WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic mass difference

  1. Direct determination of the atomic mass difference of Re187 and Os187 for neutrino physics and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterenko, D A; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chenmarev, S; Doerr, A; Droese, C; Filianin, P E; Goncharov, M; Ramirez, E Minaya; Novikov, Yu N; Schweikhard, L; Simon, V V

    2016-01-01

    For the first time a direct determination of the atomic mass difference of 187Re and 187Os has been performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. The obtained value of 2492(30stat)(15sys) eV is in excellent agreement with the Q values determined indirectly with microcalorimetry and thus resolves a long-standing discrepancy with older proportional counter measurements. This is essential for the determination of the neutrino mass from the beta-decay of 187Re as planned in future microcalorimetric measurements. In addition, an accurate mass difference of 187Re and 187Os is also important for the assessment of 187Re for cosmochronology.

  2. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  3. Determination of total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for different shielding materials used in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida J, A. T. [FUNDACENTRO, Centro Regional de Minas Gerais, Brazilian Institute for Safety and Health at Work, Belo Horizonte, 30180-100 Minas Gerais (Brazil); Nogueira, M. S. [Center of Development of Nuclear Technology / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Santos, M. A. P., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Regional Center for Nuclear Science / CNEN, 50.740-540 Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this paper, the interaction of X-rays with some shielding materials has been studied for materials containing different amounts of barite and aggregates. The total mass attenuation coefficient (μ{sub t}) for three shielding materials has been calculated by using WinXCOM program in the energy range from RQR qualities (RQR-4, RQR-6, RQR-9, and RQR-10). They were: cream barite (density 2.99 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Sao Paulo), purple barite (density 2.95 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Bahia) and white barite (density 3.10 g/cm{sup 3} collected in the State of Paraiba). The chemical analysis was carried out by an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer model EDX-720, through dispersive energy. The six elements of the higher concentration found in the sample and analyzed by Spectrophotometry of Energy Dispersive X-ray for the samples were Ba(60.9% - white barite), Ca(17,92% - cream barite), Ce(3,60% - white barite), Fe(17,16% - purple barite), S(12,11% - white barite) and Si(29,61% - purple barite). Also, the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and the effective electron density (N{sub eff}) were calculated using the values of the total mass attenuation coefficient. The dependence of these parameters on the incident photon energy and the chemical composition has been examined. (Author)

  4. The 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation and the Mass Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audi, G., E-mail: amdc.audi@gmail.com [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Wang, M. [CSNSM-Orsay, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); MPI-K, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wapstra, A.H. [NIKHEF, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kondev, F.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); MacCormick, M. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Xu, X. [IMP, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2014-06-15

    The new evaluation of the Atomic Masses, Ame2012, has just been released. It represents a major step in the history of the 60 year old Atomic Mass Evaluation based on the method developed by Wapstra. This new publication includes all material available to date. Some of the policies and procedures used in our evaluation are reported, together with an illustration of one specially difficult case, the energy available for the {sup 102}Pd double-electron capture. The observation of the mass surface reveals many important new features. We illustrate this statement by the double magicity of {sup 270}Hs at N = 162 and Z = 108.

  5. Equilibrium vortex lattices of a binary rotating atomic Bose-Einstein condensate with unequal atomic masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Biao; Wang, Lin-Xue; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Fei

    2016-10-01

    We perform a detailed numerical study of the equilibrium ground-state structures of a binary rotating Bose-Einstein condensate with unequal atomic masses. Our results show that the ground-state distribution and its related vortex configurations are complex events that differ markedly depending strongly on the strength of rotation frequency, as well as on the ratio of atomic masses. We also discuss the structures and radii of the clouds, the number and the size of the core region of the vortices, as a function of the rotation frequency, and of the ratio of atomic masses, and the analytical results agree well with our numerical simulations. This work may open an alternate way in the quantum control of the binary rotating quantum gases with unequal atomic masses.

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-35 (Fluorine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-35 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 35).

  7. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-226 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 226).

  9. On the atomic masses (weights?) Of the elements

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptay G.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic masses (weights?) is an essential information for mining and metallurgy. The paper discusses four subjects around this problem. First, the classification of all the elements is suggested into 4 classes, based on their isotope features, determining the accuracy of their known atomic masses. As part of that, the class of elements is discussed with uncertain atomic weights in accordance with the 2009 IUPAC recommendations. A better (easier to use) format of atomic weights is present...

  10. Atom interferometry in the presence of an external test mass

    CERN Document Server

    Dubetsky, B; Libby, S B; Berman, P R

    2016-01-01

    The influence of an external test mass on the phase of the signal of an atom interferometer is studied theoretically. Using traditional techniques in atom optics based on the density matrix equations in the Wigner representation, we are able to extract the various contributions to the phase of the signal associated with the classical motion of the atoms, the quantum correction to this motion resulting from atomic recoil that is produced when the atoms interact with Raman field pulses, and quantum corrections to the atomic motion that occur in the time between the Raman field pulses. By increasing the effective wave vector associated with the Raman field pulses using modified field parameters, we can increase the sensitivity of the signal to the point where the quantum corrections can be measured. The expressions that are derived can be evaluated numerically to isolate the contribution to the signal from an external test mass. The regions of validity of the exact and approximate expressions are determined.

  11. Estimation of atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Masahiro [Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To estimate unknown atomic masses of heavy and superheavy elements, three kinds of formula: FRDM (finite range droplet model by Moeller et al.), TUYY (an empirical formula by Tachibana et al.) and our KUTY are explained. KUTY estimates the crude shell energies of spherical nucleus from sum of single-particle energies. Then, the refined shell energies in due consideration of paring and deformation are obtained by mixing with the functions of the crude shell energies. Experimental values of U and Fm isotopes were compared with estimation mass of KUTY and FRDM. In the field with experimental values of U isotopes, the value of KUTY and FRDM separated the same difference from the experimental value. The behavior of KUTY and FRDM for Fm isotopes were same as that of U, but ETFSI deviated a little from the experimental values. (S.Y.)

  12. Toward the Atomic-Level Mass Analysis of Biomolecules by the Scanning Atom Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masahiro

    2016-12-22

    In 1994, a new type of atom probe instrument, named the scanning atom probe (SAP), was proposed. The unique feature of the SAP is the introduction of a small extraction electrode, which scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field, required for field evaporation of surface atoms in a small space, between the specimen and the electrode. Thus, the SAP does not require a sharp specimen tip. This indicates that the SAP can mass analyze the specimens which are difficult to form in a sharp tip, such as organic materials and biomolecules. Clean single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), made by high-pressure carbon monoxide process are found to be the best substrates for biomolecules. Various amino acids and dipeptide biomolecules were successfully mass analyzed, revealing characteristic clusters formed by strongly bound atoms in the specimens. The mass analysis indicates that SAP analysis of biomolecules is not only qualitative, but also quantitative.

  13. Fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Breeman, R.B. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Schmitz, H.H.; Schwartz, S.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Positive ion fast atom bombardment (FAB) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using a double-focusing mass spectrometer with linked scanning at constant B/E and high-energy collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) was used to differentiate 17 different cartenoids, including {beta}-apo-8{prime}- carotenal, astaxanthin, {alpha}-carotene, {beta}-carotene, {gamma}-carotene, {zeta}-carotene, canthaxanthin, {beta}-cryptoxanthin, isozeaxanthin bis (pelargonate), neoxanthin, neurosporene, nonaprene, lutein, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and zeaxanthin. The carotenoids were either synthetic or isolated from plant tissues. The use of FAB ionization minimized degradation or rearrangement of the carotenoid structures due to the inherent thermal instability generally ascribed to these compounds. Instead of protonated molecules, both polar xanthophylls and nonpolar carotenes formed molecular ions, M{sup {center_dot}+}, during FAB ionization. Following collisionally activated dissociation, fragment ions of selected molecular ion precursors showed structural features indicative of the presence of hydroxyl groups, ring systems, ester groups, and aldehyde groups and the extent of aliphatic polyene conjugation. The fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra herein may be used as a reference for the structural determination of carotenoids isolated from plant and animal tissues. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Surpassing the mass restriction of buffer gas cooling: Cooling of low mass ions by localized heavier atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Cooling of trapped ions has resulted in fascinating science including the realization of some of the most accurate atomic clocks. It has also found widespread application, for example, in mass spectrometry and cold chemistry. Among the different methods for cooling ions, cooling by elastic collisions with ultracold neutral atoms is arguably the most generic. However, in spite of its widespread application, there is confusion with regards the collisional heating/cooling of light ions by heavier neutral atoms. We address the question experimentally and demonstrate, for the first time, cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms. We show that trapped 39 K+ ions are cooled by localized ultracold neutral 85 Rb atoms. The atom-ion mass ratio (= 2.18) is well beyond any theoretical predictions so far. We further argue that cooling of ions by localized cold atoms is possible for any mass ratio. The result opens up the possibility of reaching the elusive s-wave collision regime in atom-ion collisions. S.D. is supported by DST-INSPIRE Faculty Fellowship, India.

  15. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  16. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica

    2006-07-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  17. The Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME2012): Status and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondev, F. G.; Audi, G.; Wang, M.; Xu, X.; Wapstra, A. H.; MacCormick, M.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2013-10-01

    The atomic mass is a fundamental property of the nucleus that has wide applications in natural sciences and technology. The new evaluated mass table, AME2012, has been recently published as a collaborative effort between scientists from China, Europe and USA, under the leadership of G. Audi. It represents a significant update of the previous AME2003 evaluation by considering a large number of precise experimental results obtained at existing Penning Trap and Storage Ring facilities, thus expending the region of experimentally known masses towards exotic neutron- and proton-rich nuclei. Since the presence of isomers plays an important role in determining the masses of many nuclei, a complementary database, NUBASE2012, that contains the isomer-level properties for all nuclei was also developed. This presentation will briefly review recent achievements of the collaboration, present on-going activities, and reflect on ideas for future developments and challenges in the field of evaluation of atomic masses. The work at ANL was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Effect of mass-velocity on liquid jet atomization in Mach 1 gasflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    Interacting two-phase flow in four differently sized pneumatic two-fluid atomizers was investigated to determine the effect of gas mass-velocity on the Sauter mean diameter of sprays produced by small diameter liquid jets breaking up in high velocity gas flow. Tests were conducted primarily in the acceleration-wave regime for liquid jet atomization, where it was found that the loss of droplets due to vaporization had a marked effect on drop size measurements. A scattered-light scanner, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used to measure the Sauter mean diameter, D sub 32, which was correlated with nitrogen gas mass-velocity to give the following expression: D (sup -1)(sub 32) = 11.7(rho (sub n) V (sub n)) (sup 1.33). The exponent 1.33 for the gas mass-velocity is identical to that predicted by atomization theory for liquid jet breakup in the acceleration-wave regime.

  19. Population and mass imbalance in atomic Fermi gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarsma, J E; Gubbels, K.B.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    We develop an accurate theory of resonantly interacting Fermi mixtures with both spin and mass imbalance. We consider Fermi mixtures with arbitrary mass imbalances but focus, in particular, on the experimentally available Li6-K40 mixture. We determine the phase diagram of the mixture for different i

  20. Ub-library of Atomic Masses and Nuclear Ground States Deformations (CENPL.AMD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The atomic mass is one of basic data of a nuclear. There are the atomic masses in all nuclear reaction model formulas and motion equations. For any reaction calculations atomic masses are basic data for getting binding energies or Q-values. In some applications, it is important also to have atomic masses even for exotic nuclei quite far from the valley of stability. In addition, nuclear ground state deformations and abundance values are also requisite in the nuclear data calculations. For this purpose, A data file on atomic masses and nuclear ground states deformations (AMD) were constructed, which

  1. Satellite virtual atomic clock with pseudorange difference function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Satellite atomic clocks are the basis of GPS for the control of time and frequency of navigation signals. In the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), a satellite navigation system without the satellite atomic clocks onboard is successfully developed. Thus, the method of time synchronization based on satellite atomic clocks in GPS is not suitable. Satellite virtual atomic clocks are used to implement satellite navigation. With the satellite virtual atomic clocks, the time at which the signals are transmitted from the ground can be delayed into the time that the signals are transmitted from the satellites and the pseudorange measuring can be fulfilled as in GPS. Satellite virtual atomic clocks can implement the navigation, make a pseudorange difference, remove the ephemeris error, and improve the accuracy of navigation positioning. They not only provide a navigation system without satellite clocks, but also a navigation system with pseudorange difference.

  2. Comment on "Atomic mass compilation 2012" by B. Pfeiffer, K. Venkataramaniah, U. Czok, C. Scheidenberger

    CERN Document Server

    Audi, Georges; Block, Michael; Bollen, Georg; Herfurth, Frank; Goriely, Stéphane; Hardy, John C; Kondev, Filip G; Kluge, Juergen H; Lunney, David; Pearson, Mike J; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yuhu

    2014-01-01

    This "Comment" submitted to ADNDT on December 13, 2013 concerns a publication entitled "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012", which is due to appear in the March 2014 issue of the journal Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables (available online on September 6, 2013). We would like to make it clear that this paper is not endorsed by the Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) international collaboration. The AME provides carefully recommended evaluated data, published periodically. The "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" is not to be associated with the latest publication, AME2012, nor with any of the previously published mass evaluations that were developed under the leadership of Prof. A.H. Wapstra. We found the data presented in "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" to be misleading and the approach implemented to be lacking in rigour since it does not allow to unambiguously trace the original published mass values. Furthermore, the method used in "Atomic Mass Compilation 2012" is not valid and leads to erroneous and contradictory outputs,...

  3. Bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based atomic-scale mass sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Akbari, H. R.; Shaat, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2016-08-01

    The potentials of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as mechanical resonators for atomic-scale mass sensing are presented. To this aim, a nonlocal continuum-based model is proposed to study the dynamic behavior of bridged single-walled carbon nanotube-based mass nanosensors. The carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered as an elastic Euler-Bernoulli beam with von Kármán type geometric nonlinearity. Eringen's nonlocal elastic field theory is utilized to model the interatomic long-range interactions within the structure of the CNT. This developed model accounts for the arbitrary position of the deposited atomic-mass. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes are determined based on an eigenvalue problem analysis. An atom of xenon (Xe) is first considered as a specific case where the results show that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the CNT are strongly dependent on the location of the deposited Xe and the nonlocal parameter of the CNT. It is also indicated that the first vibrational mode is the most sensitive when the mass is deposited at the middle of a single-walled carbon nanotube. However, when deposited in other locations, it is demonstrated that the second or third vibrational modes may be more sensitive. To investigate the sensitivity of bridged single-walled CNTs as mass sensors, different noble gases are considered, namely Xe, argon (Ar), and helium (He). It is shown that the sensitivity of the single-walled CNT to the Ar and He gases is much lower than the Xe gas due to the significant decrease in their masses. The derived model and performed analysis are so needed for mass sensing applications and particularly when the detected mass is randomly deposited.

  4. The AME2012 atomic mass evaluation (Ⅰ).Evaluation of input data, adjustment procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Audi; M.Wang; A.H.Wapstra; F.G.Kondev; M.MacCormick; X.Xu; B.Pfeiffer

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first of two articles (Part Ⅰ and Part Ⅱ) that presents the results of the new atomic mass evaluation,AME2012.It includes complete information on the experimental input data (including not used and rejected ones),as well as details on the evaluation procedures used to derive the tables with recommended values given in the second part.This article describes the evaluation philosophy and procedures that were implemented in the selection of specific nuclear reaction,decay and mass-spectrometer results.These input values were entered in the least-squares adjustment procedure for determining the best values for the atomic masses and their uncertainties.Calculation procedures and particularities of the AME are then described.All accepted and rejected data,including outweighed ones,are presented in a tabular format and compared with the adjusted values (obtained using the adjustment procedure).Differences with the previous AME2003 evaluation are also discussed and specific information is presented for several cases that may be of interest to various AME users.The second AME2012 article,the last one in this issue,gives a table with recommended values of atomic masses,as well as tables and graphs of derived quantities,along with the list of references used in both this AME2012 evaluation and the NUBASE2012 one (the first paper in this issue).

  5. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data; and adjustment procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, W. J.; Audi, G.; Wang, Meng; Kondev, F. G.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the first of two articles (Part I and Part II) that presents the results of the new atomic mass evaluation, Ame2016. It includes complete information on the experimental input data (also including unused and rejected ones), as well as details on the evaluation procedures used to derive the tables of recommended values given in the second part. This article describes the evaluation philosophy and procedures that were implemented in the selection of specific nuclear reaction, decay and mass-spectrometric results. These input values were entered in the least-squares adjustment for determining the best values for the atomic masses and their uncertainties. Details of the calculation and particularities of the Ame are then described. All accepted and rejected data, including outweighted ones, are presented in a tabular format and compared with the adjusted values obtained using the least-squares fit analysis. Differences with the previous Ame2012 evaluation are discussed and specific information is presented for several cases that may be of interest to Ame users. The second Ame2016 article gives a table with the recommended values of atomic masses, as well as tables and graphs of derived quantities, along with the list of references used in both the Ame2016 and the Nubase2016 evaluations (the first paper in this issue). Amdc: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/

  6. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data; and adjustment procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. J.; Audi, G.; Wang, Meng; Kondev, F. G.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the first of two articles (Part I and Part II) that presents the results of the new atomic mass evaluation, AME2016. It includes complete information on the experimental input data (also including unused and rejected ones), as well as details on the evaluation procedures used to derive the tables of recommended values given in the second part. This article describes the evaluation philosophy and procedures that were implemented in the selection of specific nuclear reaction, decay and mass-spectrometric results. These input values were entered in the least-squares adjustment for determining the best values for the atomic masses and their uncertainties. Details of the calculation and particularities of the AME are then described. All accepted and rejected data, including outweighted ones, are presented in a tabular format and compared with the adjusted values obtained using the least-squares fit analysis. Differences with the previous AME2012 evaluation are discussed and specific information is presented for several cases that may be of interest to AME users. The second AME2016 article gives a table with the recommended values of atomic masses, as well as tables and graphs of derived quantities, along with the list of references used in both the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluations (the first paper in this issue). AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (I). Evaluation of input data; and adjustment proceduresAcrobat PDF (1.2 MB) Table I. Input data compared with adjusted valuesAcrobat PDF (1.3 MB)

  7. Comparative mass spectrometric analyses of Photofrin oligomers by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, UV and IR matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and laser desorption/jet-cooling photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M M; Tabei, K; Tsao, R; Pastel, M J; Pandey, R K; Berkenkamp, S; Hillenkamp, F; de Vries, M S

    1999-06-01

    Photofrin (porfimer sodium) is a porphyrin derivative used in the treatment of a variety of cancers by photodynamic therapy. This oligomer complex and a variety of porphyrin monomers, dimers and trimers were analyzed with five different mass spectral ionization techniques: fast atom bombardment, UV and IR matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, electrospray ionization, and laser desorption/jet-cooling photoionization. All five approaches resulted in very similar oligomer distributions with an average oligomer length of 2.7 +/- 0.1 porphyrin units. In addition to the Photofrin analysis, this study provides a side-by-side comparison of the spectra for the five different mass spectrometric techniques.

  8. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, Anne, E-mail: annebonnin@free.fr [ESRF, 6 Jules Horowitz, F-38073 Grenoble Cedex (France); LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Duvauchelle, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Kaftandjian, Valérie [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ponard, Pascal [Thales Electron Devices SAS, 2 Rue Marcel Dassault, BP23 78141 Vélizy, Villacoublay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage.

  9. Anharmonicity of internal atomic oscillation and effective antineutrino mass evaluation from gaseous molecular tritium \\beta -decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lokhov, Alexey V

    2016-01-01

    Data analysis of the next generation effective antineutrino mass measurement experiment KATRIN requires reliable knowledge of systematic corrections. In particular, the width of the daughter molecular ion excitation spectrum rovibrational band should be known with a better then 1% precision. Very precise ab initio quantum calculations exist, and we compare them with the well known tritium molecule parameters within the framework of a phenomenological model. The rovibrational band width with accuracy of a few percent is interpreted as a result of the zero-point atomic oscillation in the harmonic potential. The Morse interatomic potential is used to investigate the impact of anharmonic atomic oscillations. The calculated corrections cannot account for the difference between the ab initio quantum calculations and the phenomenological model.

  10. Precision measurement of $D$ meson mass differences

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    Using three- and four-body decays of $D$ mesons produced in semileptonic $b$-hadron decays, precision measurements of $D$ meson mass differences are made together with a measurement of the $D^{0}$ mass. The measurements are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected in $pp$ collisions at 7~TeV. Using the decay $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} K^{-} \\pi^{+}$, the $D^0$ mass is measured to be \\begin{alignat*}{3} M(D^0) \\phantom{ghd} &=&~1864.75 \\pm 0.15 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.11 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2. \\end{alignat*} The mass differences \\begin{alignat*}{3} M(D^{+}) - M(D^{0}) &=& 4.76 \\pm 0.12 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.07 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2, \\\\ M(D^{+}_s) - M(D^{+}) &=& \\phantom{00}98.68 \\pm 0.03 \\,({\\rm stat}) \\pm 0.04 \\,({\\rm syst}) \\, \\textrm{MeV}/c^2 \\end{alignat*} are measured using the $D^0 \\rightarrow K^{+} K^{-} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $D^{+}_{(s)} \\rightarrow K^{+}K^{-} \\pi^{+}$ modes.

  11. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  12. Comment on “Atomic mass compilation 2012” by B. Pfeiffer, K. Venkataramaniah, U. Czok, C. Scheidenberger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audi, G., E-mail: amdc.audi@gmail.com [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Goriely, S. [Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, CP-226, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Hardy, J.C. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kondev, F.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lunney, D. [CSNSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Pearson, J.M. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Savard, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sharma, K.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); and others

    2015-05-15

    In order to avoid errors and confusion that may arise from the recent publication of a paper entitled “Atomic Mass Compilation 2012”, we explain the important difference between a compilation and an evaluation; the former is a necessary but insufficient condition for the latter. The simple list of averaged mass values offered by the “Atomic Mass Compilation” uses none of the numerous links and correlations present in the large body of input data that are carefully maintained within the “Atomic Mass Evaluation”. As such, the mere compilation can only produce results of inferior accuracy. Illustrative examples are given.

