WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic physics

  1. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  2. Atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  3. Physics of the atom

    CERN Document Server

    Wehr, Russell M; Adair, Thomas W

    1984-01-01

    The fourth edition of Physics of the Atom is designed to meet the modern need for a better understanding of the atomic age. It is an introduction suitable for students with a background in university physics and mathematical competence at the level of calculus. This book is designed to be an extension of the introductory university physics course into the realm of atomic physics. It should give students a proficiency in this field comparable to their proficiency in mechanics, heat, sound, light, and electricity.

  4. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  5. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  6. Atomic physics and reality

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    An account of the long standing debate between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein regarding the validity of the quantum mechanical description of atomic phenomena.With physicts, John Wheeler (Texas), John Bell (CERN), David Rohm (London), Abner Shimony (Boston), Alain Aspect (Paris)

  7. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  8. Physics of atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This advanced textbook presents an extensive and diverse study of low-energy nuclear physics considering the nucleus as a quantum system of strongly interacting constituents. The contents guide students from the basic facts and ideas to more modern topics including important developments over the last 20 years, resulting in a comprehensive collection of major modern-day nuclear models otherwise unavailable in the current literature. The book emphasizes the common features of the nucleus and other many-body mesoscopic systems currently in the center of interest in physics. The authors have also included full problem sets that can be selected by lecturers and adjusted to specific interests for more advanced students, with many chapters containing links to freely available computer code. As a result, readers are equipped for scientific work in mesoscopic physics.

  9. Physics of Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bransden, B H

    2003-01-01

    New edition of a well-established second and third year textbook for Physics degree students, covering the physical structure and behaviour of atoms and molecules. The aim of this new edition is to provide a unified account of the subject within an undergraduate framework, taking the opportunity to make improvements based on the teaching experience of users of the first edition, and cover important new developments in the subject.

  10. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  11. Atoms, molecules and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hertel, Ingolf V

    2015-01-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginner...

  12. Atomic Structure Theory Lectures on Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Walter R

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Structure Theory is a textbook for students with a background in quantum mechanics. The text is designed to give hands-on experience with atomic structure calculations. Material covered includes angular momentum methods, the central field Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Hartree-Fock equations, multiplet structure, hyperfine structure, the isotope shift, dipole and multipole transitions, basic many-body perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and correlation corrections to matrix elements. Numerical methods for solving the Schrödinger and Dirac eigenvalue problems and the (Dirac)-Hartree-Fock equations are given as well. B-spline basis sets are used to carry out sums arising in higher-order many-body calculations. Illustrative problems are provided, together with solutions. FORTRAN programs implementing the numerical methods in the text are included.

  13. Dynamical processes in atomic and molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ogurtsov, Gennadi

    2012-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics underlie a basis for our knowledge of fundamental processes in nature and technology and in such applications as solid state physics, chemistry and biology. In recent years, atomic and molecular physics has undergone a revolutionary change due to great achievements in computing and experimental techniques. As a result, it has become possible to obtain information both on atomic and molecular characteristics and on dynamics of atomic and molecular processes. This e-book highlights the present state of investigations in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Rece

  14. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  15. Physics through the 1990s: Atomic, molecular and optical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents a program of research initiatives in atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The current state of atomic, molecular, and optical physics in the US is examined with respect to demographics, education patterns, applications, and the US economy. Recommendations are made for each field, with discussions of their histories and the relevance of the research to government agencies. The section on atomic physics includes atomic theory, structure, and dynamics; accelerator-based atomic physics; and large facilities. The section on molecular physics includes spectroscopy, scattering theory and experiment, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The section on optical physics discusses lasers, laser spectroscopy, and quantum optics and coherence. A section elucidates interfaces between the three fields and astrophysics, condensed matter physics, surface science, plasma physics, atmospheric physics, and nuclear physics. Another section shows applications of the three fields in ultra-precise measurements, fusion, national security, materials, medicine, and other topics.

  16. Classical approach in atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solov'ev, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincaré section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormgroup symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well.

  17. Classical approach in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov' ev, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  18. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter

    2015-09-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  19. Atomic physics using large electrostatic accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys some areas of atomic physics using large electro-static accelerators. Brief overviews of ion-atom collisions and ion-solid collisions are followed by a classified listing of recent paper. A single line, correlated electron ion recombination, is chosen to show the recent development of techniques to study various aspects of this phenomenon. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  1. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  2. Advances in atomic physics an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the spectacular advances seen in atomic physics during the last 50 years. The authors explain how such progress was possible by highlighting connections between developments that occurred at different times. They discuss the new perspectives and the new research fields that look promising. The emphasis is placed, not on detailed calculations, but rather on physical ideas. Combining both theoretical and experimental considerations, the book will be of interest to a wide range of students, teachers and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

  3. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  4. Applications of Hubble Volume in Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Quantum Physics and Cosmic Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. S. Seshavatharam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to emphasize the major shortcomings of standard cosmology. It can be suggested that, the current cosmological changes can be understood by studying the atom and the atomic nucleus through ground based experiments. If light is coming from the atoms of the gigantic galaxy, then redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. In no way it seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. With ‘cosmological increasing (emitted photon energy’, observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of the age difference between our galaxy and any observed galaxy. If it is possible to show that, (from the observer older galaxy’s distance increases with its ‘age’, then ‘galaxy receding’ and ‘accelerating universe’ concepts can be put for a revision at fundamental level. At any given cosmic time, the product of ‘critical density’ and ‘Hubble volume’ gives a characteristic cosmic mass and it can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Interesting thing is that, Schwarzschild radius of the ‘Hubble mass’ again matches with the ‘Hubble length’. Most of the cosmologists believe that this is merely a coincidence. At any given cosmic time,’Hubble length’ can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. If one is willing to think in this direction, by increasing the number of applications of Hubble mass and Hubble volume in other areas of fundamental physics like quantum physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and particle physics - slowly and gradually - in a progressive way, concepts of ‘Black hole Cosmology’ can be strengthened and can also be confirmed.

  5. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  6. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-12-1-4025 “ Benchmarking

  7. SSPALS for atomic physics with positronium

    CERN Document Server

    Deller, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (SSPALS) has proven an extremely useful tool for atomic physics experiments with positronium (Ps). Using a Monte-Carlo simulation, I examine methods employed to analyze lifetime spectra and explore the advantages and limitations these have in laser spectroscopy experiments, such as resonance-enhance multiphoton ionization (REMPI) or the production of Rydberg Ps.

  8. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B

    1995-01-01

    With this volume, Methods of Experimental Physics becomes Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, a name change which reflects the evolution of todays science. This volume is the first of three which will provide a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics; the three volumes as a set will form an excellent experimental handbook for the field. The wide availability of tunable lasers in the pastseveral years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

  9. Applied atomic and collision physics special topics

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, H S W; Bederson, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 5: Special Topics deals with topics on applications of atomic collisions that were not covered in the first four volumes of the treatise. The book opens with a chapter on ultrasensitive chemical detectors. This is followed by separate chapters on lighting, magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation, gas breakdown and high voltage insulating gases, thermionic energy converters, and charged particle detectors. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of multiwire drift and proportional chambers and streamer chambers and their use in high energy p

  10. The impact of atomic precision measurements in high energy physics

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the relevance of atomic physics in understanding some important questions about elementary particle physics. A particular attention is devoted to atomic parity violation measurements which seem to suggest new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic physics might also be relevant in discovering possible violations of the CPT symmetry.

  11. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  12. Bayesian data analysis tools for atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Trassinelli, Martino

    2016-01-01

    We present an introduction to some concepts of Bayesian data analysis in the context of atomic physics. Starting from basic rules of probability, we present the Bayes' theorem and its applications. In particular we discuss about how to calculate simple and joint probability distributions and the Bayesian evidence, a model dependent quantity that allows to assign probabilities to different hypotheses from the analysis of a same data set. To give some practical examples, these methods are applied to two concrete cases. In the first example, the presence or not of a satellite line in an atomic spectrum is investigated. In the second example, we determine the most probable model among a set of possible profiles from the analysis of a statistically poor spectrum. We show also how to calculate the probability distribution of the main spectral component without having to determine uniquely the spectrum modeling. For these two studies, we implement the program Nested fit to calculate the different probability distrib...

  13. Precision Atomic Physics Techniques for Nuclear Physics with Radioactive Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, Klaus; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Atomic physics techniques for the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive isotopes are very sensitive and provide accurate masses, binding energies, Q-values, charge radii, spins, and electromagnetic moments. Many fields in nuclear physics benefit from these highly accurate numbers. They give insight into details of the nuclear structure for a better understanding of the underlying effective interactions, provide important input for studies of fundamental symmetries in physics, and help to understand the nucleosynthesis processes that are responsible for the observed chemical abundances in the Universe. Penning-trap and and storage-ring mass spectrometry as well as laser spectroscopy of radioactive nuclei have now been used for a long time but significant progress has been achieved in these fields within the last decade. The basic principles of laser spectroscopic investigations, Penning-trap and storage-ring mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are summarized and selected physics results a...

  14. Quantum electronics for atomic physics and telecommunication

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren G

    2014-01-01

    Nagourney provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, non-linear optics, modulation techniques and fibre optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics, such as the enhancement of non-linear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities.

  15. Atomic, molecular, and optical physics electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, F B; Lucatorto, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Combined with Volumes 29A and 29B, this volume is a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, as well as an excellent experimental handbook for the field. Thewide availability of tunable lasers in the past several years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.

  16. Atomic and nuclear physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Littlefield, T A

    1979-01-01

    After the death of Dr. Littlefield it was decided that I should undertake the revision ofthe whole of Atomic and Nuclear Physics: an Introduction for the third edition, and it was soon apparent that major changes were necessary. I am confident that these changes would have had Dr. Littlefield's approval. The prime consideration for the present edition has been to modernize at a minimum cost. As much as possible of the second edition has therefore been retained, but where changes have been made they have been fairly drastic. Thus the chapters on fine structure, wave mechanics, the vector model of the atom, Pauli's principle and the Zeeman effect have been completely restructured. The chapters on nuclear models, cosmic rays, fusion systems and fundamental particles have been brought up to date while a new chapter on charm and the latest ideas on quarks has been included. It is hoped that the presentation of the last named will give readers a feeling that physics research can be full of adventure and surprises.

  17. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J Q; Nori, Franco

    2011-06-29

    Superconducting circuits based on Josephson junctions exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence and can behave like artificial atoms. Recent technological advances have made it possible to implement atomic-physics and quantum-optics experiments on a chip using these artificial atoms. This Review presents a brief overview of the progress achieved so far in this rapidly advancing field. We not only discuss phenomena analogous to those in atomic physics and quantum optics with natural atoms, but also highlight those not occurring in natural atoms. In addition, we summarize several prospective directions in this emerging interdisciplinary field.

  18. Atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Reinhold

    2004-10-01

    This presentation contains examples of recent atomic physics experiments with stored and cooled ion beams from the CRYRING facility in Stockholm. One of these experiments uses the high luminosity of a cooled MeV proton beam in a He COLTRIMS apparatus (COLd supersonic He gas-jet Target for Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) for measuring correlation effects in transfer ionization. Another class of experiments exploits the cold electron beam available in the CRYRING electron cooler and cooled heavy-ion beams for recombination experiments. A section concerns the still rather open question of the puzzling recombination enhancement over the radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic resonances at meV-eV energy are measured with a resolution in the order of 10-3-10-2 eV with highly charged ions stored at several hundreds of MeV kinetic energy in the ring. These resonances provide a serious challenge to theories for describing correlation, relativistic, QED effects, and isotope shifts in highly ionized ions. Applications of recombination rates with complex highly charged ions for fusion and astrophysical plasmas are shown.

  19. Atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Reinhold E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2004-10-11

    This presentation contains examples of recent atomic physics experiments with stored and cooled ion beams from the CRYRING facility in Stockholm. One of these experiments uses the high luminosity of a cooled MeV proton beam in a He COLTRIMS apparatus (COLd supersonic He gas-jet Target for Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) for measuring correlation effects in transfer ionization. Another class of experiments exploits the cold electron beam available in the CRYRING electron cooler and cooled heavy-ion beams for recombination experiments. A section concerns the still rather open question of the puzzling recombination enhancement over the radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic resonances at meV-eV energy are measured with a resolution in the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} eV with highly charged ions stored at several hundreds of MeV kinetic energy in the ring. These resonances provide a serious challenge to theories for describing correlation, relativistic, QED effects, and isotope shifts in highly ionized ions. Applications of recombination rates with complex highly charged ions for fusion and astrophysical plasmas are shown.

  20. A Laser Stabilization System for Rydberg Atom Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-06

    A Laser Stabilization System for Rydberg Atom Physics We purchased 2 dual wavelength ultrastable ultralow expansion glass cavities along with optics...term locking could be achieved for 2 photon Rydberg atom excitation. Both systems were offset locked using a high bandwidth resonant electro-optic...Rydberg Atom Physics Report Title We purchased 2 dual wavelength ultrastable ultralow expansion glass cavities along with optics and electronics to

  1. Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Ralph E.

    Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

  2. New trends in atomic and molecular physics advanced technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) has reached significant advances in high–precision experimental measurement techniques. The area covers a wide spectrum ranging from conventional to new emerging multi-disciplinary areas like physics of highly charged ions (HCI), molecular physics, optical science, ultrafast laser technology etc. This book includes the important topics of atomic structure, physics of atomic collision, photoexcitation, photoionization processes, Laser cooling and trapping, Bose Einstein condensation and advanced technology applications of AMP in the fields of astronomy , astrophysics , fusion, biology and nanotechnology. This book is useful for researchers, professors, graduate, post graduate and PhD students dealing with atomic and molecular physics. The book has a wide scope with applications in neighbouring fields like plasma physics, astrophysics, cold collisions, nanotechnology and future fusion energy sources like ITER (international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) To...

  3. Atomic physics experiments with stored cooled heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The wide ranging interest in the development of heavy ion synchrotrons with electron beam cooling is evident from the number of projects presently under way. Although much of the initial motivation for these rings stemmed from nuclear and particle physics, a considerable amount of atomic physics experimentation is planned. This paper surveys some of the new opportunities in atomic physics which may be made available with storage ring systems. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63

  5. Atomic physics: A strange kind of liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Interactions between the magnetic dipoles of dysprosium atoms in an ultracold gas can produce a 'self-bound' droplet. This provides a useful isolated system for probing the quantum-mechanical properties of ultracold gases. See Letter p.259

  6. The infancy of atomic physics Hercules in his cradle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Atomic physics is a mighty Hercules that dominates modern civilization, promising immense reserves of power but threatening catastrophic war and radioactive pollution. The story of the atom's discovery and the development of techniques to harness its energy offers fascinating insights into the forces behind twenty-first-century technology. This compelling history portrays the human faces and lives behind the beginnings of atomic science.The Infancy of Atomic Physics ranges from experiments in the 1880s by William Crookes and others to the era just after the First World War, when Rutherford's f

  7. Strong interaction physics from hadronic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, C. J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1997-08-01

    Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying strong interactions and nuclear medium effects at zero kinetic energy. Previous results from analyses of strong-interaction data consisting of level shifts, widths and yields in π-, K -, p¯ and ∑ - atoms are reviewed. Recent results from fits to comprehensive sets of data in terms of density-dependent optical potentials that respect the low-density limit, where the interaction tends to the free hadron nucleon value, are discussed. The importance of using realistic nuclear density distributions is highlighted. The introduction of density dependence in most cases significantly improves the fit to the data and leads to some novel results. For K - atoms, a substantial attraction of order 200 MeV in nuclear matter is suggested, with interesting repercussions for K¯ condensation and the evolution of strangeness in high-density stars. For p¯ atoms it is found that a reasonable p-wave strength can be accommodated in the fitted optical potential, in agreement with the energy dependence observed for some low-energy p¯N reactions. For ∑ - atoms, the fitted potential becomes repulsive inside the nucleus, implying that Σ hyperons generally do not bind in nuclei in agreement with recent measurements. This repulsion significantly affects calculated masses of neutron stars.

  8. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  9. Project Physics Tests 5, Models of the Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Test items relating to Project Physics Unit 5 are presented in this booklet. Included are 70 multiple-choice and 23 problem-and-essay questions. Concepts of atomic model are examined on aspects of relativistic corrections, electron emission, photoelectric effects, Compton effect, quantum theories, electrolysis experiments, atomic number and mass,…

  10. Atoms and molecules interacting with light atomic physics for the laser era

    CERN Document Server

    Straten, Peter van der

    2016-01-01

    This in-depth textbook with a focus on atom-light interactions prepares students for research in a fast-growing and dynamic field. Intended to accompany the laser-induced revolution in atomic physics, it is a comprehensive text for the emerging era in atomic, molecular and optical science. Utilising an intuitive and physical approach, the text describes two-level atom transitions, including appendices on Ramsey spectroscopy, adiabatic rapid passage and entanglement. With a unique focus on optical interactions, the authors present multi-level atomic transitions with dipole selection rules, and M1/E2 and multiphoton transitions. Conventional structure topics are discussed in some detail, beginning with the hydrogen atom and these are interspersed with material rarely found in textbooks such as intuitive descriptions of quantum defects. The final chapters examine modern applications and include many references to current research literature. The numerous exercises and multiple appendices throughout enable advanc...

  11. Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Datz, Sheldon

    1983-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc

  12. New results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source is the world's first low-energy third-generation synchrotron radiation source. It has been running reliably and exceeding design specifications since it began operation in October 1993. It is available to a wide community of researchers in many scientific fields, including atomic and molecular science and chemistry. Here, new results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source demonstrate the opportunities available in atomic and molecular physics at this synchrotron light source. The unprecedented brightness allows experiments with high flux, high spectral resolution, and nearly 100% linear polarization.

  13. Atoms, molecules and photons An introduction to atomic-, molecular- and quantum-physics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed over the last two centuries both by many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical side, by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of classical description. The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its potential for spectroscopy is outlined in more detail and in particular lasers as modern spectroscopic tools are discussed more thoroughly. Many examples and problems with solutions are offered to encourage readers to actively engage in experimentation.

  14. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Praise for Previous Volumes"This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated"- M.S. CHILD in PHYSICS BULLETIN"Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the series are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended."- G. HERZBERG in AMERICAN SCIENTIST

  15. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    Praise for the Series""This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated.""--M.S. Child in Physics Bulletin""Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the articles are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended.""--G. Herzberg in American Scientist

  16. Atomic Layer Thermopile Materials: Physics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New types of thermoelectric materials characterized by highly anisotropic Fermi surfaces and thus anisotropic Seebeck coefficients are reviewed. Early studies revealed that there is an induced voltage in high TC oxide superconductors when the surface of the films is exposed to short light pulses. Subsequent investigations proved that the effect is due to anisotropic components of the Seebeck tensor, and the type of materials is referred to atomic layer thermopile (ALT. Our recent studies indicate that multilayer thin films at the nanoscale demonstrate enhanced ALT properties. This is in agreement with the prediction in seeking the larger figure of merit (ZT thermoelectric materials in nanostructures. The study of ALT materials provides both deep insight of anisotropic transport property of these materials and at the same time potential materials for applications, such as light detector and microcooler. By measuring the ALT properties under various perturbations, it is found that the information on anisotropic transport properties can be provided. The information sometimes is not easily obtained by other tools due to the nanoscale phase coexistence in these materials. Also, some remained open questions and future development in this research direction have been well discussed.

  17. The Common Elements of Atomic and Hadronic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-26

    Atomic physics and hadronic physics are both governed by the Yang Mills gauge theory Lagrangian; in fact, Abelian quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics can provide important insight into hadronic eigenstates in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of frame-independent light-front relativistic equations of motion consistent with light-front holography which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The production of antihydrogen in flight can provide important insight into the dynamics of hadron production in QCD at the amplitude level. The renormalization scale for the running coupling is unambiguously set in QED; an analogous procedure sets the renormalization scales in QCD, leading to scheme-independent scale-fixed predictions. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, the quark-interchange process and light-front quantization have important applicants for atomic physics and photon science, especially in the relativistic domain.

  18. Gas lasers applied atomic collision physics, v.3

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, E W

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 3: Gas Lasers describes the applications of atomic collision physics in the development of many types of gas lasers. Topics covered range from negative ion formation in gas lasers to high-pressure ion kinetics and relaxation of molecules exchanging vibrational energy. Ion-ion recombination in high-pressure plasmas is also discussed, along with electron-ion recombination in gas lasers and collision processes in chemical lasers.Comprised of 14 chapters, this volume begins with a historical summary of gas laser developments and an overview of the basic ope

  19. Atoms, Molecules and Photons An Introduction to Atomic-, Molecular- and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed over the last two centuries both by many experimental discoveries and, from the theoretical side, by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of classical description. The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its potential for spectroscopy is outlined in more detail and in particular lasers as modern spectroscopic tools are discussed more thoroughly. Many examples and problems with solutions are offered to encourage readers to actively engage in applying and adapting the fundamental physics presented in this textbook to specific situations. Completely revised new edition with new sections covering all actual developments, like x-ray optics, ion-cyclotron-resonance spectrometer, attosecond lasers, ultraprecission frequency measurement ...

  20. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 4, SUPPLEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    THE AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THIS TEXT WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY, OFFERING SELF-TUTORING MATERIAL FOR LEARNING ATOMIC PHYSICS. THE TOPICS COVERED ARE (1) RADIATION USES AND NUCLEAR FISSION, (2) NUCLEAR REACTORS, (3) ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR REACTORS, (4) NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND FUSION, (5) A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW, AND (6) A…

  1. Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ta-Pei

    2013-01-01

    Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri

  2. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  3. Do atoms and anti-atoms obey the same laws of physics?

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeffrey Hangst

    2010-01-01

    ALPHA physicists have recently succeeded in trapping anti-atoms for the first time. Being able to hold on to the simplest atoms of antimatter is an important step towards the collaboration’s ultimate goal: precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. The question they are seeking to answer: do atoms and anti-atoms obey the same laws of physics? The Standard Model says that they must.   The ALPHA Collaboration celebrates the successful results. The ALPHA collaboration has taken it up a gear and trapped 38 atoms of antihydrogen for the first time. Antihydrogen atoms have been mass-produced at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) since 2002, when ATHENA (ALPHA’s predecessor) and ATRAP learned how to mix clouds of antiprotons and positrons at cryogenic temperatures. However, these anti-atoms were not confined, and flew off in a few microseconds to meet their fate: annihilation with matter in the walls of the experiment. ALPHA uses antiprotons produced at...

  4. Introducing many-body physics using atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Dietrich; Santra, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Atoms constitute relatively simple many-body systems, making them suitable objects for developing an understanding of basic aspects of many-body physics. Photoabsorption spectroscopy is a prominent method to study the electronic structure of atoms and the inherent many-body interactions. In this article the impact of many-body effects on well-known spectroscopic features such as Rydberg series, Fano resonances, Cooper minima, and giant resonances is studied, and related many-body phenomena in other fields are outlined. To calculate photoabsorption cross sections the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) model is employed. The conceptual clearness of TDCIS in combination with the compactness of atomic systems allows for a pedagogical introduction to many-body phenomena.

  5. Essay: Fifty years of atomic, molecular and optical physics in Physical Review Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroche, Serge

    2008-10-17

    The fiftieth anniversary of Physical Review Letters is a good opportunity to review the extraordinary progress of atomic, molecular, and optical physics reported in this journal during the past half-century. As both a witness and an actor of this story, I recall personal experiences and reflect about the past, present, and possible future of my field of research.

  6. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  7. Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...

  8. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  9. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  10. Atomic parity violation as a probe of new physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, William J.; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1990-12-01

    Effects of physics beyond the standard model on electroweak observables ares studied using the Peskin-Takeuchi isospin-conserving, S, and -breaking, T, parametrization of ``new'' quantum loop corrections. Experimental constraints on S and T are presented. Atomic parity-violating experiments are shown to be particularly sensitive to S with existing data giving S=-2.7+/-2.0+/-1.1. That constraint has important implications for generic technicolor models which predict S~=0.1NTND (NT is the number of technicolors, ND is the number of technidoublets).

  11. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  12. The Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeleman, Marcel

    In this thesis we provide insight into the chemical composition, physical conditions and cosmic distribution of atomic gas at high redshift. We study this gas in absorption against bright background quasars in absorption systems known as Damped Ly-alpha Systems (DLAs). These systems contain the bulk of the atomic gas at high redshift and are the likely progenitors of modern-day galaxies. In Chapter 2, we find that the atomic gas in DLAs obeys a mass-metallicity relationship that is similar to the mass-metallicity relationship seen in star-forming galaxies. The evolution of this relationship is linear with redshift, allowing for a planar equation to accurately describe this evolution, which provides a more stringent constraint on simulations modeling DLAs. Furthermore, the concomitant evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship of atomic gas and star-forming galaxies suggests an intimate link between the two. We next use a novel way to measure the physical conditions of the gas by using fine-structure line ratios of singly ionized carbon and silicon. By measuring the density of the upper and lower level states, we are able to determine the temperature, hydrogen density and electron density of the gas. We find that the conditions present in this high redshift gas are consistent with the conditions we see in the local interstellar medium (ISM). A few absorbers have higher than expected pressure, which suggests that they probe the ISM of star-forming galaxies. Finally in Chapter 4, we measure the cosmic neutral hydrogen density at redshifts below 1.6. Below this redshift, the Ly-alpha line of hydrogen is absorbed by the atmosphere, making detection difficult. Using the archive of the Hubble Space Telescope, we compile a comprehensive list of quasars for a search of DLAs at redshift below 1.6. We find that the incidence rate of DLAs and the cosmic neutral hydrogen density is smaller than previously measured, but consistent with the values both locally and at

  13. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Jr., Lloyd [University of Southern California

    1997-09-21

    This document contains the final reports from the five panels that comprised a Workshop held to explore future directions, scientific impacts and technological connections of research in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. This workshop was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division and was held at the Westfields International Conference Center in Chantilly, Virginia on September 21-24, 1997. The workshop was chaired by Lloyd Armstrong, Jr., University of Southern California and the five panels focused on the following topics: Panel A: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - Low Field Daniel Kleppner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), chair Panel B: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - High Field Phil Bucksbaum (University of Michigan), chair Panel C: Surface Interactions with Photons, Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules J. Wayne Rabalais (University of Houston), chair Panel D: Theory of Structure and Dynamics Chris Greene (University of Colorado), chair Panel E: Nano- and Mesocopic Structures Paul Alivisatos (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), chair The choice of focus areas reflects areas of significant interest to DOE/BES but is clearly not intended to span all fields encompassed by the designation of atomic, molecular and optical physics, nor even all areas that would be considered for review and funding under DOE’s AMOP program. In a similar vein, not all research that might be suggested under these topics in this report would be appropriate for consideration by DOE’s AMOP program. The workshop format included overview presentations from each of the panel chairs, followed by an intensive series of panel discussion sessions held over a two-day period. The panels were comprised of scientists from the U. S. and abroad, many of whom are not supported by DOE’s AMOP Program. This workshop was held in lieu of the customary “Contractors Meeting” held annually for

  14. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics Lecture: Exploring Flatland with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalibard, Jean

    2012-06-01

    A two-dimensional Bose fluid is a remarkably rich many-body system, which allows one to revisit several features of quantum statistical physics. Firstly, the role of thermal fluctuations is enhanced compared to the 3D case, which destroys the ordered state associated with Bose-Einstein condensation. However interactions between particles can still cause a superfluid transition, thanks to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. Secondly, a weakly interacting Bose fluid in 2D must be scale-invariant, a remarkable feature that manifests itself in the very simple form taken by the equation of state of the fluid. In this talk I will present recent experimental progress in the investigation of 2D atomic gases, which provide a nice illustration of the main features of low dimensional many-body physics.

  15. I.I. Rabi Prize in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Talk: Novel Quantum Physics in Few- and Many-body Atomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheng

    2011-05-01

    Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.

  16. Constraints on proton structure from precision atomic physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-10

    The ground-state hyperfine splittings in hydrogen and muonium are extremely well measured. The difference between them, after correcting for the different magnetic moments of the muon and proton and for reduced mass effects, is due solely to the structure of the proton - the large QED contributions for a pointlike nucleus essentially cancel. A major contribution to the rescaled hyperfine difference is proportional to the Zemach radius, a fundamental measure of the proton which can be computed as an integral over the product of the elastic electric and magnetic form factors of the proton. The remaining proton structure corrections, the polarization contribution from inelastic states in the spin-dependent virtual Compton amplitude and the proton size dependence of the relativistic recoil corrections, have small uncertainties. The resulting high precision determination of the Zemach radius (1.013 {+-} 0.016) fm from atomic physics provides an important constraint on fits to accelerator measurements of the proton electric and magnetic form factors. Conversely, the authors use the muonium data to extract an 'experimental' value for the QED corrections to the hyperfine splitting of hydrogenic atoms. There is a significant discrepancy between measurement and theory which is in the same direction as a corresponding discrepancy in positronium.

