies having a scale similar to the Rossby radius, material rates of change in the layer mass following the string velocity are balanced by material rates of change in relative vorticity following the flow velocity. It is shown that large-amplitude anomalies can be generated when wind stress is resonant with the string function configuration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jialin Tian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Comparative analysis whether considering the lateral inertia or not, aiming at the longitudinal vibration of the drill string in drilling progress, is proposed. In the light of the actual condition, the mechanical model of the drill string about vibration is established on the basis of the theoretical analysis. Longitudinal vibration equation of the drill string is derived from the Rayleigh-Love model and one-dimensional viscoelastic model. According to the Laplace transform method and the relationships among parameters of the model, the solutions to complex impedance at the bottom of the drill string are obtained, and then the comparison results are analyzed, which is the lateral inertia effect on longitudinal vibration characteristics. The researches show that the smaller the length of the drill string, the greater the cross-sectional area of the drill string, the greater the damping coefficient of bottom hole on the bottom of the drill string, and the more evident the effect on the dynamic stiffness of the drill string with lateral inertia effect. The Poisson ratio of the drill string only has some effects on it taking account of the lateral inertia effect, and the influence is relatively small compared with the former three conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altsybeev, Igor [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
In the present work, Monte-Carlo toy model with repulsing quark-gluon strings in hadron-hadron collisions is described. String repulsion creates transverse boosts for the string decay products, giving modifications of observables. As an example, long-range correlations between mean transverse momenta of particles in two observation windows are studied in MC toy simulation of the heavy-ion collisions.
Cosmic Strings in the Abelian Higgs Model with Conformal Coupling to Gravity
Verbin, Y.
1998-01-01
Cosmic string solutions of the abelian Higgs model with conformal coupling to gravity are shown to exist. The main characteristics of the solutions are presented and the differences with respect to the minimally coupled case are studied. An important difference is the absence of Bogomolnyi cosmic string solutions for conformal coupling. Several new features of the abelian Higgs cosmic strings of both types are discussed. The most interesting is perhaps a relation between the angular deficit a...
Diffeomorphisms as symplectomorphisms in history phase space: Bosonic string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure of the history phase space G of a covariant field system and its history group (in the sense of Isham and Linden) is analyzed on an example of a bosonic string. The history space G includes the time map T from the spacetime manifold (the two-sheet) Y to a one-dimensional time manifold T as one of its configuration variables. A canonical history action is posited on G such that its restriction to the configuration history space yields the familiar Polyakov action. The standard Dirac-ADM action is shown to be identical with the canonical history action, the only difference being that the underlying action is expressed in two different coordinate charts on G. The canonical history action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions corresponding to different choices T of foliating Y. The history Poisson brackets of spacetime fields on G induce the ordinary Poisson brackets of spatial fields in the instantaneous phase space G0 of the Dirac-ADM formalism. The canonical history action is manifestly invariant both under spacetime diffeomorphisms Diff Y and temporal diffeomorphisms Diff T. Both of these diffeomorphisms are explicitly represented by symplectomorphisms on the history phase space G. The resulting classical history phase space formalism is offered as a starting point for projection operator quantization and consistent histories interpretation of the bosonic string model
Phenomenology of twisted moduli in type I string inspired models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We make a first study of the phenomenological implications of twisted moduli in type I intersecting D5-brane models, focussing on the resulting predictions at the LHC using SOFTSUSY to estimate the Higgs and sparticle spectra. Twisted moduli can play an important role in giving a viable string realisation of sequestering in the limit where supersymmetry breaking comes entirely from the twisted moduli. We focus on a particular string inspired version of gaugino mediation in which the first two families are localised at the intersection between D5-branes, whereas the third family and Higgs doublets are allowed to move within the world-volume of one of the branes. The soft supersymmetry breaking third family sfermion mass terms are then in general non-degenerate with the first two families. We place constraints upon parameter space and predictions of flavour changing neutral current effects. Twisted moduli domination is studied and, as well as solving the most serious part of the SUSY flavour problem, is shown to be highly constrained. The constraints are weakened by switching on gravity-mediated contributions from the dilaton and untwisted T-moduli sectors. In the twisted moduli domination limit we predict a stop-heavy MSSM spectrum and quasi-degenerate lightest neutralino and chargino states with wino-dominated mass eigenstates. (author)
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov...... models. We show that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models...
A possible description of the quantum numbers in a hadronic string model
Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Weidl, G.
1996-01-01
We consider a critical composite superconformal string model to desribe hadronic interactions. We present a new approach of introducing hadronic quantum numbers in the scattering amplitudes. The physical states carry the quantum numbers and form a common system of eigenfunctions of the operators in this string model. We give explicit constructions of the quantum number operators.
Bianchi Type-IX String Cosmological Models for Perfect Fluid Distribution in General Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present study deals with Bianchi type-IX string cosmological models for perfect fluid distribution. We consider two cases: (i) ρ + λ = 0, (ii) ρ – λ = 0, where ρ and λ are the rest energy density and the tension density of a string cloud, respectively. The physical and geometrical properties of the models are discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑亮
2015-01-01
The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.
Marino Beiras, Marcos
2001-01-01
We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.
Aspects Of The Phenomenology Of String-inspired Supergravity Models
Nelson, B D
2001-01-01
In this dissertation we calculate the one loop quantum contributions to soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the scalar potential as well as gaugino masses in supergravity theories regulated à la Pauli- Villars. We find “universal” contributions, independent of the regulator masses and tree level soft supersymmetry breaking, that contribute gaugino masses and A-terms equal to the “anomaly mediated” contributions found in analyses using spurion techniques, as well as a scalar mass term not identified in those analyses. The universal terms are in general modified—and in some cases canceled—by model- dependent terms. We emphasize the model dependence of loop-induced soft terms in the potential, which are much more sensitive to the details of Planck scale physics then are the one loop contributions to gaugino masses. Next, a systematic analysis of soft supersymmetry breaking terms at the one loop level is performed in a large class of string e...
Low and high PT physics in the fire string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this paper is to present a number of results obtained by the Fire String Model applied to proton-proton scattering in the last years. This model was used to reproduce final states from several scattering processes: electron-positron annihilation, lepton-hadron deep inelastic scattering, proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering. In proton-proton scattering we first studied the main part of the cross section, i.e. the low pT physics. The NA5 experiment showed up that this kind of physics dominates at energies in the range of the CERN-SPS (150 divided-by 300 GeV). In particular this experiment demonstrated that a large transverse energy deposition is associated (most of the time) with space structures that are not jet-like, but rather diffuse in the whole transverse plane
Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 1. Radiation of standard model particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, Andrew J.; Hyde, Jeffrey M.; Vachaspati, Tanmay, E-mail: andrewjlong@asu.edu, E-mail: jmhyde@asu.edu, E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)
2014-09-01
In hidden sector models with an extra U(1) gauge group, new fields can interact with the Standard Model only through gauge kinetic mixing and the Higgs portal. After the U(1) is spontaneously broken, these interactions couple the resultant cosmic strings to Standard Model particles. We calculate the spectrum of radiation emitted by these ''dark strings'' in the form of Higgs bosons, Z bosons, and Standard Model fermions assuming that string tension is above the TeV scale. We also calculate the scattering cross sections of Standard Model fermions on dark strings due to the Aharonov-Bohm interaction. These radiation and scattering calculations will be applied in a subsequent paper to study the cosmological evolution and observational signatures of dark strings.
Cosmic Strings in Hidden Sectors: 1. Radiation of Standard Model Particles
Long, Andrew J; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2014-01-01
In hidden sector models with an extra U(1) gauge group, new fields can interact with the Standard Model only through gauge kinetic mixing and the Higgs portal. After the U(1) is spontaneously broken, these interactions couple the resultant cosmic strings to Standard Model particles. We calculate the spectrum of radiation emitted by these "dark strings" in the form of Higgs bosons, Z bosons, and Standard Model fermions assuming that string tension is above the TeV scale. We also calculate the scattering cross sections of Standard Model fermions on dark strings due to the Aharonov-Bohm interaction. These radiation and scattering calculations will be applied in a subsequent paper to study the cosmological evolution and observational signatures of dark strings.
Quantum Theory of Strings in Abelian Higgs Model
Akhmedov, E. T.; Chernodub, M. N.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Zubkov, M.A.
1995-01-01
Starting from the Abelian Higgs field theory, we construct the theory of quantum Abrikosov--Nielsen--Olesen strings. It is shown that in four space -- time dimensions in the limit of infinitely thin strings, the conformal anomaly is absent, and the quantum theory exists. We also study an analogue of the Aharonov--Bohm effect: the corresponding topological interaction is proportional to the linking number of the string world sheet and the particle world trajectory. The creation operators of th...
Asymptotic Freedom in a String Model of High Temperature QCD
Awada, Moustafa
1995-01-01
Recently we have shown that a phase transition occurs in the leading and sub-leading approximation of the large N limit in rigid strings coupled to long range Kalb-Ramond interactions. The disordered phase is essentially the Nambu-Goto-Polyakov string theory while the ordered phase is a new theory. In this letter we compute the free energy per unit length of the interacting rigid string at finite temperature. We show that the mass of the winding states solves that of QCD strings in the limit ...
SUSY breaking in local string/F-theory models
Blumenhagen, R.; Conlon, J. P.; Krippendorf, S.; Moster, S.; Quevedo, F.
2009-09-01
We investigate bulk moduli stabilisation and supersymmetry breaking in local string/F-theory models where the Standard Model is supported on a del Pezzo surface or singularity. Computing the gravity mediated soft terms on the Standard Model brane induced by bulk supersymmetry breaking in the LARGE volume scenario, we explicitly find suppressions by Ms/MP ~ Script V-1/2 compared to M3/2. This gives rise to several phenomenological scenarios, depending on the strength of perturbative corrections to the effective action and the source of de Sitter lifting, in which the soft terms are suppressed by at least MP/Script V3/2 and may be as small as MP/Script V2. Since the gravitino mass is of order M3/2 ~ MP/Script V, for TeV soft terms all these scenarios give a very heavy gravitino (M3/2 >= 108 GeV) and generically the lightest moduli field is also heavy enough (m >= 10 TeV) to avoid the cosmological moduli problem. For TeV soft terms, these scenarios predict a minimal value of the volume to be Script V ~ 106-7 in string units, which would give a unification scale of order MGUT ~ MsScript V1/6 ~ 1016 GeV. The strong suppression of gravity mediated soft terms could also possibly allow a scenario of dominant gauge mediation in the visible sector but with a very heavy gravitino M3/2 > 1 TeV.
Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis in Type IIB String Models
Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Muia, Francesco
2016-01-01
We present a viable string embedding of Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in type IIB sequestered models where the late-time decay of the lightest modulus reheats the universe to relatively low temperatures. We show that if inflation is driven by a blow-up Kaehler modulus, the Affleck-Dine field can become tachyonic during inflation if the Kaehler metric for matter fields has an appropriate inflaton-dependent contribution. We find that the Affleck-Dine mechanism can generate the observed baryon asymmetry for natural values of the underlying parameters which lead also to successful inflation and low-energy gaugino masses in a split supersymmetry scenario. The reheating temperature from the lightest modulus decay is high enough to allow thermal Higgsino-like dark matter.
Integrable Models, SUSY Gauge Theories, and String Theory
Nam, S
1996-01-01
We consider the close relation between duality in N=2 SUSY gauge theories and integrable models. Vario us integrable models ranging from Toda lattices, Calogero models, spinning tops, and spin chains are re lated to the quantum moduli space of vacua of N=2 SUSY gauge theories. In particular, SU(3) gauge t heories with two flavors of massless quarks in the fundamental representation can be related to the spec tral curve of the Goryachev-Chaplygin top, which is a Nahm's equation in disguise. This can be generaliz ed to the cases with massive quarks, and N_f = 0,1,2, where a system with seven dimensional phas e space has the relevant hyperelliptic curve appear in the Painlevé test. To understand the stringy o rigin of the integrability of these theories we obtain exact nonperturbative point particle limit of ty pe II string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, which gives the hyperelliptic curve of SU(2) QCD w ith N_f =1 hypermultiplet.
Searching for inflation in simple string theory models: An astrophysical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attempts to connect string theory with astrophysical observation are hampered by a jargon barrier, where an intimidating profusion of orientifolds, Kaehler potentials, etc. dissuades cosmologists from attempting to work out the astrophysical observables of specific string theory solutions from the recent literature. We attempt to help bridge this gap by giving a pedagogical exposition with detailed examples, aimed at astrophysicists and high energy theorists alike, of how to compute predictions for familiar cosmological parameters when starting with a 10-dimensional string theory action. This is done by investigating inflation in string theory, since inflation is the dominant paradigm for how early universe physics determines cosmological parameters. We analyze three explicit string models from the recent literature, each containing an infinite number of vacuum solutions. Our numerical investigation of some natural candidate inflatons, the so-called 'moduli fields', fails to find inflation. We also find in the simplest models that, after suitable field redefinitions, vast numbers of these vacua differ only in an overall constant multiplying the effective inflaton potential, a difference which affects neither the potential's shape nor its ability to support slow-roll inflation. This illustrates that even having an infinite number of vacua does not guarantee having inflating ones. This may be an artifact of the simplicity of the models that we study. Instead, more complicated string theory models appear to be required, suggesting that identifying the inflating subset of the string landscape will be challenging
Renormalization Group Analysis of a Quivering String Model of Posture Control
Alonso-Sanchez, Francisco; Hochberg, David
2000-01-01
Scaling concepts and renormalization group (RG) methods are applied to a simple linear model of human posture control consisting of a trembling or quivering string subject to damping and restoring forces. The string is driven by uncorrelated white Gaussian noise intended to model the corrections of the physiological control system. We find that adding a weak quadratic nonlinearity to the posture control model opens up a rich and complicated phase space (representing the dynamics) with various...
General analysis of dark radiation in sequestered string models
Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco
2015-12-01
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kähler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kähler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. In this case, the simplest model with a shift-symmetric Higgs sector can suppress the excess of dark radiation Δ N eff to values as small as 0 .14, in perfect agreement with current experimental bounds. Depending on the exact mass of the SUSY scalars all values in the range 0 .14 ≲ Δ N eff ≲ 1 .6 are allowed. Interestingly dark radiation overproduction can be avoided also in the absence of a Giudice-Masiero coupling.
Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity
Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali
2010-11-01
String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.
Polchinski, Joseph
1994-01-01
The first part is an introduction to conformal field theory and string perturbation theory. The second part deals with the search for a deeper answer to the question posed in the title. Contents: 1. Conformal Field Theory 2. String Theory 3. Vacua and Dualities 4. String Field Theory or Not String Field Theory 5. Matrix Models
Strings in AdS3 and the SL(2,R) WZW Model. Part 1: The spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study the spectrum of bosonic string theory on AdS3. We study classical solutions of the SL(2,R) WZW model, including solutions for long strings with non-zero winding number. We show that the model has a symmetry relating string configurations with different winding numbers. We then study the Hilbert space of the WZW model, including all states related by the above symmetry. This leads to a precise description of long strings. We prove a no-ghost theorem for all the representations that are involved and discuss the scattering of the long string
Inácio, O.; Antunes, J.; Wright, M. C. M.
2008-02-01
Most theoretical studies of bowed-string instruments deal with isolated strings, pinned on fixed supports. In others, the instrument body dynamics have been accounted by using extremely simplified models of the string-body interaction through the instrument bridge. Such models have, nevertheless, been instrumental to the understanding of a very common and musically undesirable phenomenon known as the wolf note—a strong beating interplay between string and body vibrations. Cellos, bad and good, are particularly prone to this problem. In previous work, a computational method that allows efficient time-domain modelling of bowed strings based on a modal approach has been introduced. This has been extended to incorporate the complex dynamics of real-life instrument bodies, and their coupling to the string motions, using experimental dynamical body data. The string is modelled using its unconstrained modes, assuming pinned-pinned boundary conditions at the tailpiece and the nut. At the intermediary bridge location, the string-body coupling is enforced using the body impulse-response or modal data, as measured at the instrument bridge. In the present paper, this computational approach is applied to a specific cello, which provided experimental wolf-behaviour data under several bowing conditions, as well as laboratory measurements of the bridge impulse responses on which the numerical simulations were based. Interesting aspects of the string-body dynamical responses are highlighted by numerical simulations and the corresponding sounds and animations produced. Finally, a qualitative (and, when possible, quantitative) comparison of the experimental and numerical results is presented.
General Analysis of Dark Radiation in Sequestered String Models
Cicoli, Michele
2015-01-01
We perform a general analysis of axionic dark radiation produced from the decay of the lightest modulus in the sequestered LARGE Volume Scenario. We discuss several cases depending on the form of the Kahler metric for visible sector matter fields and the mechanism responsible for achieving a de Sitter vacuum. The leading decay channels which determine dark radiation predictions are to hidden sector axions, visible sector Higgses and SUSY scalars depending on their mass. We show that in most of the parameter space of split SUSY-like models squarks and sleptons are heavier than the lightest modulus. Hence dark radiation predictions previously obtained for MSSM-like cases hold more generally also for split SUSY-like cases since the decay channel to SUSY scalars is kinematically forbidden. However the inclusion of string loop corrections to the Kahler potential gives rise to a parameter space region where the decay channel to SUSY scalars opens up, leading to a significant reduction of dark radiation production. ...
Nonlinear dynamics of torsional waves in a drill-string model with spatial extent
Barton, DAW; Krauskopf, B.; Wilson, RE
2007-01-01
In this paper we investigate the dynamics and bifurcations of an oil-well drill-string model that takes the form of a neutral delay differential equation (NDDE). We consider the torsional mode of the drill-string and investigate the associated stick-slip motion. To analyse the model we develop numerical continuation routines based on Fourier-methods since existing routines based on polynomial approximations are unable to cope with the presence of arbitrarily weakly damped modes. We find `reso...
LRS Bianchi Type-I Inflationary String Cosmological Model in Brans-Dicke Theory of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Venkateswarlu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate locally rotational symmetric (LRS Bianchi type I space time coupled with scalar field. String cosmological models generated by a cloud of strings with particles attached to them are studied in the Brans-Dicke theory. We assume that the expansion scalar is proportional to the shear scalar and also power law ansatz for scalar field. The physical behavior of the resulting model is discussed through different parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIM; C.W.
2010-01-01
Nonlinear combination parametric resonance is investigated for an axially accelerating viscoelastic string.The governing equation of in-planar motion of the string is established by introducing a coordinate transform in the Eulerian equation of a string with moving boundaries.The string under investigation is constituted by the standard linear solid model in which the material,not partial,time derivative was used.The governing equation leads to the Mote model for transverse vibration by omitting the longitudinal component and higher order terms.The Kirchhoff model is derived from the Mote model by replacing the tension with the averaged tension over the string.The two models are respectively analyzed via the method of multiple scales for principal parametric resonance.The amplitudes and the existence conditions of steady-state response and its stability can be numerically determined.Numerical calculations demonstrate the effects of the string material parameters,the initial tension,and the axial speed fluctuation amplitude.The outcomes of the two models are qualitatively and quantitatively compared.
String networks in Z{sub N} Lotka–Volterra competition models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avelino, P.P., E-mail: Pedro.Avelino@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Bazeia, D. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, J. [Centro de Física do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, B.F. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)
2014-01-17
In this Letter we give specific examples of Z{sub N} Lotka–Volterra competition models leading to the formation of string networks. We show that, in order to promote coexistence, the species may arrange themselves around regions with a high number density of empty sites generated by predator–prey interactions between competing species. These configurations extend into the third dimension giving rise to string networks. We investigate the corresponding dynamics using both stochastic and mean field theory simulations, showing that the coarsening of these string networks follows a scaling law which is analogous to that found in other physical systems in condensed matter and cosmology.
A simple model for the evolution of a non-Abelian cosmic string network
Cella, G
2015-01-01
In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations intended to study the behavior of non-Abelian cosmic strings networks. In particular we are interested in discussing the variations in the asymptotic behavior of the system as we variate the number of generators for the topological defects. A simple model which should generate cosmic strings is presented and its lattice discretization is discussed. The evolution of the generated cosmic string networks is then studied for different values for the number of generators for the topological defects. Scaling solution appears to be approached in most cases and we present an argument to justify the lack of scaling for the residual cases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a significant update of the constraints on the Abelian Higgs cosmic string tension by cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, enabled both by the use of new high-resolution CMB data from suborbital experiments as well as the latest results of the WMAP satellite, and by improved predictions for the impact of Abelian Higgs cosmic strings on the CMB power spectra. The new cosmic string spectra [1] were improved especially for small angular scales, through the use of larger Abelian Higgs string simulations and careful extrapolation. If Abelian Higgs strings are present then we find improved bounds on their contribution to the CMB anisotropies, fdAH AH −6, both at 95% confidence level using WMAP7 data; and fdAH AH −6 using all the CMB data. We also find that using all the CMB data, a scale invariant initial perturbation spectrum, ns = 1, is now disfavoured at 2.4σ even if strings are present. A Bayesian model selection analysis no longer indicates a preference for strings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhanghua Lian
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, open differential-pressure sliding sleeve, and open ball-injection sliding sleeve under a hold-down packer. Moreover, mathematical models were respectively built for the above three cases. According to the Lame formula and Von Mises stress calculation formula for the thick-walled cylinder in the theory of elastic mechanics, a mathematical model was also established to calculate the equivalent stress for tubing string safety evaluation when the fracturing string was under the combined action of inner pressure, external squeezing force and axial stress, and another mathematical model was built for the mechanical strength and safety evaluation of multi-stage fracturing strings. In addition, a practical software was developed for the mechanical safety evaluation of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing strings according to the mathematical model developed for the mechanical calculation of the multi-packer string in horizontal wells. The research results were applied and verified in a gas well of Tahe Oilfield in the Tarim Basin with excellent effects, providing a theoretical basis and a simple and reliable technical means for optimal design and safety evaluation of safe operational parameters of multi-stage fracturing strings in horizontal wells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects that are predicted by some grand unified theories to form during a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition in the early universe. They are the basis for the only theories of galaxy formation aside from quantum fluctuations from inflation that are based on fundamental physics. In contrast to inflation, they can also be observed directly through gravitational lensing and their characteristic microwave background anistropy. It has recently been discovered by F. Bouchet and myself that details of cosmic string evolution are very different from the so-called ''standard model'' that has been assumed in most of the string induced galaxy formation calculations. Therefore, the details of galaxy formation in the cosmic string models are currently very uncertain. 29 refs., 9 figs
Zhanghua Lian; Ying Zhang; Xu Zhao; Shidong Ding; Tiejun Lin
2015-01-01
Multi-stage SRV fracturing in horizontal wells is a new technology developed at home and abroad in recent years to effectively develop shale gas or low-permeability reservoirs, but on the other hand makes the mechanical environment of fracturing strings more complicated at the same time. In view of this, based on the loading features of tubing strings during the multi-stage fracturing of a horizontal well, mechanical models were established for three working cases of multiple packer setting, ...
D-brane scattering in IIB string theory and IIB matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider two Dirichlet p-branes with lower dimensional brane charges and their scattering. We first calculate the cylinder amplitude of the open string with suitable boundary conditions. We compare this result with that in the 11B matrix model. We find agreement between them in the long distance, low velocity, or large field limit. We also find a way to investigate more general boundary conditions for the open string
Note on a closed string field theory from bosonic IIB matrix model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply stochastic quantization method to the bosonic part of IIB matrix model, i.e., a naive zero volume limit of large-N Yang-Mills theory, to construct a collective field theory of Wilson loops. The Langevin equation for Wilson loops can be interpreted as the time evolution of closed string fields. The corresponding Fokker-Planck hamiltonian deduces a closed string field theory which describes interacting Wilson loops with manifest Lorentz invariance. (author)
Matrix Models, Open Strings and Quantization of Membranes
Jevicki, Antal
1996-01-01
We present an approach to membrane quantization using matrix quantum mechanics at large N. We show that this leads (through a simple field theory of two-dimensional open strings and the associated SU(\\infty) current algebra) to a 4-D dynamics of self-dual gravity plus matter.
Classification of $SU(4) \\times SU(2) \\times U(1)$ Heterotic-String Models
Faraggi, Alon E
2014-01-01
The free fermionic construction of the heterotic string in four dimensions produced a large space of three generation models with the underlying $SO(10)$ embedding of the Standard Model states. The $SO(10)$ symmetry is broken to a subgroup directly at the string scale. Over the past few years free fermionic models with the Pati-Salam and flipped $SU(5)$ subgroups have been classified. In this paper we extend this classification program to models in which the $SO(10)$ symmetry is broken at the string level to the $SU(4)\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_R$ (SU421) subgroup. The subspace of free fermionic models that we consider corresponds to symmetric ${\\mathbb{Z}}_2 \\times {\\mathbb{Z}}_2$ orbifolds. We provide a general argument that shows that this class of SU421 free fermionic models cannot produce viable three generation models.
Nonlinear Model and Qualitative Analysis for Coupled Axial/Torsional Vibrations of Drill String
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fushen Ren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear dynamics model and qualitative analysis are presented to study the key effective factors for coupled axial/torsional vibrations of a drill string, which is described as a simplified, equivalent, flexible shell under axial rotation. Here, after dimensionless processing, the mathematical models are obtained accounting for the coupling of axial and torsional vibrations using the nonlinear dynamics qualitative method, in which excitation loads and boundary conditions of the drill string are simplified to a rotating, flexible shell. The analysis of dynamics responses is performed by means of the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, in which the rules that govern the changing of the torsional and axial excitation are revealed, and suggestions for engineering applications are also given. The simulation analysis shows that when the drill string is in a lower-speed rotation zone, the torsional excitation is the key factor in the coupling vibration, and increasing the torsional stress of the drill string more easily leads to the coupling vibration; however, when the drill string is in a higher-speed rotating zone, the axial excitation is a key factor in the coupling vibration, and the axial stress in a particular interval more easily leads to the coupling vibration of the drill string.
Dienes, Keith R; Dienes, Keith R.; Lennek, Michael
2005-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the important question of how to extrapolate a given zero-temperature string model to finite temperature. It turns out that this issue is surprisingly subtle, and we show that many of the standard results require modification. For concreteness, we focus on the case of the ten-dimensional SO(32) heterotic string, and show that the usual finite-temperature extrapolation for this string is inconsistent at the level of a proper worldsheet theory. We then derive the proper extrapolation, and in the process uncover a universal Hagedorn temperature for all tachyon-free closed string theories in ten dimensions --- both Type II and heterotic. As we discuss, these results are not in conflict with the well-known exponential growth in the degeneracies of string states in such models. This writeup is a concise summary of our recent paper hep-th/0505233, here presented using a ``bottom-up'' approach based on determining self-consistent finite-temperature extrapolations of zero-temperature string m...
A note on probabilistic models over strings: the linear algebra approach.
Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre
2013-12-01
Probabilistic models over strings have played a key role in developing methods that take into consideration indels as phylogenetically informative events. There is an extensive literature on using automata and transducers on phylogenies to do inference on these probabilistic models, in which an important theoretical question is the complexity of computing the normalization of a class of string-valued graphical models. This question has been investigated using tools from combinatorics, dynamic programming, and graph theory, and has practical applications in Bayesian phylogenetics. In this work, we revisit this theoretical question from a different point of view, based on linear algebra. The main contribution is a set of results based on this linear algebra view that facilitate the analysis and design of inference algorithms on string-valued graphical models. As an illustration, we use this method to give a new elementary proof of a known result on the complexity of inference on the "TKF91" model, a well-known probabilistic model over strings. Compared to previous work, our proving method is easier to extend to other models, since it relies on a novel weak condition, triangular transducers, which is easy to establish in practice. The linear algebra view provides a concise way of describing transducer algorithms and their compositions, opens the possibility of transferring fast linear algebra libraries (for example, based on GPUs), as well as low rank matrix approximation methods, to string-valued inference problems. PMID:24135792
Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity in General Relativity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xing-Xiang
2005-01-01
The Bianchi type-Ⅲcosmological model for a cloud string with bulk viscosity are studied. To obtain a determinate solution, it is assumed that the coefficient of bulk viscosity is a power function of the scalar of expansion ζ = kθm and the shear scalar is proportional to scalar of expansion σ∝θ, which leads to the relation between metric potentials B = Cn. The physical features of the model are also discussed. It is found that the power index mhas significant influence on the string model. There is a "big bang" start in the model when m ≤ 1 but there is no the big-bang start when m ＞ 1. In the special case m = 0, the model reduces to the string model of constant coefficient of bulk viscosity that was the result previously given in the literature.