  13. Integrated MEMS mass sensor and atom source for a ``Fab on a Chip''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Bishop, David

    2014-03-01

    ``Fab on a Chip'' is a new concept suggesting that the semiconductor fabrication facility can be integrated into a single silicon chip for nano-manufacturing. Such a chip contains various MEMS devices which can work together, operating in a similar way as a conventional fab does, to fabricate nano-structures. Here we present two crucial ``Fab on a chip'' components: the MEMS mass sensor and atomic evaporation source. The mass sensor is essentially a parallel plate capacitor with one suspended plate. When incident atoms deposit on the suspended plate, the mass change of the plate can be measured by detecting the resonant frequency shift. Using the mass sensor, a mass resolution of 3 fg is achieved. The MEMS evaporation source consists of a polysilicon plate suspended by two electrical leads with constrictions. By resistively heating the plate, this device works as a tunable atom flux source. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one can build a multi-element atom evaporator. The mass sensor and atom source are integrated so that the mass sensor is used to monitor and characterize the atomic flux. A material source and a sensor to monitor the fabrication are two integral components for our ``Fab on a Chip.''

  14. Numeral series hidden in the distribution of atomic mass of amino acids to codon domains in the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlin, Åsa

    2015-03-21

    The distribution of codons in the nearly universal genetic code is a long discussed issue. At the atomic level, the numeral series 2x(2) (x=5-0) lies behind electron shells and orbitals. Numeral series appear in formulas for spectral lines of hydrogen. The question here was if some similar scheme could be found in the genetic code. A table of 24 codons was constructed (synonyms counted as one) for 20 amino acids, four of which have two different codons. An atomic mass analysis was performed, built on common isotopes. It was found that a numeral series 5 to 0 with exponent 2/3 times 10(2) revealed detailed congruency with codon-grouped amino acid side-chains, simultaneously with the division on atom kinds, further with main 3rd base groups, backbone chains and with codon-grouped amino acids in relation to their origin from glycolysis or the citrate cycle. Hence, it is proposed that this series in a dynamic way may have guided the selection of amino acids into codon domains. Series with simpler exponents also showed noteworthy correlations with the atomic mass distribution on main codon domains; especially the 2x(2)-series times a factor 16 appeared as a conceivable underlying level, both for the atomic mass and charge distribution. Furthermore, it was found that atomic mass transformations between numeral systems, possibly interpretable as dimension degree steps, connected the atomic mass of codon bases with codon-grouped amino acids and with the exponent 2/3-series in several astonishing ways. Thus, it is suggested that they may be part of a deeper reference system.

  15. Photoassociative Cooling and Trapping of Center-of-Mass Motion of Atom-Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Subrata; Deb, Bimalendu

    2015-01-01

    We show that it is possible to cool and trap the center-of-mass (COM) motion of atom-pairs by a lin$\\perp$lin Sisyphus-like method using counter-propagating photoassociation lasers. This method relies on the photoassociative coupling between an excited molecular bound state and a single-channel continuum of states of scattering between ground-state atoms. We demonstrate that one can generate molecular spin-dependent periodic potentials by this method for trapping the COM motion of pairs of ground-state atoms. We illustrate this with numerical calculations using fermionic $^{171}$Yb atoms as an example.

  16. Precise atomic masses of neutron-rich Br and Rb nuclei close to the r-process path

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, S; Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, J; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Karvonen, P; Moore, I D; Pentillä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J

    2007-01-01

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP, coupled to the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility at Jyvaskyla, was employed to measure the atomic masses of neutron rich 85 to 92Br and 94 to 97Rb isotopes with a typical accuracy less than 10 keV. Discrepancies with the older data are discussed. Comparison to different mass models is presented. Details of nuclear structure, shell and subshell closures are investigated by studying the two-neutron separation energy and the shell gap energy.

  17. Precise atomic masses of neutron-rich Br and Rb nuclei close to the r-process path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, S.; Hager, U.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.D.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (YFL) (Finland)

    2007-04-15

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP, coupled to the Ion-Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility at Jyvaeskylae, was employed to measure the atomic masses of neutron-rich {sup 85-92}Br and {sup 94-97}Rb isotopes with a typical accuracy less than 10keV. Discrepancies with the older data are discussed. Comparison to different mass models is presented. Details of nuclear structure, shell and subshell closures are investigated by studying the two-neutron separation energy and the shell gap energy. (orig.)

  18. Determination of the Relative Atomic Masses of Metals by Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorne, W. Earle; Rous, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Students determine the relative atomic masses of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum by reaction with hydrochloric acid and measurement of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated. The experiment demonstrates stoichiometry and illustrates clearly that mass of the reagent is not the determinant of the amounts in chemical reactions. The experiment is…

  19. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  20. Determination of mercury in hair: Comparison between gold amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Francesco; Forte, Giovanni; Majorani, Costanza; Senofonte, Oreste; Petrucci, Francesco; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-09-29

    Mercury is a heavy metal that causes serious health problems in exposed subjects. The most toxic form, i.e., methylmercury (MeHg), is mostly excreted through human hair. Numerous analytical methods are available for total Hg analysis in human hair, including cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS). The aim of the study was to compare the TDA-AAS with the ICP-MS in the Hg quantification in human hair. After the washing procedure to minimize the external contamination, from each hair sample two aliquots were taken; the first was used for direct analysis of Hg by TDA-AAS and the second was digested for Hg determination by the ICP-MS. Results indicated that the two data sets were fully comparable (median; TDA-AAS, 475ngg(-1); ICP-MS, 437ngg(-1)) and were not statistically different (Mann-Whitney test; p=0.44). The two techniques presented results with a good coefficient of correlation (r=0.94) despite different operative ranges and method limits. Both techniques satisfied internal performance requirements and the parameters for method validation resulting sensitive, precise and reliable. Finally, the use of the TDA-AAS can be considered instead of the ICP-MS in hair analysis in order to reduce sample manipulation with minor risk of contamination, less time consuming due to the absence of the digestion step and cheaper analyses.

  1. BRAMA, a Broad Range Atomic Mass Analyzer for the ISL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    An alternative to conventional on-line isotope separators for use in radioactive beam facilities is described. It consists of an analyzer with a static magnetic field that is capable of separating a wide mixture of (radioactive) ions into mass bins ranging from 6 to 240 u. If incorporated into the ISL, BRAMA would make several low-energy radioactive beams available for experiments simultaneously, in addition to the beam that is being delivered to the post-accelerator. A preliminary ion-optical geometry is discussed.

  2. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Quanwen; Zeng, Lingping; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen atoms through atomic mass modification. We find that their thermal conductivity can be tuned by atomic mass modifications as revealed through molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results suggest that heavy homogeneous substituents do not assist heat transport and trace amounts of heavy substituents can in fact hinder heat transport substantially. Our analysis indicates that carbon chain has the biggest contribution (over 80%) to the thermal conduction in single-stranded carbon-chain polymers. We further demonstrate that atomic mass modifications influence the phonon bands of bonding carbon atoms, and the discrepancies of phonon bands between carbon atoms are responsible for the remarkable drops in thermal conductivity and large thermal resistances in carbon chains. Our study provides fundamental insight into how to tailor the thermal conductivity of polymers through variable substituents.

  3. Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry: a mass spectral investigation of some of the insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, M; Bordoli, R S; Elliott, G J; Tyler, A N; Bill, J C; Green, B N

    1984-04-01

    Mass measurements of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ of four insulins are presented. In addition, structurally significant fragment ions are observed in the mass spectrum and metastable scanning has been used to link these ions to the protonated molecule.

  4. Difference-frequency combs in cold atom physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kliese, Russell; Puppe, Thomas; Rohde, Felix; Sell, Alexander; Zach, Armin; Leisching, Patrick; Kaenders, Wilhelm; Keegan, Niamh C; Bounds, Alistair D; Bridge, Elizabeth M; Leonard, Jack; Adams, Charles S; Cornish, Simon L; Jones, Matthew P A

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs provide the clockwork to relate optical frequencies to radio frequencies. Hence, combs allow to measure optical frequencies with respect to a radio frequency where the accuracy is limited only by the reference signal. In order to provide a stable link between the radio and optical frequencies, the two parameters of the frequency comb must be fixed: the carrier envelope offset frequency $f_{\\rm ceo}$ and the pulse repetition-rate $f_{\\rm rep}$. We have developed the first optical frequency comb based on difference frequency generation (DFG) that eliminates $f_{\\rm ceo}$ by design - specifically tailored for applications in cold atom physics. An $f_{\\rm ceo}$-free spectrum at 1550 nm is generated from a super continuum spanning more than an optical octave. Established amplification and frequency conversion techniques based on reliable telecom fiber technology allow generation of multiple wavelength outputs. In this paper we discuss the frequency comb design, characterization, and optical...

  5. Direct Measurement of the Mass Difference of Ho163 and Dy163 Solves the Q-Value Puzzle for the Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Eliseev, S; Block, M; Chenmarev, S; Dorrer, H; Duellmann, Ch E; Enss, C; Filianin, P E; Gastaldo, L; Goncharov, M; Koester, U; Lautenschlaeger, F; Novikov, Yu N; Rischka, A; Schuessler, R X; Schweikhard, L; Tuerler, A

    2016-01-01

    The atomic mass difference of 163Ho and 163Dy has been directly measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase imaging ion cyclotron resonance technique. Our measurement has solved the long standing problem of large discrepancies in the Q value of the electron capture in 163Ho determined by different techniques. Our measured mass difference shifts the current Q value of 2555(16) eV evaluated in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 [G. Audi et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012)] by more than 7 sigma to 2833(30stat)(15sys) eV/c2. With the new mass difference it will be possible, e.g., to reach in the first phase of the ECHo experiment a statistical sensitivity to the neutrino mass below 10 eV, which will reduce its present upper limit by more than an order of magnitude.

  6. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  7. Atomic force microscope controlled topographical imaging and proximal probe thermal desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kjoller, Kevin; Hurst, Gregory B; Pelletier, Dale A; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2014-01-21

    This paper reports on the development of a hybrid atmospheric pressure atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging system utilizing nanothermal analysis probes for thermal desorption surface sampling with subsequent atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup and the general operation of the system were discussed, and optimized performance metrics were presented. The ability to correlate topographic images of a surface with atomic force microscopy and a mass spectral chemical image of the same surface, utilizing the same probe without moving the sample from the system, was demonstrated. Co-registered mass spectral chemical images and atomic force microscopy topographical images were obtained from inked patterns on paper as well as from a living bacterial colony on an agar gel. Spatial resolution of the topography images based on pixel size (0.2 μm × 0.8 μm) was better than the resolution of the mass spectral images (2.5 μm × 2.0 μm), which were limited by current mass spectral data acquisition rate and system detection levels.

  8. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Quanwen; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen atoms through atomic mass modification. We find that their thermal conductivity can be tuned by atomic mass modifications as revealed through molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results suggest that heavy homogeneous substituents do not assist heat transport and trace amounts of heavy substituents can in fact hinder heat transport substantially. Our analysis indicates that carbon chain has the biggest contribution (over 80%) to the thermal conduction in single-stranded carbon-chain polymers. We further demonst...

  9. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the second part of the new evaluation of atomic masses, AME2016. Using least-squares adjustments to all evaluated and accepted experimental data, described in Part I, we derive tables with numerical values and graphs to replace those given in AME2012. The first table lists the recommended atomic mass values and their uncertainties. It is followed by a table of the influences of data on primary nuclides, a table of various reaction and decay energies, and finally, a series of graphs of separation and decay energies. The last section of this paper lists all references of the input data used in the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluations (first paper in this issue). AMDC: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/ Contents The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and referencesAcrobat PDF (293 KB) Table I. The 2016 Atomic mass tableAcrobat PDF (273 KB) Table II. Influences on primary nuclidesAcrobat PDF (160 KB) Table III. Nuclear-reaction and separation energiesAcrobat PDF (517 KB) Graphs of separation and decay energiesAcrobat PDF (589 KB) References used in the AME2016 and the NUBASE2016 evaluationsAcrobat PDF (722 KB)

  10. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  11. Atomic mass measurements of short-lived nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H -J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S

    2008-01-01

    Accurate atomic mass measurements of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclides around the doubly-magic $^{208}$Pb and of neutron-rich cesium isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The masses of $^{145,147}$Cs, $^{181,183}$Tl, $^{186}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{187}$Tl, $^{196}$Tl$^{m}$, $^{205}$Tl, $^{197}$Pb$^{m}$, $^{208}$Pb, $^{190-197}$Bi, $^{209,215,216}$Bi, $^{203,205,229}$Fr, and $^{214,229,230}$Ra were determined. The obtained relative mass uncertainty in the range of $2 \\times 10^{-7}$ to $2 \\times 10^{-8}$ is not only required for safe identification of isomeric states but also allows mapping the detailed structure of the mass surface. A mass adjustment procedure was carried out and the results included into the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The resulting separation energies are discussed and the mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic data are examined for possible correlations.

  12. A NEW GENERATION OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CAPABILITIES FOR ATOMIC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ Atomic mass spectrometry,embodied usually as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) or glow-discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS),has become a widely accepted tool for trace and ultra-trace elemental analysis.ICPMS offers detection limits below 1 ppt in solution,a dynamic concentration levels,isotope-analysis and isotope-dilution capabilities,modest matrix interferences,understandable spectral interferences (isobaric overlaps),precision in range of 2—5%,and rapid measurements (typically 10 seconds per isotope).

  13. Comment on ‘‘Atomic mass compilation 2012’’ by B. Pfeiffer, K. Venkataramaniah, U. Czok, C. Scheidenberger

    OpenAIRE

    Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Block, M; Bollen, G.; S. Goriely; Hardy, J.; Herfurth, F.; Kondev, F.; Kluge, H.; Lunney, D.; J. Pearson; Savard, G.; Sharma, K; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In order to avoid errors and confusion that may arise from the recent publication of a paper entitled ‘‘Atomic Mass Compilation 2012’’, we explain the important difference between a compilation and an evaluation; the former is a necessary but insufficient condition for the latter. The simple list of averaged mass values offered by the ‘‘Atomic Mass Compilation’’ uses none of the numerous links and correlations present in the large body of input data that are carefully maintained within the ‘‘...

  14. "Pseudo-invariant Eigen-operator" Method for Deriving Energy-Gap of an Atom-Cavity Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with Atomic Centre-of-Mass Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; TANG Xu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Using the "Pseudo-invariant eigen-operator" method we find the energy-gap of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian model of an atom-cavity system. This model takes the atomic centre-of-mass motion into account. The supersymmetric structure is involved in the Hamiltonian of an atom-cavity system. By selecting suitable supersymmetric generators and using supersymmetric transformation the Hamiltonian is diagonalized and energy eigenvectors are obtained.

  15. Determination of effective atomic numbers, effective electrons numbers, total atomic cross-sections and buildup factor of some compounds for different radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, A.; Özdemir, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, effective electron density, buildup factor have been measured for Fe(NO3)3, V4O2, NaCO3·H2O, C6H5FeO7·H2O and CuCI compounds using 137Ba, 157Gd and 241Am γ-rays sources in stable geometry. The mass attenuation coefficients have been determined experimentally via Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDXRF) system and theoretically by using WinXCom computer program. Then, effective atomic numbers, Zeff, and electron densities, Neff, have been calculated by using the mass attenuation coefficients. The obtained values of effective atomic numbers have been compared with the ones calculated according to a different approach proposed by Hine and the calculated ones from theory. Also, photon buildup factors were obtained by changing collimator diameters in the different photon energies. We observed that the buildup factor increased as the collimator diameter increased for all sources used.

  16. Gas chromatography of organic microcontaminants using atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection combined in one instrument (GC-AED/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Hankemeier, T.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the coupling of an atomic-emission detector and mass-spectrometric detector to a single gas chromatograph. Splitting of the column effluent enables simultaneous detection by atomic-emission detection (AED) and mass spectrometry (MS) and yields a powerful system for the target an

  17. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaser, A.

    1992-01-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  18. On the determination of the pion effective mass in nuclei from pionic atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1998-07-01

    The binding energies of the deeply bound 1s and 2p states in pionic atoms of 207Pb, recently established experimentally in the 208Pb(d,3He) reaction, have been used by several groups to derive the pion effective mass in nuclear matter. We show that these binding energies are fully consistent with `normal' pionic atoms and that the real part of the pion-nucleus potential at the center of 207Pb is 28+/-3 MeV and not 20 MeV as suggested previously.

  19. Time-of-flight mass spectrographs—From ions to neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. M.; Kucharek, H.; Popecki, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    After their introduction to space physics in the mid 1980s time-of-flight (TOF) spectrographs have become a main staple in spaceborne mass spectrometry. They have largely replaced magnetic spectrometers, except when extremely high mass resolution is required to identify complex molecules, for example, in the vicinity of comets or in planetary atmospheres. In combination with electrostatic analyzers and often solid state detectors, TOF spectrographs have become key instruments to diagnose space plasma velocity distributions, mass, and ionic charge composition. With a variety of implementation schemes that also include isochronous electric field configurations, TOF spectrographs can respond to diverse science requirements. This includes a wide range in mass resolution to allow the separation of medium heavy isotopes or to simply provide distributions of the major species, such as H, He, and O, to obtain information on source tracers or mass fluxes. With a top-hat analyzer at the front end, or in combination with deflectors for three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the distribution function of ions can be obtained with good time resolution. Most recently, the reach of TOF ion mass spectrographs has been extended to include energetic neutral atoms. After selecting the arrival direction with mechanical collimation, followed by conversion to ions, adapted TOF sensors form a new branch of the spectrograph family tree. We review the requirements, challenges, and implementation schemes for ion and neutral atom spectrographs, including potential directions for the future, while largely avoiding overlap with complementary contributions in this special issue.

  20. Co-registered Topographical, Band Excitation Nanomechanical, and Mass Spectral Imaging Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Tai, Tamin; Bocharova, Vera; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Belianinov, Alex; Kertesz, Vilmos; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-04-28

    The advancement of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform demonstrating the co-registered topographical, band excitation nanomechanical, and mass spectral imaging of a surface using a single instrument is reported. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for pyrolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas-phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup and operation are discussed, and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase-separated polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) polymer blend thin film. The topography and band excitation images showed that the valley and plateau regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of one of the two polymers in the blend with the mass spectral chemical image used to definitively identify the polymers at the different locations. Data point pixel size for the topography (390 nm × 390 nm), band excitation (781 nm × 781 nm), and mass spectrometry (690 nm × 500 nm) images was comparable and submicrometer in all three cases, but the data voxel size for each of the three images was dramatically different. The topography image was uniquely a surface measurement, whereas the band excitation image included information from an estimated 20 nm deep into the sample and the mass spectral image from 110 to 140 nm in depth. Because of this dramatic sampling depth variance, some differences in the band excitation and mass spectrometry chemical images were observed and were interpreted to indicate the presence of a buried interface in the sample. The spatial resolution of the chemical image was estimated to be between 1.5 and 2.6 μm, based on the ability to distinguish surface features in that image that were also observed in the other images.

  1. Absolute isotopic composition and atomic weight of neodymium using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Motian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Fang, Xiang; Guo, Chunhua; Li, Qiuli; Li, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic mixtures prepared gravimetrically from highly enriched isotopes of neodymium in the form of oxides of well-defined purity were used to calibrate a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. A new error analysis was applied to calculate the final uncertainty of the atomic weight value. Measurements on natural neodymium samples yielded an absolute isotopic composition of 27.153(19) atomic percent (at.%) 142Nd, 12.173(18) at.% 143Nd, 23.798(12) at.% 144Nd, 8.293(7) at.% 145Nd, 17.189(17) at.% 146Nd, 5.756(8) at.% 148Nd, and 5.638(9) at.% 150Nd, and the atomic weight of neodymium as 144.2415(13), with uncertainties given on the basis of 95% confidence limits. No isotopic fractionation was found in terrestrial neodymium materials.

  2. The Electromagnetic Mass Differences of Pions and Kaons

    CERN Document Server

    Donoghue, J F; Donoghue, John F.; Perez, Antonio F.

    1997-01-01

    We use the Cottingham method to calculate the pion and kaon electromagnetic mass differences with as few model dependent inputs as possible. The constraints of chiral symmetry at low energy, QCD at high energy and experimental data in between are used in the dispersion relation. We find excellent agreement with experiment for the pion mass difference. The kaon mass difference exhibits a strong violation of the lowest order prediction of Dashen's theorem, in qualitative agreement with several other recent calculations.

  3. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Kadam; S T Alone; G K Bichile; K M Jadhav

    2007-05-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (), mass attenuation coefficient (/ρ), total atomic cross-section (tot), total electronic cross-section (ele) and the effective atomic number (eff) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4). The values of -ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive -ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of /ρ and eff agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

  4. Reexamining the roles of gravitational and inertial masses in gravimetry with atom interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S., E-mail: unni@tifr.res.in [Gravitation Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Gillies, G.T., E-mail: gtg@virginia.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4746 (United States)

    2012-12-03

    We reassess the true roles of the gravitational charge (mass) and the inertial mass in quantum phases acquired in matter-wave interferometry in a gravitational field. The insights gained allow us to address the question of whether gravimetry with atom interferometers is equivalent to a high precision measurement of the relative gravitational time dilation of two clocks separated in space. In particular we show that the gravitational phase is inversely related to the Compton frequency, invalidating the suggested equivalence to a Compton clock. Clarity of arguments is achieved by comparison to a charged matter-wave interferometer. Though quantum states have a similarity to oscillator clocks through the Planck–Einstein–de Broglie relations, it is shown clearly that the claim of greatly enhanced precision over real atomic clock comparison cannot be maintained.

  5. The AME2016 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng; Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Xu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the second part of the new evaluation of atomic masses, Ame2016. Using least-squares adjustments to all evaluated and accepted experimental data, described in Part I, we derive tables with numerical values and graphs to replace those given in Ame2012. The first table lists the recommended atomic mass values and their uncertainties. It is followed by a table of the influences of data on primary nuclides, a table of various reaction and decay energies, and finally, a series of graphs of separation and decay energies. The last section of this paper lists all references of the input data used in the Ame2016 and the Nubase2016 evaluations (first paper in this issue). Amdc: http://amdc.impcas.ac.cn/

  6. ENAM'04 Fourth International Conference on Exotic Nuclei and Atomic Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, C. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rykaczewski, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conference can trace its origins to the 1950s and 1960s with the Atomic Mass and Fundamental Constants (AMCO) and the Nuclei Far From Stability (NFFS) series of conferences. Held jointly in 1992, the conferences officially merged in 1995 and the fourth conference was held at Callaway Gardens in Pine Mountain, GA and was organized by the Physics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conference covered a broad list of topics consisting of a series of invited and contributed presentation highlighting recent research in the following fields: Atomic masses, nuclear moments, and nuclear radii; Forms of radioactivity; Nuclear structure, nuclei at the drip lines, cluster phenomena; Reactions with radioactive ion beams; Nuclear astrophysics; Fundamental symmetries and interactions; Heaviest elements and fission; Radioactive ion beam production and experimental developments; Applications of exotic nuclei

  7. Uniform synthetic magnetic field and effective mass for cold atoms in a shaken optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sols, Fernando; Creffield, Charles E.; Pieplow, Gregor; Goldman, Nathan

    2016-05-01

    Cold atoms can be made to experience synthetic magnetic fields when placed in a suitably driven optical lattice. For coherent systems the switching protocol plays an essential role in determining the long time behavior. Relatively simple driving schemes may generate a uniform magnetic flux but an inhomogeneous effective mass. A two-stage split driving scheme can recover a uniform effective mass but at the price of rendering the magnetic field space dependent. We propose a four-stage split driving that generates uniform field and mass of arbitrary values for all driving amplitudes. Finally, we study a modified two-stage split driving approach that enables uniform field and mass for most of but not all values of the magnetic field. Work supported by MINECO (Spain) under Grant FIS2013-41716-P, by FRS-FNRS (Belgium), and by BSPO under PAI Project No. P7/18 DYGEST.