  17. Probing non-Hermitian physics with flying atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianming; Xiao, Yanhong; Peng, Peng; Cao, Wanxia; Shen, Ce; Qu, Weizhi; Jiang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    Non-Hermtian optical systems with parity-time (PT) symmetry provide new means for light manipulation and control. To date, most of experimental demonstrations on PT symmetry rely on advanced nanotechnologies and sophisticated fabrication techniques to manmade solid-state materials. Here, we report the first experimental realization of optical anti-PT symmetry, a counterpart of conventional PT symmetry, in a warm atomic-vapor cell. By exploiting rapid coherence transport via flying atoms, we observe essential features of anti-PT symmetry with an unprecedented precision on phase-transition threshold. Moreover, our system allows nonlocal interference of two spatially-separated fields as well as anti-PT assisted four-wave mixing. Besides, another intriguing feature offered by the system is refractionless (or unit-refraction) light propagation. Our results thus represent a significant advance in non-Hermitian physics by bridging a firm connection with the AMO field, where novel phenomena and applications in quantum and nonlinear optics aided by (anti-)PT symmetry can be anticipated.

  18. Constraints on proton structure from precision atomic physics measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Hiller, J R; Hwang, D S

    2004-01-01

    The ground-state hyperfine splittings in hydrogen and muonium are extremely well measured. The difference between them, after correcting for the different magnetic moments of the muon and proton and for reduced mass effects, is due solely to the structure of the proton - the large QED contributions for a pointlike nucleus essentially cancel. A major contribution to the rescaled hyperfine difference is proportional to the Zemach radius, a fundamental measure of the proton which can be computed as an integral over the product of the elastic electric and magnetic form factors of the proton. The remaining proton structure corrections, the polarization contribution from inelastic states in the spin-dependent virtual Compton amplitude and the proton size dependence of the relativistic recoil corrections, have small uncertainties. The resulting high precision determination of the Zemach radius (1.013 +/- 0.016) fm from atomic physics provides an important constraint on fits to accelerator measurements of the proton ...

  19. Efimov Physics in a 6Li-133Cs Atomic Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob; Feng, Lei; Parker, Colin; Chin, Cheng; Wang, Yujun

    2015-05-01

    We investigate Efimov physics based on three-body recombination in an atomic mixture of 6Li and 133Cs in the vicinity of interspecies Feshbach resonances at 843 and 889 G. This allows us to compare the loss spectra near different resonances and test the universality of Efimov states. Theoretically the Efimov spectrum near 889 G is expected to be similar to that near 843 G, except that the first resonance is absent near the former Feshbach resonance. This is due to the difference in the Cs-Cs scattering length near the two resonances: At 843 G it is negative, whereas at 889 G it is positive. Although it is primarily the Li-Cs interactions that lead to Efimov resonances, the Cs-Cs scattering length is expected to influence the spectrum. This work is supported by NSF and Chicago MRSEC.

  20. Difference-frequency combs in cold atom physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kliese, Russell; Puppe, Thomas; Rohde, Felix; Sell, Alexander; Zach, Armin; Leisching, Patrick; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Keegan, Niamh C; Bounds, Alistair D; Bridge, Elizabeth M; Leonard, Jack; Adams, Charles S; Cornish, Simon L; Jones, Matthew P A

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs provide the clockwork to relate optical frequencies to radio frequencies. Hence, combs allow to measure optical frequencies with respect to a radio frequency where the accuracy is limited only by the reference signal. In order to provide a stable link between the radio and optical frequencies, the two parameters of the frequency comb must be fixed: the carrier envelope offset frequency $f_{\\rm ceo}$ and the pulse repetition-rate $f_{\\rm rep}$. We have developed the first optical frequency comb based on difference frequency generation (DFG) that eliminates $f_{\\rm ceo}$ by design - specifically tailored for applications in cold atom physics. An $f_{\\rm ceo}$-free spectrum at 1550 nm is generated from a super continuum spanning more than an optical octave. Established amplification and frequency conversion techniques based on reliable telecom fiber technology allow generation of multiple wavelength outputs. In this paper we discuss the frequency comb design, characterization, and optical...

  1. Status and perspectives of atomic physics research at GSI : The new GSI accelerator project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T; Backe, H; Beyer, HF; Brauning-Demian, A; Hagmann, S; Ionescu, DC; Jungmann, K; Kluge, HJ; Kozhuharov, C; Kuhl, T; Liesen, D; Mann, R; Mokler, PH; Quint, W; Bosch, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    A short overview on the results of atomic physics research at the storage ring ESR is given followed by a presentation of the envisioned atomic physics program at the planned new GSI facility. The proposed new GSI facility will provide highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and uns

  2. Laser cooling and trapping of atomic strontium for ultracold atom physics, high-precision spectroscopy and quantum sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, F.; Ferrari, G.; Poli, N.; Drullinger, R. E.; G. M. Tino

    2006-01-01

    This review describes the production of atomic strontium samples at ultra-low temperature and at high phase-space density, and their possible use for physical studies and applications. We describe the process of loading a magneto-optical trap from an atomic beam and preparing the sample for high precision measurements. Particular emphasis is given to the applications of ultracold Sr samples, spanning from optical frequency metrology to force sensing at micrometer scale.

  3. Atomic Spectral Line Broadening Bibliographic Database Physical Reference Data

    CERN Document Server

    Fuhr, J; National Institute of Standards and Technology. Gaithersburg

    This database contains approximately 800 recent references. These papers contain numerical data, general information, comments, and review articles and are part of the collection of the Data Center on Atomic Line Shapes and Shifts at NIST.

  4. Ultimate statistical physics: fluorescence of a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeau, Yves; Le Berre, Martine; Ginibre, Jean

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the statistics of emission of photons by a single atom or ion illuminated by a laser beam at the frequency of quasi-resonance between two energy levels, a situation that corresponds to real experiments. We extend this to the case of two laser beams resonant with the energy differences between two excited levels and the ground state (three level atom in V-configuration). We use a novel approach to this type of problem by considering a Kolmogorov equation for the probability distribution of the atomic state, which takes into account first the deterministic evolution of this state under the effect of the incoming laser beam and second the random emission of photons during the spontaneous decay of the excited state(s) to the ground state. This approach yields solvable equations in the two level atom case. For the three level atom case we set the problem and clearly define its frame. The results obtained are valid in both opposite limits of rare and frequent spontaneous decay, compared to the period of the optical Rabi oscillations due to the interaction between resonant excitation and atomic levels. Our analysis gives access to various statistical properties of the fluorescence light, including one showing that its fluctuations in time are not invariants under time reversal. This result makes evident the fundamentally irreversible character of quantum measurements, represented here by the emission of photons of fluorescence.

  5. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  6. Division of Atomic Physics. Lund Institute of Technology. Progress Report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, C.G. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Division of Atomic Physics is responsible for basic physics teaching in all engineering disciplines and for specialized teaching in Optics, Atomic Physics, Spectroscopy, Laser Physics, and Non-Linear Optics. Research activities are mainly carried out in the fields of basic and applied spectroscopy, largely based on the use of lasers. Projects in the following areas are reported: Basic Atomic Physics - Atomic physics with high power laser radiation; Laser spectroscopic investigations of atomic and ionic excited states in the short-wavelength region; Laser spectroscopy in the visible; Theoretical Atomic Physics; Applied Optics and Quantum Electronics -High resolution spectroscopy; Photon echoes in Rare Earth Ion Doped Crystals; diode laser Spectroscopy; Environmental Remote Sensing -Tropospheric Ozone Lidar; Measurement of gases of geophysical origin; Industrial and Urban Pollution Measurements; Laser induced fluorescence of vegetation and water; Applications in Medicine and Biology - Tissue diagnostic using Laser-induced fluorescence; Photodynamic Therapy; Measurement of Optical Properties of Tissue with applications to Diagnostics; Two Photon Excited fluorescence Microscopy; Capillary Electrophoresis; New Techniques; Industrial Applications - Optical spectroscopy in Metallurgy; Physics of Electric Breakdown in Dielectric liquids; Optical Spectroscopy of Paper.

  7. Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Ideas on Size, Visibility and Structure of the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Pervin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the atom gives the opportunity to both understand and conceptually unify the various domains of science, such as physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy and geology. Among these disciplines, physics teachers are expected to be particularly well educated in this topic. It is important that pre-service physics teachers know what sort of…

  8. Ultimate Statistical Physics: fluorescence of a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Pomeau, Yves; Ginibre, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the statistics of emission of photons by a single atom or ion illuminated by a laser beam at the frequency of quasi-resonance between two energy levels, a situation that corresponds to real experiments. We extend this to the case of two laser beams resonant with the energy differences between two excited levels and the ground state (three level atom in V-configuration). We use a novel approach of this type of problem by considering Kolmogorov equation for the probability distribution of the atomic state which takes into account first the deterministic evolution of this state under the effect of the incoming laser beam and the random emission of photons during the spontaneous decay of the excited state(s) to the ground state. This approach yields solvable equations in the two level atom case. For the three level atom case we set the problem and define clearly its frame. The results obtained are valid both in the opposite limits of rare and of frequent spontaneous decay, compared to the period of the...

  9. Thermal physics in the introductory physics course: Why and how to teach it from a unified atomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Frederick

    1999-12-01

    Heat and thermodynamics are traditionally taught in the introductory physics course from a predominantly macroscopic point of view. However, it is advantageous to adopt a more modern approach that systematically builds on students' knowledge of the atomic structure of matter and of elementary mechanics. By focusing on the essential physics without requiring more than elementary classical mechanics, this approach can be made sufficiently simple to be readily teachable during five or six weeks of an ordinary calculus-based introductory physics course. This approach can be highly unified, using atomic considerations to infer the properties of macroscopic systems while also enabling thermodynamic analyses independent of specific atomic models. Furthermore, this integrated point of view provides a deeper physical understanding of basic concepts (such as internal energy, heat, entropy, and absolute temperature) and of important phenomena (such as equilibrium, fluctuations, and irreversibility).

  10. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  11. The 'atom-splitting' moment of synthetic biology: Nuclear physics and synthetic biology share common features

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Alex J; Kleinert, Aleysia; Verdier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology and nuclear physics share many commonalities in terms of public perception and funding. Synthetic biologists could learn valuable lessons from the history of the atomic bomb and nuclear power.

  12. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  13. Computational challenges in atomic, molecular and optical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth T

    2002-06-15

    Six challenges are discussed. These are the laser-driven helium atom; the laser-driven hydrogen molecule and hydrogen molecular ion; electron scattering (with ionization) from one-electron atoms; the vibrational and rotational structure of molecules such as H(3)(+) and water at their dissociation limits; laser-heated clusters; and quantum degeneracy and Bose-Einstein condensation. The first four concern fundamental few-body systems where use of high-performance computing (HPC) is currently making possible accurate modelling from first principles. This leads to reliable predictions and support for laboratory experiment as well as true understanding of the dynamics. Important aspects of these challenges addressable only via a terascale facility are set out. Such a facility makes the last two challenges in the above list meaningfully accessible for the first time, and the scientific interest together with the prospective role for HPC in these is emphasized.

  14. Atomic and molecular physics in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toburen, L.H.

    1990-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of energy deposition by high-linear-energy-transfer radiation play an important role in the subsequent chemical and biological processes leading to radiation damage. Because the spatial structures of energy deposition events are of the same dimensions as molecular structures in the mammalian cell, direct measurements of energy deposition distributions appropriate to radiation biology are infeasible. This has led to the development of models of energy transport based on a knowledge of atomic and molecular interactions process that enable one to simulate energy transfer on an atomic scale. Such models require a detailed understanding of the interactions of ions and electrons with biologically relevant material. During the past 20 years there has been a great deal of progress in our understanding of these interactions; much of it coming from studies in the gas phase. These studies provide information on the systematics of interaction cross sections leading to a knowledge of the regions of energy deposition where molecular and phase effects are important and that guide developments in appropriate theory. In this report studies of the doubly differential cross sections, crucial to the development of stochastic energy deposition calculations and track structure simulation, will be reviewed. Areas of understanding are discussed and directions for future work addressed. Particular attention is given to experimental and theoretical findings that have changed the traditional view of secondary electron production for charged particle interactions with atomic and molecular targets.

  15. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany) and Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Brandau, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Schramm, U. [LMU, Munich (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and set-ups required to reach the physics goals is given.

  16. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Beyer, H.F.; Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (DE)] (and others)

    2006-11-15

    The key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and setups required to reach the physics goals is given. (orig.)

  17. PREFACE: 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jim F.; Buckman, Steve; Bieske, Evan J.

    2009-09-01

    These proceedings arose from the 8th Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP) which was held at the University of Western Australia 24-28 November 2008. The history of AISAMP (Takayanagi and Matsuzawa 2002) recognizes its origin from the Japan-China meeting of 1985, and the first use of the name 'The First Asian International Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Physics (AISAMP)' in 1992. The initial attendees, Japan and China, were joined subsequently by scientists from Korea, Taiwan, India, Australia and recently by Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Turkey Iran, UK and USA. The main purpose of the biennial AISAMP series is to create a wide forum for exchanging ideas and information among atomic and molecular scientists and to promote international collaboration. The scope of the AISAMP8 meeting included pure, strategic and applied research involving atomic and molecular structure and processes in all forms of matter and antimatter. For 2008 the AISAMP conference incorporated the Australian Atomic and Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry meeting. The topics for AISAMP8 embraced themes from earlier AISAMP meetings and reflected new interests, in atomic and molecular structures, spectroscopy and collisions; atomic and molecular physics with laser or synchrotron radiation; quantum information processing using atoms and molecules; atoms and molecules in surface physics, nanotechnology, biophysics, atmospheric physics and other interdisciplinary studies. The implementation of the AISAMP themes, as well as the international representation of research interests, is indicated both in the contents list of these published manuscripts as well as in the program for the meeting. Altogether, 184 presentations were made at the 8th AISAMP, including Invited Talks and Contributed Poster Presentations, of which 60 appear in the present Proceedings after review by expert referees in accordance with the usual practice of Journal of Physics: Conference Series of

  18. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  19. Towards Relativistic Atomic Physics and Post-Minkowskian Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lusanna, Luca

    2009-01-01

    A review is given of the formulation of relativistic atomic theory, in which there is an explicit realization of the Poincare' generators, both in the inertial and in the non-inertial rest-frame instant form of dynamics in Minkowski space-time. This implies the need to solve the problem of the relativistic center of mass of an isolated system and to describe the transitions from different conventions for clock synchronization, namely for the identifications of instantaneous 3-spaces, as gauge transformations. These problems, stemming from the Lorentz signature of space-time, are a source of non-locality, which induces a spatial non-separability in relativistic quantum mechanics, with implications for relativistic entanglement. Then the classical system of charged particles plus the electro-magnetic field is studied in the framework of ADM canonical tetrad gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times admitting the ADM Poincare' group at spatial infinity, which allows to get the general relativistic extens...

  20. Physical Origin of the Universal Three-body Parameter in Atomic Efimov Physics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the universal three-body parameter that fixes the spectrum of few-atom systems in the Efimov regime. We identify it with a nonadiabatic deformation of the three-atom system which occurs when three atoms come within the distance of the van der Waals length. This deformation explains the universal ratio of the scattering length at the triatomic resonance to the van der Waals length observed in several experiments and confirmed by numerical calculations.

  1. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Beier, T. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Beyer, H.F. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Bosch, F. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Gumberidze, A. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Mokler, P.H. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Warczak, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    In the current report a short overview about the envisioned program of the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration, at the new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI is given. In addition, a condensed description of the planned experimental areas devoted to atomic physics research at the new facility is presented.

  2. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

  3. Critical Missing Equation of Quantum Physics for Understanding Atomic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization approach to explain why and how a quantum system evolves from an arbitrary initial state to a stationary state, satisfying the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. It also points out the inaccuracy of this equation, which is critial important in quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry, due to a fundamental flaw in it conflicting with the physical reality. The some directions are suggested on how to modify the equation to fix the problem

  4. Probing the Physical Conditions of Atomic Gas at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs). Using high resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper to lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C II and Si II. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5 % of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ~100 cm-3 and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log(P/k) = 3.4 [K cm-3], which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsec. We sho...

  5. The physics of atoms and quanta introduction to experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann; Brewer, William D

    2000-01-01

    The Physics of Atoms and Quanta is a thorough introduction to experiments and theory in this field. Every classical and modern aspect is included and discussed in detail. The new edition is completely revised, new sections on atoms in strong electric fields and high magnetic fields complete the comprehensive coverage of all topics related to atoms and quanta. All new developments, such as new experiments on quantum entanglement, the quantum computer, quantum information, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradoxon, Bell's inequality, Schrödinger's cat, decoherence, Bose-Einstein-Condensation and the atom laser are discussed. Over 170 problems and their solutions help deepen the insight in this subject area and make this book a real study text. The second and more advanced book by the same authors entitled "Molecular Physics and Elements of Quantum Chemistry" is the completion of this unique textbook.

  6. PROBING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF ATOMIC GAS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeleman, Marcel; Wolfe, Arthur M. [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: mneeleman@physics.ucsd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    A new method is used to measure the physical conditions of the gas in damped Lyα systems (DLAs). Using high-resolution absorption spectra of a sample of 80 DLAs, we are able to measure the ratio of the upper and lower fine-structure levels of the ground state of C{sup +} and Si{sup +}. These ratios are determined solely by the physical conditions of the gas. We explore the allowed physical parameter space using a Monte Carlo Markov chain method to constrain simultaneously the temperature, neutral hydrogen density, and electron density of each DLA. The results indicate that at least 5% of all DLAs have the bulk of their gas in a dense, cold phase with typical densities of ∼100 cm{sup –3} and temperatures below 500 K. We further find that the typical pressure of DLAs in our sample is log (P/k{sub B} ) = 3.4 (K cm{sup –3}), which is comparable to the pressure of the local interstellar medium (ISM), and that the components containing the bulk of the neutral gas can be quite small with absorption sizes as small as a few parsecs. We show that the majority of the systems are consistent with having densities significantly higher than expected for a purely canonical warm neutral medium, indicating that significant quantities of dense gas (i.e., n {sub H} > 0.1 cm{sup –3}) are required to match observations. Finally, we identify eight systems with positive detections of Si II*. These systems have pressures (P/k{sub B} ) in excess of 20,000 K cm{sup –3}, which suggest that these systems tag a highly turbulent ISM in young, star-forming galaxies.

  7. Three-body systems in physics of cold atoms and halo nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Few-body systems, such as cold atoms and halo nuclei, share universal features at low energies, which are insensitive to the underlying inter-particle interactions at short ranges. These low-energy properties can be investigated in the framework of effective field theory with two-body and three-body contact interactions. I review the effective-field-theory studies of universal physics in three-body systems, focusing on the application in cold atoms and halo nuclei.

  8. Handbook of theoretical atomic physics data for photon absorption, electron scattering, and vacancies decay

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, Miron Ya; Yarzhemsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present highly accurate and extensive theoretical Atomic data and to give a survey of selected calculational methods for atomic physics, used to obtain these data. The book presents the results of calculations of cross sections and probabilities of a broad variety of atomic processes with participation of photons and electrons, namely on photoabsorption, electron scattering and accompanying effects. Included are data for photoabsorption and electron scattering cross-sections and probabilities of vacancy decay formed for a large number of atoms and ions. Attention is also given to photoionization and vacancy decay in endohedrals and to positron-atom scattering. The book is richly illustrated. The methods used are one-electron Hartree-Fock and the technique of Feynman diagrams that permits to include many-electron correlations. This is done in the frames of the Random Phase approximation with exchange and the many-body perturbation theory. Newly obtained and previously collected atomi...

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  10. A New ECR Ion Source for Atomic Physics Research at IMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source (LECR3-Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No.3) was constructed this year. The main purpose of this source is to provide highly charged ion beams for atomic physics and surface physics research. The design of this ion source is based on the IMP 14.5 GHz ECR ion source (LECR2-Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No.2) with double RF heating

  11. Do General Physics Textbooks Discuss Scientists' Ideas about Atomic Structure? A Case in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Kwon, Sangwoon; Kim, Nahyun; Lee, Gyoungho

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general physics textbooks published in Korea based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. The result of this study shows that Korean general…

  12. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B Vol. 86 (2010) No. 1 P 1-10 Language: Next Article http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.86.1 JST.JSTAGE/pjab/86.1 Reviews Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants Ryugo S. HAYANO1) 1) Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo Released 2010/01/14 Keywords: antiproton, CERN, fundamental physical constants, laser spectroscopy Full Text PDF [1604K] Abstracts References(25) Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended val...

  13. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  14. Nonlinear optical and atomic systems at the interface of physics and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Garreau, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the interface between mathematics and physics, this book offers an introduction to the physics, the mathematics, and the numerical simulation of nonlinear systems in optics and atomic physics. The text covers a wide spectrum of current research on the subject, which is  an extremely active field in physics and mathematical physics, with a very broad range of implications, both for fundamental science and technological applications: light propagation in microstructured optical fibers, Bose-Einstein condensates, disordered systems, and the newly emerging field of nonlinear quantum mechanics.   Accessible to PhD students, this book will also be of interest to post-doctoral researchers and seasoned academics.

  15. Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics : "Atomic Physics" by E. Uggerhoj

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Symposium on Highlights from 14 years Physics hold at CERN, commemorating the closure of LEAR and giving a topical review of the impact of experiments with low energy antiprotons in their respective fields

  16. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, John F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Emmert, Gilbert A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  17. Status and perspectives of atomic physics research at GSI: The new GSI accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Backe, H.; Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Hagmann, S.; Ionescu, D.C.; Jungmann, K.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.; Quint, W

    2003-05-01

    A short overview on the results of atomic physics research at the storage ring ESR is given followed by a presentation of the envisioned atomic physics program at the planned new GSI facility. The proposed new GSI facility will provide highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and unstable heavy nuclei - up to a Lorentz factor of 24. At those relativistic velocities, the energies of optical transitions, such as for lasers, are boosted into the X-ray region and the high-charge state ions generate electric and magnetic fields of exceptional strength. Together with high beam intensities a range of important experiments can be anticipated, for example electronic transitions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions such as dynamically induced e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs, test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong fields, and ions and electrons in ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser fields.

  18. Informal proposal for an Atomic Physics Facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1986-01-01

    An Atomic Physics Facility (APF) for experiments that will use radiation from a superconducting wiggler on the NSLS X-13 port is described. The scientific justification for the APF is given and the elements of the facility are discussed. It is shown that it will be possible to conduct a uniquely varied set of experiments that can probe most aspects of atomic physics. A major component of the proposal is a heavy-ion storage ring capable of containing ions with energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon. The ring can be filled with heavy ions produced at the BNL MP Tandem Laboratory or from independent ion-source systems. A preliminary cost estimate for the facility is presented.

  19. Construction and characterization of external cavity diode lasers for atomic physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Kyle S; Bennetts, Shayne; Debs, John E; Kuhn, Carlos C N; McDonald, Gordon D; Robins, Nick

    2014-04-24

    Since their development in the late 1980s, cheap, reliable external cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) have replaced complex and expensive traditional dye and Titanium Sapphire lasers as the workhorse laser of atomic physics labs. Their versatility and prolific use throughout atomic physics in applications such as absorption spectroscopy and laser cooling makes it imperative for incoming students to gain a firm practical understanding of these lasers. This publication builds upon the seminal work by Wieman, updating components, and providing a video tutorial. The setup, frequency locking and performance characterization of an ECDL will be described. Discussion of component selection and proper mounting of both diodes and gratings, the factors affecting mode selection within the cavity, proper alignment for optimal external feedback, optics setup for coarse and fine frequency sensitive measurements, a brief overview of laser locking techniques, and laser linewidth measurements are included.

  20. High-performance laser power feedback control system for cold atom physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Lu; Thibault Vogt; Xinxing Liu; Xiaoji Zhou; Xuzong Chen

    2011-01-01

    @@ A laser power feedback control system that features fast response,large-scale performance,low noise,and excellent stability is presented.Some essential points used for optimization are described.Primary optical lattice experiments are given as examples to show the performance of this system.With these performance characteristics,the power control system is useful for applications in cold atom physics and precision measurements.%A laser power feedback control system that features fast response, large-scale performance, low noise, and excellent stability is presented. Some essential points used for optimization are described. Primary optical lattice experiments are given as examples to show the performance of this system. With these performance characteristics, the power control system is useful for applications in cold atom physics and precision measurements.

  1. Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics : Session 72, Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Westbrook, C; David, F; Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    2001-01-01

    Progress in atomic physics has been so vigorous during the past decade that one is hard pressed to follow all the new developments. In the early 1990s the first atom interferometers opened a new field in which we have been able to use the wave nature of atoms to probe fundamental quantum me chanics questions as well as to make precision measurements. Coming fast on the heels of this development was the demonstration of Bose Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapors which intensified research interest in studying the wave nature of matter, especially in a domain in which "macro scopic" quantum effects (vortices, stimulated scattering of atomic beams) are visible. At the same time there has been much progress in our understanding of the behavior of waves (notably electromagnetic) in complex media, both periodic and disordered. An obvious topic of speculation and probably of future research is whether any new insight or applications will develop if one examines the behavior of de Broglie waves in ana...

  2. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 2. Molecules and photons - Spectroscopy and collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    This is the second volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 2 introduces lasers and quantum optics, while the main focus is on the structure of molecules and their spectroscopy, as well as on collision physics as the continuum counterpart to bound molecular states. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  3. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  4. Kinetic theory and atomic physics corrections for determination of ion velocities from charge-exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Solomon, W. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.; Chrystal, C.

    2013-09-01

    Charge-exchange spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining ion temperatures, densities and rotational velocities in tokamak plasmas. This technique depends on detailed understanding of the atomic physics processes that affect the measured apparent velocities with respect to the true ion rotational velocities. These atomic effects are mainly due to energy dependence of the charge-exchange cross-sections, and in the case of poloidal velocities, due to gyro-motion of the ion during the finite lifetime of the excited states. Accurate lifetimes are necessary for correct interpretation of measured poloidal velocities, specially for high density plasma regimes on machines such as ITER, where l-mixing effects must be taken into account. In this work, a full nl-resolved atomic collisional radiative model coupled with a full kinetic calculation that includes the effects of electric and magnetic fields on the ion gyro-motion is presented for the first time. The model directly calculates from atomic physics first principles the excited state lifetimes that are necessary to evaluate the gyro-orbit effects. It is shown that even for low density plasmas where l-mixing effects are unimportant and coronal conditions can be assumed, the nl-resolved model is necessary for an accurate description of the gyro-motion effects to determine poloidal velocities. This solution shows good agreement when compared to three QH-mode shots on DIII-D, which contain a wide range of toroidal velocities and high ion temperatures where greater atomic corrections are needed. The velocities obtained from the model are compared to experimental velocities determined from co- and counter-injection of neutral beams on DIII-D.

  5. Phases and Interfaces from Real Space Atomically Resolved Data: Physics-Based Deep Data Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-09-14

    Advances in electron and scanning probe microscopies have led to a wealth of atomically resolved structural and electronic data, often with ∼1-10 pm precision. However, knowledge generation from such data requires the development of a physics-based robust framework to link the observed structures to macroscopic chemical and physical descriptors, including single phase regions, order parameter fields, interfaces, and structural and topological defects. Here, we develop an approach based on a synergy of sliding window Fourier transform to capture the local analog of traditional structure factors combined with blind linear unmixing of the resultant 4D data set. This deep data analysis is ideally matched to the underlying physics of the problem and allows reconstruction of the a priori unknown structure factors of individual components and their spatial localization. We demonstrate the principles of this approach using a synthetic data set and further apply it for extracting chemical and physically relevant information from electron and scanning tunneling microscopy data. This method promises to dramatically speed up crystallographic analysis in atomically resolved data, paving the road toward automatic local structure-property determinations in crystalline and quasi-ordered systems, as well as systems with competing structural and electronic order parameters.

  6. Physics for computer science students with emphasis on atomic and semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Narciso

    1991-01-01

    This text is the product of several years' effort to develop a course to fill a specific educational gap. It is our belief that computer science students should know how a computer works, particularly in light of rapidly changing tech­ nologies. The text was designed for computer science students who have a calculus background but have not necessarily taken prior physics courses. However, it is clearly not limited to these students. Anyone who has had first-year physics can start with Chapter 17. This includes all science and engineering students who would like a survey course of the ideas, theories, and experiments that made our modern electronics age possible. This textbook is meant to be used in a two-semester sequence. Chapters 1 through 16 can be covered during the first semester, and Chapters 17 through 28 in the second semester. At Queens College, where preliminary drafts have been used, the material is presented in three lecture periods (50 minutes each) and one recitation period per week, 15 weeks p...

  7. Challenges and opportunities for atomic physics at FAIR: The new GSI accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, S. [Institut f. Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany) and GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: s.hagmann@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Bosch, F. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kozhuharov, Ch. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Ullrich, J. [Max Planck Inst. f. Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Moshammer, R. [Max Planck Inst. f. Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Mann, R. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Mokler, P. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [GSI, Max Planckstr.1, Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Department of Physics, University of Stockholm (Sweden); Warczak, A. [Department of Physics, University of Cracow (Poland)

    2005-12-15

    We present a short overview of the current status of the new accelerator project FAIR at GSI with the new double synchrotron rings and the multi-storage rings. The key features of the new facility, which provides intense relativistic beams of stable and unstable nuclei, are introduced and their relation to the anticipated experimental programs in nuclear structure physics and antiproton physics is shown. The main emphasis in this overview is given to the atomic physics program with unique opportunities which will be provided e.g. by bare U{sup 92+} ions with kinetic energies continuously variable between relativistic energies corresponding to {gamma} up to {approx_equal}35 down to kinetic energies of such ions in traps corresponding to fractions of a Kelvin.