Supersymmetry and string theory beyond the standard model
Dine, Michael
2015-01-01
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the fields of experimental and theoretical particle physics and cosmology. This fully updated second edition is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments and brings this self-contained textbook right up to date. Brand new material for this edition includes the groundbreaking Higgs discovery, results of the WMAP and Planck experiments. Extensive discussion of theories of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and a new chapter on the landscape, as well as a completely rewritten coda on future directions gives readers a modern perspective on this developing field. A focus on three principle areas: supersymmetry, string theory, and astrophysics and cosmology provide the structure for this book which will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password-protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambrid...
Reconnection of Colliding Cosmic Strings
Hanany, Amihay; Hashimoto, Koji
2005-01-01
For vortex strings in the Abelian Higgs model and D-strings in superstring theory, both of which can be regarded as cosmic strings, we give analytical study of reconnection (recombination, inter-commutation) when they collide, by using effective field theories on the strings. First, for the vortex strings, via a string sigma model, we verify analytically that the reconnection is classically inevitable for small collision velocity and small relative angle. Evolution of the shape of the reconne...
General relativistic model of a spinning cosmic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors investigate the infinite, straight, rotating cosmic string within the framework of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. A class of exact interior solutions is derived for which the source satisfies the weak and the dominant energy conditions. The interior metric is matched smoothly to the exterior vacuum. A subclass of these solutions has closed time-like curves both in the interior and the exterior geometry. 39 refs., 2 figs
Conformal chiral boson models on twisted doubled tori and non-geometric string vacua
Avramis, Spyros D; Prezas, Nikolaos
2009-01-01
We derive and analyze the conditions for quantum conformal and Lorentz invariance of the duality symmetric interacting chiral boson sigma-models, which are conjectured to describe non-geometric string theory backgrounds. The one-loop Weyl and Lorentz anomalies are computed for the general case using the background field method. Subsequently, our results are applied to a class of (on-shell) Lorentz invariant chiral boson models which are based on twisted doubled tori. Our findings are in agreement with those expected from the effective supergravity approach, thereby firmly establishing that the chiral boson models under consideration provide the string worldsheet description of N=4 gauged supergravities with electric gaugings. Furthermore, they demonstrate that twisted doubled tori are indeed the doubled internal geometries underlying a large class of non-geometric string compactifications. For compact gaugings the associated chiral boson models are automatically conformal, a fact that is explained by showing ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author describes in this paper the atom-in-jellium calculations he has been doing over the last ten years. He tries to emphasize reasons for doing this sort of calculations and why he devised a model which is different in some respects from others
The string prediction models as an invariants of time series in forex market
Richard Pincak; Marian Repasan
2011-01-01
In this paper we apply a new approach of the string theory to the real financial market. It is direct extension and application of the work [1] into prediction of prices. The models are constructed with an idea of prediction models based on the string invariants (PMBSI). The performance of PMBSI is compared to support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) on an artificial and a financial time series. Brief overview of the results and analysis is given. The first model is ...
de Boer, Jan
2002-01-01
An overview of some of the developments in string theory over the past two years is given, focusing on four topics: realistic (standard model like) models from string theory, geometric engineering and theories with fluxes, the gauge theory-gravity correspondence, and time dependent backgrounds and string theory. Plenary talk at ICHEP'02, Amsterdam, July 24-31, 2002.
Integrable String Models in Terms of Chiral Invariants of SU(n, SO(n, SP(n Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor D. Gershun
2008-05-01
Full Text Available We considered two types of string models: on the Riemmann space of string coordinates with null torsion and on the Riemman-Cartan space of string coordinates with constant torsion. We used the hydrodynamic approach of Dubrovin, Novikov to integrable systems and Dubrovin solutions of WDVV associativity equation to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the torsionless Riemmann space of chiral currents in first case. We used the invariant local chiral currents of principal chiral models for SU(n, SO(n, SP(n groups to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the Riemmann space of the chiral primitive invariant currents and on the chiral non-primitive Casimir operators as Hamiltonians in second case. We also used Pohlmeyer tensor nonlocal currents to construct new nonlocal string equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riionheimo Janne
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a technique for estimating control parameters for a plucked string synthesis model using a genetic algorithm. The model has been intensively used for sound synthesis of various string instruments but the fine tuning of the parameters has been carried out with a semiautomatic method that requires some hand adjustment with human listening. An automated method for extracting the parameters from recorded tones is described in this paper. The calculation of the fitness function utilizes knowledge of the properties of human hearing.
On the Wilson loop in the dual representation within the dual Higgs model with dual Dirac strings
Ivanova, V. A.; Troitskaya, N. I.
2001-01-01
The vacuum expectation value of the Wilson loop in the dual representation is calculated in the dual Higgs model with dual Dirac strings. It is shown that the averaged value of the Wilson loop in the dual representation obeys the area-law falloff. Quantum fluctuations of the dual-vector and the Higgs field around Abrikosov flux lines induced by dual Dirac strings in a dual superconducting vacuum and string shape fluctuations are taken into account.
Topological models on the lattice and a remark on string theory cloning
Bachas, Costas; Petropoulos, Marios
1993-01-01
The addition of a topological model to the matter content of a conventional closed-string theory leads to the appearance of many perturbatively-decoupled space-time worlds. We illustrate this by classifying topological vertex models on a triangulated surface. We comment on how such worlds could have been coupled in the Planck era.
Universal and nonperturbative behavior in the one-plaquette model of two-dimensional string theory
Chaudhuri, S; Ooshita, T
1993-01-01
The one-plaquette Hamiltonian of large N lattice gauge theory offers a constructive model of a $1+1$-dimensional string theory with a stable ground state. The free energy is found to be equivalent to the partition function of a string where the world sheet is discretized by even polygons with signature and the link factor is given by a non-Gaussian propagator. At large, but finite, N we derive the nonperturbative density of states from the WKB wave function and the dispersion relations. This is expressible as an infinite, but convergent, series with the inverse of the hypergeometric function replacing the harmonic oscillator spectrum of the $1+1$-dimensional string. In the scaling limit, the series is shown to be finite, containing both the perturbative (asymptotic) expansion of the inverted harmonic oscillator model, and a nonperturbative piece that survives the scaling limit.
Torsional vibrations of helically buckled drill-strings: experiments and FE modelling
Kapitaniak, M.; Hamaneh, V. V.; Wiercigroch, M.
2016-05-01
This paper presents investigations of a complex drill-string vibrations on a novel experimental rig, developed by the Centre for Applied Dynamics Research at the University of Aberdeen. The rig is capable of exhibiting of all major types of drill-string vibrations, including torsional, axial and lateral modes. The importance of this work lies in the fact, that the experimental rig utilizes real industrial drill-bits and rock samples, which after careful identification of Torque On Bit (TOB) speed curves, allows to use an equivalent friction model to accommodate for both frictional and cutting components of the bit-rock interactions. Moreover, the proposed Finite Element model, after a careful calibration, is capable of replicating experimental results, for the prebuckled configuration of the drill-string. This allows us to observe the effect of winding and unwinding of the helical deformation during stick-slip motion.
"Electronium": A Quantum Atomic Teaching Model.
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Outlines an alternative atomic model to the probability model, the descriptive quantum atomic model Electronium. Discusses the way in which it is intended to support students in learning quantum-mechanical concepts. (Author/MM)
Modeling uncertainties for local nonlinearities: application to the drill-string dynamics
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R
2009-01-01
A probabilistic model is proposed to model uncertainties for local nonlinearities. The model is applied to a slender structure that turns and drills into rocks in search of oil, called drill-string, in which the local nonlinearity is the bit-rock interaction. The Maximum Entropy Principle is used to construct a probabilistic model for the nonlinear operator related to the bit-rock interaction model. A numerical model is developed using the Timoshenko beam theory and it is discretized by means...
Sen, Ashoke
1997-01-01
Type IIB string theory admits a BPS configuration in which three strings (of different type) meet at a point. Using this three string configuration we construct a string network and study its properties. In particular we prove supersymmetry of this configuration. We also consider string lattices, which can be used to construct BPS states in toroidally compactified string theory.
Modelling of Helium-mediated Quench Propagation in the LHC Prototype Test String-1
Chorowski, M; Serio, L; Van Weelderen, R
2000-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype test string-1, hereafter referred to as the string, is composed of three ten-meter long prototype dipole magnets and one six-meter long prototype quadrupole magnet. The magnets are immersed in a pressurized static bath of superfluid helium that is maintained at a pressure of about 1 bar and at a temperature of about 1.9 K. This helium bath constitutes one single hydraulic unit, extending along the 42.5 m of the string length. We have measured the triggering of quenches of the string magnets due to the quenching of a single dipole magnet located at the string's extremity; i.e. "quench propagation". Previously reported measurements enabled to establish that in this configuration the quench propagation is mediated by the helium and not by the inter-magnet busbar connections [1], [2]. We present a model of helium mediated quench propagation based on the qualitative conclusions of these two previous papers, and on additional information gained from a dedicated series of qu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After the termination of perturbative QCD tree evolution, colourless clusters are formed. Similarly, after the first generation cuts in the (classical) Artru-Mennessier string model, disconnected lengths of string result. The mass spectra of clusters and first generation strings are similar, and the similarity extends to the rapidity distributions as a function of mass. (author)
Bianchi Type-I bulk viscous fluid string dust magnetized cosmological model in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raj Bali; Anjali
2004-09-01
Bianchi Type-I magnetized bulk viscous fluid string dust cosmological model is investigated. To get a determinate model, we have assumed the conditions and = constant where is the shear, the expansion in the model and the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with physical and geometrical aspects of the model are also discussed.
Duality relation between charged elastic strings and superconducting cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carter, B.
1989-06-23
The mechanical properties of macroscopic electromagnetically coupled string models in a flat or curved background are treated using a covariant formalism allowing the construction of a duality transformation that relates the category of uniform ''electric'' string models, constructed as the (nonconducting) charged generalisation of ordinary uncoupled (violin type) elastic strings, to a category of ''magnetic'' string models comprising recently discussed varieties of ''superconducting cosmic strings''. (orig.).
The string prediction models as invariants of time series in the forex market
Pincak, R.
2013-12-01
In this paper we apply a new approach of string theory to the real financial market. The models are constructed with an idea of prediction models based on the string invariants (PMBSI). The performance of PMBSI is compared to support vector machines (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) on an artificial and a financial time series. A brief overview of the results and analysis is given. The first model is based on the correlation function as invariant and the second one is an application based on the deviations from the closed string/pattern form (PMBCS). We found the difference between these two approaches. The first model cannot predict the behavior of the forex market with good efficiency in comparison with the second one which is, in addition, able to make relevant profit per year. The presented string models could be useful for portfolio creation and financial risk management in the banking sector as well as for a nonlinear statistical approach to data optimization.
Nonlinear observer design for a nonlinear string/cable FEM model using contraction theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkyilmaz, Yilmaz; Jouffroy, Jerome; Egeland, Olav
Contraction theory is a recently developed nonlinear analysis tool which may be useful for solving a variety of nonlinear control problems. In this paper, using Contraction theory, a nonlinear observer is designed for a general nonlinear cable/string FEM (Finite Element Method) model. The cable...
Electroweak Z-string in Two-Higgs-Doublet Standard Model
La, H S
1992-01-01
We derive electroweak Z-string solutions in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model with two Higgs doublets. The existence of such solutions in particular requires a specific relation between the ratio of the two Higgs vacuum expectation values, {\\it i.e.} $\\tan\\beta$, and the couplings in the Higgs potential.
Some five-dimensional Bianchi type-iii string cosmological models in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we have constructed some five-dimensional Bianchi type-III cosmological models in general relativity when source of gravitational field is a massive string. We obtained different classes of solutions by considering different functional forms of metric potentials. It is also observed that one of the models is not physically acceptable and the other models possess big-bang singularity. The physical and kinematical behaviors of the models are discussed
Drill-string dynamics with uncertainty in the bit-rock nonlinear interaction model
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R
2009-01-01
The stochastic dynamics of a drill-string is analyzed, where the uncertainty is in the bit-rock nonlinear interaction model. The Maximum Entropy Principle is used to construct a probabilistic model for the nonlinear operator related to the bit-rock interaction model. A numerical model is developed using the Timoshenko beam theory and it is discretized by means of the Finite Element Method. The nonlinear dynamics analyzed considers the main efforts that the column is subjected to as, for insta...
A Hybrid Resynthesis Model for Hammer-String Interaction of Piano Tones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jensen Kristoffer
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a source/resonator model of hammer-string interaction that produces realistic piano sound. The source is generated using a subtractive signal model. Digital waveguides are used to simulate the propagation of waves in the resonator. This hybrid model allows resynthesis of the vibration measured on an experimental setup. In particular, the nonlinear behavior of the hammer-string interaction is taken into account in the source model and is well reproduced. The behavior of the model parameters (the resonant part and the excitation part is studied with respect to the velocities and the notes played. This model exhibits physically and perceptually related parameters, allowing easy control of the sound produced. This research is an essential step in the design of a complete piano model.
String Field Theory of $c\\leq 1$ Noncritical Strings
Ishibashi, N.; Kawai, H
1993-01-01
We construct a string field Hamiltonian for a noncritical string theory with the continuum limit of the Ising model or its generalization as the matter theory on the worldsheet. It consists of only three string vertices as in the case for $c=0$. We also discuss a general consistency condition that should be satisfied by this kind of string field Hamiltonian.
Spin-String Interaction in QCD Strings
Vyas, Vikram
2007-01-01
I analyse the problem of introducing the spin of the quark and the antiquark in effective QCD strings from the point of view of the Wilson loop for a spin-half particle, or the Super Wilson loop. A string representation of the Super Wilson loop is obtained starting from an effective string representation of a Wilson Loop. The action obtained in this manner is invariant under a worldline supersymmetry and has a boundary term which contains the spin-string interaction. For rectangular loops the spin-string interaction vanishes. If an allowance is made for the finite thickness of the flux tube that is being modelled by a string then we obtain a spin-spin interaction which falls as the fifth power of the distance. Such a term was previously suggested by Kogut and Parisi in the context of a flux-tube model of confinement.
Modeling of wave propagation in drill strings using vibration transfer matrix methods.
Han, Je-Heon; Kim, Yong-Joe; Karkoub, Mansour
2013-09-01
In order to understand critical vibration of a drill bit such as stick-slip and bit-bounce and their wave propagation characteristics through a drill string system, it is critical to model the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural waves generated by the drill bit vibration. Here, a modeling method based on a vibration transfer matrix between two sets of structural wave variables at the ends of a constant cross-sectional, hollow, circular pipe is proposed. For a drill string system with multiple pipe sections, the total vibration transfer matrix is calculated by multiplying all individual matrices, each is obtained for an individual pipe section. Since drill string systems are typically extremely long, conventional numerical analysis methods such as a finite element method (FEM) require a large number of meshes, which makes it computationally inefficient to analyze these drill string systems numerically. The proposed "analytical" vibration transfer matrix method requires significantly low computational resources. For the validation of the proposed method, experimental and numerical data are obtained from laboratory experiments and FEM analyses conducted by using a commercial FEM package, ANSYS. It is shown that the modeling results obtained by using the proposed method are well matched with the experimental and numerical results. PMID:23967925
The Area Law in Matrix Models for Large N QCD Strings
Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Bietenholz, W.; Nishimura, J.
We study the question whether matrix models obtained in the zero volume limit of 4d Yang-Mills theories can describe large N QCD strings. The matrix model we use is a variant of the Eguchi-Kawai model in terms of Hermitian matrices, but without any twists or quenching. This model was originally proposed as a toy model of the IIB matrix model. In contrast to common expectations, we do observe the area law for Wilson loops in a significant range of scale of the loop area. Numerical simulations show that this range is stable as N increases up to 768, which strongly suggests that it persists in the large N limit. Hence the equivalence to QCD strings may hold for length scales inside a finite regime.
The Area Law in Matrix Models for Large N QCD Strings
Anagnostopoulos, K N; Nishimura, J
2002-01-01
We study the question whether matrix models obtained in the zero volume limit of 4d Yang-Mills theories can describe large N QCD strings. The matrix model we use is a variant of the Eguchi-Kawai model in terms of Hermitian matrices, but without any twists or quenching. This model was originally proposed as a toy model of the IIB matrix model. In contrast to common expectations, we do observe the area law for Wilson loops in a significant range of scale of the loop area. Numerical simulations show that this range is stable as N increases up to 768, which strongly suggests that it persists in the large N limit. Hence the equivalence to QCD strings may hold for length scales inside a finite regime.
Nuclear Attenuation of high energy two-hadron system in the string model
Akopov, N; Akopov, Z
2007-01-01
Nuclear attenuation of the two-hadron system is considered in the string model. The two-scale model and its improved version with two different choices of constituent formation time and sets of parameters obtained earlier for the single hadron attenuation, are used to describe available experimental data for the $z$-dependence of subleading hadron, whereas satisfactory agreement with the experimental data has been observed. A model prediction for $\
Nuclear Attenuation of high energy two-hadron system in the string model
Akopov, N.; Grigoryan, L.; Akopov, Z.(DESY, 22603 Hamburg, Germany)
2006-01-01
Nuclear attenuation of the two-hadron system is considered in the string model. The two-scale model and its improved version with two different choices of constituent formation time and sets of parameters obtained earlier for the single hadron attenuation, are used to describe available experimental data for the $z$-dependence of subleading hadron, whereas satisfactory agreement with the experimental data has been observed. A model prediction for $\
Amadini, Roberto; Flener, Pierre; Pearson, Justin; Scott, Joseph D.; Stuckey, Peter J.; Tack, Guido
2016-01-01
Strings are extensively used in modern programming languages and constraints over strings of unknown length occur in a wide range of real-world applications such as software analysis and verification, testing, model checking, and web security. Nevertheless, practically no CP solver natively supports string constraints. We introduce string variables and a suitable set of string constraints as builtin features of the MiniZinc modelling language. Furthermore, we define an interpreter for convert...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A pressure-drop model has been developed for the U-1 and U-2 loops of the NRU reactor. It provides local pressure distributions between instrument locations at the inlet and outlet of each loop. Piping components and fuel-string assemblies are modeled for single-phase and two-phase flows. The overall pressure drop comprises frictional and form losses, as well as changes due to acceleration and gravity. Detailed pressure profiles have been established along the U-1 and U-2 loops at two powers. The pressure loss over the fuel string is typically larger than losses over the inlet, connecting, and outlet piping components. A linear pressure profile has been observed over the fuel string at low power, indicating single-phase flow in the channel. The pressure profile becomes non-linear at high power, signifying the presence of two-phase flow at the downstream end. Different combinations of fuel type in the string appear to have little impact on the pressure profile. This is mainly due to the similarity of pressure-drop characteristics of the fuel types used in fuel irradiation experiments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by the recent progress in the effective string description of the interquark potential in lattice gauge theory, we study interfaces with periodic boundary conditions in the three-dimensional Ising model. Our Monte Carlo results for the associated free energy are compared with the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation of the Nambu-Goto string model. We find clear evidence for the validity of the effective string model at the level of the NLO truncation
Bianchi Type-Ⅲ String Cosmological Model With Bulk Viscosity and Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xing-Xiang
2006-01-01
@@ The Bianchi type-Ⅲ cosmological model for a cloud string in the presence of bulk viscosity and magnetic field are presented. To obtain the determinate model it is assumed that there is an equation of state ρ = kλ and the scalar of expansion is proportional to the shear scalar θ∝σ, which leads to a relation between metric potentials B = mCn. The physical and geometric aspects of the model are also discussed. The model describes a shearing non-rotating continuously expanding universe with a big-bang start. In the absence of magnetic field, it reduces to the string model with bulk viscosity that was previously given in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andronov, E.; Vechernin, V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The long-range rapidity correlations between the multiplicities (n-n) and the transverse momentum and the multiplicity (pT-n) of charge particles are analyzed in the framework of the simple string inspired model with two types of sources. The sources of the first type correspond to the initial strings formed in a hadronic collision. The sources of the second type imitate the appearance of the emitters of a new kind resulting from interaction (fusion) of the initial strings. The model enabled to describe effectively the influence of the string fusion effects on the strength both the n-n and the pT-n correlations. It was found that in the region, where the process of string fusion comes into play, the calculation results predict the non-monotonic behaviour of the n-n and pT-n correlation coefficients with the growth of the mean number of initial strings, i.e. with the increase of the collision centrality. It was shown also that the increase of the event-by-event fluctuation in the number of primary strings leads to the change of the pT-n correlation sign from negative to positive. One can try to search these signatures of string collective phenomena in interactions of various nuclei at different energies varying the class of collision centrality and its width.
The Quantum Black Hole as a Hydrogen Atom: Microstates Without Strings Attached
Hooft, Gerard t
2016-01-01
Applying an expansion in spherical harmonics, turns the black hole with its microstates into something about as transparent as the hydrogen atom was in the early days of quantum mechanics. It enables us to present a concise description of the evolution laws of these microstates, linking them to perturbative quantum field theory, in the background of the Schwarzschild metric. Three pieces of insight are obtained: One, we learn how the gravitational back reaction, whose dominant component can be calculated exactly, turns particles entering the hole, into particles leaving it, by exchanging the momentum- and position operators; two, we find out how this effect removes firewalls, both on the future and the past event horizon, and three, we discover that the presence of region II in the Penrose diagram forces a topological twist in the background metric, culminating in antipodal identification. Although a cut-off is required that effectively replaces the transverse coordinates by a lattice, the effect of such a cu...
Propagation of cosmic rays through the atmosphere in the quark-gluon strings model
Erlykin, A. D.; Krutikova, N. P.; Shabelski, Y. M.
1985-01-01
The quark-gluon strings model succeeds in the description of multiple hadron production in the central rapidity region of nucleon-nucleon interctions. This model was developed for hadron-nucleus interactions and used for calculation of the cosmic ray propagation through the atmosphere. It is shown that at energies 10 to the 11th power to the 12th power eV, this model gives a satisfactory description of experimental data. But with the increase of the energy up to approximately 10 to the 14th power eV, results of calculations and of experiments begin to differ and this difference rises with the energy. It may indicate that the scaling violation in the fragmentation region of inclusive spectra for hadron-nucleus interactions is stronger than in the quark-gluon strings model.
Complexity of chromatin folding is captured by the strings and binders switch model.
Barbieri, Mariano; Chotalia, Mita; Fraser, James; Lavitas, Liron-Mark; Dostie, Josée; Pombo, Ana; Nicodemi, Mario
2012-10-01
Chromatin has a complex spatial organization in the cell nucleus that serves vital functional purposes. A variety of chromatin folding conformations has been detected by single-cell imaging and chromosome conformation capture-based approaches. However, a unified quantitative framework describing spatial chromatin organization is still lacking. Here, we explore the "strings and binders switch" model to explain the origin and variety of chromatin behaviors that coexist and dynamically change within living cells. This simple polymer model recapitulates the scaling properties of chromatin folding reported experimentally in different cellular systems, the fractal state of chromatin, the processes of domain formation, and looping out. Additionally, the strings and binders switch model reproduces the recently proposed "fractal-globule" model, but only as one of many possible transient conformations. PMID:22988072
Bits of String and Bits of Branes
Bergman, Oren
1996-01-01
String-bit models are both an efficient way of organizing string perturbation theory, and a possible non-perturbative composite description of string theory. This is a summary of ideas and results of string-bit and superstring-bit models, as presented in the Strings '96 conference.
Nonlinear Model and Qualitative Analysis for Coupled Axial/Torsional Vibrations of Drill String
Fushen Ren; Baojin Wang; Suli Chen; Zhigang Yao; Baojun Bai
2016-01-01
A nonlinear dynamics model and qualitative analysis are presented to study the key effective factors for coupled axial/torsional vibrations of a drill string, which is described as a simplified, equivalent, flexible shell under axial rotation. Here, after dimensionless processing, the mathematical models are obtained accounting for the coupling of axial and torsional vibrations using the nonlinear dynamics qualitative method, in which excitation loads and boundary conditions of the drill stri...
A Quantum Computer Foundation for the Standard Model and SuperString Theories
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show the Standard Model and SuperString Theories can be naturally based on a Quantum Computer foundation. The Standard Model of elementary particles can be viewed as defining a Quantum Computer Grammar and language. A Quantum Computer in a certain limit naturally forms a Superspace upon which Supersymmetry rotations can be defined - a Continuum Quantum Computer. Quantum high-level computer languages such as Quantum C and Quantum Assembly language are also discussed. In these new linguistic...
A New Class of Inhomogeneous String Cosmological Models in General Relativity
Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, R P; Singh, V K
2007-01-01
A new class of solutions of Einstein field equations has been investigated for inhomogeneous cylindrically symmetric space-time with string source. To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the expansion ($\\theta$) in the model is proportional to the eigen value $\\sigma^{1}_{1}$ of the shear tensor $\\sigma^{i}_{j}$. Certain physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed.
Extensions to the two atom blocking model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper contains viewgraphs on the use of the blocking model to describe atom-atom collisions in solids. Experimental results on two particle emissions for attractive and repulsive coulomb potentials are given
Kovalenko, Vladimir
2014-01-01
The magnitude of long-range correlations between observables in two separated rapidity windows, proposed as a signature of the string fusion and percolation phenomenon, is studied in the framework of non-Glauber Monte Carlo string-parton model, based on the picture of elementary collisions of color dipoles. The predictions, obtained with and without string fusion, demonstrate effects of color string fusion on the observables in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC: decrease of n-n correlation coefficient with centrality and negative pt-n correlations, if the sufficiently effective centrality estimator is applied. In general case it is shown that the values of n-n and pt-n correlation coefficients strongly depend on the method of collision centrality fixation. In contrast, the predictions obtained for pt-pt correlation have almost no effect of centrality determination method and the corresponding experimental data would produce the strong limitation on the transverse radius of a string.
Light-light and heavy-light mesons in the model of QCD string with quarks at the ends
Nefediev, A V
2002-01-01
The variational einbein field method is applied to the model of the QCD string with quarks at the ends for the case of light-light and heavy-light mesons. Special attention is payed to the proper string dynamics. The correct string slope of the Regge trajectories is reproduced for light-light states which comes out from the picture of rotating string. Masses of several low-lying orbitally and radially excited states in the D, D_s, B, and B_s meson spectra are calculated and a good agreement with the experimental data as well as with recent lattice calculations is found. The role of the string correction to the interquark interaction is discussed at the example of the identification of D*'(2637) state recently claimed by DELPHI Collaboration. For the heavy-light mesons the standard constants used in Heavy Quark Effective Theory are extracted and compared to the results of other approaches.