  8. Atomic mass and double-β-decay Q value of 48Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Matthew; Bollen, Georg; Brodeur, Maxime; Bustabad, Scott; Lincoln, David L.; Novario, Samuel J.; Ringle, Ryan; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    The possibility of detecting neutrinoless double-β-decay (0νββ-decay) in experiments that are currently in operation or under development provides the exciting opportunity to determine the Dirac or Majorana nature of the neutrino and its absolute mass scale. An important datum for interpreting 0νββ-decay experimental results is the Q value of the decay. Using Penning trap mass spectrometry we have measured the atomic mass of 48Ca to be M[48Ca] = 47.952 522 76(21) u which, combined with the mass of 48Ti evaluated by Audi [Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.003 729, 337 (2003)], provides a new determination of the 48Ca ββ-decay Q value: Qββ = 4262.96(84) keV.

  9. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  10. Underground atom gradiometer array for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B.

    2015-12-01

    After more than 20 years of fundamental research, atom interferometers have reached sensitivity and accuracy levels competing with or beating inertial sensors based on different technologies. Atom interferometers offer interesting applications in geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry, Earth rotation rate measurements), inertial sensing (submarine or aircraft autonomous positioning), metrology (new definition of the kilogram) and fundamental physics (tests of the standard model, tests of general relativity). Atom interferometers already contributed significantly to fundamental physics by, for example, providing stringent constraints on quantum-electrodynamics through measurements of the hyperfine structure constant, testing the Equivalence Principle with cold atoms, or providing new measurements for the Newtonian gravitational constant. Cold atom sensors have moreover been established as key instruments in metrology for the new definition of the kilogram or through international comparisons of gravimeters. The field of atom interferometry (AI) is now entering a new phase where very high sensitivity levels must be demonstrated, in order to enlarge the potential applications outside atomic physics laboratories. These applications range from gravitational wave (GW) detection in the [0.1-10 Hz] frequency band to next generation ground and space-based Earth gravity field studies to precision gyroscopes and accelerometers. The Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) presented here is a large-scale matter-wave sensor which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. The MIGA consortium gathers 18 expert French laboratories and companies in atomic physics, metrology, optics, geosciences and gravitational physics, with the aim to build a large-scale underground atom-interferometer instrument by 2018 and operate it till at least 2023. In this paper, we present the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the

  11. Study of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-05-01

    Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi2O3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.

  12. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  13. Measurement of the mass difference between t and t quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P

    2011-04-15

    We present a direct measurement of the mass difference between t and t quarks using tt candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, collected with the CDF II detector at Fermilab's 1.96 TeV Tevatron pp Collider. We make an event by event estimate of the mass difference to construct templates for top quark pair signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution of data is compared to templates of signals and background using a maximum likelihood fit. From a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6  fb(-1), we measure a mass difference, ΔM(top) = M(t) - M(t) = -3.3 ± 1.4(stat) ± 1.0(syst)  GeV/c2, approximately 2 standard deviations away from the CPT hypothesis of zero mass difference.

  14. Fingerprint spectra in Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis of titanium oxides of different stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Eric; Gijbels, Renaat

    Micrometric particles of powdered titanium oxides of different stoichiometry (TiO 2, Ti 2O 3 and TiO) are examined by Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA). The stoichiometry of the compound can be correlated with the relative intensity distributions of the (positive or negative) cluster and atomic ions. Application of the "valence model" yields similar conclusions. Variations in laser energy density and in ion lens potential also effect the ion intensity distributions.

  15. Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Y V

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field $\\phi = \\phi_0 \\cos(m_\\phi t)$, can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the Standard Model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive new limits on the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of $\\phi$ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to $2-3$ orders of magnitude.

  16. Improved limits on interactions of low-mass spin-0 dark matter from atomic clock spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Y. V.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Low-mass (sub-eV) spin-0 dark matter particles, which form a coherently oscillating classical field ϕ =ϕ0cos(mϕt ) , can induce oscillating variations in the fundamental constants through their interactions with the standard model sector. We calculate the effects of such possible interactions, which may include the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, on atomic and molecular transitions. Using recent atomic clock spectroscopy measurements, we derive limits on the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, as well as its quadratic interactions with the photon and light quarks. For the linear interaction of ϕ with the Higgs boson, our derived limits improve on existing constraints by up to 2-3 orders of magnitude.

  17. Influence of the atomic mass of the background gas on laser ablation plume propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of time-of-flight ion probe measurements and gas dynamical modeling has been used to investigate the propagation of a laser ablation plume in gases of different atomic/molecular weight. The pressure variation of the ion time-of-flight was found to be well described by the gas...... dynamical model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (Appl. Supercond. 1:2011, 1993). In particular, the model describes how the pressure required to stop the plume in a given distance depends on the atomic/molecular weight of the gas, which is a feature that cannot be explained by standard point...

  18. Building a multi-walled carbon nanotube-based mass sensor with the atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Kuhle, A.; Marie, Rodolphe Charly Willy;

    2005-01-01

    We report an approach for building a mass sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). We propose a method with a great potential for the positioning of MWCNTs based on self-assembly onto patterned hydrophilic areas. For the experiments ultra flat mica substrates covered with gold...... are used. The gold substrate is first covered with hydrophobic thiol molecules: octadecanthiol. The octadecanthiol molecules are then selectively removed from small areas by nanoshaving the gold substrate with the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in contact mode. Hydrophilic thiols (2...

  19. Evidence for a long-lived superheavy nucleus with atomic mass number A=292 and atomic number Z=~122 in natural Th

    CERN Document Server

    Marinov, A; Kolb, D; Pape, A; Kashiv, Y; Brandt, R; Gentry, R V; Miller, H W

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of a superheavy nucleus with atomic mass number A=292 and abundance (1-10)x10^(-12) relative to 232Th has been found in a study of natural Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. The measured mass matches the predictions [1,2] for the mass of an isotope with atomic number Z=122 or a nearby element. Its estimated half-life of t1/2 >= 10^8 y suggests that a long-lived isomeric state exists in this isotope. The possibility that it might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.[3-6

  20. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; De Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d'Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martínez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Sorin, V.; Song, H.; Stancari, M.; Denis, R. St.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, J. S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W.-M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A. M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-03-01

    We present a measurement of the mass difference between top (t) and antitop (t¯) quarks using tt¯ candidate events reconstructed in the final state with one lepton and multiple jets. We use the full data set of Tevatron s=1.96TeV proton-antiproton collisions recorded by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7fb-1. We estimate event by event the mass difference to construct templates for top pair signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution in data compared to signal and background templates using a likelihood fit yields ΔMtop=Mt-Mt¯=-1.95±1.11(stat)±0.59(syst)GeV/c2 and is in agreement with the standard model prediction of no mass difference.

  1. [Atomic force microscopy fishing of gp120 on immobilized aptamer and its mass spectrometry identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharina, N S; Ivanov, Yu D; Pleshakova, T O; Frantsuzov, P A; Andreeva, E Yu; Kaysheva, A L; Izotov, A A; Pavlova, T I; Ziborov, V S; Radko, S P; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    A method of atomic force microscopy-based fishing (AFM fishing) has been developed for protein detection in the analyte solution using a chip with an immobilized aptamer. This method is based on the biospecific fishing of a target protein from a bulk solution onto the small AFM chip area with the immobilized aptamer to this protein used as the molecular probe. Such aptamer-based approach allows to increase an AFM image contrast compared to the antibody-based approach. Mass spectrometry analysis used after the biospecific fishing to identify the target protein on the AFM chip has proved complex formation. Use of the AFM chip with the immobilized aptamer avoids interference of the antibody and target protein peaks in a mass spectrum.

  2. Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivalinge Gowda; S Krishnaveni; T Yashoda; T K Umesh; Ramakrishna Gowda

    2004-09-01

    Photon mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds, such as LiF, CaCO3, CaSO4, CaSO4·2H2O, SrSO4, CdSO4, BaSO4, C4H6BaO4 and 3CdSO4·8H2O were determined at 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to compute the effective atomic number and the electron density of TLD compounds. The interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy in elements of atomic number was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon energy range of 279.2 to 320.07 keV, 514.0 to 661.6 keV and 1115.5 to 1332.5 keV by a piece-wise interpolation method were then used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in agreement with other available published values.

  3. Controlling residual hydrogen gas in mass spectra during pulsed laser atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, R Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Residual hydrogen (H2) gas in the analysis chamber of an atom probe instrument limits the ability to measure H concentration in metals and alloys. Measuring H concentration would permit quantification of important physical phenomena, such as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, hydrogen trapping, and grain boundary segregation. Increased insight into the behavior of residual H2 gas on the specimen tip surface in atom probe instruments could help reduce these limitations. The influence of user-selected experimental parameters on the field adsorption and desorption of residual H2 gas on nominally pure copper (Cu) was studied during ultraviolet pulsed laser atom probe tomography. The results indicate that the total residual hydrogen concentration, HTOT, in the mass spectra exhibits a generally decreasing trend with increasing laser pulse energy and increasing laser pulse frequency. Second-order interaction effects are also important. The pulse energy has the greatest influence on the quantity HTOT, which is consistently less than 0.1 at.% at a value of 80 pJ.

  4. Atomic force microscopy fishing and mass spectrometry identification of gp120 on immobilized aptamers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov YD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuri D Ivanov,1 Natalia S Bukharina,1 Tatyana O Pleshakova,1 Pavel A Frantsuzov,1 Elena Yu Andreeva,1 Anna L Kaysheva,1,2 Victor G Zgoda,1 Alexander A Izotov,1 Tatyana I Pavlova,1 Vadim S Ziborov,1 Sergey P Radko,1 Sergei A Moshkovskii,1 Alexander I Archakov1 1Department of Personalized Medicine, Orekhovich Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia; 2PostgenTech Ltd., Moscow, Russia Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM was applied to carry out direct and label-free detection of gp120 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein as a target protein. This approach was based on the AFM fishing of gp120 from the analyte solution using anti-gp120 aptamers immobilized on the AFM chip to count gp120/aptamer complexes that were formed on the chip surface. The comparison of image contrasts of fished gp120 against the background of immobilized aptamers and anti-gp120 antibodies on the AFM images was conducted. It was shown that an image contrast of the protein/aptamer complexes was two-fold higher than the contrast of the protein/antibody complexes. Mass spectrometry identification provided an additional confirmation of the target protein presence on the AFM chips after biospecific fishing to avoid any artifacts. Keywords: gp120 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, aptamer, atomic force microscopy, mass spectrometry

  5. Spatially resolved atomic and molecular emission from the very low-mass star IRS54

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, R Garcia; Weigelt, G; Nisini, B; Antoniucci, S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular outflows from very low-mass stars (VLMSs) and brown dwarfs (BDs) have been studied very little, and only a few objects have been directly imaged. Using VLT SINFONI K-band observations, we spatially resolved, for the first time, the H2 emission around IRS54, a ~0.1-0.2 Msun Class I source. The molecular emission shows a complex structure delineating a large outflow cavity and an asymmetric molecular jet. In addition, new [FeII] VLT ISAAC observations at 1.644um allowed us to discover the atomic jet counterpart which extends down to the central source. The outflow structure is similar to those found in low-mass Class I young stellar objects (YSOs) and Classical TTauri stars (CTTSs). However, its Lacc/Lbol ratio is very high (~80%), and the derived mass accretion rate is about one order of magnitude higher than in objects with similar mass, pointing to the young nature of the investigated source.

  6. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  7. Structure determination of adipokinetic hormones using fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry; An unknown adipokinetic hormone (AKH-III) from Locusta migratoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heerma, W.; Versluis, C.; Lankhof, H. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Molecular Spectrometry); Oudejans, R.C.H.M.; Kooiman, F.P.; Beenakkers, A.M.T. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Department of Experimental Zoology)

    1991-08-01

    Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry combined with various tandem mass spectrometric techniques and accurate mass measurement were used to elucidate the structure of an unknown biologically active peptide isolated from Locusa migratoria. (author). 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 schemes.

  8. Effective atomic numbers of some tissue substitutes by different methods: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective atomic numbers of some human organ tissue substitutes such as polyethylene terephthalate, red articulation wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2, bolus, pitch, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyvinylchloride, and modeling clay have been calculated by four different methods like Auto-Z eff, direct, interpolation, and power law. It was found that the effective atomic numbers computed by Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were in good agreement for intermediate energy region (0.1 MeV < E < 5 MeV where the Compton interaction dominates. A large difference in effective atomic numbers by direct method and Auto-Z eff was observed in photo-electric and pair-production regions. Effective atomic numbers computed by power law were found to be close to direct method in photo-electric absorption region. The Auto-Z eff , direct and interpolation methods were found to be in good agreement for computation of effective atomic numbers in intermediate energy region (100 keV < E < 10 MeV. The direct method was found to be appropriate method for computation of effective atomic numbers in photo-electric region (10 keV < E < 100 keV. The tissue equivalence of the tissue substitutes is possible to represent by any method for computation of effective atomic number mentioned in the present study. An accurate estimation of Rayleigh scattering is required to eliminate effect of molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of the atom for estimation of gamma interaction parameters.

  9. Toward a Fieldable Atomic Mass Spectrometer for Safeguards Applications: Sample Preparation and Ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinaga, Charles J.; Hager, George J.; Hart, Garret L.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Jones, Sarah MH; Manard, Benjamin T.

    2014-10-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) long-term research and development plan calls for the development of new methods to detect misuse at nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing and enrichment plants. At enrichment plants, for example, the IAEA’s contemporary safeguards approaches are based on a combination of routine and random inspections that include collection of UF6 samples from in-process material and selected cylinders for subsequent analyses. These analyses include destructive analysis (DA) in a laboratory (typically by mass spectrometry [MS]) for isotopic characterization, and environmental sampling (ES) for subsequent laboratory elemental and isotopic analysis (also both typically by MS). One area of new method development includes moving this kind of isotope ratio analytical capability for DA and ES activities into the field. Some of the reasons for these developments include timeliness of results, avoidance of hazardous material shipments, and guidance for additional sample collecting. However, this capability does not already exist for several reasons, such as that most lab-based chemical and instrumental methods rely on laboratory infrastructure (highly trained staff, power, space, hazardous material handling, etc.) and require significant amounts of consumables (power, compressed gases, etc.). In addition, there are no currently available, fieldable instruments for atomic or isotope ratio analysis. To address these issues, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and collaborator, Clemson University, are studying key areas that limit the fieldability of isotope ratio mass spectrometry for atomic ions: sample preparation and ionization, and reducing the physical size of a fieldable mass spectrometer. PNNL is seeking simple and robust techniques that could be effectively used by inspectors who may have no expertise in analytical MS. In this report, we present and describe the preliminary findings for three candidate

  10. Different Algorithms for Improving Detection Power of Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of detecting trace concentrations of analytes often is hindered by occurring noise in the signal curves of analytical methods. This is also a problem when different arsenic species (organic arsenic species such as arsanilic acid, nitarsone and roxarsone are to be determined in animal meat by HPLC-UV-HG-AFS, which is the basis of this work. In order to improve the detection power, methods of signal treatment may be applied. We show a comparison of convolution with Gaussian distribution curves, Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It is illustrated how to estimate decisive parameters for these techniques. All methods result in improved limits of detection. Furthermore, applying baselines and evaluating peaks thoroughly is facilitated. However, there are differences. Fourier transform may be applied, but convolution with Gaussian distribution curves shows better results of improvement. The best of the three is wavelet transform, whereby the detection power is improved by factors of about 2.4

  11. Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Rodriguez, German Vicente; Ara, Ignacio; Olmedillas, Hugo; Chavarren, Javier; González-Henriquez, Juan Jose; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if gender differences in muscle mass explain the gender differences in running and cycling sprint performance. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and running (30 and 300 m test) and cycling (Wingate test) sprint performance were assessed in 123 men and 32 women. Peak power (PP) output in the Wingate test expressed per kg of lower extremities lean mass (LM) was similar in males and females (50.4 +/- 5.6 and 50.5 +/- 6.2 W kg(-1), P = 0.88). No gender differences were observed in the slope of the linear relation between LM and PP or mean power output (MP). However, when MP was expressed per kg of LM, the males attained a 22% higher value (26.6 +/- 3.4 and 21.9 +/- 3.2 W kg(-1), P sprints, even when expressed as a percentage of the whole body mass.

  12. Direct measurement of transition frequencies in isolated pHe+ atoms, and new CPT-violation limits on the antiproton charge and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M; Eades, J; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Pirkl, W; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2003-09-19

    A radio frequency quadrupole decelerator and achromatic momentum analyzer were used to decelerate antiprotons and produce p4He+ and p3He+ atoms in ultra-low-density targets, where collision-induced shifts of the atomic transition frequencies were negligible. The frequencies at near-vacuo conditions were measured by laser spectroscopy to fractional precisions of (6-19) x 10(-8). By comparing these with QED calculations and the antiproton cyclotron frequency, we set a new limit of 1 x 10(-8) on possible differences between the antiproton and proton charges and masses.

  13. Atomic mass dependence of hadron production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-Hua; LIU Na; DUAN Chun-Gui

    2013-01-01

    Hadron production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is studied in a quark energy loss model.The leading-order computations for hadron multiplicity ratios are presented and compared with the selected HERMES pions production data with the quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus by means of the hadron formation time.It is found that the obtained energy loss per unit length is 0.440±0.013 GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit.It is confirmed that the atomic mass number dependence of hadron attenuation is theoretically and experimentally in good agreement with the A2/3 power law for quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus.

  14. Selenosugar determination in porcine liver using multidimensional HPLC with atomic and molecular mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Pergantis, Spiros A

    2009-01-01

    A methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled online with atomic and molecular mass spectrometry was developed for identifying trace amounts of the selenosugar methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside (SeGalNAc) in porcine liver, obtained from an animal that had not received selenium supplementation. Sample preparation was especially critical for the identification of SeGalNAc by molecular mass spectrometry. This involved liver extraction using a Tris buffer, followed by sequential centrifugations. The resulting cytosolic fraction was pre-concentrated and the low molecular weight selenium (LMWSe) fraction obtained from a size exclusion column was collected, concentrated, and subsequently analyzed using a tandem dual-column HPLC-ICP-MS system which consisted of strong cation exchange (SCX) and reversed phase (RP) columns coupled in tandem. Hepatocytosolic SeGalNAc was tentatively identified by retention time matching and spiking. Its identity was further confirmed by using the same type of chromatography on-line with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Four SRM transitions, characteristic of SeGalNAc, were monitored and their intensity ratios determined in order to confirm SeGalNAc identification. Instrument limits of detection for SeGalNAc by SCX-RP HPLC-ICP-MS and SCX-RP HPLC-APCI-MS/MS were 3.4 and 2.9 μg Se L(-1), respectively. Selenium mass balance analysis revealed that trace amounts of SeGalNAc, 2.16±0.94 μg Se kg(-1) liver (wet weight) were present in the liver cytosol, corresponding to 0.4% of the total Se content in the porcine liver.

  15. The Electromagnetic Mass Difference of Pions at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, C

    1999-01-01

    We compute low temperature corrections to the electromagnetic mass difference of pions in the chiral limit. The computation is done in a model independent way in the framework of chiral perturbation theory, using the background field method and the hard thermal loop approximation. We also generalize at low temperature the sum rule of Das et al. We find that the mass difference between the charged and neutral pions decreases at low temperature $T$ with respect to the T=0 value. This is so in spite of the fact that charged particles always get a thermal correction to their masses of order $\\sim eT$, where $e$ is the gauge coupling constant. Our result can be understood as a consequence of the tendency towards chiral symmetry restoration at finite temperature.

  16. Measurements of the τ mass and the mass difference of the τ+ and τ- at BABAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolku, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    We present the result from a precision measurement of the mass of the τ lepton, Mτ, based on 423fb-1 of data recorded at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, we determine the mass to be 1776.68±0.12(stat)±0.41(syst)MeV. We also measure the mass difference between the τ+ and τ-, and obtain (Mτ+-Mτ-)/MAVGτ=(-3.4±1.3(stat)±0.3(syst))×10-4, where MAVGτ is the average value of Mτ+ and Mτ-.

  17. Rho-. omega. mixing and the n-p mass difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garci Canal, C.A.; Mendez Galain, R.

    1989-03-01

    rho-..omega.. mixing, a nonelectromagnetic isospin violation, is shown to be able to account for the neutron-proton mass difference. The analysis is done in the framework of the SU(2) Skyrme model and the result is in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification of cosmetic samples prior to elemental analysis by different atomic spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, I; Cabaleiro, N; Costas, M; de la Calle, I; Bendicho, C

    2009-11-15

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted emulsification with a probe system is proposed as a rapid and simple sample treatment for atomic spectrometric determinations (Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr and Zn) in cosmetic samples such as shampoos, gel (hair gel), crèmes (body milk, hair conditioner) and oil (body oil). The type of dispersion medium, the sample mass-to-dispersion medium volume ratio, as well as the parameters related to the ultrasound-assisted emulsification (sonication amplitude and treatment time) were exhaustively studied. Only 1 min of ultrasonic shaking and a dispersion medium containing 0.5% (w/v) of SDS+3% (v/v) of HNO(3) or HCl allows obtaining a stable emulsion at least for 3 months. Thermal programs, nebulization of emulsions, speed of pumps and concentration of reagents used in cold vapour generation were optimized. Calibration using aqueous standards was feasible in all cases. Calibration by the standard addition method and recovery studies was also applied for validation. Microwave-assisted digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry were used for comparison purposes. Relative standard deviations from analysis of five independent emulsions were less than 9% in all cases.

  19. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, A.