  8. 2nd International School of Physics of Exotic Atoms "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Duclos, J; Fiorentini, Giovanni; Torelli, Gabriele; Exotic atoms : fundamental interactions and structure of matter

    1980-01-01

    The second course of the International School on the Physics of Exotic Atoms took place at the "Ettore Majorana" Center for Scien­ tific Culture, Erice, Sicily, during the period from March 25 to April 5, 1979. It was attended by 40 participants from 23 insti­ tutes in 8 countries. The purpose of the course was to review the various aspects of the physics of exotic atoms, with particular emphasis on the re­ sults obtained in the last two years, i.e., after the first course of the School (Erice, April 24-30, 1977). The course dealt with two main topics, A) Exotic atoms and fundamental interactions and B) Applications to the study of the structure of matter. One of the aims of the course was to offer an opportunity for the exchange of experiences between scientists working in the two fields. In view of this, the lectures in the morning discussed the more general arguments in a common session, whereas the more specialized topics were treated in the afternoon, in two parallel sections. Section A was or...

  9. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-08-01

    Comparing the atom to a `tiny solar system' is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate how they understood the forces acting within the two systems. A sample of just over 100 across the 15-18 age range responded to a pencil-and-paper instrument that asked about four aspects of the two systems. It was found that for both systems, about four fifths of students expected forces to decrease with increasing distance; but that only a little over half expected there to be interactions between the minor constituents (electrons and planets). Most students failed to apply Newton's third law to either system. There was a considerable difference in the extent to which respondents were able to identify the type of force acting in the systems (nearly all for the solar system, but only a small proportion in the case of the atom). The findings are considered in terms of both the limitations of students' understanding of the basic physics and possible implications for the use of the teaching analogy.

  10. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Saito

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ=780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ=780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  11. Optical and magnetic properties of a transparent garnet film for atomic physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mari; Tajima, Ryoichi; Kiyosawa, Ryota; Nagata, Yugo; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the optical and magnetic properties of a transparent magnetic garnet with a particular focus on its applications to atomic physics experiments. The garnet film used in this study was a magnetically soft material that was originally designed for a Faraday rotator at optical communication wavelengths in the near infrared region. The film had a thickness of 2.1 μm and a small optical loss at a wavelength of λ =780 nm resonant with Rb atoms. The Faraday effect was also small and, thus, barely affected the polarization of light at λ =780 nm. In contrast, large Faraday rotation angles at shorter wavelengths enabled us to visualize magnetic domains, which were perpendicularly magnetized in alternate directions with a period of 3.6 μm. We confirmed the generation of an evanescent wave on the garnet film, which can be used for the optical observation and manipulation of atoms on the surface of the film. Finally, we demonstrated a magnetic mirror for laser-cooled Rb atoms using the garnet film.

  12. Isotopic shift of atom-dimer Efimov resonances in K-Rb mixtures: Critical effect of multichannel Feshbach physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, K; Kobayashi, J; Julienne, P S; Inouye, S

    2016-01-01

    The multichannel Efimov physics is investigated in ultracold heteronuclear admixtures of K and Rb atoms. We observe a shift in the scattering length where the first atom-dimer resonance appears in the $^{41}$K-$^{87}$Rb system relative to the position of the previously observed atom-dimer resonance in the $^{40}$K-$^{87}$Rb system. This shift is well explained by our calculations with a three-body model including the van der Waals interactions, and, more importantly, the multichannel spinor physics. With only minor difference in the atomic masses of the admixtures, the shift in the atom-dimer resonance positions can be cleanly ascribed to the isolated and overlapping Feshbach resonances in the $^{40}$K-$^{87}$Rb and $^{41}$K-$^{87}$Rb systems, respectively. Our study demonstrates the role of the multichannel Feshbach physics in determining Efimov resonances in heteronuclear three-body systems.

  13. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  14. Spectroscopy and atomic physics of highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cheng, C.-C.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the spectroscopy and atomic physics for some highly ionized Cr, Fe, and Ni ions produced in tokamak plasmas. Forbidden and intersystem wavelengths for Cr and Ni ions are extrapolated and interpolated using the known wavelengths for Fe lines identified in solar-flare plasmas. Tables of transition probabilities for the B I, C I, N I, O I, and F I isoelectronic sequences are presented, and collision strengths and transition probabilities for Cr, Fe, and Ni ions of the Be I sequence are given. Similarities of tokamak and solar spectra are discussed, and it is shown how the atomic data presented may be used to determine ion abundances and electron densities in low-density plasmas.

  15. An open source digital servo for atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibrandt, D R; Heidecker, J

    2015-12-01

    We describe a general purpose digital servo optimized for feedback control of lasers in atomic, molecular, and optical physics experiments. The servo is capable of feedback bandwidths up to roughly 1 MHz (limited by the 320 ns total latency); loop filter shapes up to fifth order; multiple-input, multiple-output control; and automatic lock acquisition. The configuration of the servo is controlled via a graphical user interface, which also provides a rudimentary software oscilloscope and tools for measurement of system transfer functions. We illustrate the functionality of the digital servo by describing its use in two example scenarios: frequency control of the laser used to probe the narrow clock transition of (27)Al(+) in an optical atomic clock, and length control of a cavity used for resonant frequency doubling of a laser.

  16. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  17. Upper Secondary Students' Understanding of the Basic Physical Interactions in Analogous Atomic and Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparing the atom to a "tiny solar system" is a common teaching analogy, and the extent to which learners saw the systems as analogous was investigated. English upper secondary students were asked parallel questions about the physical interactions between the components of a simple atomic system and a simple solar system to investigate…

  18. Several atomic-physics issues connected with the use of neutral beams in fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, D.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Fonck, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Energetic neutral beams are used for heating and diagnostics in present magnetic fusion experiments. They are also being considered for use in future large experiments. Atomic physics issues are important for both the production of the neutral beams and the interaction of the beams and the plasma. Interest in neutral beams based on negative hydrogen ions is growing, largely based on advances in producing high current ion sources. An extension of the negative ion approach has been the suggestion to use negative ions of Z > 1 elements, such as carbon and oxygen, to form high power neutral beams for plasma heating.

  19. ELASR – An electrostatic storage ring for atomic and molecular physics at KACST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O.A. El Ghazaly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new ELectrostAtic Storage Ring (ELASR has been designed and built at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was developed to be the core of a new storage ring laboratory for atomic and molecular physics at KACST. ELASR follows the standard design of the pioneering storage ring ELISA and it thereby features a racetrack single-bend shaped ring. Complementary simulation code packages were used to work out the design under the requirements of the projected experiments. This paper reports a short description of the ELASR storage ring through an overview of its design and construction.

  20. Information and Entanglement Measures in Quantum Systems With Applications to Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manzano, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a multidisciplinary contribution to the information theory of single-particle Coulomb systems in their relativistic and not relativistic description, to the theory of special functions of mathematical physics with the proposal and analysis of a new set of measures of spreading for orthogonal polynomials, to quantum computation and learning devices and to the analysis of entanglement in systems of identical fermions, in this field we propose a separability criteria for pure states of N identical fermions and the entanglement of two-electron atoms is studied, a new separability criteria for continuous variable systems is also analyzed. The notions of information, complexity and entanglement play a central role.

  1. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  2. Physics of our Days: Cooling and thermometry of atomic Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrio, R.

    2017-02-01

    We review the status of cooling techniques aimed at achieving the deepest quantum degeneracy for atomic Fermi gases. We first discuss some physics motivations, providing a quantitative assessment of the need for deep quantum degeneracy in relevant physics cases, such as the search for unconventional superfluid states. Attention is then focused on the most widespread technique to reach deep quantum degeneracy for Fermi systems, sympathetic cooling of Bose–Fermi mixtures, organizing the discussion according to the specific species involved. Various proposals to circumvent some of the limitations on achieving the deepest Fermi degeneracy, and their experimental realizations, are then reviewed. Finally, we discuss the extension of these techniques to optical lattices and the implementation of precision thermometry crucial to the understanding of the phase diagram of classical and quantum phase transitions in Fermi gases.

  3. Research on atomic states, physical properties and catalytic performance of Ru metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the one-atom theory (OA) of pure metals, the atomic states of Ru metal with hcp structure, fcc structure, bcc structure and liquid state were determined as fol- lows: [Kr](4dn)3.78(4dc)2.22(5sc)1.77(5sf)0.23,Ψa(fcc-Ru)=[Kr](4dn)3.70(4dc)2.44 (5sc)1.42(5sf)0.44, Ψ a(bcc-Ru)=[Kr](4dn)4.00(4dc)2.22(5sc)1.56(5sf)0.22, Ψ a(L-Ru)=[Kr](4dn)4.00(4dc)2.00(5sc)1.52 (5sf)0.48. The potential curve and physical properties as a function of temperature for hcp-Ru such as lattice constant, cohesive energy, linear thermal expansion coeffi- cient, specific heat and Gibbs energy and so on were calculated quantitatively. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with experimental value. The rela- tionship between the atomic states and catalytic performance was explained qualitatively and these supplied the designation of Ru metal and relative materials with theoretical instruction and complete data.

  4. The influence of physical and physiological cues on atomic force microscopy-based cell stiffness assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Chiou

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy provides a novel technique for differentiating the mechanical properties of various cell types. Cell elasticity is abundantly used to represent the structural strength of cells in different conditions. In this study, we are interested in whether physical or physiological cues affect cell elasticity in Atomic force microscopy (AFM-based assessments. The physical cues include the geometry of the AFM tips, the indenting force and the operating temperature of the AFM. All of these cues show a significant influence on the cell elasticity assessment. Sharp AFM tips create a two-fold increase in the value of the effective Young's modulus (E(eff relative to that of the blunt tips. Higher indenting force at the same loading rate generates higher estimated cell elasticity. Increasing the operation temperature of the AFM leads to decreases in the cell stiffness because the structure of actin filaments becomes disorganized. The physiological cues include the presence of fetal bovine serum or extracellular matrix-coated surfaces, the culture passage number, and the culture density. Both fetal bovine serum and the extracellular matrix are critical for cells to maintain the integrity of actin filaments and consequently exhibit higher elasticity. Unlike primary cells, mouse kidney progenitor cells can be passaged and maintain their morphology and elasticity for a very long period without a senescence phenotype. Finally, cell elasticity increases with increasing culture density only in MDCK epithelial cells. In summary, for researchers who use AFM to assess cell elasticity, our results provide basic and significant information about the suitable selection of physical and physiological cues.

  5. Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits: from the Dynamical Casimir effect to Majorana fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2012-02-01

    This talk will present an overview of some of our recent results on atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Particular emphasis will be given to photons interacting with qubits, interferometry, the Dynamical Casimir effect, and also studying Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits.[4pt] References available online at our web site:[0pt] J.Q. You, Z.D. Wang, W. Zhang, F. Nori, Manipulating and probing Majorana fermions using superconducting circuits, (2011). Arxiv. J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in a superconducting coplanar waveguide, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147003 (2009). [0pt] J.R. Johansson, G. Johansson, C.M. Wilson, F. Nori, Dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting microwave circuits, Phys. Rev. A 82, 052509 (2010). [0pt] C.M. Wilson, G. Johansson, A. Pourkabirian, J.R. Johansson, T. Duty, F. Nori, P. Delsing, Observation of the Dynamical Casimir Effect in a superconducting circuit. Nature, in press (Nov. 2011). P.D. Nation, J.R. Johansson, M.P. Blencowe, F. Nori, Stimulating uncertainty: Amplifying the quantum vacuum with superconducting circuits, Rev. Mod. Phys., in press (2011). [0pt] J.Q. You, F. Nori, Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits, Nature 474, 589 (2011). [0pt] S.N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, F. Nori, Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry, Phys. Reports 492, 1 (2010). [0pt] I. Buluta, S. Ashhab, F. Nori. Natural and artificial atoms for quantum computation, Reports on Progress in Physics 74, 104401 (2011). [0pt] I.Buluta, F. Nori, Quantum Simulators, Science 326, 108 (2009). [0pt] L.F. Wei, K. Maruyama, X.B. Wang, J.Q. You, F. Nori, Testing quantum contextuality with macroscopic superconducting circuits, Phys. Rev. B 81, 174513 (2010). [0pt] J.Q. You, X.-F. Shi, X. Hu, F. Nori, Quantum emulation of a spin system with topologically protected ground states using superconducting quantum circuit, Phys. Rev. A 81, 063823 (2010).

  6. Influence of Halide Solutions on Collagen Networks: Measurements of Physical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, André; Lackner, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    The influence of aqueous halide solutions on collagen coatings was tested. The effects on resistance against indentation/penetration on adhesion forces were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the change of Young's modulus of the coating was derived. Comparative measurements over time were conducted with halide solutions of various concentrations. Physical properties of the mesh-like coating generally showed large variability. Starting with a compact set of physical properties, data disperse after minutes. A trend of increase in elasticity and permeability was found for all halide solutions. These changes were largest in NaI, displaying a logical trend with ion size. However a correlation with concentration was not measured. Adhesion properties were found to be independent of mechanical properties. The paper also presents practical experience for AFM measurements of soft tissue under liquids, particularly related to data evaluation. The weakening in physical strength found after exposure to halide solutions may be interpreted as widening of the network structure or change in the chemical properties in part of the collagen fibres (swelling). In order to design customized surface coatings at optimized conditions also for medical applications, halide solutions might be used as agents with little impact on the safety of patients.

  7. Atomic physics with highly-charged heavy ions at the GSI future facility: The scientific program of the SPARC collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumberidze, A. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: a.gumberidze@gsi.de; Bosch, F. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI, Plankstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The proposed new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will open up exciting and far-reaching perspectives for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions: it will provide the highest intensities of relativistic beams of both stable and unstable heavy nuclei. In combination with the strongest possible electromagnetic fields produced by the nuclear charge of the heaviest nuclei, this will allow to extend atomic spectroscopy up to the virtual limits of atomic matter. Based on the experience and results already achieved at the experimental storage ring (ESR), a substantial progress in atomic physics research has to be expected in this domain, due to a tremendous improvement of intensity, energy and production yield of both stable and unstable nuclei.

  8. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  9. The influence of atomizer internal design and liquid physical properties on effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Meng; Duan, Yufeng [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the dependence of effervescent atomizing of coal-water slurry (CWS) on atomizer internal design and fluid properties. Results demonstrate that internal design of atomizer and fluid properties directly affect the two-phase flow pattern inside the atomizer which consequently affects the spray quality. The influence of mixing chamber length on spray quality is not significant at the ALR of 0.15 except for spray 0.75 glycerol/0.248 water/0.002 xanthan mixture. The same trend also found in the effect of angle of aeration holes at ALR of 0.15. Large diameter of the inclined aeration holes shows small SMD for water. The consistency index of fluids has no effect on the spray quality and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) increases when polymer additions were added to the glycerin-water mixture. The radial profile of SMD for spray water are almost flat, however, the largest SMD can be obtained at the edge of spray for three other fluids.

  10. Introduction to the Contributions of A. Temkin and R. J. Drachman to Atomic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Their work, as is the work of most atomic theorists, is concerned with solving the Schroedinger equation accurately for wave function in cases where there is no exact analytical solution. In particular, Temkin is associated with electron scattering from atoms and ions. When he started there already were a number of methods to study the scattering of electrons from atoms.

  11. Physics of non-steady state diffusion of lightweight atoms in a heavy atom matrix. Introducing an open-source tool for simulated-experiments in fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Tapia-Júdez, Oscar; Fradera, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The practice-based learning methodologies offer to undergraduate professors different ways to illustrate certain general physic principles. Traditional experimental workbenches have been extensively used during decades for academic lessons in order to complete theoretical dissertations or lectures, aiming at assuring an adequate understanding. The high cost of materials and laboratory equipment, the excessive preparation time, and the difficulty for carrying out offsite-campus replications by students, are disadvantages that can discourage of trying new kinds of experimental tasks. This paper gives insight of simulated experiment possibilities through an open-source-based computational suite in teaching fluid mechanics. Physics underlying diffusion of a light specie in a heavier atom matrix, as function of time and position, were explained to students as an example to teach them the Fick's Second Law expression. We present a docent step-by-step programme, scheduled in three sessions. The expected solution is ...

  12. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  13. Physical Construction of the Chemical Atom: Is It Convenient to Go All the Way Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of chemistry texts (mainly textbooks) published during the first half of the 20th century. We show the evolution of the explanations therein in terms of atoms and of atomic structure, when scientists were interpreting phenomena as evidence of the discontinuous, corpuscular structure of matter. In this process…

  14. Emulating solid-state physics with a hybrid system of ultracold ions and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissbort, U; Cocks, D; Negretti, A; Idziaszek, Z; Calarco, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Hofstetter, W; Gerritsma, R

    2013-08-23

    We propose and theoretically investigate a hybrid system composed of a crystal of trapped ions coupled to a cloud of ultracold fermions. The ions form a periodic lattice and induce a band structure in the atoms. This system combines the advantages of high fidelity operations and detection offered by trapped ion systems with ultracold atomic systems. It also features close analogies to natural solid-state systems, as the atomic degrees of freedom couple to phonons of the ion lattice, thereby emulating a solid-state system. Starting from the microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, we derive the low energy Hamiltonian, including the atomic band structure, and give an expression for the atom-phonon coupling. We discuss possible experimental implementations such as a Peierls-like transition into a period-doubled dimerized state.

  15. Efimov physics and universal trimers in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhe-Yu; Zhai, Hui; Cui, Xiaoling

    2015-02-01

    We study the two-body and three-body bound states in ultracold atomic mixtures with one of the atoms subjected to an isotropic spin-orbit (SO) coupling. We consider a system of two identical fermions interacting with one SO-coupled atom. It is found that there can exist two types of three-body bound states, Efimov trimers and universal trimers. The Efimov trimers are energetically less favored by the SO coupling, which will finally merge into the atom-dimer threshold as increasing the SO-coupling strength. Nevertheless, these trimers exhibit a discrete scaling law incorporating the SO-coupling effect. On the other hand, the universal trimers are more favored by the SO coupling. They can be induced at negative s -wave scattering lengths and with smaller mass ratios than those without SO coupling. These results are obtained by both the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and exact solutions from three-body equations.

  16. Theory of Neutrino-Atom Collisions: The History, Present Status, and BSM Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Kouzakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

  17. Theory of Neutrino-Atom Collisions: The History, Present Status, and BSM Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the current theoretical studies on neutrino-atom scattering processes is presented. The ionization channel of these processes, which is studied in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments, is brought into focus. Recent developments in the theory of atomic ionization by impact of reactor antineutrinos are discussed. It is shown that the stepping approximation is well applicable for the data analysis practically down to the ionization threshold.

  18. Nobel Prize in Physics 1997 "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" : Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips

    CERN Multimedia

    Audiovideo service

    1998-01-01

    Prof. C. Cohen-Tannoudji presents "manipulating atoms with light" . By using quasi-resonant exchanges of energy, linear and angular momentum between atoms and photons, it is possible to polarize atoms, to displace their energy levels and to control their position and their velocity. A few physical mechanisms allowing one to trap atoms and to cool them in the microKelvin, and even in the nanoKelvin range, will be described. Various possible applications of such ultracold atoms will be also reviewed.

  19. Quantum physics of light and matter a modern introduction to photons, atoms and many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to the field quantization (second quantization) of light and matter with applications to atomic physics. The first chapter briefly reviews the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics and the basic notions of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics. The second chapter is devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, while the third chapter shows the consequences of the light field quantization in the description of electromagnetic transitions.In the fourth chapter it is analyzed the spin of the electron, and in particular its derivation from the Dirac equation, while the fifth chapter investigates the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra (Stark and Zeeman effects). The sixth chapter describes the properties of systems composed by many interacting identical particles by introducing the Hartree-Fock variational method, the density functional theory, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Finally,...

  20. How Novel Algorithms and Access to High Performance Computing Platforms are Enabling Scientific Progress in Atomic and Molecular Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry I.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 40 years there has been remarkable progress in the quantitative treatment of complex many-body problems in atomic and molecular physics (AMP). This has happened as a consequence of the development of new and powerful numerical methods, translating these algorithms into practical software and the associated evolution of powerful computing platforms ranging from desktops to high performance computational instruments capable of massively parallel computation. We are taking the opportunity afforded by this CCP2015 to review computational progress in scattering theory and the interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atomic and molecular systems from the early 1960’s until the present time to show how these advances have revealed a remarkable array of interesting and in many cases unexpected features. The article is by no means complete and certainly reflects the views and experiences of the author.

  1. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  2. Fusion related atomic physics. Progress report, June 1, 1975--February 28, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-02-01

    Summaries of research progress on ion--atom collisions are given. Electron capture by high velocity point charges (bare nuclei with Z less than or equal to 9) was studied in several ways. Studies on the nuclear reactions induced by /sup 13/C and /sup 9/Be ions near the Coulomb barrier have continued. (MOW)

  3. Zeeman effect and optical pumping in atomic rubidium: a teaching experiment in quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, R.J.; Adams, S.; Seddon, G.; Golby, J.A.; Massey, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe an experiment developed recently in an undergraduate laboratory to measure the Zeeman splitting of the ground state of atomic rubidium. An optical pumping technique is employed and the magnetic field is calibrated by using free-electron spin resonance. Multiphoton absorption and power broadening of transitions are also investigated and a number of quantum principles introduced experimentally.

  4. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  5. Divisible Atoms or None at All? Facing the European Contributions to Developments of Chemistry and Physics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Južnič, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    atoms is discussed as possible new paradigm which could rename the destructible divisible entities of future physics, and with more difficulties also of chemistry. The word atom meaning indivisible not compound entity is basically in contradiction with the characteristics of item it is supposed to describe. The suffix "a" provides a negation in Ancient Greek language. The suffix should be omitted to use tom (τομος) to manage the actual situation of a-toms (=Toms) as compound of elementary particles. In late 19th century after the European Spring of Nations actually two basically different concepts of atoms of chemists and physicists accomplished a kind of symbioses. The suggestion is put forward that while indivisible atoms soon became contradictions in physics, they still retain some value in chemistry which should be taken into account in the attempt to hange the name of atom. The research of human genome as the atom of genetics is similar in broader sense, while there is no basic problem with the nomenclature of genome. The genome manipulations are far less obstructed with Chinese traditions compared to Christian beliefs.

  6. Physics of quantum fluids new trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Modugno, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.

  7. The Physics of Miniature Atomic Clocks: 0-0 Versus "End" Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Amber; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Kuzma, Nicholas; Happer, William

    2003-05-01

    The majority of traditional atomic-clock designs are based on the 0-0 hyperfine transition of a Cs 133 atom. We are currently investigating the advantages of operating a miniature optical atomic clock using the "end" transitions, e.g. connecting states |f=1, mf =+/-1> and |f=2, mf=+/-2> in 87Rb. In our paper we present extensive new measurements of relevant relaxation rates, such as those due to spin-exchange collisions, buffer-gas pressure shifts, Carver Rates and others, which ultimately determine the choices of an operating regime for the miniature optical atomic clock. The relationship between these rates is non-trivial: for example, using higher laser power will increase polarization and reduce the spin-exchange rate [1], but it can simultaneously increase the linewidth due to the optical pumping rate. The dependence of these and other relaxation rates on the cell size, temperature, pressure, a choice of buffer gas, and other parameters will be reported. Based on these measured rates, our modeling can be used to predict the transition linewidths, signal-to-noise ratios and thus the stability of the clock in different operating regimes. The trade-off between the stability of the clock and the desired small cell size and low power consumption needs to be carefully considered in order to optimize our design. In our experiments we used optical, microwave, and radio-frequency excitation to study hyperfine and Zeeman resonance lines in heated glass cells containing pure-isotope alkali-metal vapor and buffer gasses (N2, Ar, He, etc.) at low (0 - 10 G) magnetic fields. Simultaneous use of light, microwave and radio-frequency fields allowed us to calibrate surrounding magnetic fields by observing the corresponding shifts of the resonance, thus leading us to a quantitative understanding of our system. [1] S. Appelt, A. B. Baranga, A. R. Young, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. A 59, 2078 (1999).

  8. Physics of quantum fluids. New trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramati, Alberto [Paris Univ. (France). Laboratoire Kastler Brossel; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Modugno, Michele (eds.) [IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia

    2013-10-01

    Provides an overview of the field of quantum fluids. Presents analogies and differences between polariton and atomic quantum fluids. With contributions from the major actors in the field. Explains a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics. The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.

  9. The problems of solar-terrestrial coupling and new processes introduced to the physics of the ionosphere from the physics of atomic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakyan, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Further progress in research of solar-terrestrial coupling requires better understanding of solar variability influence on the ionosphere. The most powerful manifestations of solar variability are solar flares and geomagnetic storms. During a flare EUV/X-ray irradiations are completely absorbed in the ionosphere producing SID. During geomagnetic storms precipitations of electrons with energy of several keV (and to a lesser extent protons precipitations) from radiation belts and geomagnetosphere produce additional ionization and low latitude auroras. Considering the physics of ionosphere during the last several decades we have been taking into account three novel processes well known in the physics of atomic collisions. These are Auger effect [S. V. Avakyan, The consideration of Auger processes in the upper atmosphere of Earth. In Abstracts of paper presented at the Tenth scien. and techn. Conf. of young specialists of S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, 1974, 29-31.], multiple photoionization of upper, valence shell [S.V. Avakyan, The source of O++ ions in the upper atmosphere, 1979, Cosmic Res, 17, 942 - 943] and Rydberg excitation of all the components of upper atmosphere [S.V. Avakyan, The new factor in the physics of solar - terrestrial relations - Rydberg atomic and molecules states. Conf. on Physics of solar-terrestrial relationships, 1994, Almaty, 3 - 5]. In the present paper the results of bringing these new processes in the ionospheric physics are discussed and also its possible role in the physics of solar-terrestrial coupling is considered. Involving these processes to the model estimations allowed us for the first time to come to the following important conclusions: - Auger electrons play the determinant role at the formation of energy spectrum of photoelectrons and secondary auroral electrons at the range above 150 eV; - double photoionization of the outer shell of the oxygen atom (by a single photon) plays a dominant role in the formation of

  10. Exciting interdisciplinary physics quarks and gluons, atomic nuclei, relativity and cosmology, biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear physics is an exciting, broadly faceted field. It spans a wide range of topics, reaching from nuclear structure physics to high-energy physics, astrophysics and medical physics (heavy ion tumor therapy).  New developments are presented in this volume and the status of research is reviewed. A major focus is put on nuclear structure physics, dealing with superheavy elements and with various forms of exotic nuclei: strange nuclei, very neutron rich nuclei, nuclei of antimatter. Also quantum electrodynamics of strong fields is addressed, which is linked to the occurrence of giant nuclear systems in, e.g., U+U collisions. At high energies nuclear physics joins with elementary particle physics. Various chapters address the theory of elementary matter at high densities and temperature, in particular the quark gluon plasma which is predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD) to occur in high-energy heavy ion collisions. In the field of nuclear astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars and quark stars are d...

  11. Some applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations to the cold-atom physics; Quelques applications des equations de Faddeev-Yakubovsky a la physique des atomes froids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Laboratoire physique subatomique et cosmologie, universite Jospeh-Fourier, CNRS/IN2P3, 53, avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Deltuva, A. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Lazauskas, R. [IPHC, IN2P3-CNRS/universite Louis-Pasteur, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)

    2011-01-15

    We present some recent applications of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations in describing atomic bound and scattering problems. We consider the scattering of a charged particle X by atomic hydrogen with special interest in X = p,e{sup {+-},} systems of cold bosonic molecules and the bound and scattering properties of N=3 and N=4 atomic {sup 4}He multimers. (authors)

  12. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  13. Whispering gallery states of neutrons and anti-hydrogen atoms and their applications to fundamental and surface physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2013-03-01

    The `whispering gallery' effect has been known since ancient times for sound waves in air, later in water and more recently for a broad range of electromagnetic waves: radio, optics, Roentgen and so on. It is intensively used and explored due to its numerous crucial applications. It consists of wave localization near a curved reflecting surface and is expected for waves of various natures, for instance, for neutrons and (anti)atoms. For (anti)matter waves, it includes a new feature: a massive particle is settled in quantum states, with parameters depending on its mass. In this talk, we present the first observation of the quantum whispering-gallery effect for matter particles (cold neutrons) 1-2. This phenomenon provides an example of an exactly solvable problem analogous to the `quantum bouncer'; it is complementary to recently discovered gravitational quantum states of neutrons3. These two phenomena provide a direct demonstration of the weak equivalence principle for a massive particle in a quantum state. Deeply bound long-living states are weakly sensitive to surface potential; highly excited short-living states are very sensitive to the wall nuclear potential shape. Therefore, they are a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects. Analogous phenomena could be measured with atoms and anti-atoms 4-5.