Semilocal cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on a large-scale numerical study of networks of semilocal cosmic strings in flat space in the parameter regime in which they are perturbatively stable. We find a population of segments with an exponential length distribution and indications of a scaling network without significant loop formation. Very deep in the stability regime strings of superhorizon size grow rapidly and ''percolate'' through the box. We believe these should lead at late times to a population of infinite strings similar to topologically stable strings. However, the strings are very light; scalar gradients dominate the energy density, and the network has thus a global texturelike signature. As a result, the observational constraints, at least from the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background, on models predicting semilocal strings should be closer to those on global textures or monopoles, rather than on topologically stable gauged cosmic strings
Cubic Twistorial String Field Theory
Berkovits, Nathan; Motl, Lubos
2004-01-01
Witten has recently proposed a string theory in twistor space whose D-instanton contributions are conjectured to compute N=4 super-Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. An alternative string theory in twistor space was then proposed whose open string tree amplitudes reproduce the D-instanton computations of maximal degree in Witten's model. In this paper, a cubic open string field theory action is constructed for this alternative string in twistor space, and is shown to be invariant under parity ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type-II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori, and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and world sheet boundary renormalization group flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings existing in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size of order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects, and that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting
The spectrum of strings on BTZ black holes and spectral flow in the SL(2,R) WZW model
Hemming, S; Hemming, Samuli; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko
2002-01-01
We study the spectrum of bosonic string theory on rotating BTZ black holes, using a SL(2,R) WZW model. Previously, Natsuume and Satoh have analyzed strings on BTZ black holes using orbifold techniques. We show how an appropriate spectral flow in the WZW model can be used to generate the twisted sectors, emphasizing how the spectral flow works in the hyperbolic basis natural for the BTZ black hole. We discuss the projection condition which leads to the quantization condition for the allowed quantum numbers for the string excitations, and its connection to the anomaly in the corresponding conserved Noether current.
Borel and Stokes Nonperturbative Phenomena in Topological String Theory and c=1 Matrix Models
Pasquetti, Sara
2010-01-01
We address the nonperturbative structure of topological strings and c=1 matrix models, focusing on understanding the nature of instanton effects alongside with exploring their relation to the large-order behavior of the 1/N expansion. We consider the Gaussian, Penner and Chern-Simons matrix models, together with their holographic duals, the c=1 minimal string at self-dual radius and topological string theory on the resolved conifold. We employ Borel analysis to obtain the exact all-loop multi-instanton corrections to the free energies of the aforementioned models, and show that the leading poles in the Borel plane control the large-order behavior of perturbation theory. We understand the nonperturbative effects in terms of the Schwinger effect and provide a semiclassical picture in terms of eigenvalue tunneling between critical points of the multi-sheeted matrix model effective potentials. In particular, we relate instantons to Stokes phenomena via a hyperasymptotic analysis, providing a smoothing of the nonp...
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Steinacker, Harold C
2016-01-01
Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
Higher spin holography and the AdS string sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyse the cubic spin-3 interaction in AdS space using the higher spin extension of the string-theoretic sigma-model constructed in our previous work, whose low energy limit is described by the AdS vacuum solution. We find that, in the leading order of the cosmological constant, the spin-3 correlator on the AdS4 string theory side reproduces the structure of the three-point function of composite operators, quadratic in free fields, in the dual d = 3 vector model. The cancellation of holography violating terms in d = 3 is related to the value of the Liouville background charge in d = 4. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (paper)
Baryogenesis through Collapsing String Loops in Gauged Baryon and Lepton Models
Lew, H
1994-01-01
A scenario for the generation of the baryon asymmetry in the early Universe is proposed in which cosmic string loops, predicted by theories where the baryon and/or lepton numbers are gauged symmetries, collapse during the friction dominated period of string evolution. This provides a mechanism for the departure from thermal equilibrium necessary to have a nonvanishing baryon asymmetry. Examples of models are given where this idea can be implemented. In particular, the model with the gauge symmetry $SU(3)_{c}\\otimes SU(2)_{L}\\otimes U(1)_{Y}\\otimes U(1)_{B} \\otimes U(1)_{L}$ has the interesting feature where sphaleron processes do not violate the baryon and lepton numbers so that no wash out of any initial baryon asymmetry occurs at the electroweak scale.
String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models
Steinacker, Harold C.
2016-09-01
Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.
Multiple production of hadrons at high energies in the model of quark-gluon strings. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Production of hadrons with small transverse momenta psub(perpendicular) at high energies is considered in the framework of a model based on a picture of quark-gluon string formation in hadron collisions, corresponding to the supercritical Pomeron. The topological 1/Nsub(f) expansion and the color-tube model are used. The inclusive cross sections of hadron (in particular, meson) production are expressed in terms of structure functions and fragmentation functions of quarks. The limiting behaviour of the cross sections at x=p/p0 → and x → O is in agreement with the results of the reggeon theory. It is pointed out that taking into account the rapidity fluctuations of the ends of the quark-gluon strings associated with intrinsic motion of valence quarks in colliding hadrons and including multipomeron configurations it is possible to reproduce the experimentally observed rise of inclusive spectra in a central region
Topological string models for the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss some aspects of the large N expansions of the generalized two-dimensional Yang-Mills theories (gYM2), and especially, clarify the geometrical meanings of the higher Casimirs. Based on these results we attempt to extend the Cordes-Moore-Ramgoolam topological string model describing the ordinary YM2 to those describing gYM2. The concept of 'deformed gravitational descendants' will be introduced for this purpose. (author)
Strong $CP$ And Axions In The Heterotic String-Derived Model
Ashfaque, Johar M
2016-01-01
After revisiting the heterotic string-derived low-energy effective model of \\cite{Ashfaque:2016ydg, Athanasopoulos:2014bba, Faraggi:2016xnm, Ashfaque:2016jha} constructed in the four-dimensional free fermionic formulation, we find two axions which are either harmful or massive. As a direct consequence, they can not solve the strong $CP$ problem which is in complete agreement with \\cite{Lopez:1990iq, Halyo:1993xn}.
String models for ultrarelativistic hadronic interactions concepts, limitations, and new directions
Werner, K
1994-01-01
After a brief description of the basic theoretical concepts of the string model approach, we discuss the limitations of the method, at low energies, at high energies, and at high particle densities. We also report on recent efforts to overcome these limitations. Invited Lecture at the International Workshop on Multi-Particle Correlations and Nuclear Reactions, CORINNE II, 6.-10. Sept. 1994, Nantes, France
March, N. H.; Moreno, A. J.
2016-06-01
The critical exponent ν for randomly branched polymers with dimensionality d equal to 3, is known exactly as 1/2. Here, we invoke an already available string theory model to predict the remaining static critical exponents. Utilizing results of Hsu et al. (Comput Phys Commun. 2005;169:114-116), results are added for d = 8. Experiment plus simulation would now be important to confirm, or if necessary to refine, the proposed values.
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R
2010-01-01
This paper deals with a procedure to perform the identification of the probabilistic model of uncertainties in a bit-rock interaction model for the nonlinear dynamics of a drill-string. The bit-rock interaction model is represented by a nonlinear constitutive equation, whose uncertainties are modeled using the nonparametric probabilistic approach. The identification of the parameter of this probabilistic model is carried out using the maximum likelihood method together with a statistical redu...
Yukawa textures in string unified models with SU(4)circle-times O(4) symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the origin of Yukawa textures in the string-inspired and string-derived models based on the gauge group SU(4)circle-times SU(2)L circle-times SU(2)R supplemented by a U(1)X gauged family symmetry. The gauge symmetries are broken down to those of the minimal supersymmetric standard model which is the effective theory below 1016 GeV. The combination of the U(1)X family symmetry and the Pati-Salam gauge group leads to a successful and predictive set of Yukawa textures involving two kinds of texture zeros: horizontal and vertical texture zeros. We discuss both symmetric and nonsymmetric textures in models of this kind, and in the second case perform a detailed numerical fit to the charged fermion mass and mixing data. Two of the Yukawa textures allow a low energy fit to the data with a total χ2 of 0.39 and 1.02, respectively, for three degrees of freedom. We also make a first attempt at deriving the nonrenormalizable operators required for the Yukawa textures from string theory. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Infrared Dynamics of a Large N QCD Model, the Massless String Sector and Mesonic Spectra
Dasgupta, Keshav; Mia, Mohammed; Richard, Michael; Trottier, Olivier
2014-01-01
A consistency check for any UV complete model for large N QCD should be, among other things, the existence of a well-defined vector and scalar mesonic spectra. In this paper, we use our UV complete model in type IIB string theory to study the IR dynamics and use this to predict the mesonic spectra in the dual type IIA side. The advantage of this approach is two-fold: not only will this justify the consistency of the supergravity approach, but it will also give us a way to compare the IR spectra and the model with the ones proposed earlier by Sakai and Sugimoto. Interestingly, the spectra coming from the massless stringy sector are independent of the UV physics, although the massive string sector may pose certain subtleties regarding the UV contributions as well as the mappings to actual QCD. Additionally, we find that a component of the string landscape enters the picture: there are points in the landscape where the spectra can be considerably improved over the existing results in the literature. These points...
De Sitter vacua and inflation in no-scale string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, Christian
2009-09-15
This thesis studies the question of how de Sitter vacua and slow-roll inflation may be realized in string-motivated models. More specifically, we consider 4d N = 1 supergravity theories (without vector multiplets) with Kaehler potentials which are 'no-scale' at leading order. Such theories frequently arise in the moduli sector of string compactifications. We discuss a condition on the scalar geometry (defined by the Kaehler potential) and on the direction of supersymmetry breaking in the scalar manifold, which has to be met in order for the average of the masses of the sGoldstinos to be positive, and hence for metastable vacua to be possible. This condition also turns out to be necessary for the existence of trajectories admitting slow-roll inflation. Its implications for certain scalar manifolds which arise from Calabi-Yau string compactifications are discussed. In particular, for two-moduli models arising from compactifications of heterotic- and type IIB string theory, a simple criterion on the intersection numbers needs to be satisfied for possible de Sitter phases to exist. In addition, we show that subleading corrections breaking the no-scale property may allow the condition on the scalar geometry to be fulfilled, even when it is violated at leading order. Finally, we develop a procedure to construct superpotentials for a given viable Kaehler potential, such that the scalar potential has a realistic local minimum. We propose two-moduli models, with superpotentials which could arise from flux backgrounds and non-perturbative effects, which have a viable vacuum without employing subleading corrections or an uplifting sector. (orig.)
Cosmic D-strings as Axionic D-term Strings
Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele(INFN — Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone, 1, I-50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy)
2005-01-01
In this work we derive non-singular BPS string solutions from an action that captures the essential features of a D-brane-anti-D-brane system compactified to four dimensions. The model we consider is a supersymmetric abelian Higgs model with a D-term potential coupled to an axion-dilaton multiplet. The strings in question are axionic D-term strings which we identify with the D-strings of type II string theory. In this picture the Higgs field represents the open string tachyon of the D-Dbar pa...
LRS Bianchi Type II Massive String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field in Lyra's Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raj Bali
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type II massive string cosmological models with magnetic field and time dependent gauge function ( in the frame work of Lyra's geometry are investigated. The magnetic field is in -plane. To get the deterministic solution, we have assumed that the shear ( is proportional to the expansion (. This leads to , where and are metric potentials and is a constant. We find that the models start with a big bang at initial singularity and expansion decreases due to lapse of time. The anisotropy is maintained throughout but the model isotropizes when . The physical and geometrical aspects of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.
Some Aspects of the T-Duality Symmetric String Sigma Model
Pezzella, Franco
2015-01-01
A manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of bosonic string theory is discussed here. It can be obtained by making both the usual string compact coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action. A peculiarity of such a model is the loss of the local Lorentz invariance which is required to be recovered on-shell. This dictates a constraint on the backgrounds which characterizes the double geometry of the target space. Constant and non-constant backgrounds are considered. In the former case, the local Lorentz constraint implies the geometry of a double torus with an $O(D,D)$ invariance. In the latter, it is shown how and when the $O(D,D)$ invariance still holds and when deformations from it can be implied. Results of the quantization of the free theory are also briefly exhibited.
Non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in 4d string models
Berasaluce-Gonzalez, M; Marchesano, F; Regalado, D; Uranga, A M
2012-01-01
We study the realization of non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries in 4d field theory and string theory compactifications. The underlying structure generalizes the Abelian case, and follows from the interplay between gaugings of non-Abelian isometries of the scalar manifold and field identifications making axion-like fields periodic. We present several classes of string constructions realizing non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries. In particular, compactifications with torsion homology classes, where non-Abelianity arises microscopically from the Hanany-Witten effect, or compactifications with non-Abelian discrete isometry groups, like twisted tori. We finally focus on the more interesting case of magnetized branes in toroidal compactifications and quotients thereof (and their heterotic and intersecting duals), in which the non-Abelian discrete gauge symmetries imply powerful selection rules for Yukawa couplings of charged matter fields. In particular, in MSSM-like models they correspond to discrete flavour sy...
Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories
Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny
1990-01-01
Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.
Seeking String Theory in the Cosmos
Copeland, Edmund J; Vachaspati, Tanmay
2011-01-01
We review the existence, formation and properties of cosmic strings in string theory, the wide variety of observational techniques that are being employed to detect them, and the constraints that current observations impose on string theory models.
Long-range correlation studies at the SPS energies in MC model with string fusion
Kovalenko, Vladimir
2015-01-01
Studies of the ultrarelativistic collisions of hadrons and nuclei at different centrality and energy enable to explore the QCD phase diagram in a wide range of temperature and baryon density. Long-range correlation studies are considered as a tool, sensitive to the observation of phase transition and the critical point. In the present work, a Monte Carlo model of proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions is applied to heavy and light ion collisions at the cms energy range from a few up to several hundred GeV per nucleon. The model describes the nuclear collisions at the partonic level through interaction of color dipoles and takes into account the effects of string fusion, which can be considered as an alternative to relativistic hydrodynamics way of describing the collective phenomena in heavy-ion collisions. The implementing of both the string fusion and the finite rapidity length of strings allowed to consider the particle production at non-zero baryochemical potential. We calculated th...
A large-D Weyl invariant string model in Anti-de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis we present a novel scheme for calculating the bosonic string partition function on certain curved backgrounds related to Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. We take the concept of a large N expansion from nonlinear sigma models in particle physics and apply it to the bosonic string theory sigma model, where the analogous large dimensionless parameter is the dimension of the target space, D. We then perform a perturbative expansion in negative powers of D, rather than in positive powers of α'/l2 (the conventional expansion parameter). As a specific example of a curved geometry of interest, we focus on an example of the metric proposed by Polyakov [1] to describe the dynamics of the Wilson loop of pure SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, namely AdS space. Using heat kernel methods, we find that within the large-D scheme one can obtain different conditions for Weyl invariance than those found in [2]. This is because our scheme is valid for backgrounds where α'/l2 is no longer small. In particular, we find that it is possible to have a dilaton that depends on the holographic coordinate only, provided one allows mixing of the ghost and matter sectors of the worldsheet theory. This field preserves Poincare invariance in the gauge theory, unlike the conventional dilaton. We also compute a simple string amplitude by constructing certain vertex operators for a scalar field in AdS, and discuss the consequences for the string spectrum. (author)
Macroscopic Strings and "Quirks" at Colliders
Kang, Junhai
2009-01-01
We consider extensions of the standard model containing additional heavy particles ("quirks'') charged under a new unbroken non-abelian gauge group as well as the standard model. We assume that the quirk mass m is in the phenomenologically interesting range 100 GeV--TeV, and that the new gauge group gets strong at a scale Lambda < m. In this case breaking of strings is exponentially suppressed, and quirk production results in strings that are long compared to 1/Lambda. The existence of these long stable strings leads to highly exotic events at colliders. For 100 eV < Lambda < keV the strings are macroscopic, giving rise to events with two separated quirk tracks with measurable curvature toward each other due to the string interaction. For keV < Lambda < MeV the typical strings are mesoscopic: too small to resolve in the detector, but large compared to atomic scales. In this case, the bound state appears as a single particle, but its mass is the invariant mass of a quirk pair, which has an event...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BALI Raj; PAREEK Umesh Kumar; PRADHAN Anirudh
2007-01-01
@@ Bianchi type-Ⅰ massive string cosmological model with magnetic field of barotropic perfect fluid distribution through the techniques used by Latelier and Stachel is investigated. To obtain the deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The magnetic field is due to electric current produced along the x-axis with infinite electrical condúctivity. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field together with other physical aspects is further discussed.
A Morphographemic Model for Error Correction in Nonconcatenative Strings
Bowden, T; Bowden, Tanya; Kiraz, George Anton
1995-01-01
This paper introduces a spelling correction system which integrates seamlessly with morphological analysis using a multi-tape formalism. Handling of various Semitic error problems is illustrated, with reference to Arabic and Syriac examples. The model handles errors vocalisation, diacritics, phonetic syncopation and morphographemic idiosyncrasies, in addition to Damerau errors. A complementary correction strategy for morphologically sound but morphosyntactically ill-formed words is outlined.
Non-String Pursuit towards Unified Model on the Lattice
Kawamoto, N
1999-01-01
Non-standard overview on the possible formulation towards a unified model on the lattice is presented. It is based on the generalized gauge theory which is formulated by differential forms and thus expected to fit in a simplicial manifold. We first review suggestive known results towards this direction. As a small step of concrete realization of the program, we propose a lattice Chern-Simons gravity theory which leads to the Chern-Simons gravity in the continuum limit via Ponzano-Regge model. We then summarize the quantization procedure of the generalized gauge theory and apply the formulation to the generalized topological Yang-Mills action with instanton gauge fixing. We find N=2 super Yang-Mills theory with Dirac-K{ä}hler fermions which are generated from ghosts via twisting mechanism. The Weinberg-Salam model is formulated by the generalized Yang-Mills action which includes Connes's non-commutative geometry formulation as a particular case. In the end a possible scenario to realize the program is propose...
Kallosh, Renata
2007-01-01
In this talk we describe recent progress in construction of inflationary models in the context of string theory with flux compactification and moduli stabilization. We also discuss a possibility to test string theory by cosmological observations.
Thermodynamics of quantum strings
Morgan, M J
1994-01-01
A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)
Topological Landau-Ginzburg model of two-dimensional string theory
Ghoshal, Debashis; Mukhi, Sunil
1994-08-01
We study a topological Landau-Ginzburg model with superpotential W( X) = X-1. This is argued to be equivalent to c = 1 string theory compactified at the self-dual radius. We compute the tree-level correlation function of N tachyons in this theory and show their agreement with matrix-model results. We also discuss the nature of contract terms, the perturbed superpotential and the flow of operators in the small phase space. The role of gravitational descendants in this theory is examined, and the tachyon two-point function in genus 1 is obtained using a conjectured modification of the gravitational recursion relations.
The four-loop string effective action from the bosonic σ-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the formulation of the string effective action, in terms of quantities defined within the bosonic σ-model, at four loops or O(α'4). In particular we show that a recent construction given by Osborn correctly yields the effective action at this order for the minimal subtraction renormalisation scheme. We demonstrate a renormalisation scheme for which Osborn's action reduces to a simpler form proposed by Tseytlin at this order. As part of our analysis, we calculate, using indirect methods, various O(α'4) quantities for the σ-model, in particular the five-loop dilaton β-function. (orig.)
LRS Bianchi type-I string cosmological model in f(R, T) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, Pradyumn [Department of Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Hyderabad (India)
2016-04-15
In this study the locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I (BI) cosmological model has been investigated in the presence of one dimensional cosmic strings in f(R, T) gravity. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained through the use of constant deceleration parameter [1] and the scalar expansion is proportional to the shear scalar. Considering the accelerating nature of the universe in the present epoch, the physical behavior of the model has been discussed. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Elliptic flow in a hadron-string cascade model at 130 GeV energy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Sahu; A Ohnishi; M Isse; N Otuka; S C Phatak
2006-08-01
We present the analysis of elliptic flow at $\\sqrt{s} = 130$ A GeV energy in a hadron-string cascade model. We find that the final hadronic yields are qualitatively described. The elliptic flow 2 is reasonably well-described at low transverse momentum (T < 1 GeV/c) in mid-central collisions. On the other hand, this model does not explain 2 at high T or in peripheral collisions and thus generally, it underestimates the elliptic flow at RHIC energy.
Bianchi Type V magnetized string dust cosmological models with Petrov-type degenerate
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raj Bali; Umesh K Pareek
2009-05-01
Bianchi Type V massive string cosmological models with free gravitational field of Petrov Type degenerate in the presence of magnetic field with variable magnetic permeability are investigated. The magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along the -axis. The 23 is the only non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor . Maxwell's equations [;] = 0 and $F_{ij}^{ij} = 0$ are satisfied by 23 = constant. The behaviour of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field and other physical aspects are also discussed.
The Completeness Criterion in Atomic Modeling
Liedahl, Duane A.
2000-10-01
I discuss two variations on the completeness theme in atomic modeling; missing lines as they affect the performance of spectral synthesis codes, and missing configurations as they affect the theoretical emissivities of bright lines, with emphasis on the latter. It is shown that the detrimental effects of working with incomplete atomic models can overshadow those brought about by working with less-than-perfect atomic rates. Atomic models can be brought up to an acceptable level of completeness in a fairly straightforward manner, and on a reasonably short timescale, whereas the long-term goal of comprehensive accuracy is unlikely to be reached on the timescale of the current generation of X-ray observatories. A near-term, albeit imperfect, solution is to hybridize atomic models used to synthesize spectra. A hybrid atomic model is one for which a large-scale atomic model, in which completeness is achieved at the expense of accuracy, is augmented with more accurate atomic quantities as they become available.
The 750 GeV diphoton LHC excess and Extra Z's in Heterotic-String Derived Models
Faraggi, Alon E
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible di-photon excess at 750 GeV and a less significant di-boson excess around 1.9 TeV. Such excesses may be produced in heterotic-string derived Z' models, where the di-photon excess may be connected with the Standard Model singlet scalar responsible for the Z' symmetry breaking, whereas the di-boson excess arises from production of the extra vector boson. Additional vector-like states in the string Z' model are instrumental to explain the relatively large width of the di-photon events and mandated by anomaly cancellation to be in the vicinity of the Z' breaking scale. Wilson line breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries in the string models naturally gives rise to dark matter candidates. Future collider experiments will discriminate between the high-scale heterotic-string models, which preserve the perturbative unification paradigm indicated by the Standard Model data, versus the low scale string models. We also discuss the possibility for the produ...
Semilocal and electroweak strings
Achucarro, A; Vachaspati, T
2000-01-01
We review a class of non-topological defects in the standard electroweak model, and their implications. Starting with the semilocal string, which provides a counterexample to many well-known properties of topological vortices, we discuss electroweak strings and their stability with and without exter
Kibble, T. W. B.
2004-01-01
There are two main reasons for the recent renewal of interest in cosmic strings: Fundamental string-theory models suggest their existence; and there are at least two tentative observations of their possible effects. In this talk, I review their current status in the light of these two factors.
Peeters, K.; Plefka, J; Zamaklar, m.
2005-01-01
We review a study of the semiclassical decay of macroscopic spinning strings in AdS5 x S5 as well as its dual gauge theory description. The conservation of the infinite tower of commuting charges in the semiclassical string sigma-model description of the process suggests that the decay channel of maximal probability should preserve integrability in the gauge theory.
String field theory solution for any open string background
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Erler, T.; Maccaferri, Carlo
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Oct (2014), 1-37. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP201/12/G028 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : tachyon condensation * string field theory * conformal field models in string theory * bosonic strings Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≅10-18 m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.
Stable charged cosmic strings.
Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18) m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786
Doubled strings, negative strings and null waves
Blair, Chris D A
2016-01-01
We revisit the fundamental string (F1) solution in the doubled formalism. We show that the wave-like solution of double field theory (DFT) corresponding to the F1/pp-wave duality pair is more properly a solution of the DFT action coupled to a doubled sigma model action. The doubled string configuration which sources the pp-wave can be thought of as static gauge with the string oriented in a dual direction. We also discuss the DFT solution corresponding to a vibrating string, carrying both winding and momentum. We further show that the solution dual to the F1 in both time and space can be viewed as a "negative string" solution. Negative branes are closely connected to certain exotic string theories which involve unusual signatures for both spacetime and brane worldvolumes. In order to better understand this from the doubled point of view, we construct a variant of DFT suitable for describing theories in which the fundamental string has a Euclidean worldsheet, for which T-dualities appear to change the spacetim...
Monopole potential and confining strings in the (2+1)-dimensional Georgi-Glashow model
Dmitri AntonovINFN, Pisa
2015-01-01
Confining strings are investigated in the (2+1)D Georgi-Glashow model. This is done in the limit when the electric coupling constant is much larger than the square root of the mass of the Higgs field, but much smaller than the vacuum expectation value of this field. The modification of the Debye mass of the dual photon with respect to the case when it is considered to be negligibly small compared to the Higgs mass, is found. Analogous modifications of the potential of monopole densities and s...
F-Theory $E_7$ And The Heterotic String-Derived Models
Ashfaque, Johar M
2016-01-01
In this paper, $E_6$ and especially $E_7$ GUT are considered in the F-theory setting in view of the free fermionic construction of the $4D$ heterotic string. In particular, the NAHE-Based LRS model of \\cite{Cleaver:2000ds, Cleaver:2002ps} is revisited as an illustration where the starting point was taken to be the $N=4$, $E_7 \\times E_7 \\times SO(16)$ which through the use of boundary condition basis vectors is reduced to obtain the flipped $SO(10)$ GUT symmetry.
Regularities in hadron systematics, Regge trajectories and a string quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An empirical principle for the construction of a linear relationship between the total angular momentum and squared-mass of baryons is proposed. In order to examine linearity of the trajectories, a rigorous least-squares regression analysis was performed. Unlike the standard Regge-Chew-Frautschi approach, the constructed trajectories do not have non-linear behaviour. A similar regularity may exist for lowest-mass mesons. The linear baryonic trajectories are well described by a semi-classical picture based on a spinning relativistic string with tension. The obtained numerical solution of this model was used to extract the (di)quark masses. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper traces the development of the String Theory, and was presented at Professor Sir Rudolf Peierls' 80sup(th) Birthday Symposium. The String theory is discussed with respect to the interaction of strings, the inclusion of both gauge theory and gravitation, inconsistencies in the theory, and the role of space-time. The physical principles underlying string theory are also outlined. (U.K.)
Atomic modeling of the plasma EUV sources
Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atsushi; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Koike, Fumihiro; Tanuma, Hajime
2009-09-01
We present the development of population kinetics models for tin plasmas that can be employed to design an EUV source for microlithography. The atomic kinetic code is constrained for the requirement that the model must be able to calculate spectral emissivity and opacity that can be used in radiation hydrodynamic simulations. Methods to develop compact and reliable atomic model with an appropriate set of atomic states are discussed. Specifically, after investigation of model dependencies and comparison experiment, we improve the effect of configuration interaction and the treatment of satellite lines. Using the present atomic model we discuss the temperature and density dependencies of the emissivity, as well as conditions necessary to obtain high efficiency EUV power at λ = 13.5 nm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hao, E-mail: hao.zhang@ualberta.ca, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov; Yang, Ying [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Douglas, Jack F., E-mail: hao.zhang@ualberta.ca, E-mail: jack.douglas@nist.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)
2015-02-28
Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the “simple” case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, T{sub m}. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although we often think about crystalline materials in terms of highly organized arrays of atoms, molecules, or even colloidal particles, many of the important properties of this diverse class of materials relating to their catalytic behavior, thermodynamic stability, and mechanical properties derive from the dynamics and thermodynamics of their interfacial regions, which we find they have a dynamics more like glass-forming (GF) liquids than crystals at elevated temperatures. This is a general problem arising in any attempt to model the properties of naturally occurring crystalline materials since many aspects of the dynamics of glass-forming liquids remain mysterious. We examine the nature of this phenomenon in the “simple” case of the (110) interface of crystalline Ni, based on a standard embedded-atom model potential, and we then quantify the collective dynamics in this interfacial region using newly developed methods for characterizing the cooperative dynamics of glass-forming liquids. As in our former studies of the interfacial dynamics of grain-boundaries and the interfacial dynamics of crystalline Ni nanoparticles (NPs), we find that the interface of bulk crystalline Ni exhibits all the characteristics of glass-forming materials, even at temperatures well below the equilibrium crystal melting temperature, Tm. This perspective offers a new approach to modeling and engineering the properties of crystalline materials
Latent solitons, black strings, black branes, and equations of state in Kaluza-Klein models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In Kaluza-Klein models with an arbitrary number of toroidal internal spaces, we investigate soliton solutions which describe the gravitational field of a massive compact object. Each di-dimensional torus has its own scale factor Ci, i=1,...,N, which is characterized by a parameter γi. We single out the physically interesting solution corresponding to a pointlike mass. For the general solution we obtain equations of state in the external and internal spaces. These equations demonstrate that the pointlike mass soliton has dustlike equations of state in all spaces. We also obtain the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters, which give the possibility to obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light and time-delay of radar echoes. Additionally, the gravitational experiments lead to a strong restriction on the parameters of the model: τ=i=1Ndiγi=-(2.1±2.3)x10-5. The pointlike mass solution with γ1=...=γN=(1+i=1Ndi)-1 contradicts this restriction. The condition τ=0 satisfies the experimental limitation and defines a new class of solutions which are indistinguishable from general relativity. We call such solutions latent solitons. Black strings and black branes with γi=0 belong to this class. Moreover, the condition of stability of the internal spaces singles out black strings/branes from the latent solitons and leads uniquely to the black string/brane equations of state pi=-ε/2, i=1,...,N, in the internal spaces and to the number of the external dimensions d0=3. The investigation of multidimensional static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with a dustlike equation of state in the external space confirms the above results.