    This research follows a multifaceted approach, from theory to practice, to the investigation and development of novel helium plasmas, sample introduction systems, and diagnostic techniques for atomic and mass spectrometries. During the period January 1994 - December 1994, four major sets of challenging research programs were addressed that each included a number of discrete but complementary projects: (1) The first program is concerned with fundamental and analytical investigations of novel atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasmas (He ICPS) that are suitable for the atomization-excitation-ionization of elements, especially those possessing high excitation and ionization energies, for the purpose of enhancing sensitivity and selectivity of analytical measurements. (2) The second program includes simulation and computer modeling of He ICPS. The aim is to ease the hunt for new helium plasmas by predicting their structure and fundamental and analytical properties, without incurring the enormous cost for extensive experimental studies. (3) The third program involves spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of plasma discharges to instantly visualize their prevailing structures, to quantify key fundamental properties, and to verify predictions by mathematical models. (4) The fourth program entails investigation of new, low-cost sample introduction systems that consume micro- to nanoliter quantity of sample solution in plasma spectrometries. A portion of this research involves development and applications of novel diagnostic techniques suitable for probing key fundamental properties of aerosol prior to and after injection into high-temperature plasmas. These efforts, still in progress, collectively offer promise of solving singularly difficult analytical problems that either exist now or are likely to arise in the future in the various fields of energy generation, environmental pollution, material science, biomedicine and nutrition.

  20. Topographical and Chemical Imaging of a Phase Separated Polymer Using a Combined Atomic Force Microscopy/Infrared Spectroscopy/Mass Spectrometry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin; Karácsony, Orsolya; Bocharova, Vera; Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the use of a hybrid atomic force microscopy/infrared spectroscopy/mass spectrometry imaging platform was demonstrated for the acquisition and correlation of nanoscale sample surface topography and chemical images based on infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The infrared chemical imaging component of the system utilized photothermal expansion of the sample at the tip of the atomic force microscopy probe recorded at infrared wave numbers specific to the different surface constituents. The mass spectrometry-based chemical imaging component of the system utilized nanothermal analysis probes for thermolytic surface sampling followed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the gas phase species produced with subsequent mass analysis. The basic instrumental setup, operation, and image correlation procedures are discussed, and the multimodal imaging capability and utility are demonstrated using a phase separated poly(2-vinylpyridine)/poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer thin film. The topography and both the infrared and mass spectral chemical images showed that the valley regions of the thin film surface were comprised primarily of poly(2-vinylpyridine) and hill or plateau regions were primarily poly(methyl methacrylate). The spatial resolution of the mass spectral chemical images was estimated to be 1.6 μm based on the ability to distinguish surface features in those images that were also observed in the topography and infrared images of the same surface.

  1. Antiproton–to–electron mass ratio determined by two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sótér A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ASACUSA collaboration of CERN has recently carried out two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms. Three transition frequencies were determined with fractional precisions of 2.3–5 parts in 109. By comparing the results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined as 1836.1526736(23.

  2. Dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, S. I.; Vysotsky, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogenlike ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of the critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  3. Comparisons between different techniques for measuring mass segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    We examine the performance of four different methods which are used to measure mass segregation in star-forming regions: the radial variation of the mass function $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm MF}$; the minimum spanning tree-based $\\Lambda_{\\rm MSR}$ method; the local surface density $\\Sigma_{\\rm LDR}$ method; and the $\\Omega_{\\rm GSR}$ technique, which isolates groups of stars and determines whether the most massive star in each group is more centrally concentrated than the average star. All four methods have been proposed in the literature as techniques for quantifying mass segregation, yet they routinely produce contradictory results as they do not all measure the same thing. We apply each method to synthetic star-forming regions to determine when and why they have shortcomings. When a star-forming region is smooth and centrally concentrated, all four methods correctly identify mass segregation when it is present. However, if the region is spatially substructured, the $\\Omega_{\\rm GSR}$ method fails because it arbitra...

  4. The dependence of scattering length on van derWaals interaction and reduced mass of the system in two-atomic collision at cold energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAY HASI

    2016-07-01

    The static exchange model (SEM) and the modified static exchange model (MSEM) recently introduced by Ray in {\\it Pramana – J. Phys.} 83, 907 (2014) are used to study the elastic collision between two hydrogen-like atoms when both are in ground states by considering the system as a four-body Coulomb system in the centre of mass frame, in which all the Coulomb interaction terms in direct and exchange channels are treated exactly. The SEM includes the non-adiabatic short-range effect due to electron exchange. The MSEM added init, the long-range effect due to induced dynamic dipole polarizabilities between the atoms e.g., the van der Waals interaction. Applying the SEM code in different H-like two-atomic systems, a reduced mass $(\\mu)$ dependence on the scattering length is observed. Again, applying the MSEM code on H(1s)–H(1s) elastic scattering and varying the minimum values of interatomic distance $R_0$, the dependence of scattering length on the effective interatomic potential consistent with the existing physics is observed. Both these basic findings in low and cold energy atomic collision physics are quite useful and are being reported for the first time.

  5. Measurements of the tau Mass and Mass Difference of the tau^+ and tau^- at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-10-30

    The authors present the result of a precision measurement of the mass of the {tau} lepton, M{sub {tau}}, based on 423 fb{sup -1} of data recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. Using a pseudomass endpoint method, they determine the mass to be 1776.68 {+-} 0.12(stat) {+-} 0.41(syst) MeV. They also measure the mass difference between the {tau}{sup +} and {tau}{sup -}, and obtain (M{sub {tau}{sup +}} - M{sub {tau}{sup -}})/M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} = (-3.4 {+-} 1.3(stat) {+-} 0.3(syst)) x 10{sup -4}, where M{sub AVG}{sup {tau}} is the average value of M{sub {tau}{sup +}} and M{sub {tau}{sup -}}.

  6. Conditions for Statistical Determination of the Neutrino Mass Spectrum in Radiative Emission of Neutrino Pairs in Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Ningqiang; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C; Conde, A Peralta; Taron, Josep

    2015-01-01

    The photon spectrum in macrocoherent atomic de-excitation via radiative emission of neutrino pairs (RENP) has been proposed as a sensitive probe of the neutrino mass spectrum, capable of competing with conventional neutrino experiments. In this paper we revisit this intriguing technique in order to quantify the requirements for statistical determination of some of the properties of the neutrino spectrum, in particular the neutrino mass scale and the mass ordering. Our results are sobering. We find that, even under ideal conditions, the determination of neutrino parameters needs experimental live times of the order of days to years for several laser frequencies, assuming a target of volume of order 100 cm3 containing about 10^21 atoms per cubic centimeter in a totally coherent state with maximum value of the electric field in the target. Such conditions seem to be, as of today, way beyond the reach of our current technology.

  7. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement of the mass difference between the top and the antitop quark (Delta m(t) = m(t) - m(anti-t)) is performed using events with a muon or an electron and at least four jets in the final state. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.96 +/- 0.11 inverse femtobarns, and yields the value of Delta m(t) = -0.44 +/- 0.46 (stat) +/- 0.27 (syst) GeV. This result is consistent with equality of particle and antiparticle masses required by CPT invariance, and provides a significantly improved precision relative to existing measurements.

  8. Measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cerny, Karel; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Fischer, David; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Krajczar, Krisztian; Radics, Balint; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Visca, Lorenzo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lueking, Lee; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Chung, Kwangzoo; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Richards, Alan; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of the mass difference between the top and the antitop quark (Delta m(t) = m(t) - m(anti-t)) is performed using events with a muon or an electron and at least four jets in the final state. The analysis is based on data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.96 +/- 0.11 inverse femtobarns, and yields the value of Delta m(t) = -0.44 +/- 0.46 (stat) +/- 0.27 (syst) GeV. This result is consistent with equality of particle and antiparticle masses required by CPT invariance, and provides a significantly improved precision relative to existing measurements.

  9. Direct determination of cadmium in Orujo spirit samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Comparative study of different chemical modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar Farinas, M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Barciela Garcia, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Garcia Martin, S. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Pena Crecente, R. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Herrero Latorre, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain)]. E-mail: cherrero@lugo.usc.es

    2007-05-22

    In this work, several analytical methods are proposed for cadmium determination in Orujo spirit samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Permanent chemical modifiers thermally coated on the platforms inserted in pyrolytic graphite tubes (such as W, Ir, Ru, W-Ir and W-Ru) were comparatively studied in relation to common chemical modifier mixtures [Pd-Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4})H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] for cadmium stabilization. Different ETAAS Cd determination methods based on the indicated modifiers have been developed. In each case, pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, atomization shapes, characteristic masses and detection limits as well as other analytical characteristics have been determined. All the assayed modifiers (permanent and conventional) were capable of achieving the appropriate stabilization of the analyte, with the exception of Ru and W-Ru. Moreover, for all developed methods, recoveries (99-102%) and precision (R.S.D. lower than 10%) were acceptable. Taking into account the analytical performance (best detection limit LOD = 0.01 {mu}g L{sup -1}), the ETAAS method based on the use of W as a permanent modifier was selected for further direct Cd determinations in Orujo samples from Galicia (NW Spain). The chosen method was applied in the determination of the Cd content in 38 representative Galician samples. The cadmium concentrations ranged

  10. Comparison of selenium determination in liver samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, Irina Rudik; Buckley, Carol L; Carpenter, Nancy P; Poppenga, Robert H

    2005-07-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element that is often deficient in the natural diets of domestic animal species. The measurement of Se in whole blood or liver is the most accurate way to assess Se status for diagnostic purposes. This study was conducted to compare hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (HG-AAS) with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection and quantification of Se in liver samples. Sample digestion was accomplished with magnesium nitrate and nitric acid for HG-AAS and ICP-MS, respectively. The ICP-MS detection was optimized for 82Se with yttrium used as the internal standard and resulted in a method detection limit of 0.12 microg/g. Selenium was quantified by both methods in 310 samples from a variety of species that were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory at New Bolton Center (Kennett Square, PA) for routine diagnostic testing. Paired measurements for each sample were evaluated by a mean difference plot method. Limits of agreement were used to describe the maximum differences likely to occur between the 2 methods. Results suggest that under the specified conditions ICP-MS can be reliably used in place of AAS for quantitation of tissue Se at or below 2 microg/g to differentiate between adequate and deficient liver Se concentrations.

  11. Testing different stellar mass estimators at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Longhetti, Marcella; Mignano, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Physical parameters of galaxies (as luminosity, stellar mass, age) are often derived by means of the model templates which best fit their spectro-photometric data. We have performed a quantitative test aimed at exploring the ability of this procedure in recovering the physical parameters of early-type galaxies at 1mass, are used to build mock photometric catalogs with wavelength coverage and photometric uncertainties similar to those of two topical surveys (i.e. VVDS and GOODS). The best fitting analysis of the simulated photometric data allows to study the differences among the recovered parameters and the input ones. Results indicate that the stellar masses measured by means of optical bands are affected by larger uncertainties with respect to those obtained from near-IR bands, and they frequently underestimate the real values. The M/L ratio in the V band results strongly underestimated,...

  12. QSTR with extended topochemical atom indices. 10. Modeling of toxicity of organic chemicals to humans using different chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Ghosh, Gopinath

    2008-11-01

    In this communication, we have developed quantitative predictive models using human lethal concentration values of 26 organic compounds including some pharmaceuticals with extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices applying different chemometric tools and compared the extended topochemical atom models with the models developed from non-extended topochemical atom ones. Extended topochemical atom descriptors were also tried in combination with non-extended topochemical atom descriptors to develop better predictive models. The use of extended topochemical atom descriptors along with non-extended topochemical atom ones improved equation statistics and cross-validation quality. The best model with sound statistical quality was developed from partial least squares regression using extended topochemical atom descriptors in combination non-extended topochemical atom ones. Finally, to check true predictability of the ETA parameters, the data set was divided into training (n = 19) and test (n = 7) sets. Partial least squares and genetic partial least squares models were developed from the training set using extended topochemical atom indices and the models were validated using the test set. The extended topochemical atom models developed from different statistical tools suggest that the toxicity increases with bulk, chloro functionality, presence of electronegative atoms within a chain or ring and unsaturation, and decreases with hydroxy functionality and branching. The results suggest that the extended topochemical atom descriptors are sufficiently rich in chemical information to encode the structural features for QSAR/QSPR/QSTR modeling.

  13. Dispersion coefficients for the interaction of Cs atom with different material media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Kaur, Jasmeet; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by a large number of applications, the dispersion (C3) coefficients for the interaction of a Cs atom with different material media such as Au (metal), Si (semiconductor) and various dielectric surfaces like vitreous SiO2, SiNx, sapphire and YAG are determined using accurate values of the dynamic polarizabilities of the Cs atom obtained employing the relativistic coupled-cluster approach and the dynamic dielectric constants of the walls. Moreover, we also give the retardation function in the graphical representation as functions of separation distances to describe the interaction potentials between the Cs atom with the above considered material media. For the easy access to the interaction potentials at a given distance of separation, we give a simple working functional fitting form for the retardation functions in terms of four fitting parameters that are quoted for the respective medium.

  14. Effective atomic numbers of some tissue substitutes by different methods: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers of some human organ tissue substitutes such as polyethylene terephthalate, red articulation wax, paraffin 1, paraffin 2, bolus, pitch, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, polyvinylchloride, and modeling clay have been calculated by four different methods like Auto-Zeff, direct, interpolation, and power law. It was found that the effective atomic numbers computed by Auto-Zeff, direct and interpolation methods were in good agreement for intermediate energy region (0.1 MeV numbers by direct method and Auto-Zeff was observed in photo-electric and pair-production regions. Effective atomic numbers computed by power law were found to be close to direct method in photo-electric absorption region. The Auto-Zeff, direct and interpolation methods were found to be in good agreement for computation of effective atomic numbers in intermediate energy region (100 keV numbers in photo-electric region (10 keV number mentioned in the present study. An accurate estimation of Rayleigh scattering is required to eliminate effect of molecular, chemical, or crystalline environment of the atom for estimation of gamma interaction parameters.

  15. Regime transition in electromechanical fluid atomization and implications to analyte ionization for mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2010-11-01

    The physical processes governing the transition from purely mechanical ejection to electromechanical ejection to electrospraying are investigated through complementary scaling analysis and optical visualization. Experimental characterization and visualization are performed with the ultrasonically-driven array of micromachined ultrasonic electrospray (AMUSE) ion source to decouple the electrical and mechanical fields. A new dimensionless parameter, the Fenn number, is introduced to define a transition between the spray regimes, in terms of its dependence on the characteristic Strouhal number for the ejection process. A fundamental relationship between the Fenn and Strouhal numbers is theoretically derived and confirmed experimentally in spraying liquid electrolytes of different ionic strength subjected to a varying magnitude electric field. This relationship and the basic understanding of the charged droplet generation physics have direct implications on the optimal ionization efficiency and mass spectrometric response for different types of analytes.

  16. On-line analysis of penicillin blood levels in the live rat by combined microdialysis/fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Caprioli, R.M.; Lin, S. N.

    1990-01-01

    The combination of microdialysis and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry has been used to follow the pharmacokinetics of penicillin G directly in the blood-stream of a live rat. After the intramuscular injection of the antibiotic, the blood dialysate was allowed to flow into the mass spectrometer via the continuous-flow/fast-atom bombardment interface. Tandem mass spectrometry provided the means for isolating and recording the ion fragments produced from the drug as the dialysate was expo...

  17. The dependence of scattering length on van der Waals interaction and on the reduced-mass of the system in two-atomic collision at cold energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Hasi

    2015-01-01

    The static-exchange model (SEM) and the modified static-exchange model (MSEM) recently introduced by Ray [1] is applied to study the elastic collision between two hydrogen-like atoms when both are in ground states considering the system as a four-body Coulomb problem in the center of mass frame, in which all the Coulomb interaction terms in direct and exchange channels are treated exactly. The SEM includes the non-adiabatic short-range effect due to electron-exchange. The MSEM added in it, the long-range effect due to induced dynamic dipole polarizabilities between the atoms e.g. the Van der Waals interaction. Applying the SEM code in different H-like two-atomic systems, a reduced mass dependence on scattering length is observed. Again applying the MSEM code on H(1s)-H(1s) elastic scattering and varying the minimum values of interatomic distance, the dependence of scattering length on the effective interatomic potential consistent with the existing physics are observed. Both these basic findings in low and co...

  18. Efficient mass-selective three-photon ionization of zirconium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    In an AVLIS process, .sup.91 Zr is selectively removed from natural zirconium by a three-step photoionization wherein Zr atoms are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.1, selectively raising .sup.91 Zr atoms to an odd-parity E.sub.1 energy level in the range of 16000-19000 cm.sup.-1, are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.2 to raise the atoms from an E.sub.l level to an even-parity E.sub.2 energy level in the range of 35000-37000 cm.sup.-1 and are irradiated by a laser beam having a wavelength .lambda..sub.3 to cause a resonant transition of atoms from an E.sub.2 level to an autoionizing level above 53506 cm.sup.-1. .lambda..sub.3 wavelengths of 5607, 6511 or 5756 .ANG. will excite a zirconium atom from an E.sub.2 energy state of 36344 cm.sup.-1 to an autoionizing level; a .lambda..sub.3 wavelength of 5666 .ANG. will cause an autoionizing transition from an E.sub.2 level of 36068 cm.sup.-1 ; and a .lambda. .sub.3 wavelength of 5662 .ANG. will cause an ionizing resonance of an atom at an E.sub.2 level of 35904 cm.sup.-1.

  19. Effects of Different Time-Dependent Couplings on Two-Atom Entanglement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ling; GAO Wen-Bin; YANG Guo-Hui; SONG He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different time-independent and time-dependent couplings on two-atom entanglement are studied. The results show that the effects depend on the initial state. For the initial state |ee0>, it is found that different time-independent couplings make the case without entanglement exhibit entanglement, and time-dependent couplings turn the irregular entanglement regions into regular one. Under the case of decay, for the initial state |eg0>, the different time-dependent couplings have disbenefit.

  20. Structure and Thermodynamic Properties of Liquid Transition Metals with Different Embedded-Atom Method Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金照; 陈民; 过增元

    2002-01-01

    Pair distribution functions and constant-volume heat capacities of liquid copper, silver and nickel have been calculated by molecular dynamics simulations with four different versions of the embedded-atom method (EAM) model, namely, the versions of Johnson, Mei, Cai and Pohlong. The simulated structural properties with the four potential models show reasonable agreement with experiments and have little difference with each other, while the calculated heat capacities with the different EAM versions show remarkable discrepancies. Detailed analyses of the energy of the liquid metallic system show that, to predict successfully the heat capacity, an EAM model should match the state equation first proposed by Rose.

  1. Nanoscale Subsurface Imaging via Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Sean A.; Cantrell, John H.; Lilehei, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    A novel scanning probe microscope methodology has been developed that employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by the fundamental resonance frequency of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever fundamental resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of embedded nanoscale features.

  2. A note on black-hole physics, cosmic censorship, and the charge-mass relation of atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-02-01

    Arguing from the cosmic censorship principle, one of the fundamental cornerstones of black-hole physics, we have recently suggested the existence of a universal upper bound relating the maximal electric charge of a weakly self-gravitating system to its total mass: Z(A)≤slant {Z}*(A)\\equiv {α }-1/3{A}2/3, where Z is the number of protons in the system, A is the total baryon (mass) number, and α ={e}2/{{\\hslash }}c is the dimensionless fine-structure constant. In order to test the validity of this suggested bound, we here explore the Z(A) functional relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsäcker semi-empirical mass formula. It is shown that all atomic nuclei, including the meta-stable maximally charged ones, conform to the suggested charge-mass upper bound. Our results support the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture in black-hole physics.

  3. Tensile manipulation of ultrathin gold nanowires at different sizes and atomic vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenying; Fu, Yingqiang; Chi, Baozhu; Dai, Yanfeng; Zhao, Jianwei

    2016-09-01

    The fractures of ultrathin metallic nanowires usually exhibit their uncertainties at small scales. Here, statistics was used to study the uniaxial tension-induced deformation of ultrathin gold nanowires. With the same cross section of gold nanowires (5a × 5a × Ha), different sizes show various deformation mechanisms due to the moving styles of slipped crystalline planes. However, the deformations at different sizes (5a × 5a × 5a) and (5a × 5a × 25a) both show the sensitivity to one atomic vacancy, attributed to the dominant role of the same cross section. The statistical broken position distributions further provide that the deformation fracture is size dependent and sensitive to atomic vacancies, which is explained with the relationship between broken bonds and tensile wave propagation. For the size dependence of mechanical property, the nanowire height (H) of 10a is observed to be a transitional point, when the height is less than 10a, the mechanical strength is unstable, while above this transitional point, mechanical strengths decrease with the nanowire size increasing. Our work provides mechanistic insights into enhancing the reliability of metallic nanostructures by engineering the internal atomic imperfection and structural dimensions.

  4. Neutrino masses from SUSY: Different contributions and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudhir K Vempati

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the various sources of neutrino masses in supersymmetric standard models with explicit lepton number violation. We show that the bilinear lepton number violating soft terms in models with either bilinear or trilinear lepton number violating couplings in the superpotential, play an important role in determining the neutrino mass spectrum. A comparative study of the neutrino mass spectrum and its implications for the present neutrino anomalies in these models is presented.

  5. Simulation of Chromium Atom Deposition Pattern in a Gaussain Laser Standing Wave with Different Laser Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-Tao; ZHU Bao-Hua

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional deposition of a neutral chromium atomic beam focused by a near-resonant Gaussian standing-laser field is discussed by using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta type algorithm. The deposition pattern of neutral chromium atoms in a laser standing wave with different laser power is discussed and the simulation result shows that the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a nanometer stripe is 115nm and the contrast is 2.5:1 with laser power 3.93mW; the FWHM is 0.Snm and the contrast is 27:1 with laser power 16mW, the optimal laser power; but with laser power increasing to 50mW, the nanometer structure forms multi-crests and the quality worsens quickly with increasing laser power.

  6. Production of intense beams of mass-selected water cluster ions and theoretical study of atom-water interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z P; Reinhard, P -G; Suraud, E; Bruny, G; Montano, C; Feil, S; Eden, S; Abdoul-Carime, H; Farizon, B; Farizon, M; Ouaskit, S; Maerk, T D

    2009-01-01

    The influences of water molecules surrounding biological molecules during irradiation with heavy particles (atoms,ions) are currently a major subject in radiation science on a molecular level. In order to elucidate the underlying complex reaction mechanisms we have initiated a joint experimental and theoretical investigation with the aim to make direct comparisons between experimental and theoretical results. As a first step, studies of collisions of a water molecule with a neutral projectile (C atom) at high velocities (> 0.1 a.u.), and with a charged projectile (proton) at low velocities (< 0.1 a.u.) have been studied within the microscopic framework. In particular, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was applied to the valence electrons and coupled non-adiabatically to Molecular dynamics (MD) for ionic cores. Complementary experimental developments have been carried out to study projectile interactions with accelerated (< 10 keV) and mass-selected cluster ions. The first size distributio...