  14. The Physics of Metrology All About Instruments - from Trundle Wheels to Atomic Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hebra, Alexius J

    2008-01-01

    Suitable for practicing engineers, instrument designers, service technicians and engineering students, this reference manual incorporates the related fields of physics, mechanics and mathematics to enhance the understanding of the subject matter

  15. Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics: "Light Antiprotonic Atoms" by R. Hayano

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics hold at CERN, commemorating the closure of LEAR and giving a topical review of the impact of experiments with low energy antiprotons in their respective fields

  16. A note on black-hole physics, cosmic censorship, and the charge-mass relation of atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-02-01

    Arguing from the cosmic censorship principle, one of the fundamental cornerstones of black-hole physics, we have recently suggested the existence of a universal upper bound relating the maximal electric charge of a weakly self-gravitating system to its total mass: Z(A)≤slant {Z}*(A)\\equiv {α }-1/3{A}2/3, where Z is the number of protons in the system, A is the total baryon (mass) number, and α ={e}2/{{\\hslash }}c is the dimensionless fine-structure constant. In order to test the validity of this suggested bound, we here explore the Z(A) functional relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsäcker semi-empirical mass formula. It is shown that all atomic nuclei, including the meta-stable maximally charged ones, conform to the suggested charge-mass upper bound. Our results support the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture in black-hole physics.

  17. Spectral and Atomic Physics Analysis of Xenon L-Shell Emission From High Energy Laser Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel; Kemp, G. E.; Widmann, K.; Benjamin, R. D.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Liedahl, D.; Moore, A. S.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of the L-shell (n =2) radiation in mid to high-Z ions is useful for probing plasma conditions in the multi-keV temperature range. Xenon in particular with its L-shell radiation centered around 4.5 keV is copiously produced from plasmas with electron temperatures in the 5-10 keV range. We report on a series of time-resolved L-shell Xe spectra measured with the NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) in high-energy long-pulse (>10 ns) laser produced plasmas at the National Ignition Facility. The resolving power of the NXS is sufficiently high (E/ ∂E >100) in the 4-5 keV spectral band that the emission from different charge states is observed. An analysis of the time resolved L-shell spectrum of Xe is presented along with spectral modeling by detailed radiation transport and atomic physics from the SCRAM code and comparison with predictions from HYDRA a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline atomic-physics from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Exploring mesoscopic physics of vacancy-ordered systems through atomic scale observations of topological defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, A Y; Morozovska, A N; Kim, Young-Min; Leonard, D; Oxley, M P; Biegalski, M D; Eliseev, E A; Kalinin, S V

    2012-08-10

    Vacancy-ordered transition metal oxides have multiple similarities to classical ferroic systems including ferroelectrics and ferroelastics. The expansion coefficients for corresponding Ginzburg-Landau-type free energies are readily accessible from bulk phase diagrams. Here, we demonstrate that the gradient and interfacial terms can quantitatively be determined from the atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy data of the topological defects and interfaces in model lanthanum-strontium cobaltite. With this knowledge, the interplay between ordering, chemical composition, and mechanical effects at domain walls, interfaces and structural defects can be analyzed.

  19. Low energy (anti)atoms for precision tests of basic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, D M; Veloso, M; Cesar, C L

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques to manipulate and study, with high precision, atomic hydrogen, from one hand, and successful trapping schemes for positrons and antiprotons, from the other hand, have encouraged the pursuit of experiments to test CPT violation and the weak equivalence principle (WEP) through the comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. A description of the hydrogen trap and laser system being built in Rio, to trap and perform high resolution spectroscopy on cold hydrogen, is presented along with a discussion on the techniques and experimental system being implemented by the ATHENA collaboration at CERN to produce cold antihydrogen. A new technique to make a cold antihydrogen beam is proposed. (25 refs).

  20. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  1. Mott physics and collective modes: An atomic approximation of the four-particle irreducible functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Thomas; Parcollet, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    We discuss a generalization of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) for strongly correlated systems close to a Mott transition based on a systematic approximation of the fully irreducible four-point vertex. It is an atomic-limit approximation of a functional of the one- and two-particle Green functions, built with the second Legendre transform of the free energy with respect to the two-particle Green function. This functional is represented diagrammatically by four-particle irreducible (4PI) diagrams. Like the dynamical vertex approximation (D Γ A ), the fully irreducible vertex is computed from a quantum impurity model whose bath is self-consistently determined by solving the parquet equations. However, in contrast with D Γ A and DMFT, the interaction term of the impurity model is also self-consistently determined. The method interpolates between the parquet approximation at weak coupling and the atomic limit, where it is exact. It is applicable to systems with short-range and long-range interactions.

  2. Effective-field-theory analysis of Efimov physics in heteronuclear mixtures of ultracold atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bijaya; Ji, Chen; Platter, Lucas

    2016-09-01

    We use an effective-field-theory framework to analyze the Efimov effect in heteronuclear three-body systems consisting of two species of atoms with a large interspecies scattering length. In the leading-order description of this theory, various three-body observables in heteronuclear mixtures can be universally parametrized by one three-body parameter. We present the next-to-leading corrections, which include the effects of the finite interspecies effective range and the finite intraspecies scattering length, to various three-body observables. We show that only one additional three-body parameter is required to render the theory predictive at this order. By including the effective range and intraspecies scattering length corrections, we derive a set of universal relations that connect the different Efimov features near the interspecies Feshbach resonance. Furthermore, we show that these relations can be interpreted in terms of the running of the three-body counterterms that naturally emerge from proper renormalization. Finally, we make predictions for recombination observables of a number of atomic systems that are of experimental interest.

  3. On curriculum of 'Atom and Radiation' in high school physics 1B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Nobuo [Tachibana Gakuen Senior High School, Matsuda, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The 30% of electric power consumed in general home of Japan is supplied by nuclear power plants nowadays. High school students should have a right knowledge of nuclear energy. A curriculum of 'Atom and Radiation' is carried on about 10 school hours. The curriculum contains 10 items as follows: (1) history of discovery and development of nuclear energy, (2) radiation and radiation generation mechanism, (3) radiation measurement 1; natural radiation and familiar radiation source, (4) radiation measurement 2; relations of a distance and intensity (or dose), (5) radiation measurement 3; shielding effect experiment of radiation, (6) radiation observation by cloud chamber; assembling cloud chamber, (7) nuclear fission; chain reaction and atomic bomb, (8) principle of nuclear energy; principle and structure of nuclear reactor, (9) nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, (10) nuclear power as a energy source; discussion. Video-tapes fitted for these items are used in teaching. High school students after teaching have been able to consider nuclear energy and environmental issues by themselves. (M. Suetake)

  4. Size-controlled bismuth nanoparticles physically grown by the support of cobalt atomic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-04-01

    Bi nanoparticle arrays with the almost monodispersity were synthesized using a magnetically assisted physical method. The average size and the overall morphology of Bi nanoparticles could be controlled by the adjustment of several parameters such as relative powers applied to Bi and Co targets, substrate temperature, and growth time. It was disclosed that Bi nanoparticles grow larger at a higher relative power to Bi, higher substrate temperature, and longer growth time, accompanying the deterioration of well-developed faceted structures. This physical method may provide a facile and fast route to achieving quality Bi nanoparticle arrays with a certain extent of size and morphology controllability.

  5. Davisson-Germer Prize Talk: Many-Body Physics with Atomic Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atomic gases confined to optical lattices have proven to be highly versatile and tunable systems for realizing novel quantum states of matter. We are using Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms in our laboratory to explore several goals related to the strong correlations that arise in these systems. We have realized the Hubbard model, which has long been suspected of containing the essential ingredients of high temperature superconductivity. We measured the compressibility of the Mott insulating phase that occurs near half filling (1 atom/site), thus demonstrating the excitation gap of the Mott insulator. Progress in this field, however, has been hampered by an inability to cool to low enough temperatures to achieve the most ambitious goals. To address this problem, we have developed the compensated optical lattice method to enable evaporative cooling in the lattice. With this method, we have cooled the Mott insulator sufficiently far to observe short-range antiferromagnetic correlations using Bragg scattering of light. We are currently exploring new methods for entropy storage and redistribution to achieve even lower entropy in the antiferromagnetic phase. Motivated by the enhancement of quantum correlations in low dimensions, we are also exploring Fermi gases in quasi-one-dimension (1D). A deep 2D optical lattice produces an array of 1D tubes which can be weakly coupled by reducing the lattice depth, thus increasing the lattice hopping t between them. We observe a crossover from 1D-like to 3D-like behavior in the phase separation of a spin-imbalanced Fermi gas with increasing t. While this crossover occurs at a value of t that depends on interaction, we find that the crossover location is universally dependent upon the scaled hopping t /ɛb , where ɛb is the pair binding energy. Finally, I will also report progress on measuring the speed of sound of the charge and spin modes in a 1D Fermi gas. Work supported by an ARO MURI, NSF, and the Robert A Welch Foundation.

  6. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, H. M.; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W.; Hager, J. D.; Sherrill, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi6O12 at 75 mg/cm3 density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV Te range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for Te = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to Te changes of ˜3 eV.

  7. An effective field theory analysis of Efimov physics in heteronuclear mixtures of ultracold atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bijaya; Platter, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We use an effective field theory framework to analyze the Efimov effect in heteronuclear three-body systems consisting of two species of atoms with a large interspecies scattering length. In the leading-order description of this theory, various three-body observables in heteronuclear mixtures can be universally parameterized by one three-body parameter. We present the next-to-leading corrections, which include the effects of the finite interspecies effective range and the finite intraspecies scattering length, to various three-body observables. We show that only one additional three-body parameter is required to render the theory predictive at this order. By including the effective range and intraspecies scattering length corrections, we derive a set of universal relations that connect the different Efimov features near the interspecies Feshbach resonance. Furthermore, we show that these relations can be interpreted in terms of the running of the three-body counterterms that naturally emerge from proper renor...

  8. Atoms, metaphors and paradoxes Niels Bohr and the construction of a new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Petruccioli, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    This book gives a detailed study of the development and the interpretation given to Niels Bohr's Principle of Correspondence. It also describes the role that this principle played in guiding Bohr's research over the critical period from 1920 to 1927. Quantum mechanics, developed in the 1920s and 1930s by Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Schrödinger and Dirac, represents one of the most profound turning points in science. This theory required a wholly new kind of physics in which many of the principles, concepts and models representing reality, that had formed the basis of classical physics since Galileo and Newton, had to be abandoned. This book re-examines the birth of quantum mechanics, in particular examining the development of crucial and original insights of Niels Bohr.

  9. HISTRAP: Proposal for a Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the physics capabilities of HISTRAP together with a brief description of the facility and a sampling of the beams which will be available for experimentation, and surveys some of the lines of investigation in the physics of multicharged ions, molecular ion spectroscopy, condensed beams, and nuclear physics that will become possible with the advent of HISTRAP. Details of the accelerator design are discussed, including computer studies of beam tracking in the HISTRAP lattice, a discussion of the HHIRF tandem and ECR/RFQ injectors, and a description of the electron beam cooling system. In the past three years, HISTRAP has received substantial support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory management and staff. The project has used discretionary funds to develop hardware prototypes and carry out design studies. Construction has been completed on a vacuum test stand which models 1/16 of the storage ring and has attained a pressure of 4 x 10/sup -12/ Torr; a prototype rf cavity capable of accelerating beams up to 90 MeV/nucleon and decelerating to 20 keV/nucleon; and a prototype dipole magnet, one of the eight required for the HISTRAP lattice. This paper also contains a summary of the work on electron cooling carried out by one of our staff members at CERN. Building structures and services are described. Details of cost and schedule are also discussed. 77 refs.

  10. Withdrawal of Chinese Physics Letters 28 (2011) 043401 “Measurement of Absolute Atomic Collision Cross Section with Helium Using 87Rb Atoms Confined in Magneto-Optic and Magnetic Traps” by WANG Ji-Cheng et al.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Cheng; ZHOU Ke-Ya; WANG Yue-Yuan; LIAO Qing-Hong; LIU Shu-Tian

    2011-01-01

    We announce the withdrawal of the article entitled “Measurement of Absolute Atomic Collision Cross Section with Helium Using 87Rb Atoms Confined in Magneto-Optic and Magnetic Traps”,which was published in Chinese Physics Letters [28(4)(2011)043401].The first author,Jicheng Wang,had participated in related research with Professor Kirk Madison's group at the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia,Canada from September 2008 to February 2010.Even though consent had been granted for some of the experimental data to be used by Jicheng Wang in his own thesis,its publication had not been authorized.We apologize to Professor K.Madison for the misunderstanding,and to Chinese Physics Letters and the readers of Chinese Physics Letters for any inconvenience this mistake may have caused.%We announce the withdrawal of the article entitled "Measurement of Absolute Atomic Collision Cross Section with Helium Using 87Rb Atoms Confined in Magneto-Optic and Magnetic Traps", which was published in Chinese Physics Letters [28(4) (2011)043401]. The first author, Jicheng Wang, had participated in related research with Professor Kirk Madison's group at the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of British Columbia, Canada from September 2008 to February 2010. Even though consent had been granted for some of the experimental data to be used by Jicheng Wang in his own thesis, its publication had not been authorized. We apologize to Professor K. Madison for the misunderstanding, and to Chinese Physics Letters ad the readers of Chinese Physics Letters for any inconvenience this mistake may have caused.

  11. From atoms to galaxies a conceptual physics approach to scientific awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Sadri

    2010-01-01

    … present[s] some of the most striking ideas behind physics but also give[s] students and the general public the opportunity of reflecting on the implications of these ideas and provide them with the tools to draw a distinction between scientific fact and nonsense. The book does indeed do what it says on the cover; it presents topics ranging from early Greek astronomy and Newtonian dynamics, passing by electromagnetism and thermodynamics and culminating with quantum theory, relativity and cosmology. … the CD included with the book has lengthier mathematical and numerical examples that suppleme

  12. Atomic Radiations in the Decay of Medical Radioisotopes: A Physics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Q. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Auger electrons emitted in nuclear decay offer a unique tool to treat cancer cells at the scale of a DNA molecule. Over the last forty years many aspects of this promising research goal have been explored, however it is still not in the phase of serious clinical trials. In this paper, we review the physical processes of Auger emission in nuclear decay and present a new model being developed to evaluate the energy spectrum of Auger electrons, and hence overcome the limitations of existing computations.

  13. A course in mathematical physics 3 quantum mechanics of atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Thirring, Walter

    1981-01-01

    In this third volume of A Course in Mathematical Physics I have attempted not simply to introduce axioms and derive quantum mechanics from them, but also to progress to relevant applications. Reading the axiomatic litera­ ture often gives one the impression that it largely consists of making refined axioms, thereby freeing physics from any trace of down-to-earth residue and cutting it off from simpler ways of thinking. The goal pursued here, however, is to come up with concrete results that can be compared with experimental facts. Everything else should be regarded only as a side issue, and has been chosen for pragmatic reasons. It is precisely with this in mind that I feel it appropriate to draw upon the most modern mathematical methods. Only by their means can the logical fabric of quantum theory be woven with a smooth structure; in their absence, rough spots would . inevitably appear, especially in the theory of unbounded operators, where the details are too intricate to be comprehended easily. Great care...

  14. Testing Universality of Efimov Physics in an Ultracold Mixture of Lithium and Cesium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob; Desalvo, Brian; Chin, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We conduct a survey of Li-Cs-Cs Efimov resonances in a 6 Li-133 Cs mixture in the magnetic field range of 800 to 950 G. In this region, limiting our study to the two lowest Zeeman levels of lithium and the lowest Zeeman level of cesium, there are five Feshbach resonances which may be probed. The Cs-Cs scattering length at these resonances varies from -3600 a0 to +1000 a0, allowing us to study the impact of the Cs-Cs scattering length on the Efimov resonance positions. In addition, a combination of broad and narrow Feshbach resonances in this magnetic field range allows us to probe the influence of molecular physics on the Efimov effect, particularly the variation of the three-body parameter.

  15. Gaining insight into the physics of dynamic atomic force microscopy in complex environments using the VEDA simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) continues to grow in popularity among scientists in many different fields, and research on new methods and operating modes continues to expand the resolution, capabilities, and types of samples that can be studied. But many promising increases in capability are accompanied by increases in complexity. Indeed, interpreting modern dAFM data can be challenging, especially on complicated material systems, or in liquid environments where the behavior is often contrary to what is known in air or vacuum environments. Mathematical simulations have proven to be an effective tool in providing physical insight into these non-intuitive systems. In this article we describe recent developments in the VEDA (virtual environment for dynamic AFM) simulator, which is a suite of freely available, open-source simulation tools that are delivered through the cloud computing cyber-infrastructure of nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org). Here we describe three major developments. First, simulations in liquid environments are improved by enhancements in the modeling of cantilever dynamics, excitation methods, and solvation shell forces. Second, VEDA is now able to simulate many new advanced modes of operation (bimodal, phase-modulation, frequency-modulation, etc.). Finally, nineteen different tip-sample models are available to simulate the surface physics of a wide variety different material systems including capillary, specific adhesion, van der Waals, electrostatic, viscoelasticity, and hydration forces. These features are demonstrated through example simulations and validated against experimental data, in order to provide insight into practical problems in dynamic AFM.

  16. Atomic physics for cave-men and other beginners. The universe from within. Molecules, atoms, and elementary particles; Atomphysik fuer Hoehlenmenschen und andere Anfaenger. Das Universum von innen. Molekuele, Atome und Elementarteilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Juergen

    2016-07-01

    In this essential can be found the structure and the general properties of atoms, the precise interior of atoms and the special behaviour resulting from it, and the mysterious world of ''quanta'' and their behaviour.

  17. 64 International conference "NUCLEUS-2014" Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasnikov, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Тезисы 64 международной конференции «ЯДРО-2014» (Фундаментальные проблемы ядерной физики, атомной энергетики и ядерных технологий), БГУ, Минск, 1 – 4 июля 2014 года. The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonon and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spin and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, ...

  18. A Reconstruction of Structure of the Atom and Its Implications for General Physics Textbooks: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    Recent research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presentation of the Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr models of the atom in general physics textbooks based on criteria derived from history and philosophy of science. Forty-one general physics…

  19. An investigation into the effect of spray drying temperature and atomizing conditions on miscibility, physical stability, and performance of naproxen-PVP K 25 solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Loyson, Yves; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigates the effect of changing spray drying temperature (40°C-120°C) and/or atomizing airflow rate (AR; 5-15 L/min) on the phase structure, physical stability, and performance of spray-dried naproxen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K 25 amorphous solid dispersions. The modulated differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total internal reflectance-Fourier transform infrared, and powder X-ray diffractometry (pXRD) studies revealed that higher inlet temperature (IT) or atomization airflow leads to the formation of amorphous-phase-separated dispersions with higher strongly H-bonded and free PVP fractions, whereas that prepared with the lowest IT was more homogeneous. The dispersion prepared with the lowest atomization AR showed trace crystallinity. Upon exposure to 75% relative humidity (RH) for 3 weeks, the phase-separated dispersions generated by spray drying at higher temperature or higher atomization airflow retained relatively higher amorphous drug fraction compared with those prepared at slow evaporation conditions. The humidity-controlled pXRD analysis at 98% RH showed that the dispersion prepared with highest atomization AR displayed the slowest kinetics of recrystallization. The molecular-level changes occurring during recrystallization at 98% RH was elucidated by spectroscopic monitoring at the same humidity. The rate and extent of the drug dissolution was the highest for dispersions prepared at the highest atomizing AR and the lowest for that prepared with the slowest atomizing condition.

  20. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  1. Mechanical, thermal, and physical properties of Mg-Ca compounds in the framework of the modified embedded-atom method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    Interatomic potentials for pure Ca and the Mg-Ca binary have been developed in the framework of the second nearest-neighbors modified embedded-atom method (MEAM). The validity and the transferability of the Ca MEAM potential was performed by calculating physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. These properties were compared to experimental data and numerical data obtained from existing Ca potentials, and a good agreement was found. In addition, the dissociation of the edge dislocation into two Shockley partials aligns with the linear elasticity solution. Furthermore, the velocity of an edge dislocation under static and dynamics loading conditions predicted in Ca using the MEAM formalism reproduces the expected behavior of an edge dislocation in fcc crystal structures. The Ca MEAM potential was then coupled to an existing Mg MEAM potential to describe the properties of the Mg-Ca alloys. Heat of formation, structural energy difference, and elastic constants were calculated for several ordered Mg-Ca compounds containing different concentrations of Ca. As expected from first-principle calculations based on DFT, Mg2Ca with the Laves phase C14 was found to be the most stable structure with the lowest heat of formation compared to compounds with other Ca concentrations (Mg3Ca, MgCa, and MgCa3). Moreover, the mechanical stability was recovered for the different tested compounds and is in agreement with first-principle data.

  2. Cold Atom Physics Using Ultra-Thin Optical Fibers: Light-Induced Dipole Forces and Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sagu'e, G; Meschede, D; Rauschenbeutel, A; Vetsch, E

    2007-01-01

    The strong evanescent field around ultra-thin unclad optical fibers bears a high potential for detecting, trapping, and manipulating cold atoms. Introducing such a fiber into a cold atom cloud, we investigate the interaction of a small number of cold Caesium atoms with the guided fiber mode and with the fiber surface. Using high resolution spectroscopy, we observe and analyze light-induced dipole forces, van der Waals interaction, and a significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate of the atoms. The latter can be assigned to the modification of the vacuum modes by the fiber.

  3. Lars Onsager Prize Talk: A New Challenge for Cold Atom Physics: Achieving the Strongly Correlated Regimes for Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tin-Lun

    2008-03-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices show great promise to generate a whole host of new strongly correlated states and to emulate many theoretical models for strongly interacting electronic systems. However, to reach these strongly correlated regimes, we need to reach unprecedented low temperatures within current experimental settings. To achieve this, it is necessary to remove considerable amount of entropy from the system. Here, we point out a general principle for removing entropies of quantum gases in optical lattices which will allow one to reach some extraordinarily low temperature scales.

  4. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  5. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  6. Improving fundamental abilities of atomic force microscopy for investigating quantitative nanoscale physical properties of complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.

    Measurements of local material properties of complex biological systems (e.g. live cells and viruses) in their respective physiological conditions are extremely important in the fields of biophysics, nanotechnology, material science, and nanomedicine. Yet, little is known about the structure-function-property relationship of live cells and viruses. In the case of live cells, the measurements of progressive variations in viscoelastic properties in vitro can provide insight to the mechanistic processes underpinning morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, motility, metastasis, and many more fundamental cellular processes. In the case of living viruses, the relationship between capsid structural framework and the role of the DNA molecule interaction within viruses influencing their stiffness, damping and electrostatic properties can shed light in virological processes like protein subunits assembly/dissassembly, maturation, and infection. The study of mechanics of live cells and viruses has been limited in part due to the lack of technology capable of acquiring high-resolution (nanoscale, subcellular) images of its heterogeneous material properties which vary widely depending on origin and physical interaction. The capabilities of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for measuring forces and topography with sub-nm precision have greatly contributed to research related to biophysics and biomechanics during the past two decades. AFM based biomechanical studies have the unique advantage of resolving/mapping spatially the local material properties over living cells and viruses. However, conventional AFM techniques such as force-volume and quasi-static force-distance curves are too low resolution and low speed to resolve interesting biophysical processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics for cells or assembly/dissasembly of viruses. To overcome this bottleneck, a novel atomic force microscopy mode is developed, that leads to sub-10-nm resolution and sub-15-minutes mapping of local

  7. Current trends in searches for new physics using measurements of parity violation and electric dipole moments in atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2010-01-01

    We review current status of the study of parity and time invariance phenomena in atoms, nuclei and molecules. We focus on three most promising areas of research: (i) parity non-conservation in a chain of isotopes, (ii) search for nuclear anapole moments, and (iii) search for permanent electric dipole moments (EDM) of atoms and molecules which are caused by either, electron EDM or nuclear $T,P$-odd moments such as nuclear EDM and nuclear Schiff moment.

  8. Reviews Book: Sustainable Energy—Without the Hot Air Equipment: Doppler Effect Unit Book: The Physics of Rugby Book: Plastic Fantastic: How the Biggest Fraud in Physics Shook the Scientific World Equipment: Brunel Eyecam Equipment: 200x Digital Microscope Book: The Atom and the Apple: Twelve Tales from Contemporary Physics Book: Physics 2 for OCR Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Sustainable Energy—Without the Hot Air This excellent book makes sense of energy facts and figures Doppler Effect Unit Another simple, effective piece of kit from SEP Plastic Fantastic: How the Biggest Fraud in Physics Shook the Scientific World Intriguing and unique write-up of an intellectual fraud case Brunel Eyecam An affordable digital eyepiece for your microscope 200x Digital Microscope An adjustable digital flexcam for classroom use The Atom and the Apple: Twelve Tales from Contemporary Physics A fascinating round-up of the recent history of physics WORTH A LOOK The Physics of Rugby Book uses sport analogy and context to teach physics concepts Physics 2 for OCR Essential textbook for the course but otherwise pointless WEB WATCH Some free teaching materials are better than those you'd pay for

  9. Richard L. Greene Dissertation Award in Experimental Condensed Matter or Materials Physics Talk: Towards single atom magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Susanne

    Magnetic anisotropy is a fundamental property of magnetic materials that governs the stability and directionality of their magnetization. At the atomic level, magnetic anisotropy originates from anisotropy in the orbital angular momentum (L) and the spin-orbit coupling that connects the spin moment of a magnetic atom to the spatial symmetry of its ligand field environment. Generally, the ligand field, that is necessary for the anisotropy, also quenches the orbital moment and reduces the total magnetic moment of the atom to its spin component. However, careful design of the coordination geometry of a single atom can restore the orbital moment while inducing uniaxial anisotropy, as we present here for single atoms deposited on top of a thin MgO film. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements show a large magnetic anisotropy of 19 meV for iron and 58 meV for cobalt, as well as relaxation times of many milliseconds. These results offer a strategy, based on symmetry arguments and careful tailoring of the interaction with the environment, for the rational design of nanoscopic permanent magnets and single atom magnets.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  11. The Atomic Intrinsic Integration Approach: A Structured Methodology for the Design of Games for the Conceptual Understanding of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Alejandro; Barrios, Enrique; Nussbaum, Miguel; Amestica, Matias; Leclerc, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations combined with games have been successfully used to teach conceptual physics. However, there is no clear methodology for guiding the design of these types of games. To remedy this, we propose a structured methodology for the design of conceptual physics games that explicitly integrates the principles of the intrinsic…

  12. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  13. Gaining insight into the physics of dynamic atomic force microscopy in complex environments using the VEDA simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) continues to grow in popularity among scientists in many different fields, and research on new methods and operating modes continues to expand the resolution, capabilities, and types of samples that can be studied. But many promising increases in capability are accompanied by increases in complexity. Indeed, interpreting modern dAFM data can be challenging, especially on complicated material systems, or in liquid environments where the behavior is often ...

  14. Pegram Nuclear Physics Laboratories Progress Report for January 1969 through December 1969 to the United States Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-12-01

    4 m N4 P 0Ca 40 V’ - ) 0 ein M Y Cd 116 Sternheimer (I) corrections are an example, considerably decrease the confidence and precision with which...interaction with this distribution can be accurately calculated. This suggests that muonic atoms may provide a means of testing Sternheimer as well as...and the first excited states. A satisfactory fit to the experimental data has IR. M. Sternheimer , Phys. Rev. 105, 158 (1957 and earlier papers. 2H. L

  15. Greek Atomic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  16. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics: The COLTRIMS multi-particle imaging technique-new Insight into the World of Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bocking, Horst

    2008-05-01

    The correlated many-particle dynamics in Coulombic systems, which is one of the unsolved fundamental problems in AMO-physics, can now be experimentally approached with so far unprecedented completeness and precision. The recent development of the COLTRIMS technique (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) provides a coincident multi-fragment imaging technique for eV and sub-eV fragment detection. In its completeness it is as powerful as the bubble chamber in high energy physics. In recent benchmark experiments quasi snapshots (duration as short as an atto-sec) of the correlated dynamics between electrons and nuclei has been made for atomic and molecular objects. This new imaging technique has opened a powerful observation window into the hidden world of many-particle dynamics. Recent multiple-ionization studies will be presented and the observation of correlated electron pairs will be discussed.

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  18. Elementary particles. Modern physics from the atoms to the standard model; Elementare Teilchen. Moderne Physik von den Atomen bis zum Standard-Modell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck-Neuhaus, Joern [Bremen Univ. (Germany). FB 1 Physik

    2010-07-01

    The actual state of knowledge of nuclear and elementary-particle physics has a fluctuating history of origin, often characterized by shockingly new formations of terms, which until today are for studyings of physics often only under difficulties accessible. This books uses the controverse and at the same time instructive development processes themselves for the access to the difficult new concepts. It makes understandable, how the physical picture of the smallest particles looks today und why it has arised so and not otherwise: From the detection of the existence of the atoms up to the present standard model of elementary-particle physics, in a steady exchange between established theoretical models, confirming and contradicting experimental findings, sometimes controversial new formations of terms, improved experiments etc. - a process, which certainly continues in the future. Guidance of the presentation is an also in the detail reproducible argumentation. Studyings of physics before their B.Sc. examination will get knowledges about subatomar physics, which belong to the genralknowledge of their field. Also for teachings of physics at schools or universities this new presentation might be interesting. [German] Der aktuelle Wissensstand der Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik hat eine wechselvolle Entstehungsgeschichte, oft gekennzeichnet durch schockierend neue Begriffsbildungen, die sich bis heute den Physik-Studierenden oft nur unter Muehen erschliessen. Dieses Buch nutzt die kontroversen und zugleich lehrreichen Entwicklungsprozesse selber fuer den Zugang zu den schwierigen neuen Konzepten. Es macht verstaendlich, wie das physikalische Bild von den kleinsten Teilchen heute aussieht und warum es so und nicht anders entstanden ist: Vom Nachweis der Existenz der Atome bis zum derzeitigen Standard-Modell der Elementarteilchenphysik, in einem staendigen Wechselspiel zwischen etablierten theoretischen Modellen, bestaetigenden oder widersprechenden experimentellen

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  1. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  2. Cold Matter Assembled Atom-by-Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Manuel; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a novel platform for the deterministic preparation of regular arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of over 50 atoms in less than 400 ms. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach enables controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  4. Effective potentials for atom-atom interaction at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bo

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the concept and design of effective atom-atom potentials that accurately describe any physical processes involving only states around the threshold. The existence of such potentials gives hope to a quantitative, and systematic, understanding of quantum few-atom and quantum many-atom systems at relatively low temperatures.