Renormalization aspects of chaotic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaotic strings are a class of non-hyperbolic coupled map lattices, exhibiting a rich structure of complex dynamical phenomena with a surprising correspondence to physical contents. In this paper we introduce different types and models for chaotic strings, where 2B-strings with finite length are considered in detail. We demonstrate possibilities to extract renormalized quantities, which are expected to describe essential properties of the string.
The Diboson Excesses in Leptophobic $U(1)_{\\rm LP}$ Models from String Theories
Li, Tianjun; Mayes, Van E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V
2015-01-01
The ATLAS Collaboration has reported excesses in the search for resonant diboson production with decay modes to hadronic final states at a diboson invariant mass around 2 TeV in boosted jets from $WZ$, $W^+W^-$, and $ZZ$ channels. Given potential contamination, we investigate the anomalies in leptophobic $U(1)_{\\rm LP}$ models. We show that leptophobic models can be constructed in flipped $SU(5)\\times U(1)_X$ models from free fermionic string constructions and Pati-Salam models from D-brane constructions. Additionally, we perform a collider phenomenological analysis to study production cross sections for $pp \\to Z' \\to jj/t \\bar{t}/WW/Zh$ and discover the excess can be interpreted in both the leptophobic flipped $SU(5)\\times U(1)_X$ models and intersecting D-branes.
Diboson excesses in leptophobic U (1 )LP models from string theories
Li, Tianjun; Maxin, James A.; Mayes, Van E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2016-02-01
The ATLAS Collaboration has reported excesses in the search for resonant diboson production with decay modes to hadronic final states at a diboson invariant mass around 2 TeV in boosted jets from W Z , W+W-, and Z Z channels. Given potential contamination, we investigate the anomalies in leptophobic U (1 )LP models. We show that leptophobic models can be constructed in flipped S U (5 )×U (1 )X models from free fermionic string constructions and Pati-Salam models from D-brane constructions. Additionally, we perform a collider phenomenological analysis to study production cross sections for p p →Z'→j j /t t ¯ /W W /Z h and discover the excess can be interpreted in both the leptophobic flipped S U (5 )×U (1 )X models and intersecting D-branes.
Mirage Models Confront the LHC: I. Kahler-Stabilized Heterotic String Theory
Kaufman, Bryan L; Gaillard, Mary K
2013-01-01
We begin the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The case of heterotic string theory, in which the dilaton is stabilized via non-perturbative corrections to the Kahler metric, will be considered first. This model is highly constrained and therefore predictive. We find that much of the reasonable parameter space afforded to the model -- representing the strong dynamics of a presumed gaugino condensation in the hidden sector -- is now observationally disfavored by the LHC results. Most of the theoretically-motivated parameter space that remains can be probed with data that has already been collected, and most of the remainder will be definitively explored within the first year of operation at center of mass energy of 13 TeV. Expected signatures for a number of benchmark points are discussed. We find that the surviving space of the model makes a precise prediction as to the relation of many superpartner masses, a...
An Exact String Theory Model of Closed Time-Like Curves and Cosmological Singularities
Johnson, C V; Johnson, Clifford V.; Svendsen, Harald G.
2004-01-01
We study an exact model of string theory propagating in a space-time containing regions with closed time-like curves (CTCs) separated from a finite cosmological region bounded by a Big Bang and a Big Crunch. The model is an non-trivial embedding of the Taub-NUT geometry into heterotic string theory with a full conformal field theory (CFT) definition, discovered over a decade ago as a heterotic coset model. Having a CFT definition makes this an excellent laboratory for the study of the stringy fate of CTCs, the Taub cosmology, and the Milne/Misner-type chronology horizon which separates them. In an effort to uncover the role of stringy corrections to such geometries, we calculate the complete set of alpha' corrections to the geometry. We observe that the key features of Taub-NUT persist in the exact theory, together with the emergence of a region of space with Euclidean signature bounded by time-like curvature singularities. Although such remarks are premature, their persistence in the exact geometry is sugges...
The 750 GeV di-photon LHC excess and extra Z′ s in heterotic-string derived models
Alon E. Faraggi; Rizos, John
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible di-photon excess at 750 GeV and a less significant di-boson excess around 1.9 TeV. Such excesses may be produced in heterotic string derived Z′ models, where the di-photon excess may be connected with the Standard Model singlet scalar responsible for the Z′ symmetry breaking, whereas the di-boson excess arises from production of the extra vector boson. Additional vector-like states in the string Z′ model are instrumental to explain t...
The 750 GeV diphoton LHC excess and Extra Z's in Heterotic-String Derived Models
Alon E. Faraggi; Rizos, John
2016-01-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible di-photon excess at 750 GeV and a less significant di-boson excess around 1.9 TeV. Such excesses may be produced in heterotic-string derived Z' models, where the di-photon excess may be connected with the Standard Model singlet scalar responsible for the Z' symmetry breaking, whereas the di-boson excess arises from production of the extra vector boson. Additional vector-like states in the string Z' model are instrumental to explain t...
Positivity of Lyapunov exponents for Anderson-type models on two coupled strings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakim Boumaza
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We study two models of Anderson-type random operators on two deterministically coupled continuous strings. Each model is associated with independent, identically distributed four-by-four symplectic transfer matrices, which describe the asymptotics of solutions. In each case we use a criterion by Gol'dsheid and Margulis (i.e. Zariski denseness of the group generated by the transfer matrices in the group of symplectic matrices to prove positivity of both leading Lyapunov exponents for most energies. In each case this implies almost sure absence of absolutely continuous spectrum (at all energies in the first model and for sufficiently large energies in the second model. The methods used allow for singularly distributed random parameters, including Bernoulli distributions.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.
Johannessen, Morten Krøtøy; Myrvold, Torgeir
2010-01-01
The main focus of this thesis is aspects in the development of a system for prevention of stick-slip oscillations in drill strings that are used for drilling oil wells. Stick-slip is mainly caused by elasticity of the drill string and changing frictional forces at the bit; static frictional forces are higher than the kinetic frictional forces which make the bit act in a manner where it sticks and then slips, called stick-slip. Stick-slip leads to excessive bit wear, premature tool failures an...
Mirage models confront the LHC: Kähler-stabilized heterotic string theory
Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.; Gaillard, Mary K.
2013-07-01
We begin the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The case of heterotic string theory, in which the dilaton is stabilized via nonperturbative corrections to the Kähler metric, will be considered first. The model, which represents the strong dynamics of a presumed gaugino condensation in the hidden sector, is highly constrained and therefore predictive. We find that much of the parameter space associated with confined hidden sector gauge groups up to rank five is now observationally disfavored by the LHC results. Most of the theoretically motivated parameter space that remains can be probed with data that has already been collected, and most of the remainder will be definitively explored within the first year of operation at s=13TeV. Expected signatures for a number of benchmark points are discussed. We find that the surviving space of the model makes a precise prediction as to the relation of many superpartner masses, as well as the manner in which the correct dark matter relic density is obtained. Implications for current and future dark matter search experiments are discussed.
Physically Inspired Models for the Synthesis of Stiff Strings with Dispersive Waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Testa I
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We review the derivation and design of digital waveguides from physical models of stiff systems, useful for the synthesis of sounds from strings, rods, and similar objects. A transform method approach is proposed to solve the classic fourth-order equations of stiff systems in order to reduce it to two second-order equations. By introducing scattering boundary matrices, the eigenfrequencies are determined and their dependency is discussed for the clamped, hinged, and intermediate cases. On the basis of the frequency-domain physical model, the numerical discretization is carried out, showing how the insertion of an all-pass delay line generalizes the Karplus-Strong algorithm for the synthesis of ideally flexible vibrating strings. Knowing the physical parameters, the synthesis can proceed using the generalized structure. Another point of view is offered by Laguerre expansions and frequency warping, which are introduced in order to show that a stiff system can be treated as a nonstiff one, provided that the solutions are warped. A method to compute the all-pass chain coefficients and the optimum warping curves from sound samples is discussed. Once the optimum warping characteristic is found, the length of the dispersive delay line to be employed in the simulation is simply determined from the requirement of matching the desired fundamental frequency. The regularization of the dispersion curves by means of optimum unwarping is experimentally evaluated.
Structure formation in a string-inspired modification of the cold dark matter model
Gubser, S S; Gubser, Steven S.
2004-01-01
Motivated in part by string theory, we consider the idea that the standard LambdaCDM cosmological model might be modified by the effect of a long-range scalar dark matter interaction. The variant of this widely-discussed notion considered here is suggested by the Brandenberger-Vafa picture for why we perceive three spatial dimensions. In this picture there may be at least two species of dark matter particles, with scalar ``charges'' such that the scalar interaction attracts particles with like sign and repels unlike signs. The net charge vanishes. Under this condition the evolution of the mass distribution in linear perturbation theory is the same as in the LambdaCDM cosmology, and both models therefore can equally well pass the available cosmological tests. The physics can be very different on small scales, however: if the scalar interaction has the strength suggested by simple versions of the string scenario, nonlinear mass concentrations are unstable against separation into charged halos with properties un...
Extra Z^' }s and W^' }s in heterotic-string derived models
Faraggi, Alon E.; Guzzi, Marco
2015-11-01
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible excess in the di-boson production at the di-boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional Z^' } and/or W^' } at that scale. We survey the extra Z^' }s and W^' }s that may arise from semi-realistic heterotic-string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in the seven distinct cases: U(1)_{Z^' }}in SO(10); family universal U(1)_{Z^' }}notin SO(10); non-universal U(1)_{Z^' }}; hidden sector U(1) symmetries and kinetic mixing; left-right symmetric models; Pati-Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. The existence of an extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.
Extra $Z^\\prime$s and $W^\\prime$s in Heterotic--String Derived Models
Faraggi, Alon E
2015-01-01
The ATLAS collaboration recently recorded possible excess in the di--boson production at the di--boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional $Z^\\prime$ and/or $W^\\prime$ at that scale. We survey the extra $Z^\\prime$s and $W^\\prime$s that may arise from semi--realistic heterotic string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in seven distinct cases including: $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}\\in SO(10)$; family universal $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ not in $SO(10)$; non--universal $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$; hidden sector $U(1)$ symmetries and kinetic mixing; left--right symmetric models; Pati--Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. Existence of extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.
One-loop and D-instanton corrections to the effective action of open string models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian
2009-07-02
Methods for the calculation of certain corrections to effective actions, which comprehend the low-energy physics of string compactifications with open strings, are explained. First the shape of such actions is describes and some examples for compactifications are presented, especially a type I string model to which a dual model on the base of the heterotic string is known. Then corrections on the gauge coupling constant and on the gauge-kinetic function are discussed. general procedures for their calculation are sketched and applied to some models. The explicitly determinded corrections depend non-holomorphically on the moduli of the compactification manifold. It is explained that this is not in disagreement on the holomorphy of the gauge-kinetic function and how the latter can be extracted from the calculated results. Next D-instantons and their influence on the low-energy action are detailedly analyzed, whereby the zero modes of the instantons and global Abelian symmetries play a central role. A formula for the caclulation of scattering matrix elements in instanton sectors is given. It is to be expected that the considered instantons contribute to the superpotential of the low-energy action. However from the formula it becomes not immediately clear, how far this is possible. The mentioned formula seems to lead to expressions, which are in disagreement to the holomorphy of the superpotential. It is shown that non-holomorphic terms partly simplify, partly are so composed that the result is in accordance with the holomorphy of the superpotential. The D-instanton calculus is then used in order to derive the ADS superpotential, which is known from field theory. That this is possible is to be considered as successful test of the instanton calculus. D-instanton corrections to the gauge-kinetic functions are considered. S duality between the type I and the heterotic string is used in order to determine how the structure of the zero modes of the relevant instantons looks
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Automaton for Approximate String Matching
K.M. Ravi; Choubey, A.; K.K. Tripati
2014-01-01
This paper introduces an intuitionistic fuzzy automaton model for computing the similarity between pairs of strings. The model details the possible edit operations needed to transform any input (observed) string into a target (pattern) string by providing a membership and non-membership value between them. In the end, an algorithm is given for approximate string matching and the proposed model computes the similarity and dissimilarity between the pair of strings leading to better approximation.
Intuitionistic Fuzzy Automaton for Approximate String Matching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.M. Ravi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an intuitionistic fuzzy automaton model for computing the similarity between pairs of strings. The model details the possible edit operations needed to transform any input (observed string into a target (pattern string by providing a membership and non-membership value between them. In the end, an algorithm is given for approximate string matching and the proposed model computes the similarity and dissimilarity between the pair of strings leading to better approximation.
Event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions and the quark-gluon string model
Capella, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Kaidalov, A. B.
1999-01-01
We apply dynamical string models of heavy-ions collisions at high energies to the analysis of event-by-event fluctuations. Main attention is devoted to a new variable proposed to study "equilibration" in heavy-ions collisions. Recent results of the NA49 collaboration at CERN SPS are compared with predictions of the Quark-Gluon String Model (QGSM), which gives a good description of different aspects of multiparticle production for collisions of nucleons and nuclei. It is shown that the new obs...
A review of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of IIB string theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Spenta R Wadia
2001-01-01
We review the theory of the microscopic modeling of the 5-dim. black hole of type IIB string theory in terms of the 1-5 brane system. A detailed discussion of the low energy effective Lagrangian of the brane system is presented and the black hole micro-states are identiﬁed. These considerations are valid in the strong coupling regime of supergravity due to the non-renormalization of the low energy dynamics in this model. Using Maldacena duality and standard statistical mechanics methods one can account for black hole thermodynamics and calculate the absorption cross section and the Hawking radiation rates. Hence, at least in the case of this model black hole, since we can account for black hole properties within a unitary theory, there is no information paradox.
Model of the N-quark potential in SU(N gauge theory using gauge-string duality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Andreev
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We use gauge-string duality to model the N-quark potential in pure Yang–Mills theories. For SU(3, the result agrees remarkably well with lattice simulations. The model smoothly interpolates between almost the Δ-law at short distances and the Y-law at long distances.
Model of the N-quark potential in SU(N) gauge theory using gauge-string duality
Andreev, Oleg
2016-05-01
We use gauge-string duality to model the N-quark potential in pure Yang-Mills theories. For SU (3), the result agrees remarkably well with lattice simulations. The model smoothly interpolates between almost the Δ-law at short distances and the Y-law at long distances.
Mirage models confront the LHC. II. Flux-stabilized type IIB string theory
Kaufman, Bryan L.; Nelson, Brent D.
2014-04-01
We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3-and D7-brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kähler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3-branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3-and D7-branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with Planck observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at √s =8 TeV and the LUX dark matter detection experiment are discussed. The discovery prospects for the remaining parameter space at dark matter direct-detection experiments are described, and signatures for detection of superpartners at the LHC with √s =14 TeV are analyzed.
Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional Hubbard models with string bond tensor-network states
Song, Jeong-Pil; Wee, Daehyun; Clay, R. T.
2015-03-01
We study charge- and spin-ordered states in the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model on a triangular lattice at 1/3 filling. While the nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion V induces charge-ordered states, the competition between on-site U and nearest-neighbor V interactions lead to quantum phase transitions to an antiferromagnetic spin-ordered phase with honeycomb charge order. In order to avoid the fermion sign problem and handle frustrations here we use quantum Monte Carlo methods with the string-bond tensor network ansatz for fermionic systems in two dimensions. We determine the phase boundaries of the several spin- and charge-ordered states and show a phase diagram in the on-site U and the nearest-neighbor V plane. The numerical accuracy of the method is compared with exact diagonalization results in terms of the size of matrices D. We also test the use of lattice symmetries to improve the string-bond ansatz. Work at Mississippi State University was supported by the US Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-06ER46315.
Mirage Models Confront the LHC: II. Flux-Stabilized Type IIB String Theory
Kaufman, Bryan
2013-01-01
We continue the study of a class of string-motivated effective supergravity theories in light of current data from the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this installment we consider Type IIB string theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold in the presence of fluxes, in the manner originally formulated by Kachru, et al. We allow for a variety of potential uplift mechanisms and embeddings of the Standard Model field content into D3 and D7 brane configurations. We find that an uplift sector independent of the Kahler moduli, as is the case with anti-D3 branes, is inconsistent with data unless the matter and Higgs sectors are localized on D7 branes exclusively, or are confined to twisted sectors between D3 and D7 branes. We identify regions of parameter space for all possible D-brane configurations that remain consistent with PLANCK observations on the dark matter relic density and measurements of the CP-even Higgs mass at the LHC. Constraints arising from LHC searches at 8 TeV center-of-mass energies, an...
Searching for Extra Z' from Strings and Other Models at the LHC with Leptoproduction
Coriano, Claudio; Guzzi, Marco
2008-01-01
Discovery potentials for extra neutral interactions at the Large Hadron Collider in forthcoming experiments are analyzed using resonant leptoproduction. For this purpose we use high precision next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) determinations of the QCD background in this channel, at the tail of the Drell-Yan distributions, in the invariant mass region around 0.8 TeV < Q < 2.5 TeV. We focus our analysis primarily on a novel string-inspired Z', obtained in left-right symmetric free fermionic heterotic string models, and whose existence at low energies is motivated by its role in supressing proton decay mediation. We analyze the parametric dependence of the predictions and perform a comparison with other constructions based on bottom-up approaches based on anomaly cancellations and on an enlarged Higgs structure. We show that the results are not particularly sensitive on the specific charge assignments, which may render quite difficult the extraction of significant information from the forward-backward a...
Ion-Atom and Atom-Atom Collisional Processes and Modeling of Stellar Atmospheres
Mihajlov, A. A.; Ignjatovic, Lj. M.; Sreckovic, V. A.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.
2015-09-01
We report the results obtained in our previous works on the influence of two groups of collisional processes (ion--atom and atom--atom) on the optical and kinetic properties of weakly ionised plasma. The first group includes radiative processes of the photodissociation/association type and radiative charge exchange, the second one -- chemi-ionisation/recombination processes. The effect of the radiative processed is assessed by comparing their intensities with those of the known competing processed in application to the solar photosphere and to the photospheres of DB white dwarfs. The studied chemi-ionisation/recombination processes are considered from the viewpoint of their influence on the populations of the excited states of the hydrogen atom (the Sun and an M-type red dwarf with an effective temperature of 3800~K) and helium atom (DB white dwarfs). The effect of these processes on the populations of the excited states of the hydrogen atom has been studied using the PHOENIX code, which generates the model of the considered atmosphere. The reported results demonstrate the unquestionable influence of the considered radiative and chemi- ionisation/recombination processes on the optical properties and on the kinetics of the weakly ionised layers in stellar atmospheres. It can be expected that the reported results will be a sufficient reason for including these processes in the models of stellar atmospheres.
String Field Theory and the Fuzzy Sphere
Ita, Harald; Oz, Yaron
2001-01-01
We use boundary string field theory to study open string tachyon condensation on a three-sphere closed string background. We consider the closed string background described by $SU(2)_k$ WZW model in the limit of large $k$. We compute the exact tachyon potential and analyse the decay modes.
Tight Binding Models in Cold Atoms Physics
Zakrzewski, J.
2007-05-01
Cold atomic gases placed in optical lattice potentials offer a unique tool to study simple tight binding models. Both the standard cases known from the condensed matter theory as well as novel situations may be addressed. Cold atoms setting allows for a precise control of parameters of the systems discussed, stimulating new questions and problems. The attempts to treat disorder in a controlled fashion are addressed in detail.
Searching for Features of a String Inspired Inflationary Model with Cosmological Observations
Cai, Yi-Fu; Hu, Bin; Quintin, Jerome
2015-01-01
The latest Planck results show a power deficit in the temperature anisotropies near $\\ell \\approx 20$ in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This observation can hardly be explained within the standard inflationary $\\Lambda$-cold-dark-matter ($\\Lambda$CDM) scenario. In this Letter we consider a string theory inspired inflationary model (axion monodromy inflation) with a step-like modulation in the potential which gives rise to observable signatures in the primordial perturbations. One interesting phenomenon is that the primordial scalar modes experience a sudden suppression at a critical scale when the modulation occurs. By fitting to the CMB data, we find that the model can nicely explain the $\\ell \\approx 20$ power deficit anomaly as well as predict specific patterns in the temperature-polarization correlation and polarization autocorrelation spectra. Though the significance of the result is not sufficient to claim a detection, our analysis reveals that fundamental physics at extremely high energy scales...
Anisotropic Bulk Viscous String Cosmological Model in a Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. R. K. Reddy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spatially homogeneous, anisotropic, and tilted Bianchi type-VI0 model is investigated in a new scalar-tensor theory of gravitation proposed by Saez and Ballester (1986 when the source for energy momentum tensor is a bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings. Exact solution of the highly nonlinear field equations is obtained using the following plausible physical conditions: (i scalar expansion of the space-time which is proportional to the shear scalar, (ii the barotropic equations of state for pressure and energy density, and (iii a special law of variation for Hubble’s parameter proposed by Berman (1983. Some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also discussed.
A Quantum Computer Foundation for the Standard Model and SuperString Theories
Blaha, S
2002-01-01
We show the Standard Model and SuperString Theories can be naturally based on a Quantum Computer foundation. The Standard Model of elementary particles can be viewed as defining a Quantum Computer Grammar and language. A Quantum Computer in a certain limit naturally forms a Superspace upon which Supersymmetry rotations can be defined - a Continuum Quantum Computer. Quantum high-level computer languages such as Quantum C and Quantum Assembly language are also discussed. In these new linguistic representations, particles become literally symbols or letters, and particle interactions become grammar rules. This view is NOT the same as the often-expressed view that Mathematics is the language of Physics. Some new developments relating to Quantum Computers and Quantum Turing Machines are also described.
Sakellariadou, M
2006-01-01
Cosmic strings, a hot subject in the 1980's and early 1990's, lost its appeal when it was found that it leads to inconsistencies in the power spectrum of the measured cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. However, topological defects in general, and cosmic strings in particular, are deeply rooted in the framework of grand unified theories. Indeed, it was shown that cosmic strings are expected to be generically formed within supersymmetric grand unified theories. This theoretical support gave a new boost to the field of cosmic strings, a boost which has been recently enhanced when it was shown that cosmic superstrings (fundamental or one-dimensional Dirichlet branes) can play the role of cosmic strings, in the framework of braneworld cosmologies. To build a cosmological scenario we employ high energy physics; inflation and cosmic strings then naturally appear. Confronting the predictions of the cosmological scenario against current astrophysical/cosmological data we impose constraints on its fr...
Kovalenko, Vladimir
2014-01-01
The correlations between multiplicities in two separated rapidity windows, is studied in the framework of the Monte Carlo model based on the picture of string formation in elementary collisions of colour dipoles. The hardness of the elementary collisions is defined by a transverse size of the interacting dipoles. The dependencies of the forward-backward correlation strength on the width and position of the pseudorapidity windows, as well as on transverse momentum range of observed particles were studied. It is demonstrated that taking into account of the string fusion effects improves the agreement with the available experimental data.
Branduardi, Davide; Marinelli, Fabrizio; Faraldo-Gómez, José D
2016-03-01
The atomic mechanisms of isomerization of ATP-Mg(2+) in solution are characterized using the recently developed String Method with Optimal Molecular Alignment (SOMA) and molecular-dynamics simulations. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics simulations are first performed to identify the primary conformers of the ATP-Mg(2+) complex and their connectivity. SOMA is then used to elucidate the minimum free-energy path (MFEP) for each transition, in a 48-dimensional space. Analysis of the per-atom contributions to the global free-energy profiles reveals that the mechanism of these transitions is controlled by the Mg(2+) ion and its coordinating oxygen atoms in the triphosphate moiety, as well as by the ion-hydration shell. Metadynamics simulations in path collective variables based on the MFEP demonstrate these isomerizations proceed across a narrow channel of configurational space, thus validating the premise underlying SOMA. This study provides a roadmap for the examination of conformational changes in biomolecules, based on complementary enhanced-sampling techniques with different strengths. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26149527
Atomic model of liquid pure Fe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Using a θ-θX-ray diffractometer, the liquid structure of pure Fewas investigated and the diffraction intensity, structure factor, pair distribution function as well as the coordination number and atomic distance were obtained. The experimental results showed that there was also a pre-peak on the curve of the structure factor of liquid pure Fe. The pre-peak is a mark of medium-range order in melts. According to the characteristics of pre-peak, an atomic model of liquid pure Fe is constructed, namely, the structure of liquid pure Fe is a combination of clusters consisting of bcc cells with shared vertexes and other atoms with random dense atom distribution.
Frampton, Paul H.
2016-04-01
In this note, I recollect a two-week period in September 1968 when I factorized the Veneziano model using string variables in Chicago. Professor Yoichiro Nambu went on to calculate the N-particle dual resonance model and then to factorize it on an exponential degeneracy of states. That was in 1968 and the following year 1969 he discovered the string action. I also include some other reminiscences of Nambu who passed away on July 5, 2015.
Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus
Nemirovskii, P E
2013-01-01
Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Interaction of high-energy hadrons with the 14C, Cu, Pb nuclei is considered in the framework of the model of quark-gluon strings. Inclusive spectra of secondary particles in pp- and pA interactions are calculated. Violation of the Feynman scaling in hadron-nucleus interactions is discussed
The structure of N=2 multi-instanton and string-loop corrections in toroidal orbifold models
Camara, Pablo G
2008-01-01
We summarize the structure of N=2 multi-instanton and string loop corrections to the K\\"ahler potential and the gauge kinetic function in type I toroidal orbifold models. For that aim, we exploit perturbative calculations of the physical gauge couplings on the heterotic dual, whenever such a perturbative description is available.
From b → sγ to the LSP detection rates in minimal string unification models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We exploit the measured branching ratio for b → sγ to derive lower limits on the sparticle and Higgs masses in the minimal string unification models. For the LSP ('bino'), chargino and the lightest Higgs, these turn out to be 50, 90 and 75 GeV respectively. Taking account of the upper bounds on the mass spectrum from the LSP relic abundance, we estimate the direct detection rate for the latter to vary from 10-1 to 10-4 events/kg/day. The muon flux, produced by neutrinos from the annihilating LSP's, varies in the range 10-2 - 10-9 muons/m2/day. (author). 26 refs, 9 figs
Anisotropic string cosmological models in Heckmann-Schucking space-time
Goswami, G. K.; Dewangan, R. N.; Yadav, A. K.; Pradhan, A.