  7. A comparison of ion and atom behavior in the first stage of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer vacuum interface: Evidence of the effect of an ambipolar electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, Paul B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)], E-mail: paul_farnsworth@byu.edu; Spencer, Ross L.; Radicic, W. Neil; Taylor, Nicholas; Macedone, Jeffrey; Ma Haibin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Velocities of argon atoms and calcium ions were measured in the first vacuum stage of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using high-resolution laser-excited fluorescence spectroscopy. The calcium ions reached terminal velocities in the supersonic expansion that were consistently 5-6% higher than those of argon atoms, despite minimal differences in the masses of the two species. A computational model of the expansion was developed that shows the development of an ambipolar electric field along the expansion axis. With reasonable assumptions about electron temperatures in the expansion, the model accounts for the differences between the terminal velocities of the neutral argon atoms and the singly-charged calcium ions.

  8. History of the recommended atomic-weight values from 1882 to 1997: A comparision of differences from current values to the estimated uncertainties of earlier values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Peiser, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    International commissions and national committees for atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) have recommended regularly updated, best values for these atomic weights as applicable to terrestrial sources of the chemical elements. Presented here is a historically complete listing starting with the values in F. W. Clarke's 1882 recalculation, followed by the recommended values in the annual reports of the American Chemical Society's Atomic Weights Commission. From 1903, an International Commission published such reports and its values (scaled to an atomic weight of 16 for oxygen) are here used in preference to those of national committees of Britain, Germany, Spain, Switzerland, and the U.S.A. We have, however, made scaling adjustments from Ar(16O) to Ar(12C) where not negligible. From 1920, this International Commission constituted itself under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Since then, IUPAC has published reports (mostly biennially) listing the recommended atomic weights, which are reproduced here. Since 1979, these values have been called the "standard atomic weights" and, since 1969, all values have been published, with their estimated uncertainties. Few of the earlier values were published with uncertainties. Nevertheless, we assessed such uncertainties on the basis of our understanding of the likely contemporary judgement of the values' reliability. While neglecting remaining uncertainties of 1997 values, we derive "differences" and a retrospective index of reliability of atomic-weight values in relation to assessments of uncertainties at the time of their publication. A striking improvement in reliability appears to have been achieved since the commissions have imposed upon themselves the rule of recording estimated uncertainties from all recognized sources of error.

  9. Data correlation in on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-atomic emission/mass spectrometric detection of unknown microcontaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Rozenbrand, J.; Abhadur, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is described for the (non-target) screening of hetero-atom-containing compounds in tap and waste water by correlating data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) using atomic emission (AED) and mass selective (MS) detection. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to both GC system

  10. Radiation trapping in atomic absorption spectroscopy at lead determination in different matricies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt)]. E-mail: zhelgohary@yahoo.com

    2005-08-15

    The determination of lead by flame atomic absorption analysis in the presence of Sn and Fe atoms and different matrices such as OH and SO{sub 3} was investigated with the objective of understanding the spectral interference processes at the analytical lines 283.31 nm for a wide range of concentration. The radiation trapping factor was interpreted and evaluated assuming Voigt distribution of the atomic and rotational lines in the flame. The radiation trapping factor was increased by increasing the number density (plasma of the absorbing medium is optically thick). In plasma, there is a certain point of equilibrium between the trapping and the escaping of radiation, which is relevant to 50% of absorption. The spectral background interference can cause a variation of the number density at equilibrium point as a result of the degree of overlap with the analytical line. The spectral background interference can be easily avoided by using another resonance absorption line for the analysis. The chemical modification of the matrix is applied to minimize the interference effect. Nitric acid, ammonium nitrate and magnesium nitrate are most commonly recommended as matrix modifiers.

  11. Radiation trapping in atomic absorption spectroscopy at lead determination in different matricies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Z.

    2005-08-01

    The determination of lead by flame atomic absorption analysis in the presence of Sn and Fe atoms and different matrices such as OH and SO3 was investigated with the objective of understanding the spectral interference processes at the analytical lines 283.31 nm for a wide range of concentration. The radiation trapping factor was interpreted and evaluated assuming Voigt distribution of the atomic and rotational lines in the flame. The radiation trapping factor was increased by increasing the number density (plasma of the absorbing medium is optically thick). In plasma, there is a certain point of equilibrium between the trapping and the escaping of radiation, which is relevant to 50% of absorption. The spectral background interference can cause a variation of the number density at equilibrium point as a result of the degree of overlap with the analytical line. The spectral background interference can be easily avoided by using another resonance absorption line for the analysis. The chemical modification of the matrix is applied to minimize the interference effect. Nitric acid, ammonium nitrate and magnesium nitrate are most commonly recommended as matrix modifiers.

  12. Nanoscale Subsurface Imaging of Nanocomposites via Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Sean A.; Cantrell, John H.; Lillehei, Peter T.

    2007-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope methodology, called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), has been developed. The method employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope engages the sample top surface. The cantilever is driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave at the sample surface generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create amplitude and phase-generated images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features. RDF-AFUM phase images of LaRC-CP2 polyimide polymer containing embedded nanostructures are presented. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of a 12.7 micrometer thick film of LaRC-CP2 containing a monolayer of gold nanoparticles embedded 7 micrometers below the specimen surface reveals the occurrence of contiguous amorphous and crystalline phases within the bulk of the polymer and a preferential growth of the crystalline phase in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles. A RDF-AFUM micrograph of LaRC-CP2 film containing randomly dispersed carbon nanotubes reveals the growth of an interphase region at certain nanotube-polymer interfaces.

  13. Different aspects of the Debye-Waller factor in various atom-surface scattering theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumhalter, Branko

    1996-02-01

    We discuss differences in the formal appearance, structure and physical origin of the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) obtained in various theoretical treatments of inelastic atom-surface collisions. These differences are illustrated on the example of two most commonly used formalisms for description of inelastic atom scattering by multiple excitation of surface phonons. In the first of these approaches, one starts from the expression for transition rates for the projectile atom which is coupled to the phonon field to all orders in lattice displacements. In first-order Born approximation, which is usually employed to express the corresponding T-matrix in a tractable form, the problem reduces to calculation of the exponentiated lattice displacement correlation function. By using a diagrammatic expansion to represent such correlation function we demonstrate that in this description the DWF occurs as a consequence of atom scattering by zero point motion of the lattice and is therefore expressed through dynamical variables which are not constrained to the energy shell. In the second approach one starts from the expression for the scattering spectrum of the projectile and linear atom-phonon field coupling, which is then treated in a nonperturbative fashion to all orders in the coupling constant. Here the dominant quantum contribution to the DWF arises from the projectile scattering through real uncorrelated multiphonon emission processes, which reduce the scattered beam intensity in the elastic channel. Using analogous diagrammatic expansion we show that the corresponding DWF is expressed in terms of the on-the-energy-shell quantities, which then leads to a normalization of the total scattering spectrum so as to comply with the optical theorem. Only in the limit of fast collision and trajectory approximation for the scattered particle motion the two approaches lead to the same result for the DWF because in this case the on-the-energy-shell features are washed out. We conclude

  14. Rydberg blockade, F\\"orster resonances, and quantum state measurements with different atomic species

    CERN Document Server

    Beterov, I I

    2015-01-01

    We calculate interspecies Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strengths for the heavy alkalis Rb and Cs. The presence of strong F\\"orster resonances makes interspecies coupling a promising approach for long range entanglement generation. We also provide an overview of the strongest F\\"orster resonances for Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs using different principal quantum numbers for the two atoms. We show how interspecies coupling can be used for high fidelity quantum non demolition state measurements with low crosstalk in qubit arrays.

  15. Mass predictions of atomic nuclei in the infinite nuclear matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, R. C.; Satpathy, L.

    2012-07-01

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two-neutron, one- and two-proton and α-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4≤Z≤120 and 8≤A≤303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the η-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy η's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact η-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation energy-systematics derived from the present mass predictions reveal a general new feature for the existence of islands of inversion in the exotic neutron-rich regions of nuclear landscape, apart from supporting the presently known islands around 31Na and 62Ti. The five global parameters representing the properties of infinite nuclear matter, the surface, the Coulomb and the pairing terms are retained as per our 1999 mass table. The root-mean-square deviation of the present mass-fit to 2198 known masses is 342 keV, while the mean deviation is 1.3 keV, reminiscent of no left-over systematic effects. This is a substantive improvement over our 1999 mass table having rms deviation of 401 keV and mean deviation of 9 keV for 1884 data nuclei.

  16. [Determination of inorganic elements in different parts of Sonchus oleraceus L by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nai-Xing; Cui, Xue-Gui; Du, Ai-Qin; Mao, Hong-Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame was used for the determination of inorganic metal elements in different parts ( flower, leaf, stem and root) of Sonchus oleraceus L. The contents of Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and Cd in the flower, leaf, stem and root of Sonchus oleraceus L were compared. The order from high to low of the additive weight (microg x g(-1)) for the 13 kinds of metal elements is as follows: leaf (77 213.72) > flower (47 927.15) > stem(42 280.99) > root (28 131.18). From the experimental results it was found that there were considerable differences in the contents of the metal elements in different parts, and there were richer contents of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu in root and flower, which are necessary to human health, than in other parts.

  17. Construction of Different Kinds of Atomic and Molecular Orbitals Using Complete Orthonormal Sets of -ETO in Single Exponent Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guseinov I. Israfil; Erturk Murat

    2008-01-01

    Using complete orthonormal sets of Ψα -exponential type orbitals in single exponent approximation the new approach has been suggested for construction of different kinds of functions which can be useful in the theory of linear combination of atomic orbitals. These functions can be chosen properly according to the nature of the problems under consideration. This is rather important because the choice of the basis set may be play a crucial role in applications to atomic and molecular problems. As an example of application, different atomic orbitals for the ground states of the neutral and the first ten cationic members of the isoelectronic series of He atom are constructed by the solution of Hartree-Fock Roothaan equations using Ψ1, Ψ0 and Ψ-1 basis sets. The calculated results are close to the numerical Hartree-Fock values. The total energy, expansion coefficients, orbital exponents and virial ratio for each atom are presented.

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy Thermally-Assisted Microsampling with Atmospheric Pressure Temperature Ramped Thermal Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D; Kertesz, Vilmos; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2017-02-20

    The use of atomic force microscopy controlled nanothermal analysis probes for reproducible spatially resolved thermally assisted sampling of micrometer-sized areas (ca. 11 × 17 μm wide × 2.4 μm deep) from relatively low number-average molecular weight (Mn mass spectrometric analysis. The procedure and mechanism for material pickup, the sampling reproducibility and sampling size are discussed, and the oligomer distribution information available from slow temperature ramps versus ballistic temperature jumps is presented. For the Mn = 970 P2VP, the Mn and polydispersity index determined from the mass spectrometric data were in line with both the label values from the sample supplier and the value calculated from the simple infusion of a solution of polymer into the commercial atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source on this mass spectrometer. With a P2VP sample of higher Mn (Mn = 2070 and 2970), intact oligomers were still observed (as high as m/z 2793 corresponding to the 26-mer), but a significant abundance of thermolysis products were also observed. In addition, the capability for confident identification of the individual oligomers by slowly ramping the probe temperature and collecting data-dependent tandem mass spectra was also demonstrated. The material type limits to the current sampling and analysis approach as well as possible improvements in nanothermal analysis probe design to enable smaller area sampling and to enable controlled temperature ramps beyond the present upper limit of about 415 °C are also discussed.

  19. On the mass of atoms in molecules: Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Arne; Sebastiani, Daniel; Gross, E K U; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Describing the dynamics of nuclei in molecules requires a potential energy surface, which is traditionally provided by the Born-Oppenheimer or adiabatic approximation. However, we also need to assign masses to the nuclei. There, the Born-Oppenheimer picture does not account for the inertia of the electrons and only bare nuclear masses are considered. Nowadays, experimental accuracy challenges the theoretical predictions of rotational and vibrational spectra and requires to include the participation of electrons in the internal motion of the molecule. More than 80 years after the original work of Born and Oppenheimer, this issue still is not solved in general. Here, we present a theoretical and numerical framework to address this problem in a general and rigorous way. Starting from the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we include electronic effects beyond the Born-Oppenheimer regime in a perturbative way via position-dependent corrections to the bare nuclear masses. This maintains an a...

  20. Measurement of the charged pion mass using X-ray spectroscopy of exotic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Trassinelli, M; Borchert, G; Dax, A; Egger, J P; Gotta, D; Hennebach, M; Indelicato, P; Liu, Y -W; Manil, B; Nelms, N; Simons, L M; Wells, A

    2016-01-01

    The $5g-4f$ transitions in pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen were measured simultaneously by using a gaseous nitrogen-oxygen mixture at 1.4\\,bar. Due to the precise knowledge of the muon mass the muonic line provides the energy calibration for the pionic transition. A value of (139.57077\\,$\\pm$\\,0.00018)\\,MeV/c$^{2}$ ($\\pm$\\,1.3ppm) is derived for the mass of the negatively charged pion, which is 4.2ppm larger than the present world average.

  1. Investigation of Confinement Induced Resonance in Atomic Waveguides with Different Geometries by Quantum Monte Carlo Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Azizi, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the quantum dynamics of two ultracold bosons inside an atomic waveguide for two different confinement geometries (cigar-shaped and toroidal waveguides) by quantum Monte Carlo methods. For quasi-1D gases, the confining potential of the waveguide leads to the so-called confinement induced resonance (CIR), results in the phase transition of the gas to the impenetrable bosonic regime (known as TG gas). In this regime the bosons repel each other strongly and behave like fermions. We reproduce CIR for a cigar-shaped waveguide and analyze the behavior of the system for different conditions. Moreover, our analysis demonstrates appearance of CIR for a toroidal waveguide. Particularly, we show that the resonance position is dependent on the size of the waveguide, which is in contrast to the cigar shaped waveguides for which it is universal.

  2. Mechanistic aspects of gas-phase hydrogen-atom transfer from methane to [CO](·+) and [SiO](·+) : why do they differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, Nicolas; Troiani, Anna; Schlangen, Maria; Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo; Apeloig, Yitzhak; de Petris, Giulia; Schwarz, Helmut

    2013-05-17

    The reactivity of the two diatomic congeneric systems [CO](·+) and [SiO](·+) towards methane has been investigated by means of mass spectrometry and quantum-chemical calculations. While [CO](·+) gives rise to three different reaction channels, [SiO](·+) reacts only by hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) from methane under thermal conditions. A theoretical analysis of the respective HAT processes reveals two distinctly different mechanistic pathways for [CO](·+) and [SiO](·+), and a comparison to the higher metal oxides of Group 14 emphasizes the particular role of carbon as a second-row p element.

  3. The GSI method for studying neutrino mass differences - For Pedestrians

    OpenAIRE

    Lipkin, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    A new experiment studying the behavior of a radioactive ion before its weak decay by K-capture suggests that neutrino masses and mixing can be investigated without detecting the neutrino. Every weak decay can be observed, thus avoiding the suppression by the low neutrino absorption cross section of the signal in conventional neutrino oscillation experiments. The normally unobservable long wave lengths are made observable by having the radioactive source move a long distance circulating around...

  4. Greatly enhanced intensity-difference squeezing via energy-level modulations in hot atomic media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-band intensity-difference squeezing (IDS) beams have important applications in quantum metrology and quantum information. The best way to generate narrow-band IDS is to employ parametrically-amplified (PA) four-wave mixing (FWM) process in high-gain atomic media. Such IDS can be further enhanced by cascading multiple PA-FWM processes in separate atomic media. The complicated experimental setup, added losses and mechanical stability can limit the wide uses of such scheme in practical applications. Here, we show that by modulating/dressing the internal energy level(s) with additional laser(s), the degree of original IDS can be substantially increased. With an initial IDS of $-4.0\\pm0.1$ dB using PA-non-degenerate-FWM process in a three-level $\\Lambda$-type configuration, the degree of IDS can be enhanced to $-7.0\\pm0.1$ dB/$-8.1\\pm0.1$ dB when we use one/two laser beam(s) to modulate the involved ground/excited state(s). Our results show a low-loss, robust and efficient way to produce high degree of IDS ...

  5. Impact parameter dependence of collective flow and its disappearance for different mass asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Supriya

    2011-01-01

    We study the role of impact parameter on the collective flow and its disappearance for different mass asymmetric reactions. The mass asymmetry is varied from 0 to 0.7 keeping the total mass of the system fixed. Our results clearly indicate a significant role of impact parameter on the collective flow and its disappearance for the mass asymmetric reactions. The impact parameter dependence is also found to vary with mass asymmetry of the reaction.

  6. Measurement of the charged pion mass using a low-density target of light atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Trassinelli, M; Borchert, G; Dax, A; Egger, J -P; Gotta, D; Hennebach, M; Indelicato, P; Liu, Y -W; Manil, B; Nelms, N; Simons, L M; Wells, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a new evaluation of the negatively charged pion mass based on the simultaneous spec-troscopy of pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen transitions using a gaseous target composed by a N 2 /O 2 mixture at 1.4 bar. We present the experimental setup and the methods for deriving the pion mass value from the spatial separation from the 5g -- 4 f $\\pi$N transition line and the 5g -- 4 f $\\mu$O transition line used as reference. Moreover, we discuss the importance to use dilute targets in order to minimize the influence of additional spectral lines from the presence of remaining electrons during the radiative emission. The occurrence of possible satellite lines is investigated via hypothesis testing methods using the Bayes factor.

  7. Measurement of the charged pion mass using a low-density target of light atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trassinelli M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new evaluation of the negatively charged pion mass based on the simultaneous spectroscopy of pionic nitrogen and muonic oxygen transitions using a gaseous target composed by a N2/O2 mixture at 1.4 bar. We present the experimental set-up and the methods for deriving the pion mass value from the spatial separation from the 5g − 4f πN transition line and the 5g − 4f μO transition line used as reference. Moreover, we discuss the importance to use dilute targets in order to minimize the influence of additional spectral lines from the presence of remaining electrons during the radiative emission. The occurrence of possible satellite lines is investigated via hypothesis testing methods using the Bayes factor.

  8. Escape dynamics in collinear atomic-like three mass point systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pasca, Daniel; Stoica, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The present paper studies the escape mechanism in collinear three point mass systems with small-range-repulsive/large-range-attractive pairwise-interaction. Specifically, we focus on systems with non-negative total energy. We show that on the zero energy level set, most of the orbits lead to binary escape configurations and the set of initial conditions leading to escape configurations where all three separations infinitely increase as $t \\to \\infty 1$ has zero Lebesgue measure. We also give numerical evidence of the existence of a periodic orbit for the case when the two outer masses are equal. For positive energies, we prove that the set of initial conditions leading to escape configurations where all three separations infinitely increase as $t \\to \\infty$ has positive Lebesgue measure. Keywords: linear three point

  9. Mass Predictions of Atomic Nuclei in the Infinite Nuclear Matter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, R C

    2012-01-01

    We present here the mass excesses, binding energies, one- and two- neutron, one and two- proton and \\alpha-particle separation energies of 6727 nuclei in the ranges 4 \\leq Z \\leq 120 and 8 \\leq A \\leq 303 calculated in the infinite nuclear matter model. Compared to our predictions of 1999 mass table, the present ones are obtained using larger data base of 2003 mass table of Wapstra and Audi and resorting to higher accuracy in the solutions of the \\eta-differential equations of the INM model. The local energy \\eta's supposed to carry signature of the characteristic properties of nuclei are found to possess the predictive capability. In fact \\eta-systematics reveal new magic numbers in the drip-line regions giving rise to new islands of stability supported by relativistic mean field theoretic calculations. This is a manifestation of a new phenomenon where shell-effect overcomes the instability due to repulsive components of the nucleon-nucleon force broadening the stability peninsula. The two-neutron separation...

  10. Metabolism of cycloate in radish leaf: metabolite identification by packed capillary flow fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B C; Barnes, J P; Staub, R E; Walker, F H; Kerlinger, N

    1994-10-01

    The metabolism of cycloate, a thiocarbamate herbicide, was investigated in mature radish leaf. Twelve new metabolites were identified by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis using fast atom bombardment and packed capillary liquid chromatography columns. Full-scan and tandem mass spectrometric methods were employed. Application of the on-column focusing technique resulted in identifications with injections of as little as 15 ng of metabolite (20 ppb in radish). This injection technique allows the practical use of packed capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in sample-limited applications. Cycloate is oxidized to several ring-hydroxylated isomers that are subsequently glucosylated and esterified with malonic acid. Cycloate is also conjugated with glutathione. Metabolic hydrolysis of the glutathione conjugate formed a cysteine conjugate that is further metabolized by amidation with either malonic or acetic acid. Transamination of the cysteine conjugate gave a thiolactic acid derivative. Metabolites were also identified that were the result of both ring-hydroxylation and conjugation with glutathione. One of these, an N-acetylcysteine conjugate, is the first report of a mercapturic acid in plants. The structures of two of the new metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis.

  11. Atomic force microscopy imaging of polyurethane nanoparticles onto different solid substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddin Fritzen-Garcia, Mauricia [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); POLIMAT, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: maurifritzen@hotmail.com; Giehl Zanetti-Ramos, Betina [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Schweitzer de Oliveira, Cristian [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos e Superficies, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Avelino Pasa, Andre [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos e Superficies, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Creczynski-Pasa, Tania Beatriz [Laboratorio de Bioenergetica e Bioquimica de Macromoleculas, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2009-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique suited for characterizing nanoparticles on solid surfaces because it offers the capability of 3D visualization and quantitative information about the topography of the samples. In the present work, contact-mode AFM has been applied to imaging polyurethane nanoparticles formulated from a natural triol and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The colloidal polymeric system was deposited on mica, hydrophilic and hydrophobic silicon solid substrates to evaluate the size and shape of the nanoparticles. Our data showed that the nanoparticles were better distributed on mica and hydrophilic silicon. From the analysis of line-scan profiles we obtained different values for the ratio between the diameter and the height of the nanoparticles, indicating that the shape of the particles depends on the interaction between the nanoparticles and the substrate.

  12. Atomic force microscopy study of the rabbit skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors in different functional states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏青青; 程晓阳; 陈克樱; 胡钧; 李民乾; 朱培闳

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscope was applied to investigate the effect of extrinsic phospholipid on the structure of rabbit skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel (RyR1). In addition, in the presence of extrinsic phospholipid, the height and elasticity of the RyR1s in different functional states were also measured. The results indicate: (i) most of the RyR1s showed a normal structure only in the presence of extrinsic phospholipid; (ii) treatment of the RyR1s with AMP and Ca2+ together could increase their Young's Modulus but not change their apparent height; (iii) no detectable change in either height or Young's Modulus of the RyR1s appeared, if the RyR1s were treated with other activators or inhibitors.