  5. Direct determination of the atomic mass difference of Re187 and Os187 for neutrino physics and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterenko, D A; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chenmarev, S; Doerr, A; Droese, C; Filianin, P E; Goncharov, M; Ramirez, E Minaya; Novikov, Yu N; Schweikhard, L; Simon, V V

    2016-01-01

    For the first time a direct determination of the atomic mass difference of 187Re and 187Os has been performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. The obtained value of 2492(30stat)(15sys) eV is in excellent agreement with the Q values determined indirectly with microcalorimetry and thus resolves a long-standing discrepancy with older proportional counter measurements. This is essential for the determination of the neutrino mass from the beta-decay of 187Re as planned in future microcalorimetric measurements. In addition, an accurate mass difference of 187Re and 187Os is also important for the assessment of 187Re for cosmochronology.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  8. Guest Editor’s Notes on the “Atoms” Special Issue on “Perspectives of Atomic Physics with Trapped Highly Charged Ions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Träbert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of highly charged ions (HCI was pursued first at Uppsala (Sweden, by Edlén and Tyrén in the 1930s. Their work led to the recognition that the solar corona is populated by such ions, an insight which forced massive paradigm changes in solar physics. Plasmas aiming at controlled fusion in the laboratory, laser-produced plasmas, foil-excited swift ion beams, and electron beam ion traps have all pushed the envelope in the production of HCI. However, while there are competitive aspects in the race for higher ion charge states, the real interest lies in the very many physics topics that can be studied in these ions. Out of this rich field, the Special Issue concentrates on atomic physics studies that investigate highly charged ions produced, maintained, and/or manipulated in ion traps. There have been excellent achievements in the field in the past, and including fairly recent work, they have been described by their authors at conferences and in the appropriate journals. The present article attempts an overview over current lines of development, some of which are expanded upon in this Special Issue.

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  11. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  12. Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip-sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip-sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip-sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided.

  13. First Results of the GPS.DM Observatory: Search for Dark Matter and Exotic Physics with Atomic Clocks and GPS Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin; Blewitt, Geoff; Dailey, Conner; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei; GPS. DM Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming cosmological evidence for the existence of dark matter, and the considerable effort of the scientific community over decades, there is no evidence for dark matter in terrestrial experiments. The GPS.DM observatory uses the existing GPS constellation as a 50,000 km-aperture sensor array, analysing the satellite and terrestrial atomic clock data for exotic physics signatures. In particular, the collaboration searches for evidence of transient variations of fundamental constants correlated with the Earth's galactic motion through the dark matter halo. There already exists more than 10 years of good clock timing data that can be used in the search. This type of search is particularly sensitive to exotic forms of dark matter, such as topological defects. Supported by the NSF.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  17. Propagation studies for the construction of atomic macro-coherence in dense media as a tool to investigate neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vaquero, J Martín; Conde, A Peralta

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the possibility of inducing large coherence in a macroscopic dense target by using adiabatic techniques. For this purpose we investigate the degradation of the laser pulse through propagation, which was also related to the size of the prepared medium. Our results show that, although adiabatic techniques offer the best alternative in terms of stability against experimental parameters, for very dense media it is necessary to engineer laser-matter interaction in order to minimize laser field degradation. This work has been triggered by the proposal of a new technique, namely Radiative Emission of Neutrino Pairs (RENP), capable of investigating neutrino physics through quantum optics concepts which require the preparation of a macrocoherent state.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  4. A physics package for rubidium atomic frequency standard with a short-term stability of 2.4 × 10-13 τ-1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Li, Wenbing; He, Shengguo; Lv, Jianfeng; Wang, Pengfei; Mei, Ganghua

    2016-12-01

    In this article, a new type of physics package with high signal to noise ratio for a rubidium atomic frequency standard is reported. To enhance the clock transition signal, a slotted tube microwave cavity with a field orientation factor of 0.93 and an absorption cell with the diameter of 30 mm were utilized in design of the cavity-cell assembly. Based on the spectral analysis of the three commonly used rubidium spectral lamps, the spectral lamp filled with Xe gas was chosen as the optical pumping source for its small line shape distortion. To suppress the shot noise of the signal, a band pass interference filter was used to filter out Xe spectral lines from the pumping light. A desk system of the rubidium frequency standard with the physics package was realized, and the short-term stability of the system was predicted and tested. The measured result is 2.4 × 10-13 τ-1/2 up to 100 s averaging time, in good agreement with the predicted one.

  5. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, N.; Sahoo, B. K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sato, T.; Asahi, K.; Das, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested.

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  10. Designing quantum-information-processing superconducting qubit circuits that exhibit lasing and other atomic-physics-like phenomena on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2008-03-01

    Superconducting (SC) circuits can behave like atoms making transitions between a few energy levels. Such circuits can test quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales and be used to conduct atomic-physics experiments on a silicon chip. This talk overviews a few of our theoretical studies on SC circuits and quantum information processing (QIP) including: SC qubits for single photon generation and for lasing; controllable couplings among qubits; how to increase the coherence time of qubits using a capacitor in parallel to one of the qubit junctions; hybrid circuits involving both charge and flux qubits; testing Bell's inequality in SC circuits; generation of GHZ states; quantum tomography in SC circuits; preparation of macroscopic quantum superposition states of a cavity field via coupling to a SC qubit; generation of nonclassical photon states using a SC qubit in a microcavity; scalable quantum computing with SC qubits; and information processing with SC qubits in a microwave field. Controllable couplings between qubits can be achieved either directly or indirectly. This can be done with and without coupler circuits, and with and without data-buses like EM fields in cavities (e.g., we will describe both the variable-frequency magnetic flux approach and also a generalized double-resonance approach that we introduced). It is also possible to ``turn a quantum bug into a feature'' by using microscopic defects as qubits, and the macroscopic junction as a controller of it. We have also studied ways to implement radically different approaches to QIP by using ``cluster states'' in SC circuits. For a general overview of this field, see, J.Q. You and F. Nori, Phys. Today 58 (11), 42 (2005)

  11. Nobel Prize in Physics 1997 "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light" : Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Prof.S. Chu presents "the manipulation of atoms and bio-molecules by laser light" : a brief history of the laser cooling and trapping of atoms developed over the past 15 years will be presented. The cooling and trapping technology is already being applied in numerous areas of science and engineering. Applications to be discussed include atomic clocks, atom interferometers, as well as studies in polymer dynamics and protein motion.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  13. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  14. Electron-Beam Atomic Spectroscopy for In Situ Measurements of Melt Composition for Refractory Metals: Analysis of Fundamental Physics and Plasma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Paul Joseph; Apelian, Diran

    2015-04-01

    Electron-beam (EB) melting is used for the processing of refractory metals, such as Ta, Nb, Mo, and W. These metals have high value and are critical to many industries, including the semiconductor, aerospace, and nuclear industries. EB melting can also purify secondary feedstock, enabling the recovery and recycling of these materials. Currently, there is no method for measuring melt composition in situ during EB melting. Optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma generated by EB impact with vapor above the melt, a technique here termed electron-beam atomic spectroscopy, can be used to measure melt composition in situ, allowing for analysis of melt dynamics, facilitating improvement of EB melting processes and aiding recycling and recovery of these critical and high-value metals. This paper reviews the physics of the plasma generation by EB impact by characterizing the densities and energies of electrons, ions, and neutrals, and describing the interactions between them. Then several plasma models are introduced and their suitability to this application analyzed. Lastly, a potential method for calibration-free composition measurement is described and the challenges for implementation addressed.

  15. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  16. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  17. Total and Local Quadratic Indices of the Molecular Pseudograph's Atom Adjacency Matrix: Applications to the Prediction of Physical Properties of Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovani Marrero Ponce

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel topological approach for obtaining a family of new molecular descriptors is proposed. In this connection, a vector space E (molecular vector space, whose elements are organic molecules, is defined as a “direct sum“ of different ℜi spaces. In this way we can represent molecules having a total of i atoms as elements (vectors of the vector spaces ℜi (i=1, 2, 3,..., n; where n is number of atoms in the molecule. In these spaces the components of the vectors are atomic properties that characterize each kind of atom in particular. The total quadratic indices are based on the calculation of mathematical quadratic forms. These forms are functions of the k-th power of the molecular pseudograph's atom adjacency matrix (M. For simplicity, canonical bases are selected as the quadratic forms' bases. These indices were generalized to “higher analogues“ as number sequences. In addition, this paper also introduces a local approach (local invariant for molecular quadratic indices. This approach is based mainly on the use of a local matrix [Mk(G, FR]. This local matrix is obtained from the k-th power (Mk(G of the atom adjacency matrix M. Mk(G, FR includes the elements of the fragment of interest and those that are connected with it, through paths of length k. Finally, total (and local quadratic indices have been used in QSPR studies of four series of organic compounds. The quantitative models found are significant from a statistical point of view and permit a clear interpretation of the studied properties in terms of the structural features of molecules. External prediction series and cross-validation procedures (leave-one-out and leave-group-out assessed model predictability. The reported method has shown similar results, compared with other topological approaches. The results obtained were the following: a Seven physical properties of 74 normal and branched alkanes (boiling points

  18. Experimental benchmark of non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium plasma atomic physics codes; Validation experimentale des codes de physique atomique des plasmas hors equilibre thermodynamique local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagels-Silvert, V

    2004-09-15

    The main purpose of this thesis is to get experimental data for the testing and validation of atomic physics codes dealing with non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium plasmas. The first part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of xenon and krypton plasmas that have been produced by a nanosecond laser pulse interacting with a gas jet. A Thomson scattering diagnostic has allowed us to measure independently plasma parameters such as electron temperature, electron density and the average ionisation state. We have obtained time integrated spectra in the range between 5 and 10 angstroms. We have identified about one hundred xenon rays between 8.6 and 9.6 angstroms via the use of the Relac code. We have discovered unknown rays for the krypton between 5.2 and 7.5 angstroms. In a second experiment we have extended the wavelength range to the X UV domain. The Averroes/Transpec code has been tested in the ranges from 9 to 15 angstroms and from 10 to 130 angstroms, the first range has been well reproduced while the second range requires a more complex data analysis. The second part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of aluminium, selenium and samarium plasmas in femtosecond operating rate. We have designed an interferometry diagnostic in the frequency domain that has allowed us to measure the expanding speed of the target's backside. Via the use of an adequate isothermal model this parameter has led us to know the plasma electron temperature. Spectra and emission times of various rays from the aluminium and selenium plasmas have been computed satisfactorily with the Averroes/Transpec code coupled with Film and Multif hydrodynamical codes. (A.C.)

  19. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    also suggest that the central star of about 1.5 M_sun initial mass is terminating its PN evolution onto the white dwarf cooling track. The most notable aspect of the HerPlaNS analysis is simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in the target PN, which can properly determine relative abundances of these components as a function of position in the shell, allowing us to investigate the mass loss history. With this NASA ADAP proposal, we request funding to continue the simultaneous probing of all the PN components for the rest of 10 HerPlaNS target PNs and 13 other PNs in the Herschel Science Archive for which a full complement of the analysis can be performed (plus the remaining 29 PNs in the archive for which partial analysis is possible, for the sake of completeness). Our goals are to perform (1) broadband thermal dust emission fitting to establish the dust mass distribution in the target PNs and (2) farIR line diagnostics to establish the mass distribution of each of the ionized, atomic, and molecular gas components in the target PNs, so that we can create empirically-sound gasto-dust mass ratio maps which permit us to investigate the possibility of time variations in the gas-to-dust mass ratio over the course of mass loss history. We will also perform photoionization modeling using (py)CLOUDY and MOCASSIN to establish 3-D physical/chemical stratification within the nebulae as a manifestation of mass-loss modulations over the course of mass loss history. Our analysis is also assisted by optical data obtained through slit-scan mapping at the Gemini-North and South as well as the Subaru Telescope that are presently on-going (plus, spectral mapping with the Hubble Space Telescope and IFU observations at VLT, pending approval). Together with the farIR data, we can iteratively bootstrap line diagnostics so that we can determine the (Te, ne) profiles completely self-consistently without any prior assumptions.

  20. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  1. Reviews Opera: Doctor Atomic DVD: Doctor Atomic Equipment: Digital stopclock with external trigger Book: I Cyborg Book: Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Book: Mere Thermodynamics Book: CGP revision guides Book: Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible Book: Back of the Envelope Physics Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Doctor Atomic The new Doctor Atomic opera provkes discussion on ethics I Cyborg The world's first human cyborg shares his life story in I Cyborg Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Flat Earth gives us a different perspective on creationism Mere Thermodynamics An introductory text on the three laws CGP revision guides This revision guide suits all courses and every pocket Hiding the Elephant: How Magicians Invented the Impossible The mystery of many illusions are solved in this book Back of the Envelope Physics This reference deserves a place on your bookshelf WORTH A LOOK Doctor Atomic The DVD doesn't do justice to the live performance Digital stopclock with external trigger Use these stopclocks when you need an external trigger WEB WATCH Webcasts reach out to an online audience

  2. Atomic and molecular supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.

    1997-12-01

    Atomic and molecular physics of supernovae is discussed with an emphasis on the importance of detailed treatments of the critical atomic and molecular processes with the best available atomic and molecular data. The observations of molecules in SN 1987A are interpreted through a combination of spectral and chemical modelings, leading to strong constraints on the mixing and nucleosynthesis of the supernova. The non-equilibrium chemistry is used to argue that carbon dust can form in the oxygen-rich clumps where the efficient molecular cooling makes the nucleation of dust grains possible. For Type Ia supernovae, the analyses of their nebular spectra lead to strong constraints on the supernova explosion models.

  3. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  4. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  5. International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Participants List (16th), Held in New York, New York on 26 July-1 August 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    GUBERMAN INST FOR SCI RSCH YU GUIJU DONG-SHENG GUO 33 BEDFORD STREET CHINESE ACAD. OF SCI DEPT OF PHYSICS SUITE J9A INSITUTE OF PHYSICS UNIV. OF ORSON ...AICHI, 444 WINDSOR, ONTARIO, N9B 3P4 USA JAPAN CANADA HERBERT F. KRAUSE SCOTT KRAVIS OAK RIDGE NAT’L LAB TEXAS AIM UNIVERSITY JOHN KRENOS PHYSICS

  6. Introduction to light forces, atom cooling, and atom trapping

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Craig,

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces and reviews light forces, atom cooling and atom trapping. The emphasis is on the physics of the basic processes. In discussing conservative forces the semi-classical dressed states are used rather than the usual quantized field dressed states.

  7. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects ...

  8. The Coulomb law and atomic levels in a superstrong B. Talk at the 1st International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotsky, M. I.

    2014-04-01

    The spectrum of atomic levels of hydrogen-like ions originating from the lowest Landau level in an external homogeneous superstrong magnetic field is obtained. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb potential on the values of critical nuclear charges is studied.

  9. Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Allan C. G.; Zemansky, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Physical and chemical effects connected with resonance radiation; 3. Absorption lines and measurements of the lifetime of the resonance state; 4. Collision processes involving excited atoms; 5. The polarization of resonance radiation; Appendix; Index.

  10. New Developments in Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    interferometers can be applied to a number of experiments in fundamental physics: tests of quantum mechanics such as the Aharonov - Casher effect (6), measurement of...qualitatively new types of experiments involving inertial effects , studies of atomic and molecular properties, tests of basic quantum physics, and may ultimately...laser light as the beam splitters. Atom interferometers will make possible qualitatively new types of experiments involving inertial effects , studies of

  11. Atom-by-atom assembly of defect-free one-dimensional cold atom arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Manuel; Bernien, Hannes; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Anschuetz, Eric R.; Krajenbrink, Alexandre; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2016-11-01

    The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a platform for the deterministic preparation of regular one-dimensional arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of more than 50 atoms in less than 400 milliseconds. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach may enable controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

  12. Effect of Hetero Atom on the Hammett’s Reaction Constant (ρ from the Physical Basis of Dissociation Equilibriums of (Dithio Benzoic Acids and (Thio Phenols and Its Application to Solvolysis Reactions and Some Free Radical Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannadham Vandanapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of putative Hammett equation in mid 1930s was a boon to physical-organic chemists to elucidate the reaction mechanisms of several organic reactions. Based on the concept of this equation several hundreds of papers have emerged in chemical literature in the last century on the effect of structure, on reactivity, and very few on thermodynamic stability and kinetic reactivity of intermediates. In this article an attempt is made to explain the effect of hetero atom on Hammett’s reaction constant (ρ taking the dissociation equilibriums of benzoic acids, dithiobenzoic acids, phenols, and thiophenols.

  13. Physics News in 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Phillip F., Ed.

    Information is provided on some of the interesting and newsworthy developments in physics and its related fields during 1983. Areas considered include: (1) acoustics; (2) astrophysics; (3) condensed matter physics; (4) crystallography; (5) physics education; (6) electron and atomic physics; (7) elementary particle physics; (8) fluid dynamics; (9)…

  14. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, Gillian; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive lists of references for atomic spectra can be found in the NIST Atomic Spectra Bibliographic Databases http://physics.nist.gov/asbib.

  15. Physical conditions in the cool parts of prominences and spicules - The effects of model atom level truncation on the derived plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects on calculated lower-level population densities of the truncation of Na and Sr(+) model atoms are determined in the context of the present spectral diagnostic scheme for solar prominences and spicules. It is shown that neglect of the upper atomic levels in Na, in particular, leads to overestimates in electron density and gas pressure by factors of about 2 and about 4, respectively, and to underestimates in the degree of hydrogen ionization and in the line-of-sight thickness of emitting material again by factors of about 2 and about 4, respectively. The implications of the revised emitting region extents, in particular, on the validity of the diagnostic method for these features are discussed.

  16. Atomic Parity Violation, Muon Pair Production in e+e - Collisions and Detection of CDM WIMP-Physics Related to Neutral Vector Boson D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1999-11-01

    In our preon model there exists a neutral vector boson D1 which is an isoscalar partner of W(Z) in the vector boson octet. It is shown that the exchange of a D1 of about 1 TeV mass naturally explains a positive excess of the weak charge of atomic cesium recently observed. Other processes occurring through the D1 exchange are discussed, including the detection of CDM WIMP.

  17. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  18. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. (ed.)

    1989-08-01

    This document discusses the following main topics: Research at Atlas; Operation and Development of Atlas; Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics and Weak Interactions; Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Interactions of Fast Atomic and Molecular Ions with Solid and Gaseous Targets; Atomic Physics at Synchrotron Light Sources; Atomic Physics at Atlas and the ECR Source; Theoretical Atomic Physics; High-Resolution Laser-rf Spectroscopy of Atomic and Molecular Beams; and Fast Ion-Beam/Laser Studies of Atomic and Molecular Structure.

  19. Physics: A Career for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    Information is provided for students who may be interested in pursuing a career in physics. This information includes the type of work done and areas studied by physicists in the following areas: nuclear physics, solid-state physics, elementary-particle physics, atomic/molecular/electron physics, fluid/plasma physics, space/planetary physics,…

  20. International Conference on Atomic Physics (12TH) Held at Ann Arbor, Michigan on July 29-August 2, 1990. Abstracts of Contributed Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-26

    cluding the relativistic mass-velocity and Darwin terms in the Hamiltonian(HFR) proposed by Dr. R. Cowan{t iwe have calculated atomic structure data and...are calcu- lated using first-order perturbation theory. They include correction to the kinetic energy, Darwin terms, electron-electron contact terms...preprint (1990). 6. K Bartschat and D H Madison, J.Phys.B 21, 153-170 (1988) and private communication. 7. D C Cartwright and G Ceanak, J.Phys.B 20

  1. Atom chip gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Gebbe, Martina; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Müntinga, Hauke; Matthias, Jonas; Sahelgozin, Maral; Herr, Waldemar; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Atom interferometry has developed into a tool for measuring rotations [1], accelerations [2], and testing fundamental physics [3]. Gravimeters based on laser cooled atoms demonstrated residual uncertainties of few microgal [2,4] and were simplified for field applications [5]. Atomic gravimeters rely on the interference of matter waves which are coherently manipulated by laser light fields. The latter can be interpreted as rulers to which the position of the atoms is compared. At three points in time separated by a free evolution, the light fields are pulsed onto the atoms. First, a coherent superposition of two momentum states is produced, then the momentum is inverted, and finally the two trajectories are recombined. Depending on the acceleration the atoms experienced, the number of atoms detected in the output ports will change. Consequently, the acceleration can be determined from the output signal. The laser cooled atoms with microkelvin temperatures used in state-of-the-art gravimeters impose limits on the accuracy [4]. Therefore, ultra-cold atoms generated by Bose-Einstein condensation and delta-kick collimation [6,7] are expected to be the key for further improvements. These sources suffered from a low flux implying an incompatible noise floor, but a competitive performance was demonstrated recently with atom chips [8]. In the compact and robust setup constructed for operation in the drop tower [6] we demonstrated all steps necessary for an atom chip gravimeter with Bose-Einstein condensates in a ground based operation. We will discuss the principle of operation, the current performance, and the perspectives to supersede the state of the art. The authors thank the QUANTUS cooperation for contributions to the drop tower project in the earlier stages. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM

  2. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Optical Excitation Function of H(1s-2p) Produced by electron Impact from Threshold to 1.8 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, G. K.; Slevin, J. A.; Shemansky, D. E.; McConkey, J. W.; Bray, I.; Dziczek, D.; Kanik, I.; Ajello, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The optical excitation function of prompt Lyman-Alpha radiation, produced by electron impact on atomic hydrogen, has been measured over the extended energy range from threshold to 1.8 keV. Measurements were obtained in a crossed-beams experiment using both magnetically confined and electrostatically focused electrons in collision with atomic hydrogen produced by an intense discharge source. A vacuum-ultraviolet mono- chromator system was used to measure the emitted Lyman-Alpha radiation. The absolute H(1s-2p) electron impact excitation cross section was obtained from the experimental optical excitation function by normalizing to the accepted optical oscillator strength, with corrections for polarization and cascade. Statistical and known systematic uncertainties in our data range from +/- 4% near threshold to +/- 2% at 1.8 keV. Multistate coupling affecting the shape of the excitation function up to 1 keV impact energy is apparent in both the present experimental data and present theoretical results obtained with convergent close- coupling (CCC) theory. This shape function effect leads to an uncertainty in absolute cross sections at the 10% level in the analysis of the experimental data. The derived optimized absolute cross sections are within 7% of the CCC calculations over the 14 eV-1.8 keV range. The present CCC calculations converge on the Bethe- Fano profile for H(1s-2p) excitation at high energy. For this reason agreement with the CCC values to within 3% is achieved in a nonoptimal normalization of the experimental data to the Bethe-Fano profile. The fundamental H(1s-2p) electron impact cross section is thereby determined to an unprecedented accuracy over the 14 eV - 1.8 keV energy range.

  3. Atomic quantum transistor based on swapping operation

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Sergey A; Moiseev, Eugene S

    2011-01-01

    We propose an atomic quantum transistor based on exchange by virtual photons between two atomic systems through the control gate-atom. The quantum transistor is realized in two QED cavities coupled in nano-optical scheme. We have found novel effect in quantum dynamics of coupled three-node atomic system which provides control-SWAP(\\theta) processes in quantum transistor operation. New possibilities of quantum entanglement in an example of bright and dark qubit states have been demonstrated for quantum transport in the atomic chain. Potentialities of the proposed nano-optical design for quantum computing and fundamental issues of multi-atomic physics are also discussed.

  4. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  5. Closed-Form Solutions of the Thomas-Fermi in Heavy Atoms and the Langmuir-Blodgett in Current Flow ODEs in Mathematical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios E. Theotokoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of second-order nonlinear, ordinary differential equations (ODEs appearing in mathematical physics are analyzed in this paper. The first one concerns the Thomas-Fermi (TF equation, while the second concerns the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB equation in current flow. According to a mathematical methodology recently developed, the exact analytic solutions of both TF and LB ODEs are proposed. Both of these are nonlinear of the second order and by a series of admissible functional transformations are reduced to Abel’s equations of the second kind of the normal form. The closed form solutions of the TF and LB equations in the phase and physical plane are given. Finally a new interesting result has been obtained related to the derivative of the TF function at the limit.

  6. Approach to chaos in ultracold atomic and molecular physics: Statistics of near-threshold bound states for Li+CaH and Li+CaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Matthew D.; Morita, Masato; Vaillant, Christophe L.; Green, Dermot G.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate near-threshold bound states and Feshbach resonance positions for atom-rigid-rotor models of the highly anisotropic systems Li+CaH and Li+CaF. We perform statistical analysis on the resonance positions to compare with the predictions of random matrix theory. For Li+CaH with total angular momentum J =0 we find fully chaotic behavior in both the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution and the level number variance. However, for J >0 we find different behavior due to the presence of a nearly conserved quantum number. Li+CaF (J =0 ) also shows apparently reduced levels of chaotic behavior despite its stronger effective coupling. This may indicate the development of another good quantum number relating to a bending motion of the complex. However, continuously varying the rotational constant over a wide range shows unexpected structure in the degree of chaotic behavior, including a dramatic reduction around the rotational constant of CaF. This demonstrates the complexity of the relationship between coupling and chaotic behavior.

  7. Correlation of embryonic skeletal muscle myotube physical characteristics with contractile force generation on an atomic force microscope-based bio-microelectromechanical systems device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, K. L.; Long, C. J.; McAleer, C. W.; Smith, A. S. T.; Hickman, J. J.

    2013-08-01

    Rigorous analysis of muscle function in in vitro systems is needed for both acute and chronic biomedical applications. Forces generated by skeletal myotubes on bio-microelectromechanical cantilevers were calculated using a modified version of Stoney's thin-film equation and finite element analysis (FEA), then analyzed for regression to physical parameters. The Stoney's equation results closely matched the more intensive FEA and the force correlated to cross-sectional area (CSA). Normalizing force to measured CSA significantly improved the statistical sensitivity and now allows for close comparison of in vitro data to in vivo measurements for applications in exercise physiology, robotics, and modeling neuromuscular diseases.

  8. The rise of Rydberg physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Quantum computers of the future could operate via the energy transitions of excited atoms, or even from pure light, if a rapidly growing area of atomic physics continues to meet with success, writes Keith Cooper.

  9. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  10. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  11. Experiments with Ξ- atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, C. J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with Ξ- atoms are proposed in order to study the nuclear interaction of Ξ hyperons. The production of Ξ- in the (K-,K+) reaction, the Ξ- stopping in matter, and its atomic cascade are incorporated within a realistic evaluation of the results expected for Ξ- x-ray spectra across the periodic table, using an assumed Ξ-nucleus optical potential Vopt. Several optimal targets for measuring the strong-interaction shift and width of the x-ray transition to the ``last'' atomic level observed are singled out: F, Cl, I, and Pb. The sensitivity of these observables to the parameters of Vopt is considered. The relevance of such experiments is discussed in the context of strangeness -2 nuclear physics and multistrange nuclear matter. Finally, with particular reference to searches for the H dibaryon, the properties of Ξ-d atoms are also discussed. The role of Stark mixing and its effect on S and P state capture of Ξ- by the deuteron together with estimates of the resulting probability for producing the H dibaryon are considered in detail.

  12. Linear Atom Guides: Guiding Rydberg Atoms and Progress Toward an Atom Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Mallory A.

    are also studied. Design and construction of a new linear magnetic atom guide is detailed. This guide beta has many improvements over the original guide alpha: a Zeeman slower, magnetic injection, a physical shutter, and surface adsorption evaporative cooling are some of the main changes. Testing of this new system is underway. It is hoped that the improvements to guide beta will yield an atom density sufficient to reach degeneracy, thereby forming a continuous BEC at the end of the guide. The BEC, which will be continuously replenished by the atoms within the guide, will be outcoupled to form a continuous atom laser.

  13. Special Issue on Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Per Jönsson; Hyun-Kyung Chung

    2013-01-01

    There exist several codes in the atomic physics community to generate atomic structure and transition probabilities freely and readily distributed to researchers outside atomic physics community, in plasma, astrophysical or nuclear physics communities. Users take these atomic physics codes to generate the necessary atomic data or modify the codes for their own applications. However, there has been very little effort to validate and verify the data sets generated by non-expert users. [...