2016-02-01
In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the universe with string fluid as source of matter in anisotropic Heckmann-Schucking space-time by using 287 high red shift (0.3 ≤ z≤1.4) SN Ia data of observed absolute magnitude along with their possible error from Union 2.1 compilation. It is found that the best fit values for (\\varOmegam)0, (\\varOmega_{\\varLambda})0, (\\varOmega_{σ })0 and (q)0 are 0.2820, 0.7177, 0.0002 & -0.5793 respectively. Several physical aspects and geometrical properties of the model are discussed in detail.
The string model of the Cooper pair in the anisotropic superconductor
Dzhunushaliev, V D
1996-01-01
The analogy between the Cooper pair in high temperature superconductor and the quark-antiquark pair in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is proposed. In QCD the nonlinear chromodynamical field between a quark and an antiquark is confined to a tube. So we assume that there is the strong interaction between phonons which can confine them to some tube too. This tube is described using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We show that it has an infinite spectrum of axially symmetric (string) solutions with negative finite linear energy density. The one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation has a finite spectrum (hence, it has a steady-state) which describes the Cooper pair squezeed between anisotropy planes in the superconductor. It is shown that in this model the transition temperature is approximately 45 K.
Anisotropic String Cosmological Models in Heckmann-Suchuking Space-Time
Goswami, G K; Yadav, A K; Pradhan, A
2016-01-01
In the present work we have searched the existence of the late time acceleration of the universe with string fluid as source of matter in anisotropic Heckmann-Suchking space-time by using 287 high red shift $(0.3 \\leq z\\leq 1.4)$ SN Ia data of observed absolute magnitude along with their possible error from Union 2.1 compilation. It is found that the best fit values for $(\\Omega_{m})_{0}$, $(\\Omega_{\\Lambda})_{0}$, $(\\Omega_{\\sigma})_{0}$ and $(q)_{0}$ are 0.2820, 0.7177, 0.0002 $\\&$ -0.5793 respectively. Several physical aspects and geometrical properties of the model are discussed in detail.
Pauli quenching effects in a simple string model of quark/nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of thermodynamic Green's functions is applied to a nonrelativistic many-quark model system. A color-saturated confinement interaction is introduced by considering nearest-neighbor string configurations. The equation of state which accounts for the formation of three-particle bound states is derived within a ladder Hartree-Fock approximation. The temperature- and density-dependent energy shift of the intrinsic nucleonic system is calculated by considering the exchange symmetry (Pauli principle) between the quark constituents of the nucleons. The relation of this nucleonic quasiparticle energy shift to nuclear-matter data is pointed out. It is shown that beyond a critical density the nucleonic clusters are dissolved due to the Pauli quenching effects. The hadronic-to-quark-matter phase transition is considered at zero temperature
String picture approach to the weakly doped one-dimensional t-J-h model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The one-dimensional t-J model in a staggered magnetic field h has been discussed by means of the string or spin bag approach. The Hilbert space has been built of states representing holes localized by the potential corresponding to hole propagation induced defects in the original antiferromagnetic spin structure. These functions called spin bag states are eigenstates of a Hamiltonian obtained by neglecting the processes which lead to hole delocalization. Contrary to previous attempts excited spin bag states have also been taken into account. Cases involving one, two and three holes have been discussed. Dispersion of the ground states and some excited states have been calculated. Quantities like the kinetic energy or hole-hole density correlation functions have been discussed and good agreement with results of numerical diagonalizations has been found. Competition between phase separation and binding is discussed. ((orig.))
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin
Chaotic strings are coupled Tchebyscheff maps on a ring-network. With a well-specified empirical prescription they are able to explain the coupling constants of the standard model of elementary particle physics. This empirical relationship is tested further by introducing a tunable disorder to...... chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector of the...
Nonintercommuting Cosmic Strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform the numerical field evolution for the collision of two Abelian type I cosmic strings. We present evidence that, for collisions at small but characteristic relative velocities and angles, these cosmic strings do not exchange ends and separate. Rather, local higher winding number bound states are formed close to the collision point, which promote multiple local scatterings at right angles and prevent intercommutation from happening. This constitutes the simplest example of the breakdown of the intercommutation rule, usually assumed in the construction of effective models for cosmic string network evolution. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Nonintercommuting Cosmic Strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bettencourt, L.M. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Bettencourt, L.M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Laguna, P. [Department of Astronomy Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Physics Geometry, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Matzner, R.A. [Center for Relativity, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Matzner, R.A. [Orson Anderson Scholar, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
1997-03-01
We perform the numerical field evolution for the collision of two Abelian type I cosmic strings. We present evidence that, for collisions at small but characteristic relative velocities and angles, these cosmic strings {ital do not} exchange ends and separate. Rather, local higher winding number bound states are formed close to the collision point, which promote multiple local scatterings at right angles and prevent intercommutation from happening. This constitutes the simplest example of the breakdown of the intercommutation rule, usually assumed in the construction of effective models for cosmic string network evolution. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
String Evolution with Friction
Martins, C.J.A.P.(Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, Porto, 4150-762, Portugal); Shellard, E. P. S.
1995-01-01
We study the effects of friction on the scaling evolution of string networks in condensed matter and cosmological contexts. We derive a generalized `one-scale' model with the string correlation length $L$ and velocity $v$ as dynamical variables. In non-relativistic systems, we obtain a well-known $L\\propto t^{1/2}$ law, showing that loop production is important. For electroweak cosmic strings, we show transient damped epoch scaling with $L\\propto t^{5/4}$ (or, in the matter era, $L\\propto t^{...
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Cubic twistorial string field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkovits, Nathan; Motl, Lubos E-mail: motl@feynman.harvard.edu
2004-04-01
Witten has recently proposed a string theory in twistor space whose D-instanton contributions are conjectured to compute N=4 super-Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. An alternative string theory in twistor space was then proposed whose open string tree amplitudes reproduce the D-instanton computations of maximal degree in Witten's model. In this paper, a cubic open string field theory action is constructed for this alternative string in twistor space, and is shown to be invariant under parity transformations which exchange MHV and googly amplitudes. Since the string field theory action is gauge-invariant and reproduces the correct cubic super-Yang-Mills interactions, it provides strong support for the conjecture that the string theory correctly computes N-point super-Yang-Mills tree amplitudes. (author)
Cubic Twistorial String Field Theory
Berkovits, N; Berkovits, Nathan; Motl, Lubos
2004-01-01
Witten has recently proposed a string theory in twistor space whose D-instanton contributions are conjectured to compute N=4 super-Yang-Mills scattering amplitudes. An alternative string theory in twistor space was then proposed whose open string tree amplitudes reproduce the D-instanton computations of maximal degree in Witten's model. In this paper, a cubic open string field theory action is constructed for this alternative string in twistor space, and is shown to be invariant under parity transformations which exchange MHV and googly amplitudes. Since the string field theory action is gauge-invariant and reproduces the correct cubic super-Yang-Mills interactions, it provides strong support for the conjecture that the string theory correctly computes N-point super-Yang-Mills tree amplitudes.
Tachyon Dynamics in Open String Theory
Sen, Ashoke
2004-01-01
In this review we describe our current understanding of the properties of open string tachyons on an unstable D-brane or brane-antibrane system in string theory. The various string theoretic methods used for this study include techniques of two dimensional conformal field theory, open string field theory, boundary string field theory, non-commutative solitons etc. We also describe various attempts to understand these results using field theoretic methods. These field theory models include toy...
Fermionic Zero Modes of Supergravity Cosmic Strings
Brax, Ph.; BRUCK, C.; Davis, A C; Davis, Stephen C.
2006-01-01
Recent developments in string theory suggest that cosmic strings could be formed at the end of brane inflation. Supergravity provides a realistic model to study the properties of strings arising in brane inflation. Whilst the properties of cosmic strings in flat space-time have been extensively studied there are significant complications in the presence of gravity. We study the effects of gravitation on cosmic strings arising in supergravity. Fermion zero modes are a common feature of cosmic ...
Low dimensional models for stick-slip vibration of drill-strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silveira, M; Wiercigroch, M, E-mail: m.silveira@abdn.ac.u, E-mail: m.wiercigroch@abdn.ac.u [Centre for Applied Dynamics Research, School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)
2009-08-01
Effective reduction of drill-string vibration is still a major problem in drilling industry and therefore robust predictive tools need to be developed. In this paper we study two low dimensional nonlinear models. The first is a 1-DOF torsional model of the botom-hole assembly (BHA). The second model is a 3-DOF torsional system having in addition to the BHA a rotary table, which allows simulation of interactions for which there is experimental evidence. Three different friction models with increasing levels of complexity are applied to determine their influence in the dynamical responses. Comparison between the dynamic responses for three friction models shows that the dangerous stick-slip limit-cycles do not change qualitatively. Simulations show that, if appropriately controlled, large amplitude stick-slip limit-cycles can change to small amplitude limit-cycles in Model 2. In Model 1, with constant velocity of the rotary table, it goes from a large amplitude stick-slip limit-cycle to a fixed point. Bifurcation diagrams confirm the existence of a set of parameters in which the system operates without stick-slip vibration.
Low dimensional models for stick-slip vibration of drill-strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effective reduction of drill-string vibration is still a major problem in drilling industry and therefore robust predictive tools need to be developed. In this paper we study two low dimensional nonlinear models. The first is a 1-DOF torsional model of the botom-hole assembly (BHA). The second model is a 3-DOF torsional system having in addition to the BHA a rotary table, which allows simulation of interactions for which there is experimental evidence. Three different friction models with increasing levels of complexity are applied to determine their influence in the dynamical responses. Comparison between the dynamic responses for three friction models shows that the dangerous stick-slip limit-cycles do not change qualitatively. Simulations show that, if appropriately controlled, large amplitude stick-slip limit-cycles can change to small amplitude limit-cycles in Model 2. In Model 1, with constant velocity of the rotary table, it goes from a large amplitude stick-slip limit-cycle to a fixed point. Bifurcation diagrams confirm the existence of a set of parameters in which the system operates without stick-slip vibration.
Two exercises in supersymmetry: a low-energy supergravity model and free string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The new features of a supersymmetric standard model in the presence of heavy families are studied. The minimal set of Higgs fields, the desert between the electroweak and the grand unification scale and perturbative values of the dimensionless parameters throughout this region are assumed. Using the numerical as well as the approximate analytic solution of the renormalization group equations, the evolution of all the parameters of the theory are studied in the case of large Yukawa couplings for the fourth family. The desired spontaneous symmetry breaking of the electroweak symmetry takes place only for a rather unnatural choice of the initial values of certain mass parameters at the grand unification scale. If it is gravitino mass smaller than 200 GeV the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields emerge necessarily in an interplay of the tree level Higgs potential and its quantum corrections and are approximately equal. The qurak masses of the fourth family are roughly 135 GeV, while the mass of the fourth charged lepton has an upper bound of 90 GeV. Further characteristic features of this scenario are one light neutral Higgs field of mass 50 GeV and gluino masses below 75 GeV. If the gravitino mass is higher than 200 GeV one obtains a scaled up version of the well-known three family, heavy top scenario with quark masses between 40 and 205 GeV and all superparticle masses heavier than 150 GeV except the photino, gluino, one chargino and one neutralino. The gauge-invariant theory of the free bosonic open string is generalized to treat closed strings and superstrings. All of these theories can be written as theories of string differential forms defined on suitable spaces. All of the bosonic theories have exactly the same structure; the Ramond theory takes an analogous first-order form. We show explicitly, how to gauge-fix each action to the light-cone gauge and to the Feynman-Siegel gauge
Universality and string theory
Bachlechner, Thomas Christian
The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article is devoted to a nontechnical review on the present status of string theory towards an ultimate unification of all fundamental interactions including gravity. In particular, we emphasize the importance of string theory as a new theoretical framework in which the long-standing conflict between quantum theory and general relativity is resolved. (author)
Itoyama, H
2016-01-01
This is a brief summary of an introductory lecture for students and scholars in general given by the author at Nambu Memorial Symposium which was held at Osaka City University on September 29, 2015. We review the invention of string theory by Professor Yoichiro Nambu following the discovery of the Veneziano amplitude. We also discuss Professor Nambu's proposal on string theory in the Schild gauge in 1976 which is related to the matrix model of Yang-Mills type.
Gauge coupling unification in the SU(5)xU(1) string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent calculations have shown that the unification scale in the string SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1)3x[SU(4)xSO(10)]hidden model is of the order of 1018 GeV. We perform a renormalization group analysis to examine whether it is possible to obtain the experimentally determined values of the low energy parameters sin2θw and α3, including in our calculation the fractionally charges states having non-trivial transformation properties under the hidden SU(4) gauge group. We find that the model - in addition to the three generation multiplets and the standard model Higgses - should contain at least three (10+anti 1anti 0)SU(5) representations, while at least two (3.2)+(anti 3, 2) and (3, 1)+(anti 3, 1) (3, 1)+(anti 3, 1) vector-like SU(3)xSU(2) standard model representations should survive down to an survive down to an intermediate scale of order 108-1010 GeV. (orig.)
Constructing de Sitter vacua in no-scale string models without uplifting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Covi, Laura [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gomez-Reino, Marta [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Gross, Christian [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Palma, Gonzalo A. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Lorentz Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Scrucca, Claudio A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques
2008-12-15
We develop a method for constructing metastable de Sitter vacua in N=1 supergravity models describing the no-scale volume moduli sector of Calabi-Yau string compactifications. We consider both heterotic and orientifold models. Our main guideline is the necessary condition for the existence of metastable vacua coming from the Goldstino multiplet, which constrains the allowed scalar geometries and supersymmetry-breaking directions. In the simplest non-trivial case where the volume is controlled by two moduli, this condition simplifies and turns out to be fully characterised by the intersection numbers of the Calabi-Yau manifold. We analyse this case in detail and show that once the metastability condition is satisfied it is possible to reconstruct in a systematic way the local form of the superpotential that is needed to stabilise all the fields. We apply then this procedure to construct some examples of models where the superpotential takes a realistic form allowed by flux backgrounds and gaugino condensation effects, for which a viable vacuum arises without the need of invoking corrections to the Kaehler potential breaking the noscale property or uplifting terms. We finally discuss the prospects of constructing potentially realistic models along these lines. (orig.)
Constructing de Sitter vacua in no-scale string models without uplifting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop a method for constructing metastable de Sitter vacua in N=1 supergravity models describing the no-scale volume moduli sector of Calabi-Yau string compactifications. We consider both heterotic and orientifold models. Our main guideline is the necessary condition for the existence of metastable vacua coming from the Goldstino multiplet, which constrains the allowed scalar geometries and supersymmetry-breaking directions. In the simplest non-trivial case where the volume is controlled by two moduli, this condition simplifies and turns out to be fully characterised by the intersection numbers of the Calabi-Yau manifold. We analyse this case in detail and show that once the metastability condition is satisfied it is possible to reconstruct in a systematic way the local form of the superpotential that is needed to stabilise all the fields. We apply then this procedure to construct some examples of models where the superpotential takes a realistic form allowed by flux backgrounds and gaugino condensation effects, for which a viable vacuum arises without the need of invoking corrections to the Kaehler potential breaking the noscale property or uplifting terms. We finally discuss the prospects of constructing potentially realistic models along these lines. (orig.)
The social structure of ''experimental'' strings at Fermilab; a physics and detector driven model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Physicists in HEP have been forced to organize large scientific projects without a well defined organizational or sociological model to guide them. In the absence of such models, what structures do experimentalists use to develop social structures in HEP? In this paper, I claim that physicists organize around what they know best, the physics problems they study and the detectors and devices they study them with. After describing the advent of ''management'' in HEP, I use a case study of 4 Fermilab experiments as the base upon which to propose a physics and detector driven model of social structure for experiments. In addition, I show how this model can be extended to describe ''strings'' of experiments, where continuities of physics interests, spectrometer design, and a core group of physicists become a definable sociological unit that can exist for over 15 years. A dominate theme that emerges from my analysis is the conscious attempt on the part of experimenters to remove the uncertainties that are part of the practice of HEP
Constructing de Sitter vacua in no-scale string models without uplifting
Covi, Laura; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Gross, Christian; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Scrucca, Claudio A.
2009-03-01
We develop a method for constructing metastable de Sitter vacua in Script N = 1 supergravity models describing the no-scale volume moduli sector of Calabi-Yau string compactifications. We consider both heterotic and orientifold models. Our main guideline is the necessary condition for the existence of metastable vacua coming from the Goldstino multiplet, which constrains the allowed scalar geometries and supersymmetry-breaking directions. In the simplest non-trivial case where the volume is controlled by two moduli, this condition simplifies and turns out to be fully characterised by the intersection numbers of the Calabi-Yau manifold. We analyse this case in detail and show that once the metastability condition is satisfied it is possible to reconstruct in a systematic way the local form of the superpotential that is needed to stabilise all the fields. We apply then this procedure to construct some examples of models where the superpotential takes a realistic form allowed by flux backgrounds and gaugino condensation effects, for which a viable vacuum arises without the need of invoking corrections to the Kähler potential breaking the no-scale property or uplifting terms. We finally discuss the prospects of constructing potentially realistic models along these lines.
The effect of dark strings on semilocal strings
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2009-01-01
Dark strings have recently been suggested to exist in new models of dark matter that explain the excessive electronic production in the galaxy. We study the interaction of these dark strings with semilocal strings which are solutions of the bosonic sector of the Standard Model in the limit $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\rm w}=1$, where $\\theta_{\\rm w}$ is the Weinberg angle. While embedded Abelian-Higgs strings exist for generic values of the coupling constants, we show that semilocal solutions with non-van...
Bali, G S; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Prkacin, Z; Schilling, K; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Prkacin, Zdravko; Schilling, Klaus
2006-01-01
We numerically investigate the transition of the static quark-antiquark string into a static-light meson-antimeson system. Improving noise reduction techniques, we are able to resolve the signature of string breaking dynamics for Nf=2 lattice QCD at zero temperature. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static two-state system. We visualize the action density distribution in the region of string breaking as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation. The results can be related to properties of quarkonium systems.
Supergravity backgrounds for deformations of AdSn×Sn supercoset string models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Lunin
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We consider type IIB supergravity backgrounds corresponding to the deformed AdSn×Sn×T10−2n supercoset string models of the type constructed in arXiv:1309.5850 [2] which depend on one deformation parameter κ. In AdS2×S2 case we find that the deformed metric can be extended to a full supergravity solution with non-trivial dilaton, RR scalar and RR 5-form strength. The solution depends on a free parameter a that should be chosen as a particular function of κ to correspond to the deformed supercoset model. In AdS3×S3 case the full solution supported by the dilaton, RR scalar and RR 3-form strength exists only in the two special cases, a=0 and a=1. We conjecture that there may be a more general one-parameter solution supported by several RR fields that for particular a=a(κ corresponds to the supercoset model. In the most complicated deformed AdS5×S5 case we were able to find only the expressions for the dilaton and the RR scalar. The full solution is likely to be supported by a combination of the 5-form and 3-form field strengths. We comment on the singularity structure of the resulting metric and exact dilaton field.
String Junction Model, Cluster Hypothesis, Penta-Quark Baryon and Tetra-Quark Meson
Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro
2007-01-01
Thirty years ago we proposed string junction model of hadrons and examined structure and reaction of hadrons including exotic ones. Since 2003 some attentions have been paid to exotic hadrons, especially to penta-quark baryon. By critically examining its theoretical analysis of Diakonov et. al, we introduce to our model "cluster hypothesis", which guarantees the classical and established picture that mass difference of hadrons among flavor multiplet members comes from that of the constituents. According to the hypothesis, the penta-quark baryon Theta^+ (S=+1) including a strange anti-quark s(bar), which is assigned to a member of 10^* representation of flavor SU(3), is heavier than non-strange members of the multiplet by Delta_s =130 ~ 150 MeV, the mass difference between the strange and non-strange quarks. In our model the mass of the penta-quark baryon is estimated as around 3 GeV. Quite recently, the Belle Collaboration has reported a candidate for tetra-quark meson, Z^+(4430 MeV). This gives us powerful c...
Multi-instanton and string loop corrections in toroidal orbifold models
Cámara, P G
2008-01-01
We analyze N=2 (perturbative and non-perturbative) corrections to the effective theory in type I orbifold models where a dual heterotic description is available. These corrections may play an important role in phenomenological scenarios. More precisely, we consider two particular compactifications: the Bianchi-Sagnotti-Gimon-Polchinski orbifold and a freely-acting Z_2 x Z_2 orbifold with N=1 supersymmetry and gauge group SO(q) x SO(32-q). By exploiting perturbative calculations of the physical gauge couplings on the heterotic side, we obtain multi-instanton and one-loop string corrections to the K\\"ahler potential and the gauge kinetic function for these models. The non-perturbative corrections appear as sums over relevant Hecke operators, whereas the one-loop correction to the K\\"ahler potential matches the expression proposed in [1,2]. We argue that these corrections are universal in a given class of models where target-space modular invariance (or a subgroup of it) holds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An elementary review of string theory aimed at physicists in general rather than theorists in particular is given. It is explained how string theory can provide a consistent theory of gravity and quantum mechanics and may also unify all the forces of nature. The relationship between critical phenomena, conformal field theory and string theory is explained. More recent developments involving W-algebras and integrable models are summarized. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab
Searching for extra Z' from strings and other models at the CERN LHC with leptoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Discovery potentials for extra neutral interactions at the Large Hadron Collider in forthcoming experiments are analyzed using resonant leptoproduction. For this purpose we use high precision next-to-next-to-leading order determinations of the QCD background in this channel, at the tail of the Drell-Yan distributions, in the invariant mass region around 0.8', obtained in left-right symmetric free fermionic heterotic string models and whose existence at low energies is motivated by its role in suppressing proton decay mediation. We analyze the parametric dependence of the predictions and perform comparison with other models based on bottom-up approaches, that are constructed by requiring anomaly cancellation and enlarged Higgs structure. We show that the results are not particularly sensitive to the specific charge assignments. This may render quite difficult the extraction of significant information from the forward-backward asymmetries on the resonance, assuming that these are possible due to a sizeable width. The challenge to discover extra (nonanomalous) Z' in this kinematic region remains strongly dependent on the size of the new gauge coupling. Weakly coupled extra Z' will not be easy to identify even with a very good theoretical determination of the QCD background through next-to-next-to-leading order.
Renormalizability of the open string sigma model and emergence of D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rederiving the one-loop divergences for the most general coupling of the open string sigma model by the heat kernel technique, we distinguish the classical background field from the mean field of the effective action. The latter is arbitrary, i.e. does not fulfil the boundary conditions. As a consequence a new divergent counter term strongly suggests the introduction of another external one-form field (beside the usual gauge field), coupled to the normal derivative at the boundary. Actually such a field has been proposed in the literature for different reasons, but its full impact never seems to have thoroughly investigated before. The β function for the resulting renormalizable model is calculated and the consequences are discussed, including the ones for the Born-Infeld action. The most exciting property of the new coupling is that it enters the coefficient in front of the normal derivative in Neumann boundary conditions. For certain values of the background fields this coefficient vanishes, leading to Dirichlet boundary conditions. This provides a natural mechanism for the emergence of D-branes. (author)
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)673023; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique
In each of eight arcs of the 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 2.5 km long strings of super-conducting magnets are cooled with superfluid Helium II at 1.9 K. The temperature stabilisation is a challenging control problem due to complex non-linear dynamics of the magnets temperature and presence of multiple operational constraints. Strong nonlinearities and variable dead-times of the dynamics originate at strongly heat-flux dependent effective heat conductivity of superfluid that varies three orders of magnitude over the range of possible operational conditions. In order to improve the temperature stabilisation, a proof of concept on-line economic output-feedback Non-linear Model Predictive Controller (NMPC) is presented in this thesis. The controller is based on a novel complex first-principles distributed parameters numerical model of the temperature dynamics over a 214 m long sub-sector of the LHC that is characterized by very low computational cost of simulation needed in real-time optimizat...
A class of exact pp-wave string models with interacting light-cone gauge actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find a general class of pp-wave string solutions with NS-NS H3 or R-R F3 field strengths, which are analogous to solutions with non-constant F5 recently considered by Maldacena and Maoz (hep-th/0207284). We show that: (i) all pp-wave solutions supported by non-constant H3 or Fp fields are exact type II superstring solutions to all orders in α'; (ii) the corresponding light-cone gauge Green-Schwarz actions are non-linear in bosons but always quadratic in fermions, and describe UV finite 2-d theories; (iii) the pp-wave backgrounds supported by non-constant F3 field do not have, in contrast to their F5-field counterparts, 'supernumerary' supersymmetries and thus the associated light-cone GS actions do not possess 2-d supersymmetry. We consider a specific example where the pp-wave F3 background is parametrized by an arbitrary holomorphic function of one complex bosonic coordinate. The corresponding GS action has the same bosonic part, similar Yukawa terms but twice as many interacting world-sheet fermions as the (2,2) supersymmetric model originating from the analogous F5 background. We also discuss the structure of massless scalar vertex operators in the models related to N=2 super sine-Gordon and N=2 super Liouville theories. (author)
Non-linear dynamics of a drill-string with uncertain model of the bit-rock interaction
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R
2009-01-01
The drill-string dynamics is difficult to predict due to the non-linearities and uncertainties involved in the problem. In this paper a stochastic computational model is proposed to model uncertainties in the bit-rock interaction model. To do so, a new strategy that uses the non-parametric probabilistic approach is developed to take into account model uncertainties in the bit-rock non-linear interaction model. The mean model considers the main forces applied to the column such as the bit-rock...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on String Theory which is recognized as a remarkable case of Conformally Invariant Two-Dimensional Field Theory. It is built, with some restrictions, out of representations of the Virasoro algebra (or, rather, for closed strings, of two commuting copies of it). The first such restriction comes from the requirement of exact conformal invariance, or vanishing conformal anomaly. This is a condition on the field content of the relevant two- dimensional models. For a long time it was associated to the critical dimension of space time, 26 for the bosonic string and 10 for the superstrings. Nowadays, these numbers are seen as a much looser requirement. The total central charge of each representation of the Virasoro algebra must simply equal 26 in the bosonic case, and 15 in the fermionic case, two numbers well connected to Faddeev-Popov ghosts and their contributions to the conformal anomaly. Orbifolds were introduced in String Theory as simple examples of string compactification, albeit ones with internal dimensions living in spaces with singular points. These spaces are obtained from smooth coverings by suitable identifications. There is a vast literature on all this, at least for the case of closed strings, and is often quite technical. The usual cases deal with tori where identification corresponding to discrete Abelian groups are made
String Derived Exophobic SU(6)xSU(2) GUTs
Bernard, Laura; Glasser, Ivan; Rizos, John; Sonmez, Hasan
2012-01-01
With the apparent discovery of the Higgs boson, the Standard Model has been confirmed as the theory accounting for all sub-atomic phenomena. This observation lends further credence to the perturbative unification in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) and string theories. The free fermionic formalism yielded fertile ground for the construction of quasi--realistic heterotic--string models, which correspond to toroidal Z2xZ2 orbifold compactifications. In this paper we study a new class of heterotic-string models in which the GUT group is SU(6)xSU(2) at the string level. We use our recently developed fishing algorithm to extract an example of a three generation SU(6)xSU(2) GUT model. We explore the phenomenology of the model and show that it contains the required symmetry breaking Higgs representations. We show that the model admits flat directions that produce a Yukawa coupling for a single family. The novel feature of the SU(6)xSU(2) string GUT models is that they produce an additional family universal anomaly free...