  13. Systematic effects in the measurement of the negatively charged pion mass using laser spectroscopy of pionic helium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Obreshkov, Boyan

    2016-01-01

    The collision-induced shift and broadening of selected dipole transition lines of pionic helium in gaseous helium at low temperatures up to $T=12$ K and pressure up to a few bar are calculated within variable phase function approach. We predict blue shift of the resonance frequencies of the $(n,l)=(16,15) \\rightarrow (16,14) $ and $(16,15) \\rightarrow (17,14)$ unfavored transitions and red shift for the favored transition $(17,16) \\rightarrow (16,15)$. The result may be helpful in reducing the systematic error in proposed future experiments for determination of the negatively charged pion mass from laser spectroscopy of metastable pionic helium atoms.

  14. Ag films grown by remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition on different substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusan, Akinwumi A., E-mail: akinwumi.amusan@ovgu.de; Kalkofen, Bodo; Burte, Edmund P. [Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems, Otto-von-Guericke University, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Gargouri, Hassan; Wandel, Klaus; Pinnow, Cay [SENTECH Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Lisker, Marco [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Silver (Ag) layers were deposited by remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PALD) using Ag(fod)(PEt{sub 3}) (fod = 2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluorooctane-3,5-dionato) as precursor and hydrogen plasma on silicon substrate covered with thin films of SiO{sub 2}, TiN, Ti/TiN, Co, Ni, and W at different deposition temperatures from 70  to 200 °C. The deposited silver films were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, four point probe measurement, ellipsometric measurement, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). XPS revealed pure Ag with carbon and oxygen contamination close to the detection limit after 30 s argon sputtering for depositions made at 120 and 200 °C substrate temperatures. However, an oxygen contamination was detected in the Ag film deposited at 70 °C after 12 s argon sputtering. A resistivity of 5.7 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm was obtained for approximately 97 nm Ag film on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. The thickness was determined from the SEM cross section on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and also compared with XRF measurements. Polycrystalline cubic Ag reflections were identified from XRD for PALD Ag films deposited at 120 and 200 °C. Compared to W surface, where poor adhesion of the films was found, Co, Ni, TiN, Ti/TiN and SiO{sub 2} surfaces had better adhesion for silver films as revealed by SEM, TEM, and AFM images.

  15. Measurement of the mass difference between $t$ and $\\bar{t}$ quarks

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present a direct measurement of the mass difference between $t$ and $\\bar{t}$ quarks using $\\ttbar$ candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, collected with the CDF II detector at Fermilab's 1.96 TeV Tevatron \\ppbar Collider. We make an event by event estimate of the mass difference to construct templates for top quark pair signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution of data is compared to templates of signals and background using a maximum likelihood fit. From a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\invfb{5.6}, we measure a mass difference, $\\dmt = \\mathrm{M}_{t} - \\mathrm{M}_{\\bar{t}} = -3.3 \\pm 1.4(stat) \\pm 1.0(syst)}$, approximately two standard deviations away from the CPT hypothesis of zero mass difference. This is the most precise measurement of a mass difference between $t$ and its $\\bar{t}$ partner to date.

  16. Biomedical applications of accelerator mass spectrometry-isotope measurements at the level of the atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J; Garner, R C

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a nuclear physics technique developed about twenty years ago, that uses the high energy (several MeV) of a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to measure very small quantities of rare and long-lived isotopes. Elements that are of interest in biomedicine and environmental sciences can be measured, often to parts per quadrillion sensitivity, i.e. zeptomole to attomole levels (10(-21)-10(-18) mole) from milligram samples. This is several orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by conventional decay counting techniques, such as liquid scintillation counting (LSC). AMS was first applied to geochemical, climatological and archaeological areas, such as for radiocarbon dating (Shroud of Turin), but more recently this technology has been used for bioanalytical applications. In this sphere, most work has been conducted using aluminium, calcium and carbon isotopes. The latter is of special interest in drug metabolism studies, where a Phase 1 adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) study can be conducted using only 10 nanoCurie (37 Bq or ca. 0.9 microSv) amounts or less of 14C-labelled drugs. In the UK, these amounts of radioactivity are below those necessary to request specific regulatory approval from the Department of Health's Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC), thus saving on valuable development time and resources. In addition, the disposal of these amounts is much less an environmental issue than that associated with microCurie quantities, which are currently used. Also, AMS should bring an opportunity to conduct "first into man" studies without the need for widespread use of animals. Centre for Biomedical Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CBAMS) Ltd. is the first fully commercial company in the world to offer analytical services using AMS. With its high throughput and relatively low costs per sample analysis, AMS should be of great benefit to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology

  17. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  18. Effects of non-idealities and quantization of the center of mass motion on symmetric and asymmetric collective states in a collective state atomic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Resham; Kim, May E.; Fang, Renpeng; Tu, Yanfei; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of an ensemble of ? non-interacting, identical atoms excited by a laser. In general, the ?-th atom sees a Rabi frequency ?, an initial position dependent laser phase ?, and a motion induced Doppler shift of ?. When ? or ? is distinct for each atom, the system evolves into a superposition of ? intercoupled states, of which there are ? symmetric and ? asymmetric collective states. For a collective state atomic interferometer (COSAIN), we recently proposed, it is important to understand the behavior of all the collective states under various conditions. In this paper, we show how to formulate the properties of these states under various non-idealities, and use this formulation to understand the dynamics thereof. We also consider the effect of treating the center of mass degree of freedom of the atoms quantum mechanically on the description of the collective states, illustrating that it is indeed possible to construct a generalized collective state, as needed for the COSAIN, when each atom is assumed to be in a localized wave packet. The analysis presented in this paper is important for understanding the dynamics of the COSAIN, and will help advance the analysis and optimization of spin squeezing in the presence of practically unavoidable non-idealities as well as in the domain where the center of mass motion of the atoms is quantized.

  19. Towards a universal product ion mass spectral library - reproducibility of product ion spectra across eleven different mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopley, Chris; Bristow, Tony; Lubben, Anneke; Simpson, Alec; Bull, Elaine; Klagkou, Katerina; Herniman, Julie; Langley, John

    2008-06-01

    Product ion spectra produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in tandem mass spectrometry experiments can differ markedly between instruments. There have been a number of attempts to standardise the production of product ion spectra; however, a consensus on the most appropriate approach to the reproducible production of spectra has yet to be reached. We have previously reported the comparison of product ion spectra on a number of different types of instruments - a triple quadrupole, two ion traps and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (Bristow AWT, Webb KS, Lubben AT, Halket JM. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004; 18: 1). The study showed that a high degree of reproducibility was achievable. The goal of this study was to improve the comparability and reproducibility of CID product ion mass spectra produced in different laboratories and using different instruments. This was carried out experimentally by defining a spectral calibration point on each mass spectrometer for product ion formation. The long-term goal is the development of a universal (instrument independent) product ion mass spectral library for the identification of unknowns. The spectra of 48 compounds have been recorded on eleven mass spectrometers: six ion traps, two triple quadrupoles, a hybrid triple quadrupole, and two quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. Initially, 4371 spectral comparisons were carried out using the data from eleven instruments and the degree of reproducibility was evaluated. A blind trial has also been carried out to assess the reproducibility of spectra obtained during LC/MS/MS. The results suggest a degree of reproducibility across all instrument types using the tuning point technique. The reproducibility of the product ion spectra is increased when comparing the tandem in time type instruments and the tandem in space instruments as two separate groups. This may allow the production of a more limited, yet useful, screening library for LC

  20. Psychosocial work dimensions, personality, and body mass index: Sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Blanch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The association between psychosocial work dimensions (i.e. demand and control and obesity has been found to be inconclusive, indicating that individual differences factors might also contribute to explain the variability in BMI. Materials and Methods: The interaction between work dimensions and personality variables in a group of male and female workers (N = 506, and its associations with BMI were analyzed with a cross-sectional study with self-report data. Hierarhical regression analyses were used to predict the BMI levels from work and individual differences variables and their interactions for males and females. Results: The main effects of personality variables were not significant, physical workload interacted with neuroticism for males, whereas control interacted with activity for females. Conclusions: Psychosocial work dimensions and personality traits were related to BMI for men and women. These outcomes reinforce the notion that different models might account for the explanatory mechanisms of BMI in regard to sex.

  1. Photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance of low-band gap polymers based on dithiophene with different bridging atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Sørensen, Thomas J.; Manceau, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    New low-band gap polymers based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DBT) and dithiophene with different bridging atoms have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study on the photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance. Two differently modified DBT units were exploited, namely 5,6- bi....... Substitution of the bridging carbon atom with silicon results in a significant stability improvement by a factor 5. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.......New low-band gap polymers based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DBT) and dithiophene with different bridging atoms have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study on the photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance. Two differently modified DBT units were exploited, namely 5,6- bis...

  2. Dental enamel roughness with different acid etching times: Atomic force microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bochnia Cerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An important characteristic of human dental enamel not yet studied in detail is its surface roughness in mesoscopic scale. This study evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively the surface topography of acid etched enamel with different etching times. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six human maxillary bicuspids were randomly distributed into three groups (n=32: T0 (control, pumiced; T15, 35% phosphoric acid etched enamel for 15 s; T30, 35% phosphoric acid etched enamel for 30 s. Roughness measurements Ra, Rz and root mean square (RMS and 3D images of enamel′s topography were obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM, which is a powerful technique to obtain direct measurements on microscale features. Results and Conclusions: Roughness variables Ra, Rz and RMS presented statistically significant differences to all groups (P<0.000, with values increasing with etching time. This increase was greater from T0 to T15 than from T15 to T30. Enamel surface alterations T15 to T30 occur mainly due to increase in height and deepening of prisms central region.

  3. DO NOT FORGET THE FOREST FOR THE TREES: THE STELLAR-MASS HALO-MASS RELATION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cen, Renyue, E-mail: stonnes@gmail.com, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The connection between dark matter halos and galactic baryons is often not well constrained nor well resolved in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Thus, halo occupation distribution models that assign galaxies to halos based on halo mass are frequently used to interpret clustering observations, even though it is well known that the assembly history of dark matter halos is related to their clustering. In this paper we use high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to compare the halo and stellar mass growth of galaxies in a large-scale overdensity to those in a large-scale underdensity (on scales of about 20 Mpc). The simulation reproduces assembly bias, in which halos have earlier formation times in overdense environments than in underdense regions. We find that the ratio of stellar mass to halo mass is larger in overdense regions in central galaxies residing in halos with masses between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12.9} M{sub ⊙}. When we force the local density (within 2 Mpc) at z = 0 to be the same for galaxies in the large-scale over- and underdensities, we find the same results. We posit that this difference can be explained by a combination of earlier formation times, more interactions at early times with neighbors, and more filaments feeding galaxies in overdense regions. This result puts the standard practice of assigning stellar mass to halos based only on their mass, rather than considering their larger environment, into question.

  4. 同位素丰度绝对测量及相对原子质量测定中的不确定度评估%Uncertainty Analysis of Absolute Measurement of Isotopic Abundances and Relative Atomic Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 王同兴

    2005-01-01

    The sources of uncertainty of relative atomic mass include measurement errors and isotopic fractionation of terrestrial samples. Measurement errors are composed of measurements of atomic masses and isotopic abundances, the later includes uncertainty of correction factor K and isotopic ratios of natural samples. Through differential of seven factors to gain their propagation factors, the uncertainty of correction factors K can be calculated. With the same differential calculation, the uncertainty of relative atomic mass can be obtained.

  5. Direct measurement of the mass difference between top and antitop quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; Backusmayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Devaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magaña-Villalba, R; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nikolaev, I; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero Y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-09-25

    We present a measurement of the mass difference between t and t[over] quarks in lepton + jets final states of tt[over] events in 1 fb;{-1} of data collected with the D0 detector from Fermilab Tevatron Collider pp[over] collisions at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV. The measured mass difference of 3.8 +/- 3.7 GeV is consistent with the equality of t and t[over ] masses. This is the first direct measurement of a mass difference between a quark and its antiquark partner.

  6. Interactions and low energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of different nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Arpita; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems like X + Y$^{+}$, where X(Y$^{+})$ is either Li(Cs$^+$) or Cs((Li$^+$), Na(Cs$^+$) or Cs(Na$^+$) and Li(Rb$^+$) or Rb(Li$^+$). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We calculate ground-state scattering wave functions and cross sections of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order $1$ K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. In the low energy limit ($< 1 \\mu$K), elastic scattering cross sections exhibit Wigner law threshold behavior while in the high energy limit the cross sections go as $E^{-1/3}$. We discuss qualitatively the possibilities of forming cold molecular ion by ...

  7. Different patterns of collagen-proteoglycan interaction: a scanning electron microscopyand atomic force microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ruggeri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix of unfixed, unstained rat corneal stroma, visualized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy after minimal preliminary treatment, appears composed of straight, parallel, uniform collagen fibrils regularly spaced by a three-dimensional, irregular network of thin, delicate proteoglycan filaments. Rat tail tendon, observed under identical conditions, appears instead made of heterogeneous, closely packed fibrils interwoven with orthogonal proteoglycan filaments. Pre-treatment with cupromeronic blue just thickens the filaments without affecting their spatial layout. Digestion with chondroitinase ABC rids the tendon matrix of all its interconnecting filaments while the corneal stroma architecture remains virtually unaffected, its fibrils always being separated by an evident interfibrillar spacing which is never observed in tendon. Our observations indicate that matrix proteoglycans are responsible for both the highly regular interfibrillar spacing which is distinctive of corneal stroma, and the strong interfibrillar binding observed in tendon. These opposite interaction patterns appear to be distinctive of different proteo- glycan species. The molecular details of proteoglycan interactions are still incompletely understood and are the subject of ongoing research.

  8. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M. L. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovation Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne 3000 (Australia); Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne 3001 (Australia) and Medical Physics, WBRC, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne 3000 (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do

  9. Resonant laser ablation of metals detected by atomic emission in a microwave plasma and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Stchur, Peter; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Karl X; Zhou, Jack; Michel, Robert G

    2005-12-01

    It has been shown that an increase in sensitivity and selectivity of detection of an analyte can be achieved by tuning the ablation laser wavelength to match that of a resonant gas-phase transition of that analyte. This has been termed resonant laser ablation (RLA). For a pulsed tunable nanosecond laser, the data presented here illustrate the resonant enhancement effect in pure copper and aluminum samples, chromium oxide thin films, and for trace molybdenum in stainless steel samples, and indicate two main characteristics of the RLA phenomenon. The first is that there is an increase in the number of atoms ablated from the surface. The second is that the bandwidth of the wavelength dependence of the ablation is on the order of 1 nm. The effect was found to be virtually identical whether the atoms were detected by use of a microwave-induced plasma with atomic emission detection, by an inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometric detection, or by observation of the number of laser pulses required to penetrate through thin films. The data indicate that a distinct ablation laser wavelength dependence exists, probably initiated via resonant radiation trapping, and accompanied by collisional broadening. Desorption contributions through radiation trapping are substantiated by changes in crater morphology as a function of wavelength and by the relatively broad linewidth of the ablation laser wavelength scans, compared to gas-phase excitation spectra. Also, other experiments with thin films demonstrate the existence of a distinct laser-material interaction and suggest that a combination of desorption induced by electronic transition (DIET) with resonant radiation trapping could assist in the enhancement of desorption yields. These results were obtained by a detailed inspection of the effect of the wavelength of the ablation laser over a narrow range of energy densities that lie between the threshold of laser-induced desorption of species and the usual analytical

  10. Nucleon-mass difference in chiral perturbation theory and nuclear forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friar, JL; van Kolck, U; Rentmeester, MCM; Timmermans, RGE

    2004-01-01

    A method is developed for treating the effect of the neutron-proton mass difference in isospin-violating nuclear forces. Previous treatments utilized an awkward subtraction scheme to generate these forces. A field redefinition is used to remove that mass difference from the free Lagrangian (and henc

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of the marine lipophilic biotoxins pectenotoxin-2 and okadaic acid by four different types of mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Boer, de J.

    2008-01-01

    The performances of four different mass spectrometers [triple-quadrupole (TQ), time-of-flight (ToF), quadrupole ToF (Q-ToF) and ion trap (IT)] for the detection of the marine lipophilic toxins pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and okadaic acid (OA) were investigated. The spectral data obtained with the differen

  12. Fluctuations of tensile strength and hardness of c-BC₂N crystals induced by difference in atomic configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chunqiang; Li, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Jijun; Samra, H Abu; Jiang, Xin

    2011-11-23

    At the atomistic level, the physical properties of a material are determined by its structure such as atomic arrangements. Here first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the effect of atomic configuration on the tensile strength and Vickers hardness of cubic-BC₂N (c-BC₂N) crystals. Depending on the degree of mixture between diamond and c-BN, the tensile strength of c-BC2N crystals can vary drastically from 27 to 77 GPa. The magnitude of the Vickers hardness fluctuations (~10 GPa) is also comparable to the experimental difference (~14 GPa). Thus, atomic-scale characterization of c-BC₂N crystal structures may unveil the discrepancy of the measured Vickers hardness in experiments, and uncover the obvious differences of tensile strength described in theoretical calculations.

  13. The dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    CERN Document Server

    Godunov, S I

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogen-like ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  14. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Farnsworth, Paul B., E-mail: paul_farnsworth@byu.edu [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s {sup 3}S{sub 1} metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and 0.011 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} and 0.97 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges. - Highlights: • We determine He metastable number densities for four plasma types • The highest number densities were observed in a dielectric barrier discharge • No helium metastable atoms were observed downstream from the exits of glow discharges.

  15. Influence of Different Annealing Ambients on the Properties of Zinc Sulfide Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjun; Heo, Seung Chan; Choi, Moon Suk; Kim, Dohyung; Chung, Chulwon; Choi, Hag Young; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Choi, Changhwan

    2013-10-01

    The effects of different post annealing ambients (vacuum, O2, and H2S gases) on the chemical, structural, and optical properties of zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated. Diethylzinc [DEZ, Zn(C2H5)2] and H2S gas were used as precursor and reactant gas, respectively. Compared to as-deposited 50-nm-thick ZnS film, the optical energy band gap (Eg) of ZnS annealed under vacuum and H2S conditions increased from 3.73 to 3.85 eV, while it decreased down to 3.23 eV for the O2 annealing case. The change in the Eg of the thicker ZnS is similar to that of the thinner ZnS case. This behavior is related to the change in the Zn to S ratio. The vacuum and H2S anneals increases the Zn/S ratio, leading to higher Zn interstitial defects or S vacancy sites in the films. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that ZnS thin film has a preferred orientation of hexagonal wurtizte (002) and cubic zinc blend (111) at ˜28.2°, and its grain size changes in a range from 18.79 to 28.14 nm after annealing. However, for O2 annealing, the patterns of both the newly formed ZnO phase and the reduced ZnS phase appear at 34.04°. This result suggests that change in the composition and crystal structure during the process significantly affects the optical properties of ZnS thin film, which should be taken into consideration in searching for an alternative buffer layer for Cu2InGaSe(S)4 (CIGS) thin film solar cell systems.

  16. Effects of metal nanoparticles on the secondary ion yields of a model alkane molecule upon atomic and polyatomic projectiles in secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Nimer; Heile, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F; Bertrand, Patrick; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2008-08-15

    A model alkane molecule, triacontane, is used to assess the effects of condensed gold and silver nanoparticles on the molecular ion yields upon atomic (Ga(+) and In(+)) and polyatomic (C60(+) and Bi3(+)) ion bombardment in metal-assisted secondary ion mass spectrometry (MetA-SIMS). Molecular films spin-coated on silicon were metallized using a sputter-coater system, in order to deposit controlled quantities of gold and silver on the surface (from 0 to 15 nm equivalent thickness). The effects of gold and silver islets condensed on triacontane are also compared to the situation of thin triacontane overlayers on metallic substrates (gold and silver). The results focus primarily on the measured yields of quasi-molecular ions, such as (M - H)(+) and (2M - 2H)(+), and metal-cationized molecules, such as (M + Au)(+) and (M + Ag)(+), as a function of the quantity of metal on the surface. They confirm the absence of a simple rule to explain the secondary ion yield improvement in MetA-SIMS. The behavior is strongly dependent on the specific projectile/metal couple used for the experiment. Under atomic bombardment (Ga(+), In(+)), the characteristic ion yields an increase with the gold dose up to approximately 6 nm equivalent thickness. The yield enhancement factor between gold-metallized and pristine samples can be as large as approximately 70 (for (M - H)(+) under Ga(+) bombardment; 10 nm of Au). In contrast, with cluster projectiles such as Bi3(+) and C60(+), the presence of gold and silver leads to a dramatic molecular ion yield decrease. Cluster projectiles prove to be beneficial for triacontane overlayers spin-coated on silicon or metal substrates (Au, Ag) but not in the situation of MetA-SIMS. The fundamental difference of behavior between atomic and cluster primary ions is tentatively explained by arguments involving the different energy deposition mechanisms of these projectiles. Our results also show that Au and Ag nanoparticles do not induce the same behavior in Met

  17. Students' Representations of the Atomic Structure--The Effect of Some Individual Differences in Particular Task Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate students' representations of the atomic structure in a number of student cohorts with specific characteristics concerning age, grade, class curriculum and some individual differences, such as formal reasoning and field dependence/independence. Two specific task contexts, which were designed in accordance with…

  18. Study on Characteristics of Different Types of Nozzles for Coal-Water Slurry Atomization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yuan; Lifang Chen; Chengkang Wu

    2001-01-01

    Three types of nozzles: a low-pressure multistage nozzle, an effervescent nozzle and a newly developed internal mixing air-blast nozzle, for atomization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) were investigated. Influence of CWS properties including surface tension and apparent viscosity on atomization was studied. Comparisons among the nozzles were carried out in terms of spray droplet mean diameter and fuel output. Versatility of each nozzle was investigated and atomization mechanism of each nozzle was analyzed as well. The results showed that the newly developed internal-mixing air-blast nozzle has high fuel output and small mean droplet size in the spray, but the multistage nozzle has high versatility for handling of low quality CWS.