  14. Optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, N; Gill, P; Tino, G M

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femto-second optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in $10^{18}$. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  15. The Atomic orbitals of the topological atom

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador Sedano, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These c...

  16. Quantum physics for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Ficek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The textbook introduces students to the main ideas of quantum physics and the basic mathematical methods and techniques used in the fields of advanced quantum physics, atomic physics, laser physics, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, and theoretical mathematics. The textbook explains how microscopic objects (particles) behave in unusual ways, giving rise to what's called quantum effects. It contains a wide range of tutorial problems from simple confidence-builders to fairly challenging exercises that provide adequate understanding of the basic concepts of quantum physics.

  17. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K

    1990-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  18. The Atom and the Ocean, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, E. W. Seabrook

    Included is a brief description of the characteristics of the ocean, its role as a resource for food and minerals, its composition and its interactions with land and air. The role of atomic physics in oceanographic exploration is illustrated by the use of nuclear reactors to power surface and submarine research vessels and the design and use of…

  19. Light element opacities from ATOMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J.; Sherrill, M. E.; Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P.

    2013-06-01

    We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. A program of work is currently underway to compute new LTE opacity data for all elements H through Zn. New opacity tables for H through Ne are complete, and a new Fe opacity table will be available soon. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code. Our opacity calculations incorporate atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes, and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER. We make use of a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. In this report, we briefly discuss the physics improvements included in our new opacity calculations and present comparisons of our new opacities with other work for C, O, and Fe at selected conditions.

  20. Low Energy Atomic Photodesorption from Organic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucchesini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic coatings have been widely used in atomic physics during the last 50 years because of their mechanical properties, allowing preservation of atomic spins after collisions. Nevertheless, this did not produce detailed insight into the characteristics of the coatings and their dynamical interaction with atomic vapors. This has changed since the 1990s, when their adsorption and desorption properties triggered a renewed interest in organic coatings. In particular, a novel class of phenomena produced by non-destructive light-induced desorption of atoms embedded in the coating surface was observed and later applied in different fields. Nowadays, low energy non-resonant atomic photodesorption from organic coatings can be considered an almost standard technique whenever large densities of atomic vapors or fast modulation of their concentration are required. In this paper, we review the steps that led to this widespread diffusion, from the preliminary observations to some of the most recent applications in fundamental and applied physics.

  1. Determination of the semi-empiric relationship among the physical density, the concentration and rate between hydrogen and manganese atoms, and a manganese sulfate solution; Determinacao da relacao semi-empirica entre a densidade fisica, concentracao e razao entre atomos de hidrogenio e manganes em uma solucao de sulfato de manganes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittencourt, Guilherme Rodrigues [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). PIBIC; Castro, Leonardo Curvello de; Pereira, Walsan W.; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Dantas, Maria Leticia [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons

    2009-07-01

    The bath of a manganese sulfate (BMS) is a system for absolute standardization of the neutron sources. This work establishes a functional relationship based on semi-empirical methods for the theoretical prediction of physical density values, concentration and rate between the hydrogen and manganese atoms presents in the solution of the BMS

  2. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.......Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...

  3. Atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  4. Modern introductory physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrow, Charles H; Amato, Joseph C; Galvez, Enrique; Parks, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Modern Introductory Physics, 2nd Edition, by Charles H. Holbrow, James N. Lloyd, Joseph C. Amato, Enrique Galvez, and Beth Parks, is a successful innovative text for teaching introductory college and university physics. It is thematically organized to emphasize the physics that answers the fundamental question: Why do we believe in atoms and their properties?  The book provides a sound introduction to basic physical concepts with particular attention to the nineteenth- and twentieth-century physics underlying our modern ideas of atoms and their structure.  After a review of basic Newtonian mechanics, the book discusses early physical evidence that matter is made of atoms.  With a simple model of the atom Newtonian mechanics can explain the ideal gas laws, temperature, and viscosity.  Basic concepts of electricity and magnetism are introduced along with a more complicated model of the atom to account for the observed electrical properties of atoms. The physics of waves---particularly light and x-rays---an...

  5. Atomism from Newton to Dalton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that although Newton's achievements were rooted in an atomistic theory of matter resembling aspects of modern nuclear physics, Dalton developed his chemical atomism on the basis of the character of the gross behavior of substances rather than their particulate nature. (Author/SK)

  6. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  7. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Final Performance Report on ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0608 High atom number in microsized atom traps for the period 15 May 2012 through 14 September...TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/15/2012-09/14/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High atom number in microsized atom traps...forces for implementing a small-footprint, large-number atom -chip instrument. Bichromatic forces rely on absorption and stimulated emission to produce

  8. Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Data for Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Several different approximations and techniques have been developed for the calculation of atomic structure, ionization, and excitation of atoms and ions. These techniques have been used to compute large amounts of spectroscopic data of various levels of accuracy. This paper presents a review of these theoretical methods to help non-experts in atomic physics to better understand the qualities and limitations of various data sources and assess how reliable are spectral models based on those data.

  9. Design Rules for Non-Atomic Implementations of PRS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadantonakis, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Martin Synthesis yields quasi--delay-insensitive (QDI) circuits, expressed in production--rule-set (PRS) form. Under an atomic circuit evaluation model, these circuits are provably correct. However, not all physical circuit implementations provide the atomic transitions needed to satisfy the atomic circuit model. This can cause operational failures in real circuits, as we illustrate. Nonetheless, circuits with non-atomic transitions can faithfully implement the atomic circuit model when comb...

  10. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  11. Studies in Composing Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putnam, Lance Jonathan; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Peliti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies in composing elementary wavefunctions of a hydrogen-like atom and identify several relationships between physical phenomena and musical composition that helped guide the process. The hydrogen-like atom accurately describes some of the fundamental quantum mechanical phenomen...

  12. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  13. The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István

    2013-06-07

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.

  14. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  15. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  16. Group theoretical methods in Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M. (eds.) (Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias. Valladolid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics.

  17. Physics Division annual report - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-07

    Summaries are given of progress accomplished for the year in the following areas: (1) Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics Research; (2) Operation and Development of Atlas; (3) Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics Research; (4) Theoretical Physics Research; and (5) Atomic and Molecular Physics Research.

  18. Multiple Electron Capture Processes in Slow Collisions of Ar9+ Ions with Na Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuXiaolong; ShaShan; LiuHuiping; WeiBaoren; MaXinwen; WangZhengling; CaoShiping; QianDongbing; YangZhihu

    2003-01-01

    Slow collisions of highly charged ions with neutral atoms and molecules are of great importance in basic atomic collision physics, Recently, we built a new research facility for atomic physics at the Institute of Modern Physics. We report here the multiple electron transfer processes in collisions of Ar9+ with Na gas target at energy of 180 keV.

  19. Theoretical Calculation of Absolute Radii of Atoms and Ions. Part 1. The Atomic Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Biswas

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A set of theoretical atomic radii corresponding to the principal maximum in the radial distribution function, 4πr2R2 for the outermost orbital has been calculated for the ground state of 103 elements of the periodic table using Slater orbitals. The set of theoretical radii are found to reproduce the periodic law and the Lother Meyer’s atomic volume curve and reproduce the expected vertical and horizontal trend of variation in atomic size in the periodic table. The d-block and f-block contractions are distinct in the calculated sizes. The computed sizes qualitatively correlate with the absolute size dependent properties like ionization potentials and electronegativity of elements. The radii are used to calculate a number of size dependent periodic physical properties of isolated atoms viz., the diamagnetic part of the atomic susceptibility, atomic polarizability and the chemical hardness. The calculated global hardness and atomic polarizability of a number of atoms are found to be close to the available experimental values and the profiles of the physical properties computed in terms of the theoretical atomic radii exhibit their inherent periodicity. A simple method of computing the absolute size of atoms has been explored and a large body of known material has been brought together to reveal how many different properties correlate with atomic size.

  20. Physics at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-11-15

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. It will deliver high intensity beams of ions and antiprotons for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics and biophysics. One of the scientific pillars of FAIR is the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is designed for the study of high density nuclear matter as it exists in the core of neutron stars. In this article the scientific program of FAIR will be reviewed with emphasis on the CBM experiment.

  1. Frontiers in Theoretical and Applied Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the conference is to provide a forum for physicists, astronomers, and space and material scientists from around the world to present the latest developments in the various dynamic fields of physics. Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Material Science and Nanophysics, Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Physics

  2. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  3. Committee on Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, James [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences (CAMOS) is a standing activity of the National Research Council (NRC) that operates under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. CAMOS is one of five standing committees of the BPA that are charged with assisting it in achieving its goals—monitoring the health of physics and astronomy, identifying important new developments at the scientific forefronts, fostering interactions with other fields, strengthening connections to technology, facilitating effective service to the nation, and enhancing education in physics. CAMOS provides these capabilities for the atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) sciences.

  4. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Research and development activities are summarized in the following areas: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, accelerator-based atomic physics, theoretical physics, nuclear science applications, atomic physics and plasma diagnostics for fusion program, high-energy physics, the nuclear data project, and the relativistic heavy-ion collider study. Publications and papers presented are listed. (WHK)

  5. Notes on Critical Assessment of Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Structure and Transition Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun-Kyung Chung; Per Jönsson; Alexander Kramida

    2013-01-01

    Atomic structure and transition probabilities are fundamental physical data required in many fields of science and technology. Atomic physics codes are freely available to other community users to generate atomic data for their interest, but the quality of these data is rarely verified. This special issue addresses estimation of uncertainties in atomic structure and transition probability calculations, and discusses methods and strategies to assess and ensure the quality of theoretical atomic...

  6. Atom Lithography with a Chromium Atomic Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-Tao; LI Tong-Bao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Direct write atom lithography is a new technique in which resonant light is used to pattern an atomic beam and the nanostructures are formed when the atoms deposit on the substrate. We design an experiment setup to fabricate chromium nanolines by depositing an atomic beam of 52 Cr through an off-resonant laser standing wave with the wavelength of 425.55 nm onto a silicon substrate. The resulting nanolines exhibit a period of 215 ± 3 nm with height of 1 nm.

  7. Ultracold atoms for simulation of many body quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Feynman famously proposed simulating quantum physics using other, better controlled, quantum systems. This vision is now a reality within the realm of ultracold atomic physics. We discuss how these systems can be used to simulate many body physics, concentrating the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in 2D physics and the role of disorder.

  8. Atoms in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Eissner, W; Hummer, D; Percival, I

    1983-01-01

    It is hard to appreciate but nevertheless true that Michael John Seaton, known internationally for the enthusiasm and skill with which he pursues his research in atomic physics and astrophysics, will be sixty years old on the 16th of January 1983. To mark this occasion some of his colleagues and former students have prepared this volume. It contains articles that de­ scribe some of the topics that have attracted his attention since he first started his research work at University College London so many years ago. Seaton's association with University College London has now stretched over a period of some 37 years, first as an undergraduate student, then as a research student, and then, successively, as Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Reader, and Professor. Seaton arrived at University College London in 1946 to become an undergraduate in the Physics Department, having just left the Royal Air Force in which he had served as a navigator in the Pathfinder Force of Bomber Command. There are a number of stories of ho...

  9. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  10. Atomic covalent functionalization of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, James E; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-01-15

    Although graphene's physical structure is a single atom thick, two-dimensional, hexagonal crystal of sp(2) bonded carbon, this simple description belies the myriad interesting and complex physical properties attributed to this fascinating material. Because of its unusual electronic structure and superlative properties, graphene serves as a leading candidate for many next generation technologies including high frequency electronics, broadband photodetectors, biological and gas sensors, and transparent conductive coatings. Despite this promise, researchers could apply graphene more routinely in real-world technologies if they could chemically adjust graphene's electronic properties. For example, the covalent modification of graphene to create a band gap comparable to silicon (∼1 eV) would enable its use in digital electronics, and larger band gaps would provide new opportunities for graphene-based photonics. Toward this end, researchers have focused considerable effort on the chemical functionalization of graphene. Due to its high thermodynamic stability and chemical inertness, new methods and techniques are required to create covalent bonds without promoting undesirable side reactions or irreversible damage to the underlying carbon lattice. In this Account, we review and discuss recent theoretical and experimental work studying covalent modifications to graphene using gas phase atomic radicals. Atomic radicals have sufficient energy to overcome the kinetic and thermodynamic barriers associated with covalent reactions on the basal plane of graphene but lack the energy required to break the C-C sigma bonds that would destroy the carbon lattice. Furthermore, because they are atomic species, radicals substantially reduce the likelihood of unwanted side reactions that confound other covalent chemistries. Overall, these methods based on atomic radicals show promise for the homogeneous functionalization of graphene and the production of new classes of two

  11. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  12. Precision Control of Cold Rubidium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Chormaic, Síle; Deasy, Kieran; Morrissey, Michael; Shortt, Brian; Yarovitskiy, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    Research interest in designing sources of cold atoms has significantly increased during the past 10 years with the development of suitable laser sources for magneto-optical trapping and the further mastering of evaporative cooling in order to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation. The magneto-optical trap is now viewed as a standard research facility worldwide and has opened up many exciting research directions in atomic physics. One area of interest is that of combining spherical microcavities with cold atomic sources in order to achieve efficient photon exchange between the cavity and atom for further understandings of cavity quantum electrodynamics. This could eventually lead to atom entanglement via photon exchange, which would have implications for quantum logic design. However, initial attempts to achieve such interactions have been hindered by inadequate control and manipulation of the cold atom source. Here, we present work on designing and building an ultra-stable source of magneto-optically cooled rubidium atoms with a temperature in the tens of μK range. We present a suitable experimental arrangement including details on the ultra-high vacuum chamber, the laser systems being used, and the source of rubidium vapor. We discuss some future directions for the research, including diffraction of atoms from gratings and micron-sized objects and parameter control of the atom cloud.

  13. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

  14. Cold atom quantum sensors for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-07-01

    Quantum sensors based on cold atoms offer the opportunity to perform highly accurate measurements of physical phenomena related to time, gravity and rotation. The deployment of such technologies in the microgravity environment of space may enable further enhancement of their performance, whilst permitting the detection of these physical phenomena over much larger scales than is possible with a ground-based instrument. In this talk, I will present an overview of the activities of the UK National Quantum Hub in Sensors and Metrology in developing cold atoms technology for space. Our activities are focused in two main areas: optical clocks and atom interferometers. I will also discuss our contributions to recent initiatives including STE-QUEST and AI-GOAT, the ESA/NASA initiative aiming at an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in space.

  15. Radiation physics for medical physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2016-01-01

    This textbook summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, the textbook covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary undergraduate physics and the intricacies of four medical physics specialties: diagnostic radiology physics, nuclear medicine physics, radiation oncology physics, and health physics. To recognize the importance of radiation dosimetry to medical physics three new chapters have been added to the 14 chapters of the previous edition. Chapter 15 provides a general introduction to radiation dosimetry. Chapter 16 deals with absolute radiation dosimetry systems that establish absorbed dose or ...

  16. An introduction to dressed-atom adiabatic potentials for ultracold atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiffany; Harte; Elliot; Bentine; Edward; Owen; XU; Dongyang; Benjamin; Yuen; Christopher; Foot

    2015-01-01

    We give a simple introduction to the theoretical treatment of atoms interacting strongly w ith electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency,microw ave and laser domains. In particular,w e discuss the concept of dressed atoms,w hich considers the combination of the atom and photons as a composite physical system. This pow erful concept has a w ide range of applications in atomic physics and w e give a few examples of its use in the manipulation of ultracold atoms in adiabatic potentials. These examples are selected from experimental w ork conducted by our research team in Oxford but there are numerous other applications and w e outline some future possibilities.

  17. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  18. Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, Cristian L

    2016-01-01

    Dipole-dipole interactions which govern phenomena like cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces, as well as resonance energy transfer rates are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here, we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic (QED) interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a Super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media and propose practical implementations with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride in the infrared spectral range and plasmonic super-lattice structures in the visible range. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms in hyperbolic media and the study of many-body atomic states where optical phonons mediate qua...

  19. Long-range Rydberg molecules, Rydberg macrodimers and Rydberg aggregates in an ultracold Cs gas. Investigation of long-range interactions between atoms in electronically highly excited statesRydberg Few-Body Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes; Merkt, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    We present an overview of our recent investigations of long-range interactions in an ultracold Cs Rydberg gas. These interactions are studied by high-resolution photoassociation spectroscopy, using excitation close to one-photon transitions into np3/2 Rydberg states with pulsed and continuous-wave ultraviolet laser radiation, and lead to the formation of long-range Cs2 molecules. We observe two types of molecular resonances. The first type originates from the correlated excitation of two atoms into Rydberg-atom-pair states interacting at long range via multipole-multipole interactions. The second type results from the interaction of one atom excited to a Rydberg state with one atom in the electronic ground state. Which type of resonances is observed in the experiments depends on the laser intensity and frequency and on the pulse sequences used to prepare the Rydberg states. We obtain insights into both types of molecular resonances by modelling the interaction potentials, using a multipole expansion of the long-range interaction for the first type of resonances and a Fermi-contact pseudo-potential for the second type of resonances. We analyse the relation of these long-range molecular resonances to molecular Rydberg states and ion-pair states, and discuss their decay channels into atomic and molecular ions. In experiments carried out with a two-colour two-photon excitation scheme, we observe a large enhancement of Rydberg-excitation probability, which we interpret as a saturable autocatalytic antiblockade phenomenon.

  20. Rydberg atom interactions from 300 K to 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, P.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms provide novel approaches to many-body problems and quantum simulation. To introduce the recent work presented in this special issue, we present here a quick history of a half-century research activity in the Rydberg-atom field, focusing our attention on the giant interactions between Rydberg atoms and other atoms. These interactions are the origin of many effects observed with Rydberg atoms: pressure shifts, dipole-dipole energy transfer, and avalanche-ionization. These effects have led to evidence of new bound chemical states, such as trilobites states, many-body effects in frozen Rydberg gases, and the spontaneous formation of ultra-cold plasmas. They open exciting new prospects at the intersection of atomic physics, condensed matter physics, and plasma physics.

  1. The future of atom probe tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The dream of the microscopy and materials science communities is to see, identify, accurately locate, and determine the fundamental physical properties of every atom in a specimen. With this knowledge together with modern computer models and simulations, a full understanding of the properties of a material can be determined. This fundamental knowledge leads to the design and development of more advanced materials for solving the needs of society. The technique of atom probe tomography is the closest to fulfilling this dream but is still significantly short of the goal. The future of atom probe tomography, and the prospects for achieving this ultimate goal are outlined.

  2. Schwinger pair production with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, V.; Hebenstreit, F.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Berges, J.

    2016-09-01

    We consider a system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice as a quantum simulator for electron-positron pair production in quantum electrodynamics (QED). For a setup in one spatial dimension, we investigate the nonequilibrium phenomenon of pair production including the backreaction leading to plasma oscillations. Unlike previous investigations on quantum link models, we focus on the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of QED and show that it may be well approximated by experiments employing Bose-Einstein condensates interacting with fermionic atoms. Numerical calculations based on functional integral techniques give a unique access to the physical parameters required to realize QED phenomena in a cold atom experiment. In particular, we use our approach to consider quantum link models in a yet unexplored parameter regime and give bounds for their ability to capture essential features of the physics. The results suggest a paradigmatic change towards realizations using coherent many-body states for quantum simulations of high-energy particle physics phenomena.

  3. Atom-Light Interactions in Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Goban, A; Yu, S -P; Hood, J D; Muniz, J A; Lee, J H; Martin, M J; McClung, A C; Choi, K S; Chang, D E; Painter, O; Kimble, H J

    2013-01-01

    The integration of nanophotonics and atomic physics has been a long-sought goal that would open new frontiers for optical physics. Here, we report the development of the first integrated optical circuit with a photonic crystal capable of both localizing and interfacing atoms with guided photons in the device. By aligning the optical bands of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) with selected atomic transitions, our platform provides new opportunities for novel quantum transport and many-body phenomena by way of photon-mediated atomic interactions along the PCW. From reflection spectra measured with average atom number N = 1.1$\\pm$0.4, we infer that atoms are localized within the PCW by Casimir-Polder and optical dipole forces. The fraction of single-atom radiative decay into the PCW is $\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}/\\Gamma'$ = 0.32$\\pm$0.08, where $\\Gamma_{1D}$ is the rate of emission into the guided mode and $\\Gamma'$ is the decay rate into all other channels. $\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}/\\Gamma'$ is quoted without enhancement due to a...

  4. Presenting the Bohr Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haendler, Blanca L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching the Bohr atom at both freshman and advanced levels. Focuses on the development of Bohr's ideas, derivation of the energies of the stationary states, and the Bohr atom in the chemistry curriculum. (SK)

  5. Atomic Storage States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯戈; 朱诗尧

    2002-01-01

    We present a complete description of atomic storage states which may appear in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The result shows that the spatial coherence has been included in the atomic collective operators and the atomic storage states. In some limits, a set of multimode atomic storage states has been established in correspondence with the multimode Fock states of the electromagnetic field. This gives a better understanding of the fact that, in BIT, the optical coherent information can be preserved and recovered.

  6. Atoms Talking to SQUIDs

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, J E; Kim, Z; Wood, A K; Anderson, J R; Dragt, A J; Hafezi, M; Lobb, C J; Orozco, L A; Rolston, S L; Taylor, J M; Vlahacos, C P; Wellstood, F C

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to couple trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms to a superconducting flux qubit through a magnetic dipole transition. We plan to trap atoms on the evanescent wave outside an ultrathin fiber to bring the atoms to less than 10 $\\mu$m above the surface of the superconductor. This hybrid setup lends itself to probing sources of decoherence in superconducting qubits. Our current plan has the intermediate goal of coupling the atoms to a superconducting LC resonator.

  7. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individ...

  8. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P.; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C.; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  9. Physics 1963-1970

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Physics: 1963-1970 focuses on the history, developments, and trends in physics, including the applications of lasers, semiconductors, and electrodynamics. The book first offers information on events, laws of nature, and invariance principles and the shell model. Topics include magic numbers, atomic analogue, individual orbits in the nucleus, and the use of invariance principles and approximate invariances. The text also ponders on the production of coherent radiation by atoms and molecules, including basic maser principles, maser clocks and amplifiers, and application of lasers. The

  10. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  11. Contemporary physics in simple terms

    CERN Document Server

    Weisskopf, Victor Frederick

    1973-01-01

    With a view to emphasizing the basic principles involved, various topics in atomic and molecular physics are given a simple quantitative treatment using wave mechanics. Amongst the topics discussed are the size and energy of He, H and Ne atoms and Pauli's exclusion principle. Related subjects of discussion dealt with include binding energy of solids, lattice vibrations and the evaporation of solids.

  12. Defect-free atom arrays on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Harry; Bernien, Hannes; Keesling, Alex; Anschuetz, Eric; Senko, Crystal; Vuletic, Vladan; Greiner, Markus; Endres, Manuel; Lukin, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    Arrays of neutral, trapped atoms have proven to be an extraordinary platform for studying quantum many-body physics and implementing quantum information protocols. Conventional approaches to generate such arrays rely on loading atoms into optical lattices and require elaborate experimental control. An alternative, simpler approach is to load atoms into individual optical tweezers. However, the probabilistic nature of the loading process limits the size of the arrays to small numbers of atoms. Here we present a new method for assembling defect-free arrays of large numbers of atoms. Our technique makes use of an array of tightly focused optical tweezers generated by an acousto-optic deflector. The positions of the traps can be dynamically reconfigured on a sub-millisecond timescale. With single-site resolved fluorescence imaging, we can identify defects in the atom array caused by the probabilistic loading process and rearrange the trap positions in response. This will enable us to generate defect-free atom arrays on demand. We discuss our latest results towards reaching this goal along with schemes to implement long-range interactions between atoms in the array. Now at Caltech.

  13. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  14. Graphene oxide physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jijun; Li, Fen

    2015-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of graphene oxides (GO)  from atomic structures and fundamental properties to technological applications. Atomic structural models, electronic properties, mechanical properties, optical properties, and functionalizing and compositing of GO are illustrated. Moreover, the excellent physical and chemical properties offer GO promising applications in electronic nanodevices, chemical sensors and catalyst, energy storage, and biotechnology, which are also presented in this book. Therefore, this book is of interest to researchers in physics, chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience.

  15. Quantum physics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition helps make quantum physics understandable and accessible. From what quantum physics can do for the world to understanding hydrogen atoms, readers will get complete coverage of the subject, along with numerous examples to help them tackle the tough equations. Compatible with classroom text books and courses, Quantum Physics For Dummies, Revised Edition lets students study at their own paces and helps them prepare for graduate or professional exams. Coverage includes: The Schrodinger Equation and its Applications The Foundations of Quantum Physics Vector Notation Spin Scattering Theory, Angular Momentum, and more From the Back Cover Your plain-English guide to understanding and working with the micro world Quantum physics -- also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory -- can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. This friendly, concise guide makes this challenging subject understandable and accessible, fr...

  16. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1948-12-02

    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  17. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  18. Two-Dimensional Arrays of Neutral Atom Quantum Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-20

    Isenhower, X. Zhang, A. Gill, T. Walker, M. Saffman. Deterministic entanglement of two neutral atoms via Rydberg blockade, Physical Review A, (09 2010...squeezing of atomic ensembles by multicolor quantum nondemolition measurements, Physical Review A, (02 2009): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.023831 10/19/2012...collective encoding in holmium atoms, Physical Review A, (07 2008): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.012336 10/19/2012 10.00 M Saffman, X L Zhang, A T

  19. Atomically thin semiconducting layers and nanomembranes: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Dragoman, Daniela; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews the main physical properties of atomically thin semiconductors and the electronic devices based on them. We start with graphene, describing its physical properties and growth methods, followed by a discussion of its electronic device applications. Then, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are analyzed as a prototype of atomically thin semiconductors, their physical properties, growth methods, and electronic devices are discussed in detail. Finally, non-layered semiconducting membranes with thicknesses ranging from a few nanometers to about 50 nm, and considered as counterparts of atomically thin semiconductors, are analyzed, and their applications presented.

  20. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  1. Atomic Spectra Bibliography Databases at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramida, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    NIST's Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center maintains three online Bibliographic Databases (BD) containing references to papers with atomic data for controlled fusion research, modeling and diagnostics of astrophysical and terrestrial plasmas, and fundamental properties of electronic spectra of atoms and ions. The NIST Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra BD [http://physics.nist.gov/elevbib] now includes about 11500 references, mostly for years 1967--2007. The NIST Atomic Transition Probability BD, v. 8.1 [http://physics.nist.gov/fvalbib] with its 7500 references mainly covers years 1964--2007. The NIST Spectral Line Broadening BD, v. 2.0 [http://physics.nist.gov/linebrbib] has 3670 references, mostly for 1978--2006. All three databases are maintained in a unified database management system that allows us to quickly update the contents. Updates become available to users on the next day. An automated Data Entry module makes it easy to enter and categorize the data. The system allows us to keep the contents of all BDs up to date. A number of enhancements made since last year greatly increased public usability of the databases. This work is supported in part by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Cesium Atomic Fountain Clocks at NMIJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    shift in caesium fountain clocks,” Physical Review Letters, 98, 153002. [10] A. Takamizawa, Y. Shirakawa, S. Yanagimachi et al., 2010, “Proposal of a...beam of laser-cooled cesium atoms,” Physical Review, A 60, R4241-R4244. [13] V. Gerginov, N. Nemitz, S. Weyers, et al., 2010, “Uncertainty evaluation of the caesium fountain clock PTB-CSF2,” Metrologia, 47, 65-79.

  3. Atomic parity violation, muon pair production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions, and detection of CDM WIMP. Physics related to the neutral vector boson D{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senju, Hirofumi [Physics Department, School of Design and Architecture, Nagoya City Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    In our preon model there exists a neutral vector boson D{sub 1} which is an isoscalar partner of W(Z) in the vector boson octet. It is shown that the exchange of a D{sub 1} of about 1 TeV mass naturally explains a positive excess of the weak charge of atomic cesium recently observed. Other processes occurring through the D{sub 1} exchange are discussed, including the detection of CDM WIMP. (author)

  4. Theory and applications of atomic and ionic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitroy, J [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Safronova, M S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Clark, Charles W, E-mail: jxm107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a, E-mail: msafrono@udel.ed, E-mail: charles.clark@nist.go [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8410 (United States)

    2010-10-28

    Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics. The dielectric constant and refractive index of any gas are examples of macroscopic properties that are largely determined by the dipole polarizability. When it comes to microscopic phenomena, the existence of alkaline-earth anions and the recently discovered ability of positrons to bind to many atoms are predominantly due to the polarization interaction. An imperfect knowledge of atomic polarizabilities is presently looming as the largest source of uncertainty in the new generation of optical frequency standards. Accurate polarizabilities for the group I and II atoms and ions of the periodic table have recently become available by a variety of techniques. These include refined many-body perturbation theory and coupled-cluster calculations sometimes combined with precise experimental data for selected transitions, microwave spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms and ions, refractive index measurements in microwave cavities, ab initio calculations of atomic structures using explicitly correlated wavefunctions, interferometry with atom beams and velocity changes of laser cooled atoms induced by an electric field. This review examines existing theoretical methods of determining atomic and ionic polarizabilities, and discusses their relevance to various applications with particular emphasis on cold-atom physics and the metrology of atomic frequency standards. (topical review)

  5. PSI for Low-Enrollment Junior-Senior Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Charles P.; Young, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The administration of a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) for junior-senior level courses in mechanics, electricity and magneturn, atomic physics, mathematical physics, physics and computers, astrophysics, and relativity is described. (CP)

  6. Physics Division annual review, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report contains brief discusses on topics in the following areas: Research at atlas; operation and development of atlas; medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; and atomic and molecular physics research.