Feofilov, Grigory; Kochebina, Olga
2015-01-01
Anomalous centrality evolution of two-particle angular correlations observed in Au-Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 62$ and 200 GeV and the onset of ridge structures are considered in the model of interacting quark-gluon strings. We assume that at the given energy of nucleus-nucleus collisions the critical energy density may be reached at the specific centrality. In a string percolation model this might be treated equivalently to a formation of a large cluster of strings characterized by the critical string density, with a size comparable to the whole area of interaction of two nuclei. This hypothesis allows to define some constraints on the string percolation model using data on transitional centralities in Au-Au collisions at these two energies. Results are extrapolated to the LHC energy where high string densities (exceeding the critical value) are confirmed for all classes of centralities in Pb-Pb collisions. Interaction between strings inside large clusters formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions is consid...
On the equivalence of fermionic string to bosonic string in two dimensions
Ishikawa, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
Two-dimensional fermionic string theory is shown to have a structure of topological model, which is isomorphic to a tensor product of two topological ghost systems independent of each other. One of them is identified with $c=1$ bosonic string theory while the other has trivial physical contents. This fact enables us to regard two-dimensional fermionic string theory as an embedding of $c=1$ bosonic string theory in the moduli space of fermionic string theories. Upon this embedding, the discret...
Geometry of strings and fields
2013-01-01
Ever since the birth of string theory, interaction with geometry has been one of the primary driving forces that has led to progress in superstring theory. On one hand, string theory has generated many new geometrical concepts; and on the other hand new ideas from geometry have often found their first applications in string theory. These topics include vertex algebras, conformal field theory, mirror symmetry, topological field theory and string theory, exact solutions of supersymmetric gauge theory and noncommutative field theory. Recent exciting developments include the matrix model approach to N=1 gauge theory, open string mirror symmetry, the derived category approach to D-branes on Calabi-Yau manifolds, geometric transitions, proof of the N=2 Seiberg-Witten solution by instanton methods, wall crossing formulas, the relation between Langlands program and supersymmetric gauge theories, indications of integrable structures in super Yang-Mills theory and AdS string theory. The program will be devoted to geome...
Factorization of Chiral String Amplitudes
Huang, Yu-tin; Yuan, Ellis Ye
2016-01-01
We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: As found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on the status of the analysis, in terms of the Fire-String model, of the hadronic final states produced in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering (EMC experiment), and presents a significant sample of graphs where theory and experiment are compared. The general agreement is good: there are however some well-characterized discrepancies, which suggest the introduction of local corrections in the theoretical formulation
Lin, Anthony W.; Barcelo, Pablo
2015-01-01
We study the fundamental issue of decidability of satisfiability over string logics with concatenations and finite-state transducers as atomic operations. Although restricting to one type of operations yields decidability, little is known about the decidability of their combined theory, which is especially relevant when analysing security vulnerabilities of dynamic web pages in a more realistic browser model. On the one hand, word equations (string logic with concatenations) cannot precisely ...
Scale Symmetries of Spherical String Fluids
Glass, E. N.; Krisch, J. P.
1999-01-01
We consider homothetic maps in a family of spherical relativistic star models. A generalization of Vaidya's radiating metric provides a fluid atmosphere of radiation and strings. The similarity structure of the string fluid is investigated.
Spectra of D mesons in pp interactions and the quark-gluon string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quark-gluon string model with the previously introduced transverse-momentum dependence of the quark distribution functions and of the functions for fragmentation of quarks into hadrons is used for a quantitative estimate of the differential cross sections of production of D mesons in pp interactions at various initial energies. A comparison of the calculations with the experimental data at the energy √s = 27.4 GeV shows that both in the Feynman variable x and in the transverse momentum p, a good description of the spectra is achieved for a value of the intercept of the Regge trajectory of charmonium close to zero. It is noted that such values of the intercept [αQbarQ(0)congruent 0] indicate that for small four-momentum transfers the trajectories of heavy quarkonia are strongly nonlinear. This means that the contribution of the peripheral mechanism may be significant in processes with production of heavy flavors. 36 refs., 6 figs
The minimal SUSY B - L model: simultaneous Wilson lines and string thresholds
Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt A.; Purves, Austin
2016-07-01
In previous work, we presented a statistical scan over the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters of the minimal SUSY B - L model. For specificity of calculation, unification of the gauge parameters was enforced by allowing the two Z_3× Z_3 Wilson lines to have mass scales separated by approximately an order of magnitude. This introduced an additional "left-right" sector below the unification scale. In this paper, for three important reasons, we modify our previous analysis by demanding that the mass scales of the two Wilson lines be simultaneous and equal to an "average unification" mass . The present analysis is 1) more "natural" than the previous calculations, which were only valid in a very specific region of the Calabi-Yau moduli space, 2) the theory is conceptually simpler in that the left-right sector has been removed and 3) in the present analysis the lack of gauge unification is due to threshold effects — particularly heavy string thresholds, which we calculate statistically in detail. As in our previous work, the theory is renormalization group evolved from to the electroweak scale — being subjected, sequentially, to the requirement of radiative B - L and electroweak symmetry breaking, the present experimental lower bounds on the B - L vector boson and sparticle masses, as well as the lightest neutral Higgs mass of ˜125 GeV. The subspace of soft supersymmetry breaking masses that satisfies all such constraints is presented and shown to be substantial.
The Minimal SUSY $B-L$ Model: Simultaneous Wilson Lines and String Thresholds
Deen, Rehan; Purves, Austin
2016-01-01
In previous work, we presented a statistical scan over the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters of the minimal SUSY $B-L$ model. For specificity of calculation, unification of the gauge parameters was enforced by allowing the two ${\\mathbb Z}_{3}\\times {\\mathbb Z}_{3}$ Wilson lines to have mass scales separated by approximately an order of magnitude. This introduced an additional "left-right" sector below the unification scale. In this paper, for three important reasons, we modify our previous analysis by demanding that the mass scales of the two Wilson lines be simultaneous and equal to an "average unification" mass $\\left$. The present analysis is 1) more "natural" than the previous calculations, which were only valid in a very specific region of the Calabi-Yau moduli space, 2) the theory is conceptually simpler in that the left-right sector has been removed and 3) in the present analysis the lack of gauge unification is due to threshold effects--particularly heavy string thresholds, which we calculate st...
Evolution of cosmic string networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We summarize our new results on cosmic strings. These results include: the application of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to cosmic string evolution, a simple ''one scale'' model for the long strings which has a great deal of predictive power, results from large scale numerical simulations, and a discussion of the observational consequences of our results. An upper bond on Gμ of approximately 10-7 emerges from the millisecond pulsar gravity wave bound. We discuss how numerical uncertainties affect this. Any changes which weaken the bound would probably also give the long strings the dominant role in producing observational consequences. 22 refs
Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vicedo, Benoit
2011-05-15
We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)
Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory
F.H. Hacquebord
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory
The Effective Theory of Long Strings
Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar
2013-01-01
We present the low-energy effective theory on long strings in quantum field theory, including a streamlined review of previous literature on the subject. Such long strings can appear in the form of solitonic strings, as in the 4d Abelian Higgs model, or in the form of confining strings, as in Yang-Mills theories. The bottom line is that upon expanding in powers of 1/L the energy levels of long (closed) strings (where L is the length of the string), all the terms up to (and including) order 1/...
A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.
A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rickles, Dean [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Unit for History and Philosophy of Science
2014-04-01
First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.
Johnson, C V
2006-01-01
We present a class of solvable models that resemble string theories in many respects but have a strikingly different non-perturbative sector. In particular, there are no exponentially small contributions to perturbation theory in the string coupling, which normally are associated with branes and related objects. Perturbation theory is no longer an asymptotic expansion, and so can be completely re-summed to yield all the non-perturbative physics. We examine a number of other properties of the theories, for example constructing and examining the physics of loop operators, which can be computed exactly, and gain considerable understanding of the difference between these new theories and the more familiar ones, including the possibility of how to interpolate between the two types. Interestingly, the models we exhibit contain a family of zeros of the partition function which suggest a novel phase structure. The theories are defined naturally by starting with models that yield well-understood string theories and al...
Sokalski, W. A.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.
1992-01-01
The quality of several atomic charge models based on different definitions has been analyzed using cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMM). This formalism can generate higher atomic moments starting from any atomic charges, while preserving the corresponding molecular moments. The atomic charge contribution to the higher molecular moments, as well as to the electrostatic potentials, has been examined for CO and HCN molecules at several different levels of theory. The results clearly show that the electrostatic potential obtained from CAMM expansion is convergent up to R-5 term for all atomic charge models used. This illustrates that higher atomic moments can be used to supplement any atomic charge model to obtain more accurate description of electrostatic properties.
Ueresin, C.; Decker, L.; Treite, P.
In 2011, Linde Cryogenics, a division of Linde Process Plants, Tulsa, Oklahoma, was awarded the contract to deliver a 500 W at 2 K superfluid cryogenic plant to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, Illinois, USA. This system includes a cold compressor string with three centrifugal compressors and a vacuum pump skid with five volumetric pumps in parallel used to pump down helium to its saturation pressure corresponding to 2 K. Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen Switzerland engineered and supplied the cold compressor system and commissioned it with its control logic to cover the complete range of system operation. The paper outlines issues regarding compressor design, compressor string modeling, control algorithms, controller performance, and surge protection.
Making It Visual: Creating a Model of the Atom
Pringle, Rose M.
2004-01-01
This article describes a lesson in which students construct Bohr's planetary model of the atom. Niels Bohr's atomic model provides a framework for discussing with middle and high school students the historical development of our understanding of the structure of the atom. The model constructed in this activity will enable students to visualize the…
Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei
Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.
1995-01-01
High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.
Haghighat, Babak; Kozcaz, Can; Lockhart, Guglielmo; Vafa, Cumrun
2013-01-01
M2 branes suspended between adjacent parallel M5 branes lead to light strings, the `M-strings'. In this paper we compute the elliptic genus of M-strings, twisted by maximally allowed symmetries that preserve 2d (2,0) supersymmetry. In a codimension one subspace of parameters this reduces to the elliptic genus of the (4,4) supersymmetric A_{n-1} quiver theory in 2d. We contrast the elliptic genus of N M-strings with the (4,4) sigma model on the N-fold symmetric product of R^4. For N=1 they are the same, but for N>1 they are close, but not identical. Instead the elliptic genus of (4,4) N M-strings is the same as the elliptic genus of (4,0) sigma models on the N-fold symmetric product of R^4, but where the right-moving fermions couple to a modification of the tangent bundle. This construction arises from a dual A_{n-1} quiver 6d gauge theory with U(1) gauge groups. Moreover we compute the elliptic genus of domain walls which separate different numbers of M2 branes on the two sides of the wall.
Toda lattice hierarchy and generalized string equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
String equations of the pth generalized Kontsevich model and the compactified c = 1 string theory are re-examined in the language of the Toda lattice hierarchy. As opposed to a hypothesis postulated in the literature, the generalized Kontsevich model at p = -1 does not coincide with the c = 1 string theory at self-dual radius. A broader family of solutions of the Toda lattice hierarchy including these models is constructed, and shown to satisfy generalized string equations. The status of a variety of c ≤ 1 string models is discussed in this new framework. (orig.)
Analytical model for CMB temperature angular power spectrum from cosmic (super-)strings
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Yoo, Chul-Moon; Sasaki, Misao
2010-01-01
We present a new analytical method to calculate the small angle CMB temperature angular power spectrum due to cosmic (super-)string segments. In particular, using our method, we clarify the dependence on the intercommuting probability $P$. We find that the power spectrum is dominated by Poisson-distributed string segments. The power spectrum for a general value of $P$ has a plateau on large angular scales and shows a power-law decrease on small angular scales. The resulting spectrum in the ca...
Polchinski, Joseph
2005-01-01
We classify potential cosmic strings according to the topological charge measurable outside the string core. We conjecture that in string theory it is this charge that governs the stability of long strings. This would imply that the SO(32) heterotic string can have endpoints, but not the E_8 x E_8 heterotic string. We give various arguments in support of this conclusion.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Atul Tyagi; Keerti Sharma
2011-01-01
@@ The locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-Ⅱ magnetized string cosmological model with bulk viscous fluid is investigated.The magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along the x-axis.Thus the magnetic field is in the y-z plane and F23 is the only non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor Fib.To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time t, we have assumed the condition ξθ=const, where ξ is the coefficient of bulk viscosity and θ is the expansion in the model.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Katore; R S Rane; K S Wankhade
2011-04-01
Bianchi type-I massive string cosmological model for perfect ﬂuid distribution in the presence of magnetic ﬁeld is investigated in Rosen’s [Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 4, 435 (1973)] bimetric theory of gravitation. To obtain the deterministic model in terms of cosmic time, we have used the condition $A = (B C)^n$, where n is a constant, between the metric potentials. The magnetic ﬁeld is due to the electric current produced along the -axis with inﬁnite electrical conductivity. Some physical and geometrical properties of the exhibited model are discussed and studied.
Strings for quantumchromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the last decade, intriguing dualities between gauge and string theory have been found and explored. they provide a novel window on strongly couplde gauge physics, including QCD-like models. Based on a short historical review of modern string theory, we explain how so-called AdS/CFT dualities emerged at the end of the 1990s. Some of their concrete implications and remarkable recent progress are then illustrated for the simplest example, namely the multicolor limit of N=4 SYM theory in four dimensions. We end with a few comments on existing extensions to more realistic models and applications, in particular to the sQGP. This text is meant as a non-technical introduction to gauge/string dualities for (particle) physicists. (orig.)
Henrot-Versillé, Sophie; Robinet, Florent; Leroy, Nicolas; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Arnaud, Nicolas; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Cavalier, Fabien; Christensen, Nelson; Couchot, François; Franco, Samuel; Hello, Patrice; Huet, Dominique; Kasprzack, Marie; Perdereau, Olivier; Spinelli, Marta; Tristram, Matthieu
2015-02-01
The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density {{Ω }GW} for frequencies above 10-15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that {{Ω }GW}h02\\lt 3.8× {{10}-6} at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ˜4 × {{10}-9} are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10-3.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density ΩGW for frequencies above 10−15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that ΩGWh02<3.8×10−6 at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ∼4 × 10−9 are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10−3. (paper)
Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan
2001-01-01
We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS_2 branes in AdS_3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS_3. It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes w...
Tadpole resummations in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
While R-R tadpoles should be canceled for consistency, string models with broken supersymmetry generally have uncanceled NS-NS tadpoles. Their presence signals that the background does not solve the field equations, so that these models are in 'wrong' vacua. In this Letter we investigate, with reference to some prototype examples, whether the true values of physical quantities can be recovered resumming the NS-NS tadpoles, hence by an approach that is related to the analysis based on String Field Theory by open-closed duality. We show that, indeed, the positive classical vacuum energy of a Dp-brane of the bosonic string is exactly canceled by the negative contribution arising from tree-level tadpole resummation, in complete agreement with Sen's conjecture on open-string tachyon condensation and with the consequent analysis based on String Field Theory. We also show that the vanishing classical vacuum energy of the SO(8192) unoriented bosonic open-string theory does not receive any tree-level corrections from the tadpole resummation. This result is consistent with the fact that this (unstable) configuration is free from tadpoles of massless closed-string modes, although there is a tadpole of the closed string tachyon. The application of this method to superstring models with broken supersymmetry is also discussed
Calculation of Al-Zn diagram from central atoms model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
A slightly modified central atoms model was proposed. The probabilities of various clusters with the central atoms and their nearest neighboring shells can be calculated neglecting the assumption of the param eter of energy in the central atoms model in proportion to the number of other atoms i (referred with the central atom). A parameter Pα is proposed in this model, which equals to reciprocal of activity coefficient of a component, therefore, the new model can be understood easily. By this model, the Al-Zn phase diagram and its thermodynamic properties were calculated, the results coincide with the experimental data.
The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach
Atomic data for integrated tokamak modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force (ITM-TF) was set up in 2004. The main target is to coordinate the European fusion modeling effort and providing a complete European modeling structure for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), with the highest degree of flexibility. For the accurate simulation of the processes in the active fusion reactor in the ITM-TF, numerous atomic, molecular, nuclear and surface related data are required. In this work we present total-, single- and multiple-ionization and charge exchange cross sections in close connection to the ITM-TF. Interpretation of these cross sections in multi-electron ion-atom collisions is a challenging task for theories. The main difficulty is caused by the many-body feature of the collision, involving the projectile, projectile electron(s), target nucleus, and target electron(s). The classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been quite successful in dealing with the atomic processes in ion-atom collisions. One of the advantages of the CTMC method is that many-body interactions are exactly taken into account related CTMC simulations for a various collision systems are presented. To highlight the efficiency of the method we present electron emission cross sections in collision between dressed Alq+ ions with He target. The theory delivers separate spectra for electrons emitted from the target and the projectile. By summing these two components in the rest frame of the target we may make a comparison with available experimental data. For the collision system in question, a significant contribution from Fermi-shuttle ionization has to be expected in the spectra at energies higher than E=0.5 me (nV)2, where me is the mass of the electron, V the projectile velocity and n an integer greater than 1. We found enhanced electron yields compared to first order theory in this region of CTMC spectra, which can be directly attributed to the contribution of Fermi-shuttle type multiple scattering
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.
Intended primarily for use by instrumental music teachers who do not have a major concentration in strings, this guide provides pertinent basic resources, materials, teaching--learning expectation, and a general overall guide to achievement levels at various stages of development. Discussions are presented of Choosing the Proper Method Book,…
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R
2010-01-01
This work proposes a strategy for the robust optimization of the nonlinear dynamics of a drill-string, which is a structure that rotates and digs into the rock to search for oil. The nonparametric probabilistic approach is employed to model the uncertainties of the structure as well as the uncertainties of the bit-rock interaction model. This paper is particularly concerned with the robust optimization of the rate of penetration of the column, i.e., we aim to maximize the mathematical expecta...
Radially stabilized inflating cosmic strings
Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert
2015-03-01
In general relativity, local cosmic strings are well known to produce a static, locally flat spacetime with a wedge removed. If the tension exceeds a critical value, the deficit angle becomes larger than 2 π , leading to a compact exterior that ends in a conical singularity. In this paper, we investigate dynamical solutions for cosmic strings with super-critical tensions. To this end, we model the string as a cylindrical shell of finite and stabilized transverse width and show that there is a marginally super-critical regime in which the stabilization can be achieved by physically reasonable matter. We show numerically that the static deficit angle solution is unstable for super-critical string tensions. Instead, the geometry starts expanding in the axial direction at an asymptotically constant rate, and a horizon is formed in the exterior spacetime, which has the shape of a growing cigar. We are able to find the analytic form of the attractor solution describing the interior of the cosmic string. In particular, this enables us to analytically derive the relation between the string tension and the axial expansion rate. Furthermore, we show that the exterior conical singularity can be avoided for dynamical solutions. Our results might be relevant for theories with two extra dimensions, modeling our Universe as a cosmic string with a three-dimensional axis. We derive the corresponding Friedmann equation, relating the on-brane Hubble parameter to the string tension or, equivalently, brane cosmological constant.
Early Atomic Models - From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913)
Baily, Charles
2012-01-01
A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson’s mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880’s, to the myriad “corpuscular” atoms he p...
Atomic Models for Motional Stark Effects Diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, M F; Holcomb, C; Jayakuma, J; Allen, S; Pablant, N A; Burrell, K
2007-07-26
We present detailed atomic physics models for motional Stark effects (MSE) diagnostic on magnetic fusion devices. Excitation and ionization cross sections of the hydrogen or deuterium beam traveling in a magnetic field in collisions with electrons, ions, and neutral gas are calculated in the first Born approximation. The density matrices and polarization states of individual Stark-Zeeman components of the Balmer {alpha} line are obtained for both beam into plasma and beam into gas models. A detailed comparison of the model calculations and the MSE polarimetry and spectral intensity measurements obtained at the DIII-D tokamak is carried out. Although our beam into gas models provide a qualitative explanation for the larger {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios and represent significant improvements over the statistical population models, empirical adjustment factors ranging from 1.0-2.0 must still be applied to individual line intensities to bring the calculations into full agreement with the observations. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that beam into gas measurements can be used successfully as calibration procedures for measuring the magnetic pitch angle through {pi}/{sigma} intensity ratios. The analyses of the filter-scan polarization spectra from the DIII-D MSE polarimetry system indicate unknown channel and time dependent light contaminations in the beam into gas measurements. Such contaminations may be the main reason for the failure of beam into gas calibration on MSE polarimetry systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
N. P. Gaikwad; M. S. Borkar; S. S. Charjan
2011-01-01
@@ We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier(1979,1980) and Stachel(1983).To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution.The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed.By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al.(2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T＝0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al.starts with a big bang at T=0.Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al.(2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the Bianchi type-I massive string magnetized barotropic perfect fluid cosmological model in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation with and without a magnetic field by applying the techniques used by Latelier (1979, 1980) and Stachel (1983). To obtain a deterministic model of the universe, it is assumed that the universe is filled with barotropic perfect fluid distribution. The physical and geometrical significance of the model are discussed. By comparing our model with the model of Bali et al. (2007), it is realized that there are no big-bang and big-crunch singularities in our model and T = 0 is not the time of the big bang, whereas the model of Bali et al. starts with a big bang at T = 0. Further, our model is in agreement with Bali et al. (2007) as time increases in the presence, as well as in the absence, of a magnetic field. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Higgs-graviscalar mixing in type I string theory
Antoniadis, Ignatios
2002-01-01
We investigate the possibility of mixing between open and closed string excitations in D-brane models with the fundamental string scale at the TeV. The open string modes describe the Standard Model Higgs, while closed strings describe graviscalars living in the bulk. This provides a string setup for computing the Higgs-graviscalar mixing, that leads to a phenomenologically interesting invisible width of the Higgs in low scale quantum gravity models, as suggested previously by Giudice, Rattazzi and Wells.
A Cosmic String Specific Signature on the Cosmic Microwave Background
Moessner, R; Perivolaropoulos, L.; Brandenberger, R.
1993-01-01
Using an analytical model for the string network we show that the kurtosis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature gradient maps is a good statistic to distinguish between the cosmic string model and inflationary models of structure formation. The difference between the stringy and inflationary value for the kurtosis is inversely proportional to the angular resolution and to the number of strings per Hubble volume of the strings' scaling solution. If strings are indeed responsible fo...
The 750 GeV di-photon LHC excess and extra Z's in heterotic-string derived models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, Alon E. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Rizos, John [University of Ioannina, Department of Physics, Ioannina (Greece)
2016-03-15
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible di-photon excess at 750 GeV and a less significant di-boson excess around 1.9 TeV. Such excesses may be produced in heterotic string derived Z' models, where the di-photon excess may be connected with the Standard Model singlet scalar responsible for the Z' symmetry breaking, whereas the di-boson excess arises from production of the extra vector boson. Additional vector-like states in the string Z' model are instrumental to explain the relatively large width of the di-photon events and mandated by anomaly cancellation to be in the vicinity of the Z' breaking scale. Wilson line breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries in the string models naturally gives rise to dark matter candidates. Future collider experiments will discriminate between the high-scale heterotic-string models, which preserve the perturbative unification paradigm indicated by the Standard Model data, versus the low scale string models.We also discuss the possibility for the production of the diphoton events with high scale U(1){sub Z'} breaking. (orig.)
Atomic theory and tests of the Standard Model in atomic experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurements of the weak charge characterizing the strength of the electron-nucleon weak interaction provide tests of the Standard Model and a way of searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic experiments give limits on the extra Z-boson, leptoquarks, composite fermions, and radiative corrections produced by particles that are predicted by new theories. To extract the accurate value of the weak charge from atomic experiments one has to perform high precision atomic calculations of the PNC effects
Subcritical String and Large N QCD
Thorn, Charles B.
2008-01-01
We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 space-time dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will {\\it determine} the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar mul...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the construction and properties of four dimensional string models, using free fermions on the world-sheet. We prove that as opposed to gauge symmetries, broken space-time supersymmetry can only be restored continuously by decompactification. 40 refs
2007-01-01
"How can the nature of basic particles be defined beyond the mechanisms presiding over their creation? Besides the standard model of particle physics - resulting from the postulations of quantum mechanics - contemporary science has pinned its hopes on the totally new unifying notion provided by the highly mathematical string theory."(2 pages)
Periwal, Vipul; Tafjord, Oyvind
1998-01-01
String configurations have been identified in compactified Matrix theory at vanishing string coupling. We show how the interactions of these strings are determined by the Yang-Mills gauge field on the worldsheet. At finite string coupling, this suggests the underlying dynamics is not well-approximated as a theory of strings. This may explain why string perturbation theory diverges badly, while Matrix string perturbation theory presumably has a perturbative expansion with properties similar to...
Harmonic oscillator model for the helium atom
Carlsen, Martin
2015-01-01
A harmonic oscillator model in four dimensions is presented for the helium atom to estimate the distance to the inner and outer electron from the nucleus, the angle between electrons and the energy levels. The method is algebraic and is not based on the choice of correct trial wave function. Three harmonic oscillators and thus three quantum numbers are sufficient to describe the two-electron system. We derive a simple formula for the energy in the general case and in the special case of the Wannier Ridge. For a set of quantum numbers the distance to the electrons and the angle between the electrons are uniquely determined as the intersection between three surfaces. We show that the excited states converge either towards ionization thresholds or towards extreme parallel or antiparallel states and provide an estimate of the ground state energy.
Progress in string theory research
2016-01-01
At the first look, the String Theory seems just an interesting and non-trivial application of the quantum mechanics and the special relativity to vibrating strings. By itself, the quantization of relativistic strings does not call the attention of the particle physicist as a significant paradigm shift. However, when the string quantization is performed by applying the standard rules of the perturbative Quantum Field Theory, one discovers that the strings in certain states have the same physical properties as the gravity in the flat space-time. Chapter one of this book reviews the construction of the thermal bosonic string and D-brane in the framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics (TFD). It briefly recalls the wellknown light-cone quantization of the bosonic string in the conformal gauge in flat space-time, and gives a bird’s eye view of the fundamental concepts of the TFD. Chapter two examines a visual model inspired by string theory, on the system of interacting anyons. Chapter three investigate the late-ti...
String Field Theory of Noncritical Strings
Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Hikaru
1993-01-01
We construct the Hamiltonian operator of the string field theory for $c=0$ string theory. It describes how strings evolve in the coordinate frame, which is defined by using the geodesic distance on the worldsheet. The Hamiltonian consists of three-string interaction terms and a tadpole term. We show that one can derive the loop amplitudes of $c=0$ string theory from this Hamiltonian.
Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure
Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.
1995-01-01
A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.
Nikita AgasianITEP, Moscow; Dmitri Antonov
2015-01-01
Confining strings and RG flow at finite temperature are investigated in the (2+1)-dimensional Georgi-Glashow model. This is done in the limit when the electric coupling constant is much larger than the square root of mass of the Higgs field, but much smaller than the vacuum expectation value of this field. The modification of the Debye mass of the dual photon with respect to the case when it is considered to be negligibly small compared to the Higgs mass, is found. Analogous modifications of ...
Strings in AdS3 and the SL(2,R) WZW model. III. Correlation functions
Maldacena, Juan; Ooguri, Hirosi
2002-01-01
We consider correlation functions for string theory on AdS3. We analyze their singularities and we provide a physical interpretation for them. We explain which worldsheet correlation functions have a sensible physical interpretation in terms of the boundary theory. We consider the operator product expansion of the four-point function and we find that it factorizes only if a certain condition is obeyed. We explain that this is the correct physical result. We compute correlation functions invol...
Ashfaque, J; Faraggi, A E; Marzo, C
2016-01-01
The di-photon excess observed at the LHC can be explained as a Standard Model singlet that is produced and decays by heavy vector-like colour triplets and electroweak doublets in one-loop diagrams. The characteristics of the required spectrum are well motivated in heterotic-string constructions that allow for a light $Z^\\prime$. Anomaly cancellation of the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ symmetry requires the existence of the Standard Model singlet and vector-like states in the vicinity of the $U(1)_{Z^\\prime}$ breaking scale. In this paper we show that the agreement with the gauge coupling data at one-loop is identical to the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, owing to cancellations between the additional states. We further show that effects arising from heavy thresholds may push the supersymmetric spectrum beyond the reach of the LHC, while maintaining the agreement with the gauge coupling data. We show that the string inspired model can indeed account for the observed signal and discuss the feasibility o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process e+e- → W+W-. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs
An atomic model for neutral and singly ionized uranium
Maceda, E. L.; Miley, G. H.