  19. Determination of Zn-citrate in human milk by CIM monolithic chromatography with atomic and mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milačič, Radmila; Ajlec, Dejan; Zuliani, Tea; Žigon, Dušan; Ščančar, Janez

    2012-11-15

    In human milk zinc (Zn) is bound to proteins and low molecular mass (LMM) ligands. Numerous investigations demonstrated that Zn bioavailability in human milk is for infant much higher than in cow's milk. It was presumed that in the LMM human milk fraction highly bioavailable Zn-citrate prevails. However, literature data are controversial regarding the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk since analytical procedures reported were not quantitative. So, complex investigation was carried out to develop analytical method for quantitative determination of this biologically important molecule. Studies were performed within the pH range 5-7 by the use of synthetic solutions of Zn-citrate prepared in HEPES, MOPS and MES buffers. Zn-citrate was separated on weak anion-exchange convective interaction media (CIM) diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column using NH(4)NO(3) as an eluent. Separated Zn species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Quantitative separation of Zn-citrate complexes ([Zn(Cit)](-) and [Zn(Cit)(2)](4-); column recoveries 94-102%) and good repeatability and reproducibility of results with relative standard deviation (RSD±3.0%) were obtained. In fractions under the chromatographic peaks Zn-binding ligand was identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). Limits of detection (LOD) for determination of Zn-citrate species by CIM DEAE-FAAS and CIM DEAE-ICP-MS were 0.01 μg Zn mL(-1) and 0.0005 μg Zn mL(-1), respectively. Both techniques were sensitive enough for quantification of Zn-citrate in human milk. Results demonstrated that about 23% of total Zn was present in the LMM milk fraction and that LMM-Zn corresponded to Zn-citrate. The developed speciation method represents a reliable analytical tool for investigation of the percentage and the amount of Zn-citrate in human milk.

  20. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  1. Atomic pairwise distribution function analysis of the amorphous phase prepared by different manufacturing routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetker, Johan P.; Koradia, Vishal; Rades, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    was subjected to quench cooling thereby creating an amorphous form of the drug from both starting materials. The milled and quench cooled samples were, together with the crystalline starting materials, analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Raman spectroscopy and atomic pair-wise distribution function...

  2. Test of the universality of free fall with atoms in different spin orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Min-Kang; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Wen-Jie; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Yao-Yao; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Luo, Jun; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We report a test of the universality of free fall (UFF) by comparing the gravity acceleration of the $^{87}$Rb atoms in $m_F=+1$ versus that in $m_F=-1$, where the corresponding spin orientations are opposite. A Mach-Zehnder-type atom interferometer is exploited to sequentially measure the free fall acceleration of the atoms in these two magnetic sublevels, and the resultant E$\\rm{\\ddot{o}}$tv$\\rm{\\ddot{o}}$s ratio is ${\\eta _S} =(0.2\\pm1.2)\\times 10^{-7}$. This also gives an upper limit of $1.1\\times 10^{-21}$ GeV/m for possible gradient field of the spacetime torsion. The interferometer using atoms in $m_F=\\pm 1$ is highly sensitive to the magnetic field inhomogeneity, and a double differential measurement method is developed to alleviate the inhomogeneity influence. Moreover, a proof experiment by modulating the magnetic field is performed, which validates the alleviation of the inhomogeneity influence in our test.

  3. Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source

    CERN Document Server

    Schunk, Gerhard; Strekalov, Dmitry V; Förtsch, Michael; Sedlmeir, Florian; Schwefel, Harald G L; Göbelt, Manuela; Christiansen, Silke; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Photon-atom coupling, in particular for proposed quantum repeater schemes, requires pure and versatile sources of quantum light. Here we demonstrate coupling to alkali dipole transitions in the near-infrared with a tunable source of photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a whispering-gallery mode resonator (WGMR). We have developed novel wavelength tuning mechanisms, which allow for a coarse step-wise central wavelength tuning from 790 nm to 1630 nm as well as continuous tuning with MHz resolution. We demonstrate the compatibility of our source with atomic transitions, such as the D1 line of rubidium at 795 nm (idler at 1608 nm) and cesium at 895\\,nm (idler at 1312 nm). At the cesium D1 transition, we exemplarily show a continuous scanning of the signal wavelength over the Doppler-broadened absorption line, and finally a heralded single photon spectroscopy of the atomic decay. Providing this flexibility in connecting various atomic transitions with telecom wavelengths, we demonst...

  4. Interfacing transitions of different alkali atoms and telecom bands using one narrowband photon pair source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Vogl, Ulrich; Strekalov, Dmitry V.;

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information technology strongly relies on the coupling of optical photons with narrowband quantum systems, such as quantum dots, color centers, and atomic systems. This coupling requires matching the optical wavelength and bandwidth to the desired system, which presents a considerable pro...

  5. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaser, A.

    1992-09-01

    New high temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Emphasis was placed on atmospheric pressure He inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements; simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources with potential for use in spectrochemical analysis; spectroscopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high temperature plasmas, particularly He ICP discharges; and development of new, low-cost sample introduction systems, and examination of techniques for probing the aerosols over a wide range. Refs., 14 figs. (DLC)

  6. Measurement of the Mass Difference Between Top and Anti-top Quarks at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gonzalez, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C -J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martinez, M; Martinez-Ballarin, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Griso, S Pagan; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Ray, J; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rubbo, F; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a measurement of the mass difference between top ($t$) and anti-top ($\\bar{t}$) quarks using $t\\bar{t}$ candidate events reconstructed in the final state with one lepton and multiple jets. We use the full data set of Tevatron $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV proton-antiproton collisions recorded by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb$^{-1}$. We estimate event-by-event the mass difference to construct templates for top-quark signal events and background events. The resulting mass difference distribution of data compared to signal and background templates using a likelihood fit yields $\\Delta M_{top} = {M}_{t} - {M}_{\\bar{t}} = -1.95 $pm$ 1.11 (stat) $pm$ 0.59 (syst)$ and is in agreement with the standard model prediction of no mass difference.

  7. Measurement of the Mass Difference m(D_s^+) - m(D^+) at CDF II

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, D; Ahn, M H; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alcorn, B; Alexander, C; Allen, D; Allspach, D H; Amaral, P; Ambrose, D; Amendolia, S R; Amidei, D; Amundson, J F; Anastassov, A; Anderson, J; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Avanzini, C; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Babik, M; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W F; Bailey, S; Bakken, J; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Bardi, A; Bari, M; Barker, G; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Barsotti, E; Basti, A; Bauer, G; Beckner, D; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellendir, G; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Berg, B; Bhatti, A A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bogdan, M; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Booth, P S L; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Bowden, M; Box, D; Bromberg, C; Brown, W; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Buckley-Geer, L; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canal, P; Canepa, A; Carithers, W C; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrell, K; Carter, H; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerri, C; Cerrito, L; Chandler, J T; Chapman, J; Chappa, S; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I E; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Cisko, S; Clark, A G; Coca, M; Coiley, K; Colijn, A P; Colombo, R M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, G; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cudzewicz, R; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Dal Monte, L; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; Davila, R; Dawson, J; Dawson, T; De Barbaro, P; De Baun, C; De Cecco, S; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; De Maat, R; Demar, P; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Derylo, G; Devlin, T; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Doksus, P; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donno, F; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Downing, R; Drake, G; Drennan, C; Drollinger, V; Dunietz, Isard; Dyer, A; Ebina, K; Eddy, N; Ely, R; Engels, E; Erbacher, R D; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Fischler, M; Flanagan, G; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A D; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Frisch, H; Fromm, J; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Galet, G; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Ganel, O; García, C; García-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Garwacki, M; Garzoglio, G; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Gerstenslager, J; Giacchetti, L; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gillespie, G; Gingu, C; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D A; Glossen, R; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D B; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Goncharov, M; González, H; Gordon, S; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Yu; Goulianos, K; Grado, J; Gregori, M; Gresele, A; Griffin, T; Grim, G; Grimm, C; Gromoll, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Gu, C; Guarino, V; Günther, M; Guimarães da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, A; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hall, C; Handler, R; Haney, M; Hao, W; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington, J; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hawke, T; Hays, C; Heider, E; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Hennecke, M; Herber, R; Herndon, M; Herren, M; Hicks, D; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Hoff, J; Hoffman, K D; Hoftiezer, J H; Holloway, A; Holloway, L E; Holm, S; Holmgren, D; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Howell, J; Hrycyk, M; Hubbard, P; Hughes, R E; Huffman, B T; Humbert, J; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, I; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jarrell, J; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jetton, R; Johnson, M; Jones, M; Jones, T; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kallenbach, Jeff; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kasten, M; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, K; Kephart, R D; Khazins, D; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; King, B T; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klein, R; Klimenko, S; Knapp, M; Knoblauch, D; Knuteson, B; Kobayashi, H; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kononenko, W; Kordas, K; Korn, A J; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K A; Kotwal, A; Kovalev, A; Kowalkowski, J B; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I V; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kumar, A; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lamore, D; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lanfranco, G; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; LeCompte, T J; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, S W; Lei, C M; Leininger, M; Leonardi, G L; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levshina, T; Lewis, F; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Loskot, J; Loverre, P F; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; Lys, J; MacNerland, J; MacQueen, D; Madorsky, A; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mammini, P; Manca, G; Mandrichenko, I V; Manea, C; Marginean, R; Marrafino, J; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mayer, J; Mayers, G M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Michael, N; Miller, J S; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Miyazaki, Y; Mizicko, D; Moccia, S; Moggi, A; Moggi, N; Montero, S; Moore, R; Moore, T; Morris, L; Morsani, F; Moulik, T; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakamura, I; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Necula, V; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neuberger, D; Newby, W; Newcomer, F M; Newman-Holmes, C; Niell, F; Nielsen, J; Nicollerat, A S; Nigmanov, T; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Noe, W; Österberg, K; Ogawa, T; Oh, S; Oh, Y D; Ohl, K; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R G C; Orava, Risto; Orejudos, W; Orr, S; Pagani, G; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Ramos, I; Panacek, S; Pantano, D; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pasetes, R; Pashapour, S; Passuello, D; Paterno, M; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pavlicek, V; Pavlon, S; Pellett, D; Penzo, Aldo L; Perington, B; Petragnani, G; Petravick, D; Phillips, T J; Photos, F; Piacentino, G; Picciolo, C; Piccoli, L; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plunkett, R; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Poukhov, O; Prakoshyn, F; Pratt, T; Profeti, A; Pronko, A G; Proudfoot, J; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rafaelli, F; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Rauch, J; Ray, H; Rechenmacher, R; Reia, S; Reichold, A; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Rivetta, C; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Román, M; Rosenberg, S I; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Sadler, L; Safonov, A; Saint-Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Sanders, H; Sanders, R; Sandrew, M; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sarraj, H; Sarraj, J; Sato, H; Savard, P; Schemitz, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schmitt, R; Schmitz, M; Schofield, G L; Schuh, K; Schultz, K; Scodellaro, L; Scott, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Segler, S; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shallenberger, J; Shapiro, M D; Shaw, T; Shears, T G; Shenai, A; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M J; Shon, Y; Shoun, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J L; Sieh, C; Siket, M; Sill, A; Silva, R; Simaitis, V; Sinervo, P; Sirotenko, V I; Sissakian, A N; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spiegel, L; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Stadie, H; Stanek, R; Stanfield, N; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Stuermer, W; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Syu, J; Szymulanski, A; Taffard, A C; Takach, S F; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tamburello, P; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tang, D; Tanimoto, N; Tannenbaum, B; Tapprogge, Stefan; Taylor, R D; Teafoe, G; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Terentieva, T; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thomas, A; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thurman-Keup, R M; Timm, S; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S M; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Torretta, D; Trimby, C; Trischuk, W; Trumbo, J; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Turner, M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, T; Van Berg, R; Varganov, A V; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G V; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vittone, M; Voirin, J; Vollmer, B; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Von der Mey, M; Votava, M; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallace, N; Walter, T; Walters, A; Wan, Z; Wandersee, A; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Weems, L; Wenzel, H; Wester, W; Whitehouse, B; Wickenberg, W; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wigmans, R; Wike, C; Wilkes, T; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolter, M; Wong, M; Worcester, M; Worland, R; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, J; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamashita, T; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yarema, R J; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yocum, D R; Yoh, J K; Yoon, P; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zalokar, M; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zimmerman, T; Zsenei, A; Zucchelli, S

    2003-01-01

    We present a measurement of the mass difference m(D+_s) - m(D+), where both the D+_s and D+ are reconstructed in the phi pi+ decay channel. This measurement uses 11.6 pb-1 of data collected by CDF II using the new displaced-track trigger. The mass difference is found to be: 99.41 +- 0.38 (stat) +- 0.21 (syst) MeV/c^2.

  8. Electronic Properties of Graphene Encapsulated with Different Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride is the only substrate that has so far allowed graphene devices exhibiting micron-scale ballistic transport. Can other atomically flat crystals be used as substrates for making quality graphene heterostructures? Here we report on our search for alternative substrates. The devices fabricated by encapsulating graphene with molybdenum or tungsten disulphides and hBN are found to exhibit consistently high carrier mobilities of about 60,000 cm$^{2}$V$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. In contr...

  9. High-resolution dynamic atomic force microscopy in liquids with different feedback architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Melcher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent achievement of atomic resolution with dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM [Fukuma et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 87, 034101], where quality factors of the oscillating probe are inherently low, challenges some accepted beliefs concerning sensitivity and resolution in dAFM imaging modes. Through analysis and experiment we study the performance metrics for high-resolution imaging with dAFM in liquid media with amplitude modulation (AM, frequency modulation (FM and drive-amplitude modulation (DAM imaging modes. We find that while the quality factors of dAFM probes may deviate by several orders of magnitude between vacuum and liquid media, their sensitivity to tip–sample forces can be remarkable similar. Furthermore, the reduction in noncontact forces and quality factors in liquids diminishes the role of feedback control in achieving high-resolution images. The theoretical findings are supported by atomic-resolution images of mica in water acquired with AM, FM and DAM under similar operating conditions.

  10. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies of the atomic structure of nanoparticles in different metallic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S H; Roy, M; Gurman, S J; Binns, C

    2009-05-06

    It has been appreciated for some time that the novel properties of particles in the size range 1-10 nm are potentially exploitable in a range of applications. In order to ultimately produce commercial devices containing nanosized particles, it is necessary to develop controllable means of incorporating them into macroscopic samples. One way of doing this is to embed the nanoparticles in a matrix of a different material, by co-deposition for example, to form a nanocomposite film. The atomic structure of the embedded particles can be strongly influenced by the matrix. Since some of the key properties of materials, including magnetism, strongly depend on atomic structure, the ability to determine atomic structure in embedded nanoparticles is very important. This review focuses on nanoparticles, in particular magnetic nanoparticles, embedded in different metal matrices. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) provides an excellent means of probing atomic structure in nanocomposite materials, and an overview of this technique is given. Its application in probing catalytic metal clusters is described briefly, before giving an account of the use of EXAFS in determining atomic structure in magnetic nanocomposite films. In particular, we focus on cluster-assembled films comprised of Fe and Co nanosized particles embedded in various metal matrices, and show how the crystal structure of the particles can be changed by appropriate choice of the matrix material. The work discussed here demonstrates that combining the results of structural and magnetic measurements, as well as theoretical calculations, can play a significant part in tailoring the properties of new magnetic cluster-assembled materials.

  11. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschareon, S., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000, Thailand and Science Program, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 (Thailand)

    2014-03-24

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuation coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.

  12. Evaluation difference between mass of received cargo and mass of handed over the cargo in the determination of the masses by draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakuta I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the analysis of problems associated with the evaluation of difference between the mass of received and handed over cargo in determining the masses by draft survey and due to the difference in the measurement conditions at the loading and unloading ports (due to the change errors in various stages of the measurement procedures. The errors that may arise in determining the mass of the cargo due to roughness when measuring draft, due to using the inclinometer to determine the draft from one of boards, due to instrumental errors in the determination of the density of seawater, due to other possible errors have been investigated and evaluated. To estimate the errors of draft due to heaving and errors of inclinometer some formula are to be applied, their derivation has been done in this paper. It has been recommended to use the traditional formula of high-speed drawdown with the replacement of vessel speed on current rate to calculate the error of precipitation arising from the drawdowns ship on a current. The value per unit displacement draft from loading scale has been used to evaluate the error of the displacement appearing in the presence of draft errors. As a result two similar criteria (rigorous and statistical of allowable discrepancies calculated by draft survey mass of cargo in the port of loading and port of discharge have been substantiated. These criteria require the calculation and accumulation in a table of all the errors and calculate the total error of displacement. Criteria will allow the consignee and the carrier come to a reasonable and agreed decision about the significance of differences of the masses taking into account the indifference of conditions and measuring instruments.

  13. Sub-Doppler two-photon-excitation Rydberg spectroscopy of atomic xenon: mass-selective studies of isotopic and hyperfine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Mitsuhiko; He, Yabai; Baldwin, Kenneth G. H.; Orr, Brian J.

    2016-03-01

    Mass-selective sub-Doppler two-photon excitation (TPE) spectroscopy is employed to resolve isotopic contributions for transitions to high-energy Rydberg levels of xenon in an atomic beam, using narrowband pulses of coherent ultraviolet light at 205-213 nm generated by nonlinear-optical conversion processes. Previous research (Kono et al 2013 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46 35401), has determined isotope energy shifts and hyperfine structure for 33 high-energy Rydberg levels of gas-phase xenon and accessed Rydberg levels at TPE energies in the range of 94 100-97 300 cm-1 with unprecedented spectroscopic resolution. The new isotopic-mass-resolved results were obtained by adding a pulsed free-jet atomic-beam source and a mass-selective time-of-flight detector to the apparatus in order to discern individual xenon isotopes and extract previously unresolved spectroscopic information. Resulting isotope energy shifts and hyperfine-coupling parameters are examined with regard to trends in principal quantum number n and in atomic angular-momentum quantum numbers, together with empirical and theoretical precedents for such trends.

  14. Modeling the Images of Relativistic Jets Lensed by Galaxies with Different Mass Surface Density Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Larchenkova, T. I.; Lutovinov, A. A.; Lyskova, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The images of relativistic jets from extragalactic sources produced by gravitational lensing by galaxies with different mass surface density distributions are modeled. In particular, the following models of the gravitational lens mass distribution are considered: a singular isothermal ellipsoid, an isothermal ellipsoid with a core, two- and three-component models with a galactic disk, halo, and bulge. The modeled images are compared both between themselves and with available observations. Dif...

  15. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  16. Ethnic Differences in Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: The Confounding Role of Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Cecilia A.; Mann, Traci

    2001-01-01

    Explored the role of body mass index (BMI) in eating disorders among Hispanic, Asian American, and non-Hispanic white female college students. Data from student surveys indicated that after controlling for BMI, ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms of concern about weight and shape disappeared, but differences in restrained eating…

  17. Comparison of 3 absolute gravimeters based on different methods for the e-MASS project

    CERN Document Server

    Louchet-Chauvet, A; Bodart, Q; Landragin, A; Santos, F Pereira Dos; Baumann, H; D'Agostino, G; Origlia, C

    2010-01-01

    We report on the comparison between three absolute gravimeters that took place in April 2010 at Laboratoire National de M\\'etrologie et d'Essais. The three instruments (FG5#209 from METAS, Switzerland, IMGC-02 from INRIM, Italy, and CAG from LNE-SYRTE, France) rely on different methods: optical and atomic interferometry. We discuss their differences as well as their similarities. We compare their measurements of the gravitational acceleration in 4 points of the same pillar, in the perspective of an absolute determination of g for a watt balance experiment

  18. Atomic force microscopy analysis of different surface treatments of Ti dental implant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathomarco, Ti R. V.; Solorzano, G.; Elias, C. N.; Prioli, R.

    2004-06-01

    The surface of commercial unalloyed titanium, used in dental implants, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The morphology, roughness, and surface area of the samples, submitted to mechanically-induced erosion, chemical etching and a combination of both, were compared. The results show that surface treatments strongly influence the dental implant physical and chemical properties. An analysis of the length dependence of the implant surface roughness shows that, for scan sizes larger than 50 μm, the average surface roughness is independent of the scanning length and that the surface treatments lead to average surface roughness in the range of 0.37 up to 0.48 μm. It is shown that the implant surface energy is sensitive to the titanium surface area. As the area increases there is a decrease in the surface contact angle.

  19. Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. This force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons ($\\bar{d}$), and $^{3}{\\rm He}$ and $^3\\overline{\\rm He}$ nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirm CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This funda...

  20. A Possible Quantum-Gravitational Origin of the Neutrino Mass Difference ?

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical possibility that the neutrino mass differences have part of their origin in the quantum-decoherence-inducing medium of space-time foam, which characterises some models of quantum gravity, in much the same way as the celebrated MSW effect, responsible for the contribution to mass differences when neutrinos pass through ordinary material media. We briefly describe consequences of such decoherent media in inducing CPT violation at a fundamental level, which would affect the neutrino oscillation probability; we speculate on the connection of such phenomena with the role of neutrinos for providing one possible source of a cosmological constant in the Universe, of the phenomenologically right order of magnitude. Finally we discuss possible experimental constraints on the amount of neutrino mass differences induced by quantum gravity, which are based on fits of a simple decoherence model with all the currently available neutrino data.

  1. A large difference in the progenitor masses of active and passive galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn; Schaye, Joop

    2016-11-01

    Cumulative number density matching of galaxies is a method to observationally connect descendent galaxies to their typical main progenitors at higher redshifts and thereby to assess the evolution of galaxy properties. The accuracy of this method is limited due to galaxy merging and scatter in the stellar mass growth history of individual galaxies. Behroozi et al. have introduced a refinement of the method, based on abundance matching of observed galaxies to the Bolshoi dark matter-only simulation. The EAGLE cosmological hydrosimulation is well suited to test this method, because it reproduces the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and the passive fraction. We find agreement with the Behroozi et al. method for the complete sample of main progenitors of z = 0 galaxies, but we also find a strong dependence on the current star formation rate. Passive galaxies with a stellar mass up to 1010.75 M⊙ have a completely different median mass history than active galaxies of the same mass. This difference persists if we only select central galaxies. This means that the cumulative number density method should be applied separately to active and passive galaxies. Even then, the typical main progenitor of a z = 0 galaxy already spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z = 2.

  2. Testing the Gravitational Redshift with Atomic Gravimeters?

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Atom interferometers allow the measurement of the acceleration of freely falling atoms with respect to an experimental platform at rest on Earth's surface. Such experiments have been used to test the universality of free fall by comparing the acceleration of the atoms to that of a classical freely falling object. In a recent paper, M\\"uller, Peters and Chu [Nature {\\bf 463}, 926-929 (2010)] argued that atom interferometers also provide a very accurate test of the gravitational redshift (or universality of clock rates). Considering the atom as a clock operating at the Compton frequency associated with the rest mass, they claimed that the interferometer measures the gravitational redshift between the atom-clocks in the two paths of the interferometer at different values of gravitational potentials. In the present paper we analyze this claim in the frame of general relativity and of different alternative theories, and conclude that the interpretation of atom interferometers as testing the gravitational redshift ...