  7. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom’s stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured1 and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and—by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen—the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state2, 3 of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave...

  8. Rutherford, Radioactivity, and the Atomic Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Modern atomic and nuclear physics took its start in the early part of the twentieth century, to a large extent based upon experimental investigations of radioactive phenomena. Foremost among the pioneers of the new kind of physics was Ernest Rutherford, who made fundamental contributions to the structure of matter for more than three decades and, in addition, founded important research schools in Manchester and Cambridge. This paper reviews the most important aspects of Rutherford's scientific work in the period from about 1900 to 1920, and it also refers to some of his last experiments of the 1930s. The emphasis is on his theory of radioactive disintegration (1902), the discovery of the atomic nucleus (1911), and the first artificially produced element transformation (1919). Following the transmutation experiments, Rutherford developed elaborate models of the atomic nucleus, but these turned out to be unsuccessful. Other subjects could be included, but the three mentioned are undoubtedly those of the greates...

  9. Quantum Structures of the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Jeknic-Dugic, J; Francom, A; Arsenijevic, M

    2012-01-01

    Modern quantum theory introduces quantum structures (decompositions into subsystems) as a new discourse that is not fully comparable with the classical-physics counterpart. To this end, so-called Entanglement Relativity appears as a corollary of the universally valid quantum mechanics that can provide for a deeper and more elaborate description of the composite quantum systems. In this paper we employ this new concept to describe the hydrogen atom. We offer a consistent picture of the hydrogen atom as an open quantum system that naturally answers the following important questions: (a) how do the so called "quantum jumps" in atomic excitation and de-excitation occur? and (b) why does the classically and seemingly artificial "center-of-mass + relative degrees of freedom" structure appear as the primarily operable form in most of the experimental reality of atoms?

  10. Atomic precision tests and light scalar couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique; Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique

    2010-10-15

    We calculate the shift in the atomic energy levels induced by the presence of a scalar field which couples to matter and photons. We find that a combination of atomic measurements can be used to probe both these couplings independently. A new and stringent bound on the matter coupling springs from the precise measurement of the 1s to 2s energy level difference in the hydrogen atom, while the coupling to photons is essentially constrained by the Lamb shift. Combining these constraints with current particle physics bounds we find that the contribution of a scalar field to the recently claimed discrepancy in the proton radius measured using electronic and muonic atoms is negligible. (orig.)

  11. Design of a dual species atom interferometer for space

    CERN Document Server

    Schuldt, Thilo; Krutzik, Markus; Bote, Lluis Gesa; Gaaloul, Naceur; Hartwig, Jonas; Ahlers, Holger; Herr, Waldemar; Posso-Trujillo, Katerine; Rudolph, Jan; Seidel, Stephan; Wendrich, Thijs; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Sven; Kubelka-Lange, André; Milke, Alexander; Rievers, Benny; Rocco, Emanuele; Hinton, Andrew; Bongs, Kai; Oswald, Markus; Franz, Matthias; Hauth, Matthias; Peters, Achim; Bawamia, Ahmad; Wicht, Andreas; Battelier, Baptiste; Bertoldi, Andrea; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud; Massonnet, Didier; Lévèque, Thomas; Wenzlawski, Andre; Hellmig, Ortwin; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; von Klitzing, Wolf; Chaloner, Chris; Summers, David; Ireland, Philip; Mateos, Ignacio; Sopuerta, Carlos F; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Tino, Guglielmo M; Williams, Michael; Trenkel, Christian; Gerardi, Domenico; Chwalla, Michael; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Heske, Astrid; Wille, Eric; Gehler, Martin; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Gürlebeck, Norman; Braxmaier, Claus; Rasel, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Atom interferometers have a multitude of proposed applications in space including precise measurements of the Earth's gravitational field, in navigation & ranging, and in fundamental physics such as tests of the weak equivalence principle (WEP) and gravitational wave detection. While atom interferometers are realized routinely in ground-based laboratories, current efforts aim at the development of a space compatible design optimized with respect to dimensions, weight, power consumption, mechanical robustness and radiation hardness. In this paper, we present a design of a high-sensitivity differential dual species $^{85}$Rb/$^{87}$Rb atom interferometer for space, including physics package, laser system, electronics and software. The physics package comprises the atom source consisting of dispensers and a 2D magneto-optical trap (MOT), the science chamber with a 3D-MOT, a magnetic trap based on an atom chip and an optical dipole trap (ODT) used for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) creation and interferometry...

  12. Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Zinner, N T; 10.1088/0954-3899/40/5/053101

    2013-01-01

    The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades have brought tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and constrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts, techniques, and nomenclatures are common to both fields. However, nuclei are finite systems with interactions that are typically much more complicated than those of ultracold atomic gases. The simularities and differences must therefore be carefully addressed for a meaningful comparison and to facilitate fruitful crossdisciplinary activity. Universal results from atomic physics should have impact in certain limits of the nuclear domain. In particular, with advances in the trapping of few-body atomic systems we expect a more direct exchange of ideas and results.

  13. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  14. The Software Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Javanainen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    By putting together an abstract view on quantum mechanics and a quantum-optics picture of the interactions of an atom with light, we develop a corresponding set of C++ classes that set up the numerical analysis of an atom with an arbitrary set of angular-momentum degenerate energy levels, arbitrary light fields, and an applied magnetic field. As an example, we develop and implement perturbation theory to compute the polarizability of an atom in an experimentally relevant situation.

  15. The Software Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanainen, Juha

    2017-03-01

    By putting together an abstract view on quantum mechanics and a quantum-optics picture of the interactions of an atom with light, we develop a corresponding set of C++ classes that set up the numerical analysis of an atom with an arbitrary set of angular-momentum degenerate energy levels, arbitrary light fields, and an applied magnetic field. As an example, we develop and implement perturbation theory to compute the polarizability of an atom in an experimentally relevant situation.

  16. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  17. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1995-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is promarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  18. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  19. Students' Mental Models of Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Mental modeling, which is a theory about knowledge organization, has been recently studied by science educators to examine students' understanding of scientific concepts. This qualitative study investigates undergraduate students' mental models of atomic spectra. Nine second-year physics students, who have already taken the basic chemistry and…

  20. Dephasing in an atom

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    When an atom in vacuum is near a surface of a dielectric the energy of a fluctuating electromagnetic field depends on a distance between them resulting, as known, in the force called van der Waals one. Besides this fluctuation phenomenon there is one associated with formation of a mean electric field which is equivalent to an order parameter. In this case atomic electrons are localized within atomic distances close to the atom and the total ground state energy is larger, compared to the bare ...

  1. Entanglement distillation for atomic states via cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2004-10-01

    Following a recent proposal (Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 2392) about quantum information processing using dispersive atom-cavity interaction, in this paper, we proposed a physical scheme to concentrate the pure non-maximally entangled atomic states via cavity QED by using atomic collision in a far-off-resonant cavity. The most distinctive advantage of our scheme is that there is no excitation of cavity mode during the distillation procedure. Therefore the requirement on the quality of cavity is greatly loosened.

  2. Atomic fountains and optical clocks at SYRTE: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, M; De Sarlo, L; Guéna, J; Laurent, Ph; Coq, Y Le; Targat, R Le; Lodewyck, J; Lours, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D; Bize, S

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on the work done with the LNE-SYRTE atomic clock ensemble during the last 10 years. We cover progress made in atomic fountains and in their application to timekeeping. We also cover the development of optical lattice clocks based on strontium and on mercury. We report on tests of fundamental physical laws made with these highly accurate atomic clocks. We also report on work relevant to a future possible redefinition of the SI second.

  3. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-24

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Laboratories Products Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  5. The birth of spacetime atoms as the passage of time

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, Fay

    2014-01-01

    The view that the passage of time is physical finds expression in the classical sequential growth models of Rideout and Sorkin in which a discrete spacetime grows by the partially ordered accretion of new spacetime atoms.

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-07-28

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, June, 1955. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  7. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  8. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  9. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  10. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  11. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  12. When Atoms Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  13. Vortex line in spin-orbit coupled atomic Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 013622 (2012) Vortex line in spin-orbit coupled atomic Fermi gases M. Iskin Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, TR-34450 Sariyer, Istanbul, Turkey (Received 1 December 2011; published 17 January 2012) It has recently been shown that the spin-orbit coupling gives rise to topologically nontrivial and thermodynamically stable gapless superfluid phases when the pseudospin populations of an atomic Fermi gas are imbalanced, with the ...

  14. Maximally Atomic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Brzozowski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

  15. Coaxial airblast atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to quantify the characteristics of the sprays of coaxial injectors with particular emphasis on those aspects relevant to the performance of rocket engines. Measurements for coaxial air blast atomizers were obtained using air to represent the gaseous stream and water to represent the liquid stream. A wide range of flow conditions were examined for sprays with and without swirl for gaseous streams. The parameters varied include Weber number, gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, swirl, and nozzle geometry. Measurements were made with a phase Doppler velocimeter. Major conclusions of the study focused upon droplet size as a function of Weber number, effect of gas flow rate on atomization and spray spread, effect of nozzle geometry on atomization and spread, effect of swirl on atomization, spread, jet recirculation and breakup, and secondary atomization.

  16. Properties of Atoms in Molecules:  Caged Atoms and the Ehrenfest Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Richard F W; Fang, De-Cai

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses the properties of atom X enclosed within an adamantane cage, denoted by X@C10H16, as a vehicle to introduce the Ehrenfest force into the discussion of bonding, the properties being determined by the physics of an open system. This is the force acting on an atom in a molecule and determining the potential energy appearing in Slater's molecular virial theorem. The Ehrenfest force acting across the interatomic surface of a bonded pair atoms [Formula: see text] atoms linked by a bond path [Formula: see text] is attractive, each atom being drawn toward the other, and the associated surface virial that measures the contribution to the energy arising from the formation of the surface is stabilizing. It is the Ehrenfest force that determines the adhesive properties of surfaces. The endothermicity of formation for X = He or Ne is not a result of instabilities incurred in the interaction of X with the four methine carbons to which it is bonded, interactions that are stabilizing both in terms of the changes in the atomic energies and in the surface virials. The exothermicity for X = Be(2+), B(3+), and Al(3+) is a consequence of the transfer of electron density from the hydrogen atoms to the carbon and X atoms, the exothermicity increasing with charge transfer despite an increase in the contained volume of X.

  17. Contents of Physics Related E-Print Archives

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Kumar, Anil; Sagar, Anil; Mohan, Lalit; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Kalyane, V. L.; Kumar, Vijai

    2003-01-01

    The frontiers of physics related e-print archives (1994-2002) at http://www.arxiv.org/archives/physics web service are explored from 7770 submissions. No. of e-prints in the six research disciplines besides physics (5390) were: Condensed matter(754), Quantum physics(279), Astrophysics(222), Chemical physics(129), High energy physics Phenomenology(118), and High energy physics-Theory(100)). By keyword contents following major sub-fields have high frequency: Atomic physics(1258), General physic...

  18. The quantum physics of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thorsten; Damjanović, Ana; Schulten, Klaus

    2002-03-12

    Biological cells contain nanoscale machineries that exhibit a unique combination of high efficiency, high adaptability to changing environmental conditions, and high reliability. Recent progress in obtaining atomically resolved structures provide an opportunity for an atomic-level explanation of the biological function of cellular machineries and the underlying physical mechanisms. A prime example in this regard is the apparatus with which purple bacteria harvest the light of the sun. Its highly symmetrical architecture and close interplay of biological functionality with quantum physical processes allow an illuminating demonstration of the fact that properties of living beings ultimately rely on and are determined by the laws of physics.

  19. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  20. Linear atomic quantum coupler

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of them includes a localized and/or a trapped atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchanging energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way, i.e. as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), and with the atom-mode in the second waveguide via evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for the system and deduce the exact form for the wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional linear coupler, the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions, the system can yield the results of the two-m...

  1. Spreading the gospel: The Bohr atom popularised

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of quantum theory in the early decades of the twentieth century was accompanied by a wide range of popular science books, all of which presented in words and in images new scientific ideas about the structure of the atom. The work of physicists such as Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, among others, was pivotal to the so-called planetary model of the atom, which, still today, is used in popular accounts and in science textbooks. In an attempt to add to our knowledge about the popular trajectory of the new atomic physics, this paper examines one book in particular, coauthored by Danish science writer Helge Holst and Dutch physicist and close collaborator of Niels Bohr, Hendrik A. Kramers. Translated from Danish into four European languages, the book not only presented contemporary ideas about the quantum atom, but also went into rather lengthy discussions about unresolved problems. Moreover, the book was quite explicit in identifying the quantum atom with the atom as described by Bohr's theory. W...

  2. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  3. Ionization of Atoms by Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Juerg; Schlein, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The process of ionization of a hydrogen atom by a short infrared laser pulse is studied in the regime of very large pulse intensity, in the dipole approximation. Let $A$ denote the integral of the electric field of the pulse over time at the location of the atomic nucleus. It is shown that, in the limit where $|A| \\to \\infty$, the ionization probability approaches unity and the electron is ejected into a cone opening in the direction of $-A$ and of arbitrarily small opening angle. Asymptotics of various physical quantities in $|A|^{-1}$ is studied carefully. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data reported in \\cite{1,2}.

  4. Evaporative cooling of cold atoms at surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Märkle, J; Federsel, P; Jetter, B; Günther, A; Fortágh, J; Proukakis, N P; Judd, T E

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the evaporative cooling of cold rubidium atoms that are brought close to a solid surface. The dynamics of the atom cloud are described by coupling a dissipative Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate with a quantum Boltzmann description of the thermal cloud (the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin method). We have also performed experiments to allow for a detailed comparison with this model and find that it can capture the key physics of this system provided the full collisional dynamics of the thermal cloud are included. In addition, we suggest how to optimize surface cooling to obtain the purest and largest condensates.

  5. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  6. A physical picture of atomic motions within the Dickerson DNA dodecamer in solution derived from joint ensemble refinement against NMR and large-angle X-ray scattering data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Charles D; Clore, G Marius

    2007-02-06

    The structure and dynamics of the Dickerson DNA dodecamer [5'd(CGCGAATTCGCG)2] in solution have been investigated by joint simulated annealing refinement against NMR and large-angle X-ray scattering data (extending from 0.25 to 3 A-1). The NMR data comprise an extensive set of hetero- and homonuclear residual dipolar coupling and 31P chemical shift anisotropy restraints in two alignment media, supplemented by NOE and 3J coupling data. The NMR and X-ray scattering data cannot be fully ascribed to a single structure representation, indicating the presence of anisotropic motions that impact the experimental observables in different ways. Refinement with ensemble sizes (Ne) of >or=2 to represent the atomic motions reconciles all the experimental data within measurement error. Cross validation against both the dipolar coupling and X-ray scattering data suggests that the optimal ensemble size required to account for the current data is 4. The resulting ensembles permit one to obtain a detailed view of the conformational space sampled by the dodecamer in solution and permit one to analyze fluctuations in helicoidal parameters, sugar puckers, and BI-BII backbone transitions and to obtain quantitative metrics of atomic motion such as generalized order parameters and thermal B factors. The calculated order parameters are in good agreement with experimental order parameters obtained from 13C relaxation measurements. Although DNA behaves as a relatively rigid rod with a persistence length of approximately 150 bp, dynamic conformational heterogeneity at the base pair level is functionally important since it readily permits optimization of intermolecular protein-DNA interactions.

  7. Atomic entanglement and decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genes, Claudiu

    The generation of entanglement in atomic systems plays a central topic in the fields of quantum information storage and processing. Moreover, a special category of entangled states of multi-atom ensembles, spin squeezed states, have been proven to lead to considerable improvement in the sensitivity of precision measurements compared to systems involving uncorrelated atoms. A treatment of entanglement in open systems is, however, incomplete without a precise description of the process of decoherence which necessarily accompanies it. The theory of entanglement and decoherence are the two main topics of this thesis. Methods are described for the generation of strong correlations in large atomic ensembles using either cavity quantum electrodynamics or measurement outcome conditioned quantum dynamics. Moreover, the description of loss of entanglement resulting from the coupling to a noise reservoir (electromagnetic vacuum) is explored. A spin squeezing parameter is used throughout this thesis as both a measure of entanglement strength and as an indication of the sensitivity improvement above the so-called standard quantum limit (sensitivity obtained with uncorrelated particles) in metrology. The first scheme considered consists of a single mode cavity field interacting with a collection of atoms for which spin squeezing is produced in both resonant and off-resonant regimes. In the resonant case, transfer of squeezing from a field state to the atoms is analyzed, while in the off-resonant regime squeezing is produced via an effective nonlinear interaction (one-axis twisting Hamiltonian). A second, more experimentally realistic case, is one involving the interaction of free space atoms with laser pulses; a projective measurement of a source field originating from atomic fluctuations provides a means of preparing atomic collective states such as spin squeezed and Schrodinger cat states. A new "unravelling" is proposed, that employs the detection of photon number in a single

  8. Atom probe tomography today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Cerezo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to describe and illustrate the advances in the application of atom probe tomography that have been made possible by recent developments, particularly in specimen preparation techniques (using dual-beam focused-ion beam instruments but also of the more routine use of laser pulsing. The combination of these two developments now permits atomic-scale investigation of site-specific regions within engineering alloys (e.g. at grain boundaries and in the vicinity of cracks and also the atomic-level characterization of interfaces in multilayers, oxide films, and semiconductor materials and devices.

  9. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  10. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  11. EINSTEIN, SCHROEDINGER, AND ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider gravitation theory in multidimensional space. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. It is shown that gravitational waves are described by the Liouville equation and the Schrodinger equation as well. The solutions of the Einstein equations describing the stationary states of arbitrary quantum and classical systems with central symmetry have been obtained. Einstein’s atom model has been developed, and proved that atoms and atomic nuclei can be represented as standing gravitational waves

  12. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Yu N; Ignjatovic, Lj M; Sakan, N M; Sreckovic, V A; Zakharov, M Yu; Bezuglov, N N; Klycharev, A N; 10.1016/j.newar.2009.07.003

    2012-01-01

    Elementary processes in astrophysical phenomena traditionally attract researchers attention. At first this can be attributed to a group of hemi-ionization processes in Rydberg atom collisions with ground state parent atoms. This processes might be studied as a prototype of the elementary process of the radiation energy transformation into electrical one. The studies of nonlinear mechanics have shown that so called regime of dynamic chaos should be considered as typical, rather than exceptional situation in Rydberg atoms collision. From comparison of theory with experimental results it follows that a such kind of stochastic dynamic processes, occurred during the single collision, may be observed.

  13. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  14. Spontaneous emergence of free-space optical and atomic patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of patterns in dynamical systems is a rich non-equilibrium phenomenon that is studied in fields ranging from atomic physics to cosmology. Here, we report our observation of coupled optical-atomic pattern formation, which results in the creation of self-organized, multimode structures in free-space laser-driven cold atoms. We show that this process gives rise to spontaneous three-dimensional Sisyphus cooling even at very low light intensities and the emergence of self-organized atomic structures on multiple spatial scales.

  15. Atom loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmack, Christian; Smith, D Hudson; Braaten, Eric

    2013-07-12

    Atom loss resonances in ultracold trapped atoms have been observed at scattering lengths near atom-dimer resonances, at which Efimov trimers cross the atom-dimer threshold, and near two-dimer resonances, at which universal tetramers cross the dimer-dimer threshold. We propose a new mechanism for these loss resonances in a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms. As the scattering length is ramped to the large final value at which the atom loss rate is measured, the time-dependent scattering length generates a small condensate of shallow dimers coherently from the atom condensate. The coexisting atom and dimer condensates can be described by a low-energy effective field theory with universal coefficients that are determined by matching exact results from few-body physics. The classical field equations for the atom and dimer condensates predict narrow enhancements in the atom loss rate near atom-dimer resonances and near two-dimer resonances due to inelastic dimer collisions.

  16. Quantization of the Atom plus Attempting to Answer Heilbron & Kuhn

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yeuncheol; Datta, Timir

    2013-01-01

    The idea of atoms is old but X-rays provided the first probe into the physical atom. Photographs of X-ray scattering from crystals -Laue spots- were the first visual proof for the physical existence of atoms arranged in a perfect geometric pattern. Thereby conclusively established the stability and physical reality of atoms. The Braggs developed Laue technique to study atoms. Moseley applied (Bragg) X-ray spectroscopy to determine the nuclear charge number of Rutherford atom. We argue that Bohr also at Manchester and contemporary of Moseley likely was inspired by Laue discovery to get busy with the mechanics of the nuclear atom. Roentgens discovery was awarded the first Nobel prize ever in 1901, Laue was honored in 1914, the Braggs in 1915, making Lawrence Bragg then at 25 the youngest ever. Eleven of the cited authors (Bohr himself included) in the trilogy (but not Nicholson the most cited), were later recognized by ten Noble prize awards, seven Laureates in physics and four in chemistry. The ensuing synergy...

  17. Historical Account And Branching To Rarefied Gas Dynamics Of Atomic and Molecular Beams : A Continuing And Fascinating Odyssey Commemorated By Nobel Prizes Awarded To 23 Laureates In Physics And Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, Roger

    2005-05-01

    This Historical Account derived in part from D. R. Herschbach was presented as an opening lecture of the Molecular Beam Session organized at the 24th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics held in Bari, Italy, in July 2004. The emphasis is on the impressive results due to the molecular beam techniques in the last century. The first section summarizes the historical beam experiments performed by 14 Nobel Prize laureates having used the thermally effusive sources to establish the basic principles of Modern Physics. The second section is on the branching of Molecular Beams to Rarefied Gas Dynamics having permitted to investigate the physics of supersonic free jets and transform the molecular beam techniques. Finally, the last section relates the spectacular molecular beam experiments in helium free jet ultracooling, molecular spectroscopy, chemical reaction dynamics, clustering and modification of low density matter, and biomolecule mass spectrometry, rewarded by nine Nobel Prizes in Chemistry from 1986 to 2002.

  18. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2010-01-01

    This well-received textbook and reference summarizes the basic knowledge of atomic, nuclear, and radiation physics that professionals working in medical physics and biomedical engineering need for efficient and safe use of ionizing radiation. Concentrating on the underlying principles of radiation physics, it covers the prerequisite knowledge for medical physics courses on the graduate and post-graduate levels in radiotherapy physics, radiation dosimetry, imaging physics, and health physics, thus providing the link between elementary physics on the one hand and the intricacies of the medical physics specialties on the other hand. This expanded and revised second edition offers reorganized and expanded coverage. Several of the original chapters have been split into two with new sections added for completeness and better flow. New chapters on Coulomb scattering; on energy transfer and energy absorption in photon interactions; and on waveguide theory have been added in recognition of their importance. Others tra...

  19. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  20. Atomic & Molecular Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-07-12

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic & Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  1. Atomical Grothendieck categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Năstăsescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of Gabriel dimension of a Grothendieck category, we introduce the concept of atomical Grothendieck category, which has only two localizing subcategories, and we give a classification of this type of Grothendieck categories.

  2. Atomic Interferometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for atom-based sensors...

  3. Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Howard R.; Smirnov, Boris M.

    2001-03-01

    A comprehensive textbook and reference for the study of the physics of ionized gases The intent of this book is to provide deep physical insight into the behavior of gases containing atoms and molecules from which one or more electrons have been ionized. The study of these so-called plasmas begins with an overview of plasmas as they are found in nature and created in the laboratory. This serves as a prelude to a comprehensive study of plasmas, beginning with low temperature and "ideal" plasmas and extending to radiation and particle transport phenomena, the response of plasmas to external fields, and an insightful treatment of plasma waves, plasma instabilities, nonlinear phenomena in plasmas, and the study of plasma interactions with surfaces. In all cases, the emphasis is on a clear and unified understanding of the basic physics that underlies all plasma phenomena. Thus, there are chapters on plasma behavior from the viewpoint of atomic and molecular physics, as well as on the macroscopic phenomena involved in physical kinetics of plasmas and the transport of radiation and of charged particles within plasmas. With this grounding in the fundamental physics of plasmas, the notoriously difficult subjects of nonlinear phenomena and of instabilities in plasmas are then treated with comprehensive clarity.

  4. Optical atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

    2013-11-19

    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  5. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert Crepaz; Li Yuan Ley; Rainer Dumke

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage...

  6. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  7. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  8. Atomic Data Needs for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel A. (Editor); Kallman, Timothy R. (Editor); Pradhan, Anil K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains written versions of most of the invited talks presented at the workshop on "Atomic Data Needs for X-ray Astronomy," which was held at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center on December 16-17, 1999. The workshop was divided into five major areas: Observational Spectroscopy, Theoretical Calculations of Atomic Data, Laboratory Measurements of Atomic Parameters, Spectra Modeling, and Atomic Databases. These proceedings are expected to be of interest to producers and users of atomic data. Moreover, the contributions presented here have been written in a way that can be used by a general audience of scientists and graduate students in X-ray astronomy, modelling, and in computational and experimental atomic physics.

  9. Quantum measurements of atoms using cavity QED

    CERN Document Server

    Dada, Adetunmise C; Jones, Martin L; Kendon, Vivien M; Everitt, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Generalized quantum measurements are an important extension of projective or von Neumann measurements, in that they can be used to describe any measurement that can be implemented on a quantum system. We describe how to realize two non-standard quantum measurements using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). The first measurement optimally and unabmiguously distinguishes between two non-orthogonal quantum states. The second example is a measurement that demonstrates superadditive quantum coding gain. The experimental tools used are single-atom unitary operations effected by Ramsey pulses and two-atom Tavis-Cummings interactions. We show how the superadditive quantum coding gain is affected by errors in the field-ionisation detection of atoms, and that even with rather high levels of experimental imperfections, a reasonable amount of superadditivity can still be seen. To date, these types of measurement have only been realized on photons. It would be of great interest to have realizations using other physical ...

  10. Photon-Atom Coupling with Parabolic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Sondermann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Efficient coupling of light to single atomic systems has gained considerable attention over the past decades. This development is driven by the continuous growth of quantum technologies. The efficient coupling of light and matter is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. And indeed, in recent years much progress has been made in this direction. But applications aside, the interaction of photons and atoms is a fundamental physics problem. There are various possibilities for making this interaction more efficient, among them the apparently 'natural' attempt of mode-matching the light field to the free-space emission pattern of the atomic system of interest. Here we will describe the necessary steps of implementing this mode-matching with the ultimate aim of reaching unit coupling efficiency. We describe the use of deep parabolic mirrors as the central optical element of a free-space coupling scheme, covering the preparation of suitable modes of the field incident on...

  11. Photon Bubble Turbulence in Cold Atomic Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, João D; Ferreira, António V; Terças, Hugo; Kaiser, Robin; Mendonça, José T

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent radiation flow is ubiquitous in many physical systems where light-matter interaction becomes relevant. Photon bubbling, in particular, has been identified as the main source of turbulent radiation transport in many astrophysical objects, such as stars and accretion disks. This mechanism takes place when radiation trapping in optically dense media becomes unstable, leading to the energy dissipation from the larger to the smaller bubbles. Here, we report on the observation of photon bubble turbulence in cold atomic gases in the presence of multiple scattering of light. The instability is theoretically explained by a fluid description for the atom density coupled to a diffusive transport equation for the photons, which is known to be accurate in the multiple scattering regime investigated here. We determine the power spectrum of the atom density fluctuations, which displays an unusual $\\sim k^{-4}$ scaling, and entails a complex underlying turbulent dynamics resulting from the formation of dynamical bu...

  12. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  13. Synthesis of circular double-stranded DNA having single-stranded recognition sequence as molecular-physical probe for nucleic acid hybridization detection based on atomic force microscopy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Koji; Matsunaga, Hideshi; Murata, Masaharu; Soh, Nobuaki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2009-08-01

    A new class of DNA probes having a mechanically detectable tag is reported. The DNA probe, which consists of a single-stranded recognition sequence and a double-stranded circular DNA entity, was prepared by polymerase reaction. M13mp18 single strand and a 32mer oligodeoxynucleotide whose 5'-end is decorated with the recognition sequence were used in combination as template and primer, respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that the DNA probe is useful for bioanalytical purposes: by deliberately attaching target DNA molecules onto Au(111) substrates and by mechanically reading out the tag-entity using a high-resolution microscopy including atomic force microscopy, visualization/detection of the individual target/probe DNA conjugate was possible simply yet straightforwardly. The present DNA probe can be characterized as a 100%-nucleic acid product material. It is simply available by one-pod synthesis. A surface topology parameter, image roughness, has witnessed its importance as a quantitative analysis index with particular usability in the present visualization/detection method.