1979-01-01
A model for the atomic levels above ground state in neutral, U(0), and singly ionized, U(+), uranium is described based on identified atomic transitions. Some 168 states in U(0) and 95 in U(+) are found. A total of 1581 atomic transitions are used to complete this process. Also discussed are the atomic inverse lifetimes and line widths for the radiative transitions as well as the electron collisional cross sections.
Sumitomo, Yoske; Wong, Sam S C
2013-01-01
We study a racetrack model in the presence of the leading alpha'-correction in flux compactification in Type IIB string theory, for the purpose of getting conceivable de-Sitter vacua in the large compactified volume approximation. Unlike the K\\"ahler Uplift model studied previously, the alpha'-correction is more controllable for the meta-stable de-Sitter vacua in the racetrack case since the constraint on the compactified volume size is very much relaxed. We find that the vacuum energy density \\Lambda for de-Sitter vacua approaches zero exponentially as the volume grows. We also analyze properties of the probability distribution of \\Lambda in this class of models. As in other cases studied earlier, the probability distribution again peaks sharply at \\Lambda=0. We also study the Racetrack K\\"ahler Uplift model in the Swiss-Cheese type model.
Gauge mediation in string theory
Kawano, Teruhiko; Ooguri, Hirosi; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2007-01-01
We show that a large class of phenomenologically viable models for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking based on meta-stable vacua can be realized in local Calabi–Yau compactifications of string theory.
Strings draw theorists together
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
has been learned about the non-perturbative extension of string theory now known as ''M theory'' and this has shed light on many previously mysterious aspects of quantum field theory. The range of new and potentially important developments is indeed impressive. One example is the accumulation of results on the role of ''noncommutative geometry'' in string theory. Another major theme of the meeting was the new ideas on how string theory may describe observed physics, such as the forces and particles in nature and their properties. The recent work by Lisa Randall of Princeton University and Raman Sundrum of Boston University is a variant of the ''brane world'' idea that has come to the fore over the past couple of years. According to this idea, which was reviewed by Randall at the conference, our four-dimensional universe can be thought of as a membrane (known as a three-brane) that is embedded inside a higher-dimensional universe. The number of higher dimensions is predicted by the structure of string theory. The possible consequences of this are striking. For example, in such a universe the fundamental energy scale of the theory may be much smaller than the Planck energy of 1019 GeV. Indeed, the scale could be so small that it will be accessible to direct experimental observation using the next generation of accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider that is currently under construction at CERN. This theme was further developed by Steven Hawking, who conjectured on how such a universe might have evolved from the initial quantum state that preceded the big bang. One of the most exciting developments over the past few years has been in understanding how so-called Yang-Mills gauge theories - the bread and butter of the Standard Model of particle physics - are related to quantum gravity by string theory. Particularly important is the so-called ''Maldacena correspondence'', first developed by Juan Maldacena of Harvard University. This correspondence gives an explicit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Anirudh Pradhan
2009-01-01
Some cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous viscous fluid string cosmological models with magnetic field and cosmological term A varying with time are investigated.To get the deterministic solution, it has been assumed that the expansion (θ) in the model is proportional to the eigen value σ 1/2 of the shear tensor σij.The value of cosmological constant for the model is found to be small and positive, which is supported by the results from recent supernovae Ⅰa observations.The effect of bulk viscosity is to produce a change in perfect fluid and hence exhibits essential influence on the character of the solution.The physical and geometric properties of the models are also discussed in presence and absence of magnetic field.
Gauge Transformations in String Field Theory and canonical Transformation in String Theory
Maharana, J.; Mukherji, S
1992-01-01
We study how canonical transfomations in first quantized string theory can be understood as gauge transformations in string field theory. We establish this fact by working out some examples. As a by product, we could identify some of the fields appearing in string field theory with their counterparts in the $\\sigma$-model.
Extra Z{sup '}s and W{sup '}s in heterotic-string derived models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, Alon E. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guzzi, Marco [University of Manchester, Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2015-11-15
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible excess in the di-boson production at the di-boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional Z{sup '} and/or W{sup '} at that scale. We survey the extra Z{sup '}s and W{sup '}s that may arise from semi-realistic heterotic-string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in the seven distinct cases: U(1){sub Z'} element of SO(10); family universal U(1){sub Z'} is not an element of SO(10); non-universal U(1){sub Z'}; hidden sector U(1) symmetries and kinetic mixing; left-right symmetric models; Pati-Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. The existence of an extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua. (orig.)
Extra Z{sup ′}s and W{sup ′}s in heterotic-string derived models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faraggi, Alon E., E-mail: alon.faraggi@liv.ac.uk [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, L69 7ZL, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guzzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.guzzi@manchester.ac.uk [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2015-11-17
The ATLAS and CMS collaborations recently recorded possible excess in the di-boson production at the di-boson invariant mass at around 2 TeV. Such an excess may be produced if there exist additional Z{sup ′} and/or W{sup ′} at that scale. We survey the extra Z{sup ′}s and W{sup ′}s that may arise from semi-realistic heterotic-string vacua in the free fermionic formulation in the seven distinct cases: U(1){sub Z{sup ′}}∈SO(10); family universal U(1){sub Z{sup ′}}∉SO(10); non-universal U(1){sub Z{sup ′}}; hidden sector U(1) symmetries and kinetic mixing; left–right symmetric models; Pati–Salam models; leptophobic and custodial symmetries. Each case has a distinct signature associated with the extra symmetry breaking scale. In one of the cases we explore the discovery potential at the LHC using resonant leptoproduction. The existence of an extra vector boson with the reported properties will significantly constrain the space of allowed string vacua.
CMB Constraints on Cosmic Strings and Superstrings
Charnock, Tom; Copeland, Edmund J; Moss, Adam
2016-01-01
We present the first complete MCMC analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the Unconnected Segment Model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on {\\Lambda}CDM and string network parameters, namely the string tension G{\\mu}, the loop-chopping efficiency c_r and the string wiggliness {\\alpha}. For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G{\\mu}_F, the string coupling g_s, the self-interaction coefficient c_s, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w. This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology + strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension is, in relativistic units, G{\\mu}<1.1x10^-7, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension is G{\\mu}_F<2.8x10^-8, both obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarisation data.
CMB constraints on cosmic strings and superstrings
Charnock, Tom; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Copeland, Edmund J.; Moss, Adam
2016-06-01
We present the first complete Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of cosmological models with evolving cosmic (super)string networks, using the unconnected segment model in the unequal-time correlator formalism. For ordinary cosmic string networks, we derive joint constraints on Λ cold dark matter (CDM) and string network parameters, namely the string tension G μ , the loop-chopping efficiency cr, and the string wiggliness α . For cosmic superstrings, we obtain joint constraints on the fundamental string tension G μF, the string coupling gs, the self-interaction coefficient cs, and the volume of compact extra dimensions w . This constitutes the most comprehensive CMB analysis of Λ CDM cosmology+strings to date. For ordinary cosmic string networks our updated constraint on the string tension, obtained using Planck2015 temperature and polarization data, is G μ <1.1 ×10-7 in relativistic units, while for cosmic superstrings our constraint on the fundamental string tension after marginalizing over gs, cs, and w is G μF<2.8 ×10-8.
Dynamical string tension in string theory with spacetime Weyl invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The fundamental string length, which is an essential part of string theory, explicitly breaks scale invariance. However, in field theory we demonstrated recently that the gravitational constant, which is directly related to the string length, can be promoted to a dynamical field if the standard model coupled to gravity (SM+GR) is lifted to a locally scale (Weyl) invariant theory. The higher gauge symmetry reveals previously unknown field patches whose inclusion turn the classically conformally invariant SM+GR into a geodesically complete theory with new cosmological and possibly further physical consequences. In this paper this concept is extended to string theory by showing how it can be ''Weyl lifted'' with a local scale symmetry acting on target space background fields. In this process the string tension (fundamental string length) is promoted to a dynamical field, in agreement with the parallel developments in field theory. We then propose a string theory in a geodesically complete cosmological stringy background which suggests previously unimagined directions in the stringy exploration of the very early universe. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Polyakov, A. M.
2008-01-01
In this article, prepared for the book "The birth of string theory", I recall the sequence of ideas which led to non-critical strings and gauge/strings duality. I also comment on some promising future directions.
Single spin asymmetry in inclusive pion production, Collins effect and the string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We calculate the single spin asymmetry in the inclusive pion production in proton-proton collisions. We generate the asymmetry at the level of fragmentation function (Collins effect) by the Lund coloured string mechanism. We compare our results with the Fermilab E704 data from p ↑p collisions at 200 GeV. We show that the transversely polarized quark densities at high Bjorken x strongly differ from these predicted by the SU(6) proton wave function. (authors). 18 refs., 7 figs
A String and M-theory Origin for the Salam-Sezgin Model
Cvetic, M.; G.W. Gibbons; Pope, C.N.
2003-01-01
An M/string-theory origin for the six-dimensional Salam-Sezgin chiral gauged supergravity is obtained, by embedding it as a consistent Pauli-type reduction of type I or heterotic supergravity on the non-compact hyperboloid ${\\cal H}^{2,2}$ times $S^1$. We can also obtain embeddings of larger, non-chiral, gauged supergravities in six dimensions, whose consistent truncation yields the Salam-Sezgin theory. The lift of the Salam-Sezgin (Minkowski)$_4\\times S^2$ ground state to ten dimensions is a...
Bowick, Mark J.
1992-01-01
These are lecture notes for the 1992 Erice Workshop on String Quantum Gravity and Physics at the Planck Energy Scale. In this talk a review of earlier work on finite temperature strings was presented. Several topics were covered, including the canonical and microcanonical ensemble of strings, the behavior of strings near the Hagedorn temperature as well as speculations on the possible phases of high temperature strings. The connection of the string ensemble and, more generally, statistical sy...
Brandenberger, Robert H.
2008-01-01
String gas cosmology is a string theory-based approach to early universe cosmology which is based on making use of robust features of string theory such as the existence of new states and new symmetries. A first goal of string gas cosmology is to understand how string theory can effect the earliest moments of cosmology before the effective field theory approach which underlies standard and inflationary cosmology becomes valid. String gas cosmology may also provide an alternative to the curren...
Clément, Gérard
1995-01-01
We construct regular multi-wormhole solutions to a gravitating $\\sigma$ model in three space-time dimensions, and extend these solutions to cylindrical traversable wormholes in four and five dimensions. We then discuss the possibility of identifying wormhole mouths in pairs to give rise to Wheeler wormholes. Such an identification is consistent with the original field equations only in the absence of the $\\sigma$-model source, but with possible naked cosmic string sources. The resulting Wheel...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that certain one-loop corrections to superstring effective four-dimensional lagrangians, involving non-harmonic field-dependent renormalization of gauge couplings, can be consistently written in a standard N=1 supergravity form, preserving target-space duality. The preservation of target-space duality is due both to a four-dimensional Green-Schwarz mechanism and to local terms, coming from non-local chiral superfields, originated by mixed gauge-σ-model anomaly diagrams. In some models, the Green-Schwarz mechanism is sufficient to achieve complete anomaly cancellation. In more general models automorphic functions, generated by the integration over the heavy string modes, are required to preserve target-space duality. (orig.)
Silverstein, Eva
2015-01-01
Following the 2015 Planck release, we briefly comment on the status and some ongoing opportunities in the interface between inflationary cosmology, string theory, and CMB data. The constraints in the $r$-$n_s$ plane introduce a new parameter into inflationary cosmology relative to the simplest quadratic inflation model, in a direction which fits well with couplings to heavy fields as occurs in string theory. The precision of the data permits further searches for and constraints on additional model-dependent features, such as oscillatory $N$-spectra, a program requiring specific theoretically motivated shapes. Since the perturbations can easily be affected by additional sectors and couplings, null results can usefully bound such contributions. We also review the broader lessons string theory has contributed to our understanding of primordial inflation, and close with some approaches to a more complete framework. Published in a special volume of Comptes Rendus on Inflation: Theoretical and Observational Status.
Towards optimal packed string matching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany;
2014-01-01
-time, achieving a factor α speedup over traditional algorithms that examine each character individually. Our macro-level algorithm only uses the standard AC0 instructions of the word-RAM model (i.e. no integer multiplication) plus two specialized micro-level AC0 word-size packed-string instructions. The main word-size...... string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...... matching work.(b) We also consider the complexity of the packed string matching problem in the classical word-RAM model in the absence of the specialized micro-level instructions wssm and wslm. We propose micro-level algorithms for the theoretically efficient emulation using parallel algorithms techniques...
String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting.
Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F
2013-03-28
Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static
String cosmology. Large-field inflation in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is a short review of string cosmology. We wish to connect string-scale physics as closely as possible to observables accessible to current or near-future experiments. Our possible best hope to do so is a description of inflation in string theory. The energy scale of inflation can be as high as that of Grand Unification (GUT). If this is the case, this is the closest we can possibly get in energy scales to string-scale physics. Hence, GUT-scale inflation may be our best candidate phenomenon to preserve traces of string-scale dynamics. Our chance to look for such traces is the primordial gravitational wave, or tensor mode signal produced during inflation. For GUT-scale inflation this is strong enough to be potentially visible as a B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Moreover, a GUT-scale inflation model has a trans-Planckian excursion of the inflaton scalar field during the observable amount of inflation. Such large-field models of inflation have a clear need for symmetry protection against quantum corrections. This makes them ideal candidates for a description in a candidate fundamental theory like string theory. At the same time the need of large-field inflation models for UV completion makes them particularly susceptible to preserve imprints of their string-scale dynamics in the inflationary observables, the spectral index ns and the fractional tensor mode power r. Hence, we focus this review on axion monodromy inflation as a mechanism of large-field inflation in string theory.
Ritto, T. G.; Soize, Christian; Sampaio, R.
2010-04-01
This work proposes a strategy for the robust optimization of the nonlinear dynamics of a drill-string, which is a structure that rotates and digs into the rock to search for oil. The nonparametric probabilistic approach is employed to model the uncertainties of the structure as well as the uncertainties of the bit-rock interaction model. This paper is particularly concerned with the robust optimization of the rate of penetration of the column, i.e., we aim to maximize the mathematical expectation of the mean rate of penetration, respecting the integrity of the system. The variables of the optimization problem are the rotational speed at the top and the initial reaction force at the bit; they are considered deterministic. The goal is to find the set of variables that maximizes the expected mean rate of penetration, respecting, vibration limits, stress limit and fatigue limit of the dynamical system.
Proposed reference models for atomic oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere
Llewellyn, E. J.; Mcdade, I. C.; Lockerbie, M. D.
1989-01-01
A provisional Atomic Oxygen Reference model was derived from average monthly ozone profiles and the MSIS-86 reference model atmosphere. The concentrations are presented in tabular form for the altitude range 40 to 130 km.
The Quantum Atomic Model "Electronium": A Successful Teaching Tool.
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Focuses on the quantum atomic model Electronium. Outlines the Bremen teaching approach in which this model is used, and analyzes the learning of two students as they progress through the teaching unit. (Author/MM)
Fluids of strings in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A gauge - invariant model of a cloud of strings is generalized by considering a pressure or a tension produced by the strings that form the cloud. The energy conditions for the model are investigated. The general solution to Einstein equations coupled to a 'fluid' of strings with spherical symmetry is presented. The Petrov-Pirani type, as well as the embedding class of the solution are studied. (Author)
Symmetries and interactions in matrix string theory
Hacquebord, F.H.
1999-01-01
This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory in the strong YM coupling limit. Then we turn our attention to the appearance of U-duality symmetry in gauge models, after a (very) short summary of string duality, D-branes and M-theory. The last ...
Early atomic models - from mechanical to quantum (1904-1913)
Baily, C.
2013-01-01
A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson's mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880's, to the myriad "corpuscular" atoms he proposed following the discovery of the electron in 1897. Beyond qualitative predictions for the periodicity of the elements, the application of Thomson's atoms to problems in scattering and absorption led to quantitative predictions that were confirmed by experiments with high-velocity electrons traversing thin sheets of metal. Still, the much more massive and energetic α-particles being studied by Rutherford were better suited for exploring the interior of the atom, and careful measurements on the angular dependence of their scattering eventually allowed him to infer the existence of an atomic nucleus. Niels Bohr was particularly troubled by the radiative instability inherent to any mechanical atom, and succeeded in 1913 where others had failed in the prediction of emission spectra, by making two bold hypotheses that were in contradiction to the laws of classical physics, but necessary in order to account for experimental facts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘洪毓
2007-01-01
Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riordan, M. [Stanford University and the University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)]. E-mail: mriordan@ucsc.edu
2007-02-15
In the last few decades, however, physical theory has drifted away from the professional norms advocated by Newton and other enlightenment philosophers. A vast outpouring of hypotheses has occurred under the umbrella of what is widely called string theory. But string theory is not really a 'theory' at all - at least not in the strict sense that scientists generally use the term. It is instead a dense, weedy thicket of hypotheses and conjectures badly in need of pruning. That pruning, however, can come only from observation and experiment, to which string theory (a phrase I will grudgingly continue using) is largely inaccessible. String theory was invented in the 1970s in the wake of the Standard Model of particle physics. Encouraged by the success of gauge theories of the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces, theorists tried to extend similar ideas to energy and distance scales that are orders of magnitude beyond what can be readily observed or measured. The normal, healthy intercourse between theory and experiment - which had led to the Standard Model - has broken down, and fundamental physics now finds itself in a state of crisis. So it is refreshing to hear from a theorist - one who was deeply involved with string theory and championed it in his previous book, Three Roads to Quantum Gravity - that all is not well in this closeted realm. Smolin argues from the outset that viable hypotheses must lead to observable consequences by which they can be tested and judged. String theory by its very nature does not allow for such probing, according to Smolin, and therefore it must be considered as an unprovable conjecture. Towards the end of his book, Smolin suggests other directions fundamental physics can take, particularly in the realm of quantum gravity, to resolve its crisis and reconnect with the observable world. From my perspective, he leans a bit too heavily towards highly speculative ideas such as doubly special relativity, modified Newtonian
Atom diffusion in furnaces - models and measurements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sadagoff, Y. M.; Dědina, Jiří
2002-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 3 (2002), s. 535-549. ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : diffusion coefficients * graphite furnace * atomic absorption spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave? The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1990-01-01
This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The hystory, main ideas, motivations for developing string field theory are reported. The connection between the first and second quantization for a system of point particles, strings and membranes is analysed. The main features of superstring theory are discussed. Free bosonic strings and string field algebra are considered
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
Bursa, Francis; Kroyter, Michael
2010-01-01
String field theory is a candidate for a full non-perturbative definition of string theory. We aim to define string field theory on a space-time lattice to investigate its behaviour at the quantum level. Specifically, we look at string field theory in a one dimensional linear dilaton background. We report the first results of our simulations.
Gershun, V D
2009-01-01
We used the invariant local chiral currents of principal chiral models for SU(n), SO(n), SP(n) groups to construct new integrable string equations of hydrodynamic type on the Riemmann space of the chiral primitive invariant currents and on the chiral non-primitive Casimir operators as Hamiltonians.
String approaches to hadron structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two principal string approaches to a more realistic dual resonance model are discussed. Firstly, Nambu's proposal of 1974 identifying the Dirac magnetic-monopole string with the dual string, after spontaneous breakdown and the Higgs mechanism in a strong-coupling limit, is investigated. The mathematics underlying Nambu's rather intuitive derivation has been further investigated by Balachandran, Rupertsberger, and Schechter (who put in the vector mass by hand) and independently by Jevicki and Senjanovic (who fully exploit spontaneous breaking and the Higgs mechanism). Here we show that in a leading approximation to the Nambu monopole action the phenomenologically desirable linearity of the leading Regge trajectory seems to be badly violated. Secondly, alternative quantization procedures for the original 1970 Nambu relativistic string action (area of the world sheet) are treated; in particular, a timelike identification of the string time tau which has recently been advocated by Patrascioiu, by Rohrlich, and by Goddard, Hanson, and Ponzano. The most novel of these discussions seems to be that of Rohrlich, who uses a quite different representation for the canonical algebra and the Poincare group. Here we demonstrate, however, that the usual unphysical level spectrum with a massless first excited state emerges as a fully consistent solution even in this approach, and that probably no other solution exists. Finally, the various Nambu string approaches are compared to other attempts to discover the ''right'' model of strong interactions
Renormalization group analysis and the top quark mass in the SU(4)xO(4) string model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform a two-loop renormalization group analysis for the gauge couplings in the SU(4)xO(4) model. We use the string theory prediction for the unification scale and the experimentally acceptable low energy values for α3 and sin2 Θw, to determine the magnitudes of the various symmetry breaking scales as well as the value of the common gauge coupling at the unification scale. We solve the coupled differential system for the gauge and top and bottom Yukawa couplings, and determine the top mass as a function of two parameters which could be chosen to be the ratio of the Higgs VEV's that give masses to the up and down quarks and the value of the top coupling at the unification scale. We find a relatively heavy top quark mass which lies in the range 130 ≤ mt ≤ 180 GeV. (orig.)
Cosmic strings with twisted magnetic flux lines and wound-strings in extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider a generalization of the Nielsen-Olesen ansatz, in the abelian-Higgs model, which describes strings with twisted magnetic flux lines in the vortex core. The solution does not possess cylindrical symmetry, which leads to the existence of components of conserved momentum, both around the core-axis and along the length of the string. In addition, we consider a model of F-strings with rotating, geodesic windings in the compact space of the Klebanov-Strassler geometry and determine matching conditions which ensure energy and momentum conservation when loops chop off from the long-string network. We find that the expressions for the constants of motion, which determine the macroscopic string dynamics, can be made to coincide with those for the twisted flux line string, suggesting that extra-dimensional effects for F-strings may be mimicked by field-theoretic structure in topological defects
String resonances at hadron colliders
Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Dai, De-Chang; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lüst, Dieter; Stojkovic, Dejan; Taylor, Tomasz R.
2014-09-01
We consider extensions of the standard model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale Ms is in the TeV range and that the theory is weakly coupled, we discuss possible signals of string physics at the upcoming HL-LHC run (integrated luminosity =3000 fb-1) with a center-of-mass energy of √s =14 TeV and at potential future pp colliders, HE-LHC and VLHC, operating at √s =33 and 100 TeV, respectively (with the same integrated luminosity). In such D-brane constructions, the dominant contributions to full-fledged string amplitudes for all the common QCD parton subprocesses leading to dijets and γ +jet are completely independent of the details of compactification and can be evaluated in a parameter-free manner. We make use of these amplitudes evaluated near the first (n=1) and second (n=2) resonant poles to determine the discovery potential for Regge excitations of the quark, the gluon, and the color singlet living on the QCD stack. We show that for string scales as large as 7.1 TeV (6.1 TeV) lowest massive Regge excitations are open to discovery at the ≥5σ in dijet (γ +jet) HL-LHC data. We also show that for n=1 the dijet discovery potential at HE-LHC and VLHC exceedingly improves: up to 15 TeV and 41 TeV, respectively. To compute the signal-to-noise ratio for n=2 resonances, we first carry out a complete calculation of all relevant decay widths of the second massive level string states (including decays into massless particles and a massive n=1 and a massless particle), where we rely on factorization and conformal field theory techniques. Helicity wave functions of arbitrary higher spin massive bosons are also constructed. We demonstrate that for string scales Ms≲10.5 TeV (Ms≲28 TeV) detection of n =2 Regge recurrences at HE-LHC (VLHC) would become the smoking gun for D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a model with a regularized (e.g. latticized) Kaluza-Klein space-time at the fundamental scale with Yang-Mills fields in the compactified dimensions, we examine the β-function for a dimensionless expression for the coupling constants g in D-dimensions. In going from the Planck scale of D > 4 down in energy to the scale where D goes from D > 4 to D = 4, it is argued that couplings are weakened by a factor roughly equal to the number of fundamental string regions that can be accommadated in the volume of the compactification space. Subsequently this factor is claimed to be greater than the number of generations by using an argument reminiscent of that often encountered in string model T.O.E. in which various quark and lepton generations are said to correspond to various zero modes of a Weyl operator in the compactifying space. Finally, it is argued that the inequality, which can be shown to be more saturated the larger the gauge group, is already near saturation for the group factors of the SMG. This fact leads to several conclusions: 1. there is not room for many more than 3 generations; 2. G.U.T. can be accommadated only at scales very close to the fundamental scale; 3. No new blossoms are expected to be found in the desert; 4. the compactifying space should not be 'larger than necessary'; 5. at the fundamental scale, couplings are expected to be close to (but not suspiciousely close to) βcrit.. (orig./HSI)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C P Burgess
2004-12-01
The inflationary paradigm provides a robust description of the peculiar initial conditions which are required for the success of the hot Big Bang model of cosmology, as well as of the recent precision measurements of temperature fluctuations within the cosmic microwave background. Furthermore, the success of this description indicates that inflation is likely to be associated with physics at energies considerably higher than the weak scale, for which string theory is arguably our most promising candidate. These observations strongly motivate a detailed search for inflation within string theory, although it has (so far) proven to be a hunt for a fairly elusive quarry. This article summarizes some of the recent efforts along these lines, and draws some speculative conclusions as to what the difficulty in finding inflation might mean.
Detailed stability analysis of electroweak strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a detailed stability analysis of the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. We identify the mode that determines the stability of the string and numerically map the region of parameter space where the string is stable. For sin2θW=0.23 we find that the strings are unstable for a Higgs mass larger than 23 GeV. Given the latest constraints on the Higgs mass from LEP, this shows that, if the standard electroweak model is realized in nature, the existing vortex solutions are unstable. (orig.)
Lowe, D. A.; Thorlacius, L.
1994-01-01
Above the Hagedorn energy density closed fundamental strings form a long string phase. The dynamics of weakly interacting long strings is described by a simple Boltzmann equation which can be solved explicitly for equilibrium distributions. The average total number of long strings grows logarithmically with total energy in the microcanonical ensemble. This is consistent with calculations of the free single string density of states provided the thermodynamic limit is carefully defined. If the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is argued that, in fundamental string theories, as one traces the universe back in time a point is reached when the expansion rate is so fast that the rate of string creation due to quantum effects balances the dilution of the string density due to the expansion. One is therefore led into a phase of constant string density and an exponentially expanding universe. Fundamental strings therefore seem to lead naturally to inflation. 17 refs., 1 fig
Tong, David
2009-01-01
This is a one semester course on bosonic string theory aimed at beginning graduate students. The lectures assume a working knowledge of quantum field theory and general relativity. Contents: 1. The Classical String 2. The Quantum String 3. Open Strings and D-Branes 4. Introducing Conformal Field Theory 5. The Polyakov Path Integral and Ghosts 6. String Interactions 7. The Low-Energy Effective Action 8. Compactification and T-Duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)
Analytic Solutions of Three-Level Dressed-Atom Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zheng-Ling; YIN Jian-Ping
2004-01-01
On the basis of the dressed-atom model, the general analytic expressions for the eigenenergies, eigenstates and their optical potentials of the A-configuration three-level atom system are derived and analysed. From the calculation of dipole matrix element of different dressed states, we obtain the spontaneous-emission rates in the dressed-atom picture. We find that our general expressions of optical potentials for the three-level dressed atom can be reduced to the same as ones in previous references under the approximation of a small saturation parameter. We also analyse the dependences of the optical potentials of a three-level 85Rb atom on the laser detuning and the dependences of spontaneous-emission rates on the radial position in the dark hollow beam, and discuss the probability (population) evolutions of dressed-atomic eigenstates in three levels in the hollow beam.