  3. Evaluation on mass sensitivity of SAW sensors for different piezoelectric materials using finite-element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Amir; Jiang, Zhongwei; Arabshahi, Sayyed Alireza

    2007-12-01

    The mass sensitivity of the piezoelectric surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is an important factor in the selection of the best gravimetric sensors for different applications. To determine this value without facing the practical problems and the long theoretical calculation time, we have shown that the mass sensitivity of SAW sensors can be calculated by a simple three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element analysis (FEA) using a commercial finite-element platform. The FEA data are used to calculate the wave propagation speed, surface particle displacements, and wave energy distribution on different cuts of various piezoelectric materials. The results are used to provide a simple method for evaluation of their mass sensitivities. Meanwhile, to calculate more accurate results from FEA data, surface and bulk wave reflection problems are considered in the analyses. In this research, different cuts of lithium niobate, quartz, lithium tantalate, and langasite piezoelectric materials are applied to investigate their acoustic wave properties. Our analyses results for these materials have a good agreement with other researchers' results. Also, the mass sensitivity value for the novel cut of langasite was calculated through these analyses. It was found that its mass sensitivity is higher than that of the conventional Rayleigh mode quartz sensor.

  4. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years ...

  5. Atomic force microscope adhesion measurements and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations at different humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Jeremias; Reischl, Bernhard; Sairanen, Hannu; Korpelainen, Virpi; Husu, Hannu; Heinonen, Martti; Raiteri, Paolo; Rohl, Andrew L.; Nordlund, Kai; Lassila, Antti

    2017-03-01

    Due to their operation principle atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are sensitive to all factors affecting the detected force between the probe and the sample. Relative humidity is an important and often neglected—both in experiments and simulations—factor in the interaction force between AFM probe and sample in air. This paper describes the humidity control system designed and built for the interferometrically traceable metrology AFM (IT-MAFM) at VTT MIKES. The humidity control is based on circulating the air of the AFM enclosure via dryer and humidifier paths with adjustable flow and mixing ratio of dry and humid air. The design humidity range of the system is 20–60 %rh. Force–distance adhesion studies at humidity levels between 25 %rh and 53 %rh are presented and compared to an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The uncertainty level of the thermal noise method implementation used for force constant calibration of the AFM cantilevers is 10 %, being the dominant component of the interaction force measurement uncertainty. Comparing the simulation and the experiment, the primary uncertainties are related to the nominally 7 nm radius and shape of measurement probe apex, possible wear and contamination, and the atomistic simulation technique details. The interaction forces are of the same order of magnitude in simulation and measurement (5 nN). An elongation of a few nanometres of the water meniscus between probe tip and sample, before its rupture, is seen in simulation upon retraction of the tip in higher humidity. This behaviour is also supported by the presented experimental measurement data but the data is insufficient to conclusively verify the quantitative meniscus elongation.

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy Reveals Important Differences in Axonal Resistance to Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdesian, Margaret H.; Sanchez, Fernando S.; Lopez, Monserratt; Thostrup, Peter; Durisic, Nela; Belkaid, Wiam; Liazoghli, Dalinda; Grütter, Peter; Colman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal degeneration after traumatic brain injury and nerve compression is considered a common underlying cause of temporary as well as permanent disability. Because a proper functioning of neural network requires phase coherence of all components, even subtle changes in circuitry may lead to network failure. However, it is still not possible to determine which axons will recover or degenerate after injury. Several groups have studied the pressure threshold for axonal injury within a nerve, but difficulty accessing the injured region; insufficient imaging methods and the extremely small dimensions involved have prevented the evaluation of the response of individual axons to injury. We combined microfluidics with atomic force microscopy and in vivo imaging to estimate the threshold force required to 1), uncouple axonal transport without impairing axonal survival, and 2), compromise axonal survival in both individual and bundled axons. We found that rat hippocampal axons completely recover axonal transport with no detectable axonal loss when compressed with pressures up to 65 ± 30 Pa for 10 min, while dorsal root ganglia axons can resist to pressures up to 540 ± 220 Pa. We investigated the reasons for the differential susceptibility of hippocampal and DRG axons to mechanical injury and estimated the elasticity of live axons. We found that dorsal root ganglia axons have a 20% lower elastic modulus than hippocampal axons. Our results emphasize the importance of the integrity of the axonal cytoskeleton in deciding the axonal fate after damage and open up new avenues to improve injury diagnosis and to identify ways to protect axons. PMID:22947856

  7. Klaus Blaum, of GSI Darmstadt and project leader of the ISOLTRAP experiment at CERN, will receive the 2004 Gustav-Hertz-Prize for his outstanding work on the mass determination of unstable atomic nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Klaus Blaum, of GSI Darmstadt and project leader of the ISOLTRAP experiment at CERN, will receive the 2004 Gustav-Hertz-Prize for his outstanding work on the mass determination of unstable atomic nuclei

  8. Influence of a Thiolate Chemical Layer on GaAs (100 Biofunctionalization: An Original Approach Coupling Atomic Force Microscopy and Mass Spectrometry Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bienaime

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Widely used in microelectronics and optoelectronics; Gallium Arsenide (GaAs is a III-V crystal with several interesting properties for microsystem and biosensor applications. Among these; its piezoelectric properties and the ability to directly biofunctionalize the bare surface, offer an opportunity to combine a highly sensitive transducer with a specific bio-interface; which are the two essential parts of a biosensor. To optimize the biorecognition part; it is necessary to control protein coverage and the binding affinity of the protein layer on the GaAs surface. In this paper; we investigate the potential of a specific chemical interface composed of thiolate molecules with different chain lengths; possessing hydroxyl (MUDO; for 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (HS(CH211OH or carboxyl (MHDA; for mercaptohexadecanoic acid (HS(CH215CO2H end groups; to reconstitute a dense and homogeneous albumin (Rat Serum Albumin; RSA protein layer on the GaAs (100 surface. The protein monolayer formation and the covalent binding existing between RSA proteins and carboxyl end groups were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis. Characterization in terms of topography; protein layer thickness and stability lead us to propose the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface as the optimal chemical layer to efficiently graft proteins. This analysis was coupled with in situ MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry measurements; which proved the presence of a dense and uniform grafted protein layer on the 10% MHDA/MUDO interface. We show in this study that a critical number of carboxylic docking sites (10% is required to obtain homogeneous and dense protein coverage on GaAs. Such a protein bio-interface is of fundamental importance to ensure a highly specific and sensitive biosensor.

  9. Efficient Deep-Blue Electroluminescence Based on Phenanthroimidazole-Dibenzothiophene Derivatives with Different Oxidation States of the Sulfur Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Shan, Tong; Bai, Qing; Ma, Hongwei; He, Xin; Lu, Ping

    2017-03-02

    Developing efficient deep-blue materials is a long-term research focus in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, we report two deep-blue molecules, PITO and PISF, which share similar chemical structures but exhibit different photophysical and device properties. These two molecules consist of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene analogs. The distinction of their chemical structures lies in the different oxidation states of the S atom. For PITO, the S atom is oxidized and the resulting structure dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide becomes electron deficient. Therefore, PITO displays remarkable solvatochromism, implying a charge-transfer (CT) excited state formed between the donor (D) phenanthroimidazole and acceptor (A) dibenzothiophene S,S-dioxide. For PISF, it is constituted of phenanthroimidazole and dibenzothiophene in which the S atom is not oxidized. PISF displays locally excited (LE) emission with little solvatochromism. Compared with PISF, the D-A molecule PITO with an electron-deficient group shows a much lower LUMO energy level, which is in favor of electron injection in device. In addition, PITO exhibits more balanced carrier transport. However, PISF is capable of emitting in the shorter wavelength region, which is beneficial to obtain better color purity. The doped electroluminescence (EL) device of the D-A molecule PITO manifests deep-blue emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.08) and maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 4.67 %. The doped EL device of the LE molecule PISF, however, reveals an even bluer emission with CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) and a maximum EQE of 4.08 %.

  10. Implementation of suitable flow injection/sequential-sample separation/preconcentration schemes for determination of trace metal concentrations using detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Wang, Jianhua

    2002-01-01

    Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) are pres......Various preconditioning procedures encomprising appropriate separation/preconcentration schemes in order to obtain optimal sensitivity and selectivity characteristics when using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS...

  11. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  12. Perturbations of the local gravity field due to mass distribution on precise measuring instruments: a numerical method applied to a cold atom gravimeter

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, G; Landragin, A; Santos, F Pereira Dos

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical method, based on a FEM simulation, for the determination of the gravitational field generated by massive objects, whatever geometry and space mass density they have. The method was applied for the determination of the self gravity effect of an absolute cold atom gravimeter which aims at a relative uncertainty of 10-9. The deduced bias, calculated with a perturbative treatment, is finally presented. The perturbation reaches (1.3 \\pm 0.1) \\times 10-9 of the Earth's gravitational field.

  13. Cold Atoms – Hot Research: High Risks, High Rewards in Five Different Authority Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laudel, Grit; Lettkemann, Eric; Ramuz, Raphaël; Wedlin, Linda; Woolley, Richard; Whitley, Richard; Gläser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation is a scientific innovation in experimental physics whose realisation required considerable time and resources. Its diffusion varied considerably between and within five countries that were comparatively studied. Differences between countries can be explained by the variati

  14. Formation and evolution of molecular hydrogen in disk galaxies with different masses and Hubble types

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated and interacting disk galaxies with different masses and Hubble types by using chemodynamical simulations with H2 formation on dust grains and dust growth and destruction in interstellar medium (ISM). We particularly focus on the dependences of H2 gas mass fractions (f_H2), spatial distributions of HI and H2, and local H2-scaling relations on initial halo masses (M_h), baryonic fractions (f_bary), gas mass fractions (f_g), and Hubble types. The principal results are as follows. The final f_H2 can be larger in disk galaxies with higher M_h, f_bary, and f_g. Some low-mass disk models with M_h smaller than 10^10 M_sun show extremely low f_H2 and thus no/little star formation, even if initial f_g is quite large (>0.9). Big galactic bulges can severely suppress the formation of H2 from HI on dust grains whereas strong stellar bars can not only enhance f_H2 but also be responsible for the formation of H2-dominated central rings. The projec...

  15. Effects of size on mass density and its influence on mechanical and thermal properties of ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles in different structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOTAN JAWDAT ABDULLAH; QING JIANG; MUSTAFA SAEED OMAR

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of size on mass density and its subsequent influence on the other physical parameters of zirconia nanoparticles in the structural forms of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic. The general equations for these calculations are established based on the variation of lattice parameter model and surface internal atoms ratio. The mass density of nanoparticles differs from the bulk value when particle size decreases. At a diameter of 4 nm, the mass density values of zirconia nanoparticles are 3.898, 3.626 and 3.488 g $\\cdot$ cm$^{−3}$ compared to 6.25, 6.1 and 5.87 g $\\cdot$ cm$^{−3}$ for bulk cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic forms, respectively. These results indicate thatthe variation in mass density is largely due to the differences on their boundaries and the variation in lattice parameters. The calculated results agree well with the available experimental data for the monoclinic form structure ofZrO$_2$ nanoparticles. The relationship between mass density and melting temperature; and Debye temperature and cohesive energy are proposed. All these parameters have the same nanosize dependence in this regard.

  16. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    , drying, milling and sieving to collect the fraction of particles less than 150 mu m in sizer In this fraction the trace elements were homogeneously distributed using a 400 mg sample intake for analysis, The total track element concentrations were determined by graphite furnace and cold vapour atomic...... absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope dilution ICP-MS. The contents of arsenobetaine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were determined by cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ICP-MS, or coupled with ion-spray (IS) tandem...... mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for qualitative verification, Based on a rigorous statistical analysis of the analytical data using the DANREF software, it was decided to assign certified values for mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the NFA Shrimp, and mercury, selenium and arsenic in the NFA Plaice...

  17. Transverse Free Vibration of Axially Moving Stepped Beam with Different Length and Tip Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Axially moving stepped beam (AMSB with different length and tip mass is represented by adopting Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, and its characteristics and displacements of transverse free vibration are calculated by using semianalytical method. Firstly, the governing equation of the transverse free vibration is established based on Hamilton’s principle. The equation is cast into eigenvalue equation through the complex modal analysis. Then, a scheme is proposed to derive the continuous condition accordingly as the displacement, rotation, bending moment, and shear force are all equal at the connections of any two segments. Another scheme is to derive frequency equation from the given boundary conditions which contain a tip mass in the last segment. Finally, the natural frequency and modal function are calculated by using numerical method according to the eigenvalue equation and frequency equation. Due to the introduction of modal truncation, displacement and, the free vibration solution can be obtained by adopting modal superposition after Hilbert transform. The numerical examples illustrate that length, velocity, mass, and geometry affect characteristics and displacements significantly; the series of methods are effective and accurate to investigate the vibration of the AMSB with different length and tip mass after comparing several results.

  18. Families of particles with different masses in PT-symmetric quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; Klevansky, S P

    2010-07-16

    An elementary field-theoretic mechanism is proposed that allows one Lagrangian to describe a family of particles having different masses but otherwise similar physical properties. The mechanism relies on the observation that the Dyson-Schwinger equations derived from a Lagrangian can have many different but equally valid solutions. Nonunique solutions to the Dyson-Schwinger equations arise when the functional integral for the Green's functions of the quantum field theory converges in different pairs of Stokes' wedges in complex-field space, and the solutions are physically viable if the pairs of Stokes' wedges are PT symmetric.

  19. Dirac-Fock atomic electronic structure calculations using different nuclear charge distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Dyall, KG

    1997-01-01

    Numerical Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for the first 109 elements of the periodic table are presented. The results give the total electronic energy, as a function of the nuclear model that is used, for four different models of the nuclear charge distribution. The

  20. Influences of different oxidants on the characteristics of HfAlOx films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Ji-Bin; Liu Hong-Xia; Ma Fei; Zhuo Qing-Qing; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of two kinds of oxidants (H2O and O3) with the combinations of two metal precursors [trimethylaluminum (TMA) and tetrakis(ethylmethylamino) hafnium (TEMAH)] for atomic layer deposition (ALD) hafnium aluminum oxide (HfAlOx) films is carried out.The effects of different oxidants on the physical properties and electrical characteristics of HfAlOx films are studied.The preliminary testing results indicate that the impurity level of HfAlOx films grown with both H2O and O3 used as oxidants can be well controlled,which has significant effects on the dielectric constant,valence band,electrical properties,and stability of HfAlOx film.Additional thermal annealing effects on the properties of HfAlOx films grown with different oxidants are also investigated.

  1. Dental enamel roughness with different acid etching times: Atomic force microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An important characteristic of human dental enamel not yet studied in detail is its surface roughness in mesoscopic scale. This study evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively the surface topography of acid etched enamel with different etching times. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six human maxillary bicuspids were randomly distributed into three groups (n=32): T0 (control), pumiced; T15, 35% phosphoric acid etched enamel for 15 s; T30, 35% phosphoric acid etched enamel for 30 s. R...

  2. Measuring Atomic and Molecular Species in the Upper Atmosphere up to 1000 km with the Free-Fall Mass Spectrometer and the Small Deflection Energy Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, F.; Nicholas, A.

    2007-05-01

    Atomic oxygen (O), the major constituent of the Earth's thermosphere above 200 km altitude is both a driver and a tracer of atmospheric motions in the thermosphere and plays a pivotal role in interactions with the ionosphere through ion-drag and chemical reactions. At altitudes above 400 to 500 km, the energies and composition may reveal interactions with the magnetosphere. In addition, satellites in low-Earth orbit require knowledge of O densities to address engineering issues in low-Earth-orbit missions. The major difficulties in O measurements involve ambiguities due to the recombination of O in the sensor surfaces to yield O2 which is then measured with a mass spectrometer; similar difficulties exist for atomic hydrogen H and nitrogen N. In this paper we describe the use of our new charged particle spectrometers to measure relative densities and energies of the neutral and ion constituents in the upper atmosphere and into the exosphere to about 1000 km altitude. Neutral atoms are ionized before striking internal surfaces and surface-accommodated atoms and molecules are discriminated from incident ones according to their energies. Our ion source sensitivity is about 1.3x10-4/s per microAmp electron beam current for a number density of 1/cm3. Thus, operating with 1 mA emission (about 0.2W cathode power), signals of 100/s with integration period of 1 second correspond to a neutral atom density of about 103/cm3 with 10% variance. At very high altitudes, the lowest densities occur with the coldest thermopause - a 750K thermopause having an O density of about 150/cm3 at 1000 km, much higher densities for H and He, and much lower for O2 and N2. Total power for the spectrometer suite is less than 0.5 W with a mass of about 0.5 kg, based on our current versions. We plan to propose development of the sensor suite for two missions; one at 400 km and one at 830 km.

  3. The effective mass of the atom-radiation field system and the cavity-field Wigner distribution in the presence of a homogeneous gravitational field in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University-Shahreza Branch, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: majid471702@yahoo.com

    2009-07-28

    The effective mass that approximately describes the influence of a classical homogeneous gravitational field on an interacting atom-radiation field system is determined within the framework of the Jaynes-Cummings model. By taking into account both the atomic motion and the gravitational field, a full quantum treatment of the internal and external dynamics of the atom is presented. By exactly solving the Schroedinger equation in the interaction picture, the evolving state of the system is found. The influence of a classical homogeneous gravitational field on the energy eigenvalues, the effective mass of the atom-radiation field system and the Wigner distribution of the radiation field are studied, when the initial condition is such that the radiation field is prepared in a coherent state and the two-level atom is in a coherent superposition of the excited and ground states.

  4. Modeling the Images of Relativistic Jets Lensed by Galaxies with Different Mass Surface Density Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Larchenkova, T I; Lyskova, N S

    2011-01-01

    The images of relativistic jets from extragalactic sources produced by gravitational lensing by galaxies with different mass surface density distributions are modeled. In particular, the following models of the gravitational lens mass distribution are considered: a singular isothermal ellipsoid, an isothermal ellipsoid with a core, two- and three-component models with a galactic disk, halo, and bulge. The modeled images are compared both between themselves and with available observations. Different sets of parameters are shown to exist for the gravitationally lensed system B0218+357 in multicomponent models. These sets allow the observed geometry of the system and the intensity ratio of the compact core images to be obtained, but they lead to a significant variety in the Hubble constant determined from the modeling results.

  5. Irradiation deformation near different atomic grain boundaries in α-Zr: An investigation of thermodynamics and kinetics of point defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjhangmehr, A.; Feghhi, S. A. H.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding radiation performance of nanocrystalline Zr-based alloys is essential to develop internal components and external cladding materials with self-healing capabilities for longer and safer life cycles in harsh reactor environments. However, the precise role of interfaces in modifying defect production and evolution in α-Zr is not yet determined. Using atomistic simulation methods, we investigate the influence of different atomic grain boundaries (GBs) in thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects on short timescales. We observe that the sink efficiency and sink strength of interfaces vary significantly with the boundary structures, with a preference to absorb interstitials (vacancies) when the GBs are semi-parallel (semi-perpendicular) relative to the basal planes. Further, we identify three distinct primary cascade geometries, and find that the residual defect clustering in grain interiors depends on how the atomic GBs modify the spatial distribution of defects within the crystal structure. Finally, we explain and discuss the dynamic results in terms of energetic and kinetic behaviors of defects near the pristine and damaged boundaries. Eventually, these will provide a microscopic reference for further improving the radiation response of Zr by using fine grains or by introducing a high density of dispersoids in material metallurgy.

  6. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da < 1 μm mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to the OA and can be formed from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Here we present results from the characterization of SOA produced from the emissions of three different anthropogenic sources. SOA from a log wood burner, a Euro 2 diesel car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and compared to SOA from α-pinene.

    The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production.

    Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra in the m/z range 12–250 showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the different SOA types after 5 h of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxidized OA (SV-OOA observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O : C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25–0.55 with no major increase during the first 5 h of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O : C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions based on their carbon number revealed that the SOA source with the highest O : C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. Fragment ions

  7. Mass transport around comets and its impact on the seasonal differences in water production rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K.; Thomas, N. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Fougere, N.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V. M. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Le Roy, L. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-06-20

    Comets are surrounded by a thin expanding atmosphere, and although the nucleus' gravity is small, some molecules and grains, possibly with the inclusion of ices, can get transported around the nucleus through scattering (atoms/molecules) and gravitational pull (grains). Based on the obliquity of the comet, it is also possible that volatile material and icy grains get trapped in regions, which are in shadow until the comet passes its equinox. When the Sun rises above the horizon and the surface starts to heat up, this condensed material starts to desorb and icy grains will sublimate off the surface, possibly increasing the comet's neutral gas production rate on the outbound path. In this paper we investigate the mass transport around the nucleus, and based on a simplified model, we derive the possible contribution to the asymmetry in the seasonal gas production rate that could arise from trapped material released from cold areas once they come into sunlight. We conclude that the total amount of volatiles retained by this effect can only contribute up to a few percent of the asymmetry observed in some comets.

  8. On the relationship between acetone and carbon monoxide in different air masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Reus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide and acetone measurements are presented for five aircraft measurement campaigns at mid-latitudes, polar and tropical regions in the northern hemisphere. Throughout all campaigns, free tropospheric air masses, which were influenced by anthropogenic emissions, showed a similar linear relation between acetone and CO, with a slope of 21-25 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. Measurements in the anthropogenically influenced marine boundary layer revealed a slope of 13-16 pptv acetone/ppbv CO. The different slopes observed in the marine boundary layer and the free troposphere indicate that acetone is emitted by the ocean in relatively clean air masses and taken up by the ocean in polluted air masses. In the lowermost stratosphere, a good correlation between acetone and CO was observed as well, however, with a much smaller slope (~5 pptv acetone/ppbv CO compared to the troposphere. This is caused by the longer photochemical lifetime of CO compared to acetone in the lower stratosphere, due to the increasing photolytic loss of acetone and the decreasing OH concentration with altitude. No significant correlation between acetone and CO was observed over the tropical rain forest due to the large direct and indirect biogenic emissions of acetone. The common slopes of the linear acetone-CO relation in various layers of the atmosphere, during five field experiments, makes them useful for model calculations. Often a single observation of the acetone-CO correlation, determined from stratospheric measurements, has been used in box model applications. This study shows that different slopes have to be considered for marine boundary layer, free tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, and that the acetone-CO relation cannot be used for air masses which are strongly influenced by biogenic emissions.

  9. Influence of Different Defects in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on TiO2 Nanoparticle Formation through Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acauan, Luiz; Dias, Anna C; Pereira, Marcelo B; Horowitz, Flavio; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2016-06-29

    The chemical inertness of carbon nanotubes (CNT