  14. Quantum chemistry and relativity: exploring the physical and chemical properties of the complexes of heavy elements; Chimie quantique et relativite. Exploration des proprietes physiques et chimiques des complexes d'atomes lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallet, V. [Munich Univ., Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Technical (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Molecular and nano-molecular systems containing rare earth and actinides elements have extraordinary chemical and physical properties. Computer simulations using quantum chemistry methods can play an important role in many investigative procedures and provide help in understanding the microscopic nature of the interactions governing these macroscopic properties. The recent theoretical efforts have been devoted to the development of accurate and efficient methods that take into account all important interactions influencing the electronic structures, such as electron correlation and relativity. In particular, we illustrate the importance of relativity on chemical and spectroscopic properties. We will then focus on the modelling aspects of solution chemistry. (author)

  15. Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm

    2013-01-01

    , interactions, and relevant length and energy scales of cold atoms and nuclei. Next we address some attempts in nuclear physics to transfer the concepts of condensates in nuclei that can in principle be built from bosonic alpha-particle constituents. We also consider Efimov physics, a prime example of nuclear...

  16. European scientists produce - and measure - atoms of antihydrogen

    CERN Multimedia

    Koppel, N

    2002-01-01

    "Scientists working on an experiment called ATRAP at the European Particle Physics Laboratory, or CERN, said Tuesday that they were able to register the creation of antihydrogen atoms at the moment when they were destroyed again. The results are to be published in the journal Physical Review Letters" (1 page).

  17. Teleportation of Atomic States for Atoms in a Lambda Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Guerra, E S

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states making use of three-level lambda atoms. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity QED involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic EPR states involving two-level atoms via the interaction of these atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.

  18. Physical nature of interactions in Zn(II) complexes with 2,2'-bipyridyl: quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), interacting quantum atoms (IQA), noncovalent interactions (NCI), and extended transition state coupled with natural orbitals for chemical valence (ETS-NOCV) comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowski, Ignacy; de Lange, Jurgens H; Mitoraj, Mariusz

    2014-01-23

    In the present account factors determining the stability of ZnL, ZnL2, and ZnL3 complexes (L = bpy, 2,2′-bipyridyl) were characterized on the basis of various techniques: the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), energy decomposition schemes based on interacting quantum atoms (IQA), and extended transition state coupled with natural orbitals for chemical valence (ETS-NOCV). Finally, the noncovalent interactions (NCI) index was also applied. All methods consistently indicated that the strength of the coordination bonds, Zn–O and Zn–N, decreases from ZnL to ZnL3. Importantly, it has been identified that the strength of secondary intramolecular heteropolar hydrogen bonding interactions, CH···O and CH···N, increases when going from ZnL to ZnL3. A similar trend appeared to be valid for the π-bonding as well as electrostatic stabilization. In addition to the above leading bonding contributions, all techniques suggested the existence of very subtle, but non-negligible additional stabilization from the CH···HC electronic exchange channel; these interactions are the weakest among all considered here. From IQA it was found that the local diatomic interaction energy, Eint(H,H), amounts at HF to −2.5, −2.7, and −2.9 kcal mol(–1) for ZnL, ZnL2, and ZnL3, respectively (−2.1 kcal mol(–1) for ZnL at MP2). NOCV-based deformation density channels showed that formation of CH--HC contacts in Zn complexes causes significant polarization of σ(C–H) bonds, which accordingly leads to charge accumulation in the CH···HC bay region. Charge depletion from σ(C–H) bonds was also reflected in the calculated spin–spin (1)J(C–H) coupling constants, which decrease from 177.06 Hz (ZnL) to 173.87 Hz (ZnL3). This last result supports our findings of an increase in the local electronic CH···HC stabilization from ZnL to ZnL3 found from QTAIM, IQA, and ETS-NOCV. Finally, this work unites for the first time the results from four methods that are widely

  19. Physics Teachers' Views on Their Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buabeng, Isaac; Conner, Lindsey; Winter, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores New Zealand (NZ) physics teachers' and physics educators' views about Initial Teacher Education (ITE). Perspectives of physics teachers nationally indicated that in general, teachers considered themselves not well-prepared in some content areas including electronics, modern physics, and atomic and nuclear physics. This may be…

  20. Physics division progress report for period ending September 30 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in physics. The areas covered are: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; low/medium energy nuclear physics; high energy experimental physics; the Unisor program; experimental atomic physics; laser and electro-optics lab; theoretical physics; compilations and evaluations; and radioactive ion beam development. (LSP)

  1. Physics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in detail in the following areas: Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, neutron physics, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, atomic and plasma physics, and high energy physics. Publications are listed. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers. (WHK)

  2. Universal bosonic tetramers of dimer-atom-atom structure

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable four-boson states having an approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are studied using momentum-space integral equations for the four-particle transition operators. For a given Efimov trimer the universal properties of the lowest associated tetramer are determined. The impact of this tetramer on the atom-trimer and dimer-dimer collisions is analyzed. The reliability of the three-body dimer-atom-atom model is studied.

  3. Single-atom spintronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan Z. HUA; Matthew R. SULLIVAN; Jason N. ARMSTRONG

    2006-01-01

    Recent work on magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs) was discussed. Complete magnetoresistance loops across Co QPCs as small as a single atom was measured. The remarkable feature of these QPCs is the rapid oscillatory decay in magnetoresistance with the increase of contact size. In addition,stepwise or quantum magnetoresistance loops are observed,resulting from varying transmission probability of the available discrete conductance channels because the sample is cycled between the ferromagnetic (F) and antiferromagnetic (AF) aligned states. Quantized conductance combined with spin dependent transmission of electron waves gives rise to a multi-channel system with a quantum domain wall acting as a valve,i.e.,a quantum spin-valve. Behavior of a few-atom QPC is built on the behavior of a single-atom QPC and hence the summarization of results as 'single-atom spintronics'. An evolutionary trace of spin-dependent electron transmission from a single atom to bulk is provided,the requisite hallmarks of artefact-free magnetoresistance is established across a QPC - stepwise or quantum magnetoresistance loops and size dependent oscillatory magnetoresistance.

  4. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  5. Men of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Galileo Galilei, His Life and His Works deals with Galileo Galilei's radical discoveries and trail during the Inquisition. The book describes the life of Galileo and his many interests in art and music, in addition to science. Galileo is born in Pisa in 1564, and at age 25, he is appointed to the Chair of Mathematics at the University of Pisa. He writes several papers, for example, mathematical continuum as contrasted with physical atomism, and investigates the behavior of magnetic poles. He believes in William Gilbert's experiment that the earth itself is a large magnet. He c

  6. Quantum magnetism through atomic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinelli, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of magnetic structures, composed of only a few atoms. Those structures are first built atom-by-atom and then locally probed, both with a low-temperature STM. The technique that we use to assemble them is vertical atom manipulation, while to study their phy

  7. Chaos in a quasiclassical hadronic atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dellUniversita, Via Castelnuovo 7, 22100 Como (Italy); Shepelyansky, D.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062, Toulouse (France)

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the helium atom in which one electron is replaced by a heavy particle with a negative charge, such as an antiproton. The general properties of motion and the conditions for chaotic dynamics are studied via the derivation of the planetary map. The regime of strongly correlated motion of two particles is also analyzed. The properties of quantum motion are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Development of a compact cold-atom atomic clock based on coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanshan, Eric M.

    Field-grade atomic clocks capable of primary standard performance in compact physics packages would be of significant value in a variety of applications ranging from network synchronization and secure communications to GPS hold-over and inertial navigation. A cold-atom coherent population trapping (CACPT) clock featuring laser-cooled atoms and pulsed Ramsey interrogation is a strong candidate for this technology if the principal frequency shifts can be controlled and the performance degradation associated with miniaturization can be overcome. In this thesis, research focused on the development of this type of compact atomic clock is presented. To address the low atom numbers obtained in small cold-atom sources, experiments were performed in which an atomic beam was decelerated with bichromatic stimulated laser forces and loaded into a mm-scale magneto-optical trap, increasing the atom number by a factor of 12.5. A CACPT clock using the high-contrast lin||lin optical interrogation technique was developed and achieved a stability of 7 x 10-13 after one hour of integration. Doppler shifts in the clock are explained using a simple kinematic model and canceled by interrogating the atoms with a counter-propagating CPT configuration. Finally, a thorough characterization of the AC-stark effect in lin||lin CPT was performed. Observed shifts are explained in terms of contributions from coherent CPT-generating couplings and population transfer effects caused by optical pumping from incoherent light. Measurements are compared with existing and new theoretical treatments, and a laser configuration is identified that reduces clock drift from light shifts to less than 10-14 for the current system.

  9. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  10. Atomism versus Holism in Science and Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Karakostas, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    The pros and cons of various forms of atomism and holism that are applicable both in physical science and today's philosophy of nature are evaluated. To this end, Lewis' thesis of Humean supervenience is presented as an important case study of an atomistic doctrine in philosophical thought. According to the thesis of Humean supervenience, the world is fragmented into local matters of particular fact and everything else supervenes upon them in conjunction with the spatiotemporal relations among them. It is explicitly shown that Lewis' ontological doctrine of Humean supervenience incorporates at its foundation the so-called separability principle of classical physics. In view of the systematic violation of the latter within quantum mechanics, it is argued that contemporary physical science posits non-supervenient relations over and above the spatiotemporal ones. It is demonstrated that the relation of quantum entanglement constitutes the prototypical example of a holistic, irreducible physical relation that doe...

  11. Sampling the Hydrogen Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the electron is an objectively real particle orbiting at very near to light speed. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms associated with orbiting bodies can be considered as being af- fected by relativity. This leads to a model for the atom in which the stable electron orbits are associated with orbital velocities where Gamma is n /α , leading to the idea that it is Gamma that is quantized and not angular momentum as in the Bohr and other models. The model provides a mechanism which leads to quantization of energy levels within the atom and also provides a simple mechanical explanation for the Fine Struc- ture Constant. The mechanism is closely associated with the Sampling theorem and the related phenomenon of aliasing developed in the mid-20th century by engineers at Bell labs.

  12. Schwinger pair production with ultracold atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasper

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice as a quantum simulator for electron–positron pair production in quantum electrodynamics (QED. For a setup in one spatial dimension, we investigate the nonequilibrium phenomenon of pair production including the backreaction leading to plasma oscillations. Unlike previous investigations on quantum link models, we focus on the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of QED and show that it may be well approximated by experiments employing Bose–Einstein condensates interacting with fermionic atoms. Numerical calculations based on functional integral techniques give a unique access to the physical parameters required to realize QED phenomena in a cold atom experiment. In particular, we use our approach to consider quantum link models in a yet unexplored parameter regime and give bounds for their ability to capture essential features of the physics. The results suggest a paradigmatic change towards realizations using coherent many-body states for quantum simulations of high-energy particle physics phenomena.

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Unusual Situations

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    Atomic Physics is certainly the oldest field in which Quantum Mechanics has been used and has provided the most significant proofs of this new theory. Most of the basic concepts, except those more recently developed in field quantization, have been understood for quite a time. Atomic Physics began to serve as a basis for other fields such as molecu­ lar, solid state or nuclear physics. A renewal of interest in Atomic Physics began in the sixties, after the discovery of Quantum Electro­ dynamics, and later when it provided some basic tests of fundamental questions like parity violation, time reversal or Dirac theory. More recently the development of new technologies led to the ex­ ploration of very extreme cases in which the most secrete aspects of atoms have been observed. - Rydberg states where the atoms are so big that they can be described by classical theories; - Heavy or super-heavy ions or exotic atoms where unknown QED or relativistic effects can be observed (very heavy hydrogenlike or heliu...

  14. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  15. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  16. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Capelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's, all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules, the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  17. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  18. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  19. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1985 fiscal year. The research activities were centered on experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The experimental nuclear physics program is dominated by heavy ion research. A major part of this effort is the responsibility for operating the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. A major new activity described is the preparation for participation in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion experiment to be performed at CERN in 1986. The experimental atomic physics program has two components: the accelerator-based studies of basic collisional phenomena and the studies in support of the controlled fusion program. Also associated with the fusion-related studies are a plasma diagnostics program and the operation of an atomic physics data center. Theory efforts associated with the UNISOR program are described, as well as smaller programs in applications and high-energy physics. (LEW)

  20. Molecular physics: Complexity trapped by simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlaino, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Devices known as magneto-optical traps have long been used to cool and confine atoms, but not molecules -- until now. This new ability should enable many studies and applications of the physics of ultracold molecules. See Letter p.286

  1. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  2. Quantum physics workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Holzner, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Hands-on practice in solving quantum physics problems Quantum Physics is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and even smaller microscopic levels. Like the other titles in our For Dummies Workbook series, Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies allows you to hone your skills at solving the difficult and often confusing equations you encounter in this subject. Explains equations in easy-to-understand terms Harmonic Oscillator Operations, Angular Momentum, Spin, Scattering Theory Using a proven practice-and-review approach, Quantum Physics Workbook For Dummies is all you need to get up to speed in problem solving!

  3. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  4. Atomism, Pragmatism, Holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John P.

    1986-01-01

    Examines three world views influencing curriculum development--atomism (underpinning competency-based education), pragmatism (promoting inquiry-based approaches), amd holism (associated with confluent or Waldorf education). Holism embodies the perennial philosophy and attempts to integrate cognitive, affective, and transpersonal dimensions,…

  5. Chiral atomically thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  6. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1970-01-01

    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  7. Atomic and Molecular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-25

    The topics investigated experimentally and theoretically by the Pittsburgh Atomic Sciences Institute with applications to high power laser development and atmospheric IR backgrounds are enumerated. Reports containing the detailed scientific progress in these studies are cited. Finally, a list of the journal articles describing the results of the programs, with full references, is given.

  8. Energy from the Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia L.

    This curriculum guide was written to supplement fifth and sixth grade science units on matter and energy. It was designed to provide more in-depth material on the atom. The first part, "Teacher Guide," contains background information, biographical sketches of persons in the history of nuclear energy, vocabulary, answer sheets, management sheets…

  9. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  10. Cavity-aided magnetic-resonance microscopy of atoms in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Purdy, Tom P; Brooks, Daniel W C; Botter, Thierry; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for investigating the microscopic properties and dynamics of physical systems. In this work we demonstrate state-sensitive MRI of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Single-shot spatial resolution is 120 nm, well below the lattice spacing, and number sensitivity is +/-2.4 for 150 atoms on a single site, well below Poissonian atom-number fluctuations. We achieve this by combining high-spatial-resolution control over the atomic spin using an atom chip, together with nearly quantum-limited spin measurement, obtained by dispersively coupling the atoms to light in a high-finesse optical cavity. The MRI is minimally disruptive of the atoms' internal state, preserving the magnetisation of the gas for subsequent experiments. Using this technique, we observe the nonequilibrium transport dynamics of the atoms among individual lattice sites. We see the atom cloud initially expand ballistically, followed by the onset of interaction-inhibited transport.

  11. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1975--31 March 1976. [ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of Physics Division activities in the following areas: the heavy-ion booster; medium-energy physics; heavy-ion physics; low-energy charged-particle physics; accelerator operations; neutron physics; theoretical nuclear physics, and atomic and molecular physics. A bibliography of publications amounts to 27 pages. (RWR)

  12. Photon-atom interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Weissbluth, Mitchel

    1989-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the body of theory shared by several branches of modern optics--nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, and quantum optics--with an emphasis on quantum and statistical aspects. It is intended for well prepared undergraduate and graduate students in physics, applied physics, electrical engineering, and chemistry who seek a level of preparation of sufficient maturity to enable them to follow the specialized literature.

  13. The Progress of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Introduction; 1. Scope of lectures. State of physics in 1875. Science of energy. Theory of gases. Elastic solid theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electricity. Training of students. Maxwell's view. Accurate measurement and discovery of Argon. German methods. Kirchhoff's laboratory. Wilhelm Weber's laboratory. The two laboratories of Berlin. Laboratory instruction at Manchester. Position of physics in mathematical tripos at Cambridge. Todhunter's views. The Cavendish laboratory. Spectrum analysis. The radiometer. Theory of vortex atom; 2. Action at a distance. Elastic solid of theory of light. Maxwell's theory of electrical action. Electro-magnetic theory. Verification of electromagnetic theory by Hertz. Electro-magnetic waves. Wireless telegraphy. First suggestion of molecular structure of electricity. Early experiments in the electric discharge through gases. Kathode rays. Works of Goldstein and Crookes. Hittorf's investigations. Own work on the discharge through gases. Ionization of gases. Magnetic deflexion of kathode rays. J. J. Thomson's experiments. Measurement of atomic charge; 3. Roentgen's discovery. Theories of Roentgen rays. Ionizing power of Roentgen rays. Conduction of electricity through ionized gases. Discovery of radio-activity. Discovery of radium. Magnetic deflexion of rays emitted by radio-active bodies. Discovery of emanations. Theory of radio-active change. Decay of the atom. Connexion between helium and the a ray. Helium produced by radium. Strutt's researches on helium accumulated in rocks. Electric inertia. Constitution of atom. J. J. Thomson's theory of Roentgen radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment. Principle of relativity. The Zeeman effect. Other consequences of electron theory. Contrast between old and modern school of physics; 4. Observational sciences. Judgment affected by scale. Terrestrial magnetism. Existence of potential. Separation of internal and external causes. Diurnal variation. Magnetic storms. Their causes. Solar

  14. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, A M; Foss-Feig, M; Wall, M L; Rey, A M; Regal, C A

    2015-01-01

    To advance quantum information science a constant pursuit is the search for physical systems that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. While these interactions allow fast gates, atoms subject to these interactions must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring significant wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects yet present a new challenge: To distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, via a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. While ult...

  15. Random-matrix theory and complex atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Around 1950, Wigner introduced the idea of modelling physical reality with an ensemble of random matrices while studying the energy levels of heavy atomic nuclei. Since then, the field of random-matrix theory has grown tremendously, with applications ranging from fluctuations on the economic markets to complex atomic spectra. The purpose of this short article is to review several attempts to apply the basic concepts of random-matrix theory to the structure and radiative transitions of atoms and ions, using the random matrices originally introduced by Wigner in the framework of the gaussian orthogonal ensemble. Some intrinsic properties of complex-atom physics, which could be enlightened by random-matrix theory, are presented.

  16. Atoms and Molecules Interacting with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Peter; Metcalf, Harold

    2016-02-01

    Part I. Atom-Light Interaction: 1. The classical physics pathway; Appendix 1.A. Damping force on an accelerating charge; Appendix 1.B. Hanle effect; Appendix 1.C. Optical tweezers; 2. Interaction of two-level atoms and light; Appendix 2.A. Pauli matrices for motion of the bloch vector; Appendix 2.B. The Ramsey method; Appendix 2.C. Echoes and interferometry; Appendix 2.D. Adiabatic rapid passage; Appendix 2.E Superposition and entanglement; 3. The atom-light interaction; Appendix 3.A. Proof of the oscillator strength theorem; Appendix 3.B. Electromagnetic fields; Appendix 3.C. The dipole approximation; Appendix 3.D. Time resolved fluorescence from multi-level atoms; 4. 'Forbidden' transitions; Appendix 4.A. Higher order approximations; 5. Spontaneous emission; Appendix 5.A. The quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator; Appendix 5.B. Field quantization; Appendix 5.C. Alternative theories to QED; 6. The density matrix; Appendix 6.A. The Liouville-von Neumann equation; Part II. Internal Structure: 7. The hydrogen atom; Appendix 7.A. Center-of-mass motion; Appendix 7.B. Coordinate systems; Appendix 7.C. Commuting operators; Appendix 7.D. Matrix elements of the radial wavefunctions; 8. Fine structure; Appendix 8.A. The Sommerfeld fine-structure constant; Appendix 8.B. Measurements of the fine structure 9. Effects of the nucleus; Appendix 9.A. Interacting magnetic dipoles; Appendix 9.B. Hyperfine structure for two spin =2 particles; Appendix 9.C. The hydrogen maser; 10. The alkali-metal atoms; Appendix 10.A. Quantum defects for the alkalis; Appendix 10.B. Numerov method; 11. Atoms in magnetic fields; Appendix 11.A. The ground state of atomic hydrogen; Appendix 11.B. Positronium; Appendix 11.C. The non-crossing theorem; Appendix 11.D. Passage through an anticrossing: Landau-Zener transitions; 12. Atoms in electric fields; 13. Rydberg atoms; 14. The helium atom; Appendix 14.A. Variational calculations; Appendix 14.B. Detail on the variational calculations of the ground state

  17. Diffusion of Rb atoms in paraffin - coated resonant vapor cells

    CERN Document Server

    Atutov, S N; Plekhanov, A I; Sorokin, V A; Yakovlev, A V

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the diffusion of Rb atoms in paraffin - coated resonant vapor cells. We have modeled the Rb diffusion both in the cell and in the coating, assuming that the main loss of Rb atoms is due to the physical absorption of the atoms by the glass substrate. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium atomic density in the cell is a monotonic function of the thickness of the paraffin coating: the density increases with an increase in the thickness of the coating. The diffusion coefficient for rubidium in paraffin thin films has been determined to be equal to 4,7*10^-7 cm^2/s. The results of the experiment might be useful for a better understanding of the details involved in the processes of the interaction of alkali atoms with a paraffin coating.

  18. High-resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Campos, J. D.; Johnson, K. G.; Neyenhuis, B.; Mizrahi, J.; Monroe, C.

    2016-09-01

    Optical imaging systems are used extensively in the life and physical sciences because of their ability to non-invasively capture details on the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. Such systems are often limited by source or detector noise, image distortions and human operator misjudgement. Here, we report a general, quantitative method to analyse and correct these errors. We use this method to identify and correct optical aberrations in an imaging system for single atoms and realize an atomic position sensitivity of ˜0.5 nm Hz-1/2 with a minimum uncertainty of 1.7 nm, allowing the direct imaging of atomic motion. This is the highest position sensitivity ever measured for an isolated atom and opens up the possibility of performing out-of-focus three-dimensional particle tracking, imaging of atoms in three-dimensional optical lattices or sensing forces at the yoctonewton (10-24 N) scale.

  19. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  20. Studies of Ultracold Strontium Atoms in an Optical Dipole Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A. J.; Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Mickelson, P. G.; Killian, T. C.

    2008-05-01

    We survey recent experiments with ultracold strontium performed in our group. Trapping and cooling occurs in three stages: successive magneto-optical traps (MOTs) operating on 461 nm and 689 nm transitions of strontium, respectively, are loaded to cool atoms to a temperature of 1 μK. Finally, atoms are loaded into a far-off-resonance optical dipole trap (ODT). We examine the loading characteristics, thermalization, and lifetime of atoms held within the ODT. We also perform spectroscopy of atoms held within the ODT. During laser cooling, we are able to manipulate the energy levels of the atoms and shelve them into metastable states using 707 nm and 3 μm lasers. These experiments reveal interesting physics of ultracold strontium.

  1. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms in a parahydrogen matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jonathan; Arnott, W. Patrick; Christy, Tim; Hartzell, Chase; Kanagin, Andrew; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Upadhyay, Sunil

    2016-05-01

    Building on prior work with rubidium atoms in a cryogenic argon matrix, we have grown solid parahydrogen crystals doped with rubidium atoms. Typical rubidium densities are on the order of 1017 cm-3. We have demonstrated optical pumping of the atomic spin of the implanted rubidium atoms; the measured spin polarization signals are roughly one order of magnitude larger than what was achieved in argon matrices. The combination of high atomic densities and optical addressability make this a promising experimental platform for applications such as magnetometry and fundamental physics measurements. Spin lifetimes (T1) on the order of 1 second have been observed. Progress towards measuring coherence times (T2) will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1265905.

  2. Theory of long-range ultracold atom-molecule photoassociation

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Dulieu, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The creation of ultracold molecules is currently limited to diatomic species. In this letter we present a theoretical description of the photoassociation of ultracold atoms and molecules to create ultracold excited triatomic molecules, thus being a novel example of light-assisted ultracold chemical reaction. The calculation of the photoassociation rate of ultracold Cs atoms with ultracold Cs$_2$ molecules in their rovibrational ground state is reported, based on the solution of the quantum dynamics involving the atom-molecule long-range interactions, and assuming a model potential for the short-range physics. The rate for the formation of excited Cs$_3$ molecules is predicted to be comparable with currently observed atom-atom photoassociation rates. We formulate an experimental proposal to observe this process relying on the available techniques of optical lattices and standard photoassociation spectroscopy.

  3. Atom Interferometry for Detection of Gravitational Waves: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy promises to provide a new window into the universe, collecting information about astrophysical systems and cosmology that is difficult or impossible to acquire by other methods. Detector designs based on atom interferometry offer a number of advantages over traditional approaches, including access to conventionally inaccessible frequency ranges and substantially reduced antenna baselines. Atomic physics techniques also make it possible to build a gravitational wave detector with a single linear baseline, potentially offering advantages in cost and design flexibility. In support of these proposals, recent progress in long baseline atom interferometry has enabled observation of matter wave interference with atomic wavepacket separations exceeding 10 cm and interferometer durations of more than 2 seconds. These results are obtained in a 10-meter drop tower incorporating large momentum transfer atom optics. This approach can provide ground-based proof-of-concept demonstrations of many of the technical requirements of both terrestrial and satellite gravitational wave detectors.

  4. Multiphoton Processes and Attosecond Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes; 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in ultrashort pulsed laser technology have opened new frontiers in atomic, molecular and optical sciences. The 12th International Conference on Multiphoton Processes (ICOMP12) and the 3rd International Conference on Attosecond Physics (ATTO3), held jointly in Sapporo, Japan, during July 3-8, showcased studies at the forefront of research on multiphoton processes and attosecond physics. This book summarizes presentations and discussions from these two conferences.

  5. Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.

  6. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  7. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robicheaux, Francis [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  8. Imaging Multi-Particle Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Allen [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Final Report for Grant Number: DE- FG02-10ER16146 This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms and molecules with photons and electrons. The duration of the grant was the 5 year period from 4/1/2010 – 10/31/2015. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 20 peer reviewed publications over these 5 years with 2 of the publications in Physical Review Letters and 1 in Nature; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B ...).

  9. Edge physics Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Q. Xu; C.S. Chang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The plasma edge includes the pedestal, scrape-off, and divertor regions. A complete edge physics should deal with the plasma, atomic, and the plasma-wall interaction phenomena. The edge provides the source of plasma through ionization of the incoming neutral particles and source of impurity through the wall sputtering. Edge plasma sets a boundary condition for the core confinement physics. Importance of the edge plasma has been elevated to the top list of the ITER physics research needs due to the necessity of the self-organized plasma pedestal and its destruction by edge localized mode activities. Extrapolation of the present tokamak data base predicts that a sufficient pedestal height is a necessary condition for the success of ITER.

  10. RF-dressed Rydberg atoms in hollow-core fibres

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by the Institute of Physics. The giant electro-optical response of Rydberg atoms manifests itself in the emergence of sidebands in the Rydberg excitation spectrum if the atom is exposed to a radio-frequency (RF) electric field. Here we report on the study of RF-dressed Rydberg atoms inside hollow-core photonic crystal fibres (HC-PCF), a system that enables the use of low modulation volta...

  11. Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.

  12. Storage rings for investigation of ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, R.

    1987-08-01

    In this survey, we give a brief description of synchrotron storage rings for heavy ions, and examples for their use in ion-atom collision physics. The compression of the phase space distribution of the ions by electron cooling, and the gain factors of in-ring experiments compared to single-pass experiments are explained. Some examples of a new generation of ion-atom collision experiments which may become feasible with storage rings are given. These include the studies of angular differential single- and double-electron capture cross sections, the production of slow highly charged recoil ions, and atomic collision processes using decelerated and crossed beam. 30 refs.

  13. Feasible Teleportation Schemes with Five-Atom Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zheng-Yuan; YI You-Min; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2006-01-01

    Teleportation schemes with a five-atom entangled state are investigated. In the teleportation scheme Bell state measurements (BSMs) are difficult for physical realization, so we investigate another strategy using separate measurements instead of BSM based on cavity quantum electrodynamics techniques. The scheme of two-atom entangled state teleportation is a controlled and probabilistic one. For the teleportation of the three-atom entangled state, the scheme is a probabilistic one. The fidelity and the probability of the successful teleportation are also obtained.

  14. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. M.; Lester, B. J.; Foss-Feig, M.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Regal, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  15. Light element opacities of astrophysical interest from ATOMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H., Jr.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J., Jr.; Sherrill, M. E.; Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P.

    2013-07-01

    We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code [1] for systems of astrophysical interest. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code [2]. The ATOMIC code uses ab-initio atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes [3], and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER [4]. ATOMIC also incorporates a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture [5]. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. Our new calculations are made for elements of astrophysical interest and for a wide range of temperatures and densities.

  16. Rotary cup slurry atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

  17. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  18. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  19. Atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between the Slater-Condon theory and the conditions within the atom as revealed by experimental data was investigated. The first spectrum of Si, Rb, Cl, Br, I, Ne, Ar, and Xe-136 and the second spectrum of As, Cu, and P were determined. Methods for assessing the phase stability of fringe counting interferometers and the design of an autoranging scanning system for digitizing the output of an infrared spectrometer and recording it on magnetic tape are described.

  20. Atom Interferometry Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-19

    Casher effect . RECENT PUBLICATION Atom Optics, David W. Keith and David E. Pritchard, New frontiers in QED and Quantumoptics, (Plenum Press, New York...frequencies (< 10 Hz) where the passive system is least effective . The reduction of relative motion provided by the active system will allow us to use much...experimental objective will probably be a demonstration of Berry’s phase with bosons. Another possibility would be an improved measurement of the Aharonov