Atomic structure of grain boundaries in iron modeled using the atomic density function
Kapikranian, O.; Zapolsky, H; Domain, Ch.; Patte, R.; Pareige, C.; Radiguet, B.; Pareige, P.
2013-01-01
A model based on the continuous atomic density function (ADF) approach is applied to predict the atomic structure of grain boundaries (GBs) in iron. Symmetrical [100] and [110] tilt GBs in bcc iron are modeled with the ADF method and relaxed afterwards in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The shape of the GB energy curve obtained in the ADF model reproduces well the peculiarities of the angles of 70.53 deg. [$\\Sigma$ 3(112)] and 129.52 deg. [$\\Sigma$ 11(332)] for [110] tilt GBs. The result...
Renormalization group approach to chaotic strings
Groote, Stefan; Veermäe, Hardi; Beck, Christian
2012-01-01
Coupled map lattices of weakly coupled Chebychev maps, so-called chaotic strings, may have a profound physical meaning in terms of dynamical models of vacuum fluctuations in stochastically quantized field theories. Here we present analytic results for the invariant density of chaotic strings, as well as for the coupling parameter dependence of given observables of the chaotic string such as the vacuum expectation value. A highly nontrivial and selfsimilar parameter dependence is found, produc...
Efficient Authentication of Outsourced String Similarity Search
Dong, Boxiang; Wang, Hui
2016-01-01
Cloud computing enables the outsourcing of big data analytics, where a third party server is responsible for data storage and processing. In this paper, we consider the outsourcing model that provides string similarity search as the service. In particular, given a similarity search query, the service provider returns all strings from the outsourced dataset that are similar to the query string. A major security concern of the outsourcing paradigm is to authenticate whether the service provider...
String junction as a baryonic constituent
Kalashnikova, Yu S
1995-01-01
We extend the model for QCD string with quarks to consider the Mercedes Benz string configuration describing the three-quark baryon. Under the assumption of adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion we formulate and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction.We dare to quantize the motion of the junction, and discuss the impact of these modes on the baryon spectra.
Kim, Joonho; Lee, Kimyeong
2015-01-01
We explore 6d (1,0) superconformal field theories with SU(3) and SU(2) gauge symmetries which cascade after Higgsing to the E-string theory on a single M5 near an $E_8$ wall. Specifically, we study the 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(0,4)$ gauge theories which describe self-dual strings of these 6d theories. The self-dual strings can be also viewed as instanton string solitons of 6d Yang-Mills theories. We find the 2d anomaly-free gauge theories for self-dual strings, amending the naive ADHM gauge theories which are anomalous, and calculate their elliptic genera. While these 2d theories respect the flavor symmetry of each 6d SCFT only partially, their elliptic genera manifest the symmetry fully as these functions as BPS index are invariant in strongly coupled IR limit. Our consistent 2d (0,4) gauge theories also provide new insights on the non-linear sigma models for the instanton strings, providing novel UV completions of the small instanton singularities. Finally, we construct new 2d quiver gauge theories for the self-dua...
A String-Inspired Model for the Low-$\\ell$ CMB
Kitazawa, N
2015-01-01
We present a semi--analytic exploration of some low--$\\ell$ angular power spectra inspired by "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking". This mechanism splits Bose and Fermi excitations in String Theory, leaving behind an exponential potential that is just too steep for the inflaton to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, the scalar generically bounces against the exponential wall, which typically introduces an infrared depression and a pre--inflationary peak in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We elaborate on a possible link between this phenomenon and the low--$\\ell$ CMB. For the first 32 multipoles, combining the hard exponential with a milder one leading to $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ and with a small gaussian bump we have attained a reduction of $\\chi^{\\,2}$ to about 46% of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting, with both WMAP9 and PLANCK 2013 data. This result corresponds to a $\\chi^{\\,2}/DOF$ of about 0.45, to be compared with a $\\Lambda$CDM value of about 0.85. The preferred choices ...
On Exceptional Instanton Strings
Del Zotto, Michele
2016-01-01
According to a recent classification of 6d (1,0) theories within F-theory there are only 5 "pure" 6d gauge theories which have a UV superconformal fixed point. The corresponding gauge groups are $SU(3),SO(8),F_4,E_6,E_7$, and $E_8$. These exceptional models have BPS strings which are also instantons for the corresponding gauge groups. For $G$ simply-laced, we determine the 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(0,4)$ worldsheet theories of such BPS instanton strings by a simple geometric engineering argument. These are given by a twisted $S^2$ compactification of the 4d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theories of type $H_2, D_4, E_6, E_7$ and $E_8$ (and their higher rank generalizations), where the 6d instanton number is mapped to the rank of the corresponding 4d SCFT. This determines their anomaly polynomials and, via topological strings, establishes an interesting relation among the corresponding $T^2 \\times S^2$ partition functions and the Hilbert series for moduli spaces of $G$ instantons. Such relations allow to bootstrap the corresponding e...
(MS)SM-like models on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds from all three heterotic string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Loukas, Orestis [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; National Technical Univ. Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2015-09-15
We perform model searches on smooth Calabi-Yau compactifications for both the supersymmetric E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and SO(32) as well as for the non-supersymmetric SO(16) x SO(16) heterotic strings simultaneously. We consider line bundle backgrounds on both favorable CICYs with relatively small h{sub 11} and the Schoen manifold. Using Gram matrices we systematically analyze the combined consequences of the Bianchi identities and the tree-level Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations inside the Kaehler cone. In order to evaluate the model building potential of the three heterotic theories on the various geometries, we perform computer-aided scans. We have generated a large number of GUT-like models (up to over a few hundred thousand on the various geometries for the three heterotic theories) which become (MS)SM-like upon using a freely acting Wilson line. For all three heterotic theories we present tables and figures summarizing the potentially phenomenologically interesting models which were obtained during our model scans.
(MS)SM-like models on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds from all three heterotic string theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groot Nibbelink, Stefan [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Loukas, Orestis [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)
2015-09-15
We perform model searches on smooth Calabi-Yau compactifications for both the supersymmetric E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and SO(32) as well as for the non-supersymmetric SO(16) x SO(16) heterotic strings simultaneously. We consider line bundle backgrounds on both favorable CICYs with relatively small h{sub 11} and the Schoen manifold. Using Gram matrices we systematically analyze the combined consequences of the Bianchi identities and the tree-level Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations inside the Kaehler cone. In order to evaluate the model building potential of the three heterotic theories on the various geometries, we perform computer-aided scans. We have generated a large number of GUT-like models (up to over a few hundred thousand on the various geometries for the three heterotic theories) which become (MS)SM-like upon using a freely acting Wilson line. For all three heterotic theories we present tables and figures summarizing the potentially phenomenologically interesting models which were obtained during our model scans. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
(MS)SM-like models on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds from all three heterotic string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform model searches on smooth Calabi-Yau compactifications for both the supersymmetric E8 x E8 and SO(32) as well as for the non-supersymmetric SO(16) x SO(16) heterotic strings simultaneously. We consider line bundle backgrounds on both favorable CICYs with relatively small h11 and the Schoen manifold. Using Gram matrices we systematically analyze the combined consequences of the Bianchi identities and the tree-level Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations inside the Kaehler cone. In order to evaluate the model building potential of the three heterotic theories on the various geometries, we perform computer-aided scans. We have generated a large number of GUT-like models (up to over a few hundred thousand on the various geometries for the three heterotic theories) which become (MS)SM-like upon using a freely acting Wilson line. For all three heterotic theories we present tables and figures summarizing the potentially phenomenologically interesting models which were obtained during our model scans. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
(MS)SM-like models on smooth Calabi-Yau manifolds from all three heterotic string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform model searches on smooth Calabi-Yau compactifications for both the supersymmetric E8 x E8 and SO(32) as well as for the non-supersymmetric SO(16) x SO(16) heterotic strings simultaneously. We consider line bundle backgrounds on both favorable CICYs with relatively small h11 and the Schoen manifold. Using Gram matrices we systematically analyze the combined consequences of the Bianchi identities and the tree-level Donaldson-Uhlenbeck-Yau equations inside the Kaehler cone. In order to evaluate the model building potential of the three heterotic theories on the various geometries, we perform computer-aided scans. We have generated a large number of GUT-like models (up to over a few hundred thousand on the various geometries for the three heterotic theories) which become (MS)SM-like upon using a freely acting Wilson line. For all three heterotic theories we present tables and figures summarizing the potentially phenomenologically interesting models which were obtained during our model scans.
Detailed atomic modeling of Sn plasmas for the EUV source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An atomic model of Sn plasmas is developed to calculate coefficients of radiative transfer, based on the calculated atomic data using the Hullac code. We find that the emission spectrum and conversion efficiency depend critically on the wavelength and spectral structure of the 4d-4f transition arrays. Satellite lines, which have a significant contribution to the emission, are determined after iterative calculations by changing the number of levels in the atomic model. We also correct transition wavelengths through comparison with experiments. Using the present emissivity and opacity, the radiation hydrodynamics simulation will be carried out toward the optimization of the EUV source
Detailed atomic modeling of Sn plasmas for the EUV source
Sasaki, A.; Sunahara, A.; Nishihawra, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Koike, F.; Tanuma, H.
2008-05-01
An atomic model of Sn plasmas is developed to calculate coefficients of radiative transfer, based on the calculated atomic data using the Hullac code. We find that the emission spectrum and conversion efficiency depend critically on the wavelength and spectral structure of the 4d-4f transition arrays. Satellite lines, which have a significant contribution to the emission, are determined after iterative calculations by changing the number of levels in the atomic model. We also correct transition wavelengths through comparison with experiments. Using the present emissivity and opacity, the radiation hydrodynamics simulation will be carried out toward the optimization of the EUV source.
Permutation Orbifolds in Conformal Field Theories and String Theory
2011-01-01
We summarize the results obtained in the last few years about permutation orbifolds in two-dimensional conformal field theories, their application to string theory and their use in the construction of four-dimensional heterotic string models.
String Phenomenology: Past, Present and Future Perspectives
Faraggi, Alon E
2014-01-01
The observation of a scalar resonance at the LHC, compatible with perturbative electroweak symmetry breaking, reinforces the Standard Model parameterisation of all subatomic data. The logarithmic evolution of the SM gauge and matter parameters suggests that this parameterisation remains viable up to the Planck scale, where gravitational effects are of comparable strength. String theory provides a perturbatively consistent scheme to explore how the parameters of the Standard Model may be determined from a theory of quantum gravity. The free fermionic heterotic string models provide concrete examples of exact string solutions that reproduce the spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. Contemporary studies entail the development of methods to classify large classes of models. This led to the discovery of exophobic heterotic-string vacua and the observation of spinor-vector duality, which provides an insight to the global structure of the space of (2,0) heterotic-string vacua. Future directions enta...
Global strings in five-dimensional supergravity
Marui, Miho
2015-01-01
We show the existence of solitonic solutions of five-dimensional supergravity, which can be interpreted as global cosmic strings in our universe. They possess the same mathematical structure as the stringy cosmic strings studied by Greene, Shapere, Vafa and Yau, while the size of the extra space and the value of the extra-space component of the gauge field vary from place to place around the string in our model. We also show that supersymmetry is partially broken in the presence of the global strings.
A new string in ten dimensions?
Sethi, Savdeep
2013-09-01
I suggest the possibility of a new string in ten dimensions. Evidence for this string is presented both from orientifold physics and from K-theory, along with a mystery concerning the M-theory description. Motivated by this possibility, some novel aspects of decoupling limits in heterotic/type I theories are described; specifically, the decoupled theory on type I D-strings is argued to be three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional. These decoupled theories provide the matrix model definitions of the heterotic/type I strings.
Spontaneous knotting of an agitated string.
Raymer, Dorian M; Smith, Douglas E
2007-10-16
It is well known that a jostled string tends to become knotted; yet the factors governing the "spontaneous" formation of various knots are unclear. We performed experiments in which a string was tumbled inside a box and found that complex knots often form within seconds. We used mathematical knot theory to analyze the knots. Above a critical string length, the probability P of knotting at first increased sharply with length but then saturated below 100%. This behavior differs from that of mathematical self-avoiding random walks, where P has been proven to approach 100%. Finite agitation time and jamming of the string due to its stiffness result in lower probability, but P approaches 100% with long, flexible strings. We analyzed the knots by calculating their Jones polynomials via computer analysis of digital photos of the string. Remarkably, almost all were identified as prime knots: 120 different types, having minimum crossing numbers up to 11, were observed in 3,415 trials. All prime knots with up to seven crossings were observed. The relative probability of forming a knot decreased exponentially with minimum crossing number and Möbius energy, mathematical measures of knot complexity. Based on the observation that long, stiff strings tend to form a coiled structure when confined, we propose a simple model to describe the knot formation based on random "braid moves" of the string end. Our model can qualitatively account for the observed distribution of knots and dependence on agitation time and string length. PMID:17911269
String-String Duality in Ten Dimensions
Hull, C. M.
1995-01-01
The heterotic string occurs as a soliton of the type I superstring in ten dimensions, supporting the conjecture that these two theories are equivalent. The conjecture that the type IIB string is self-dual, with the strong coupling dynamics described by a dual type IIB theory, is supported by the occurrence of the dual string as a Ramond-Ramond soliton of the weakly-coupled theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero, Ruben; Granados, Victor D [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico); Mota, Roberto D, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: granados@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: rmotae@ipn.mx [Departamento de ICE de la Escuela Superior de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica del IPN, Unidad Culhuacan. Av. Santa Ana No 1000, San Francisco Culhuacan, Coyoacan Mexico DF, CP 04430 (Mexico)
2011-09-21
We find the full symmetries of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the Hawking and Page wormhole model and an axion-dilaton string cosmology. We show that the Wheeler-DeWitt Hamiltonian admits a U(1, 1) hidden symmetry for the Hawking and Page model and U(2, 1) for the axion-dilaton string cosmology. If we consider the existence of matter-energy renormalization, for each of these models we find that the Wheeler-DeWitt Hamiltonian accepts an additional SL(2, R) dynamical symmetry. In this case, we show that the SL(2, R) dynamical symmetry generators transform the states from one energy Hilbert eigensubspace to another. Some new wormhole-type solutions for both models are found.
Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory
Drukker, Nadav
2002-01-01
Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.
Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion; Shenker, Stephen
2000-01-01
We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet bo...
Dielectric Fundamental Strings in Matrix String Theory
Brecher, Dominic; Janssen, Bert; Lozano, Yolanda
2001-01-01
Matrix string theory is equivalent to type IIA superstring theory in the light-cone gauge, together with extra degrees of freedom representing D-brane states. It is therefore the appropriate framework in which to study systems of multiple fundamental strings expanding into higher-dimensional D-branes. Starting from Matrix theory in a weakly curved background, we construct the linear couplings of closed string fields to type IIA Matrix strings. As a check, we show that at weak coupling the res...
Quantum Stabilization of Cosmic Strings
Weigel, H; Graham, N
2015-01-01
In the standard model, stabilization of a classically unstable cosmic string may occur through the quantum fluctuations of a heavy fermion doublet. We review numerical results from a semiclassical expansion in a reduced version of the standard model. In this expansion the leading quantum corrections emerge at one loop level for many internal degrees of freedom. The resulting vacuum polarization energy and the binding energy of occupied fermion energy levels are of the same order, and must therefore be treated on equal footing. Populating these bound states lowers the total energy compared to the same number of free fermions. Charged strings are already stabilized for a fermion mass only somewhat larger than the top quark mass. Though obtained in a reduced version these results suggest that neither extraordinarily large fermion masses nor unrealistic couplings are required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Furthermore we also review results for a quantum stabilization mechanism that prevents close...
String Universality in Six Dimensions
Kumar, Vijay
2009-01-01
In six dimensions, cancellation of gauge, gravitational, and mixed anomalies strongly constrains the set of quantum field theories which can be coupled consistently to gravity. We show that for some classes of six-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories coupled to gravity, the anomaly cancellation conditions are equivalent to tadpole cancellation and other constraints on the matter content of heterotic/type I compactifications on K3. In these cases, all consistent 6D supergravity theories have a realization in string theory. We find one example which may arise from a novel string compactification, and we identify a new infinite family of models satisfying anomaly factorization. We find, however, that this infinite family of models, as well as other infinite families of models previously identified by Schwarz are pathological. We suggest that it may be feasible to demonstrate that there is a string theoretic realization of all consistent six-dimensional supergravity theories which have Lagrangian description...
A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO STRING TRANSFORMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Vinothh
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The string model has been applied to a wide range of problems, including spelling correction. These models consist of two components: a source model and a channel model. Very little research has gone into improving the channel model for spelling correction. We Describes a new channel model for spelling correction, based on generic string to string edits. Using this model gives significant performance improvements compared to previously proposed models. We propose a novel and probabilistic approach to string transformation, which is both accurate and efficient. In this approach includes the use of a log linear model, a method for training the model, and an algorithm for generating the top k candidates, whether there is or is not a predefined dictionary. Log linear model is defined as a conditional probability distribution of an output string and a rule set for the transformation conditioned on an input string. The string generation algorithm based on pruning is guaranteed to generate the optimal top k candidates. The proposed method is applied to correction of spelling errors in queries as well as reformulation of queries in web search. Experimental results on large scale data show that the proposed approach is very accurate and efficient improving upon existing methods in terms of accuracy and efficiency in different settings.
On Approximating String Selection Problems with Outliers
Boucher, Christina; Levy, Avivit; Pritchard, David; Weimann, Oren
2012-01-01
Many problems in bioinformatics are about finding strings that approximately represent a collection of given strings. We look at more general problems where some input strings can be classified as outliers. The Close to Most Strings problem is, given a set S of same-length strings, and a parameter d, find a string x that maximizes the number of "non-outliers" within Hamming distance d of x. We prove this problem has no PTAS unless ZPP=NP, correcting a decade-old mistake. The Most Strings with Few Bad Columns problem is to find a maximum-size subset of input strings so that the number of non-identical positions is at most k; we show it has no PTAS unless P=NP. We also observe Closest to k Strings has no EPTAS unless W[1]=FPT. In sum, outliers help model problems associated with using biological data, but we show the problem of finding an approximate solution is computationally difficult.
Influence of String Stiffness on Piano Tone
Nie, Lai-Mei
2010-01-01
Piano tones vary according to how pianist touches the keys. Many possible factors contribute to the relations between piano touch and tone. Focusing on the stiffness of string, we establish a model for vibration of a real piano string and derive a semi-analytical solution to the vibration equation.
Inflation, cosmic strings, and galaxy formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inflationary universe models and the cosmic string theory provide two distinct ways to explain the origin of inhomogeneities in the universe on large scales. I shall summarize and compare the two mechanisms for the origin of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and mention some recent results on galaxy formation with hot dark matter and cosmic strings. (author)
Ultrasensitive string-based temperature sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Gronberg, L.;
2011-01-01
Resonant strings are a promising concept for ultra sensitive temperature detection. We present an analytical model for the sensitivity with which we optimize the temperature response of resonant strings by varying geometry and material. The temperature sensitivity of silicon nitride and aluminum ...
Atomic spin chain realization of a model for quantum criticality
Toskovic, R.; Berg, R. van den; Spinelli, A.; Eliens, I. S.; Toorn, B. van den; Bryant, B.; Caux, J. -S.; Otte, A. F.
2016-01-01
The ability to manipulate single atoms has opened up the door to constructing interesting and useful quantum structures from the ground up. On the one hand, nanoscale arrangements of magnetic atoms are at the heart of future quantum computing and spintronic devices; on the other hand, they can be used as fundamental building blocks for the realization of textbook many-body quantum models, illustrating key concepts such as quantum phase transitions, topological order or frustration. Step-by-st...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We incorporate the string theory into the number theoretic formulation based on arithmetic geometry. The string theory is generalized p-adically and interpreted on an arithmetic surface. A p-adic multi-loop scattering amplitude is constructed. (orig.)
Bonora, L.; Maccaferri, C.; Santos, R. J. Scherer; Tolla, D. D.
2005-01-01
In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).
Relativistic classical strings. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interactions of strings with electromagnetic and gravitational fields are extensively discussed. Some concepts of differential geometry are reviewed. Strings in Kaluza-Klein manifolds are studied. (L.C.)
Cosmic Strings Stabilized by Fermion Fluctuations
Weigel, H; Graham, N
2011-01-01
We provide a thorough exposition of recent results on the quantum stabilization of cosmic strings. Stabilization occurs through the coupling to a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. The study combines the vacuum polarization energy of fermion zero-point fluctuations and the binding energy of occupied energy levels, which are of the same order in a semi-classical expansion. Populating these bound states assigns a charge to the string. Strings carrying fermion charge become stable if the Higgs and gauge fields are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. The vacuum remains stable in the model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. These findings suggest that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model.
Introduction to strings and superstrings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The string theory is applied in the construction of a theory which allows the coupling of the four fundamental interactions and matter. The original model of the string theory describes the hadronic phenomenon of duality. The model extension, which describes the closed strings and those with a spin, is studied. The supersymmetry and the supersymmetric partner concepts are considered, in order to obtain a superstrings theory. The supersymmetry allows the formulation of a ''supertheory'', including matter, fields and gravitation. In order to explain the mass of the observable particles, the mechanism of symmetry breaking must be taken into account. The scalar state concept, originated from the supersymmetry breaking, is analyzed. This ''supertheory'' is not entirely accepted by the scientific world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m ∼ 1TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1)A, compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1)A is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z2 x Z2 orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that nonrenormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family universal U(1)A leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family dependent U(1)'s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently a promising mechanism for supersymmetry breaking that utilizes both an anomalous U(1) gauge symmetry and an effective mass term m∝1 TeV of certain relevant fields has been proposed. In this paper we examine whether such a mechanism can emerge in superstring-derived free fermionic models. We observe that certain three-generation string solutions, though not all, lead to an anomalous U(1) which couples universally to all three families. The advantages of this three-family universality of U(1)A, compared to the two-family case, proposed in earlier works, in yielding squark degeneracy, while avoiding radiative breaking of color and charge, are noted. The root cause of the flavor universality of U(1)A is the cyclic permutation symmetry that characterizes the Z2 x Z2 orbifold compactification with standard embedding, realized in the free fermionic models by the NAHE set. It is shown that non-renormalizable terms which contain hidden-sector condensates, generate the required suppression of the relevant mass term m, compared to the Planck scale. While the D-term of the family-universal U(1)A leads to squark degeneracy, those of the family-dependent U(1)'s, remarkably enough, are found to vanish for the solutions considered, owing to minimization of the potential. Motivations are provided for the combined U(1)A-dilaton SUSY breaking. (orig.)
Nonrelativistic closed string theory
Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi
2001-01-01
We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn tra...
Conlon, Joseph
2016-01-01
Is string theory a fraud or one of the great scientific advances? Why do so many physicists work on string theory if it cannot be tested? This book provides insight into why such a theory, with little direct experimental support, plays such a prominent role in theoretical physics. The book gives a modern and accurate account of string theory and science, explaining what string theory is, why it is regarded as so promising, and why it is hard to test.
Schmidhuber, Christof
2000-01-01
What are strings made of? The possibility is discussed that strings are purely mathematical objects, made of logical axioms. More precisely, proofs in simple logical calculi are represented by graphs that can be interpreted as the Feynman diagrams of certain large-N field theories. Each vertex represents an axiom. Strings arise, because these large-N theories are dual to string theories. These ``logical quantum field theories'' map theorems into the space of functions of two parameters: N and...
The Bohr-Sommerfeld atom theory. Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's atomic model 1915/16
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In December 6th 1915 and January 8th 1916 Arnold Sommerfeld put the Bavarian Academy of Sciences two treatises in the amount of 75 printed pages before, by which he extended Bohr's atomic model from the year 1913 to the Bohr-Sommerfeld atom theory. In Sommerfeld's collected works only the publication submitted 1916 by Sommerfeld in the Annals of Physics about this is found.''My spectral lines are finally printed in the Academy to the impure. In the Annals they will appear in purer form'', so Sommerfeld has announced in this publication in February 10th 1916 to the editor of the Annals of Physics. From the science-historical view however for the extension of Bohr's atom theory just the Academy-treatises published before the purification process are of special interest. To the reproduction of these Academy-treatises an extensive physics-historical essay is prepended.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider the phenomenological implications of a class of compactified string theories which naturally reproduces the flavour multiplet structure of the standard model. The implications for gauge unification depends on which of three possibilities is realised for obtaining light Higgs multiplets. The more conventional one leads to predictions for the gauge couplings close to that of the MSSM but with an increased value of the unification scale. The other two cases offer a mechanism for bringing the prediction for the strong coupling into agreement with the measured value while still increasing the unification scale. The various possibilities lead to different expectations for the structure of the quark masses. (orig.)
From decay to complete breaking: pulling the strings in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.
Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J
2009-05-15
We study {2Q+1} strings connecting two static charges Q in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. While the fundamental {2} string between two charges Q=1/2 is unbreakable, the adjoint {3} string connecting two charges Q=1 can break. When a {4} string is stretched beyond a critical length, it decays into a {2} string by gluon pair creation. When a {5} string is stretched, it first decays into a {3} string, which eventually breaks completely. The energy of the screened charges at the ends of a string is well described by a phenomenological constituent gluon model. PMID:19518940
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)
Donaire, M; Rajantie, A.
2005-01-01
We argue that cosmic strings with high winding numbers generally form in first-order gauge symmetry breaking phase transitions, and we demonstrate this using computer simulations. These strings are heavier than single-winding strings and therefore more easily observable. Their cosmological evolution may also be very different.
Vafa, Cumrun
1993-01-01
We review aspects of spacetime singularities from the view point of string theory. Examples considered include cosmological, cosmic string and black-hole singularities. We also discuss the consistency of viewing black-holes as excited states of fundamental strings (based on talk presented at Salamfest, March 1993, Trieste).
Cardona, Biel; Pons, Josep M
2016-01-01
We construct the canonical action of a Carroll string doing the Carroll limit of a canonical relativistic string. We also study the Killing symmetries of the Carroll string, which close under an infinite dimensional algebra. The tensionless limit and the Carroll $p$-brane action are also discussed.
Schimmrigk, Rolf
2008-01-01
This is a review. Comments are welcome. The observation that the structure of string theory is rich enough to include the standard model in rough outline is an old one, starting with the early constructions of free field constructions, orbifold theories, and in particular Calabi-Yau compactifications in the late 1980s and early 1990s. At the time these constructions provided a large collection of different vacua, with thousands of explicitly constructed Calabi-Yau manifolds, and estimates of vast numbers of bosonic models, each one associated with its own moduli space. It was clear even then that it would be impossible to systematically search this string vacua landscape. This, however, is not a fundamental problem. Adopting the point of view that any physical theory has to describe not only our universe, but all possible consistent universes, leads to the obvious strategy of using some phenomenological input to select viable models among the ocean of models that obviously do not describe physics as we know i...
Modelling spectral properties of non-equilibrium atomic hydrogen plasma
D'Ammando, G.; Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.
2010-02-01
A model to predict the emissivity and absorption coefficient of atomic hydrogen plasma is presented in detail. Non-equilibrium plasma is studied through coupling of the model with a collisional-radiative code for the excited states population as well as with the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function.
Modelling spectral properties of non-equilibrium atomic hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A model to predict the emissivity and absorption coefficient of atomic hydrogen plasma is presented in detail. Non-equilibrium plasma is studied through coupling of the model with a collisional-radiative code for the excited states population as well as with the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function.
On the radial motion of quarks bound by a string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown rigorously that quarks cannot move in the radial direction when they are tied together by a straight-line string and the system as a whole rotates with a nonvanishing angular velocity. This implies that in a consistent string model of hadrons the radial motion of quarks cannot be separated from the transverse string excitations. 27 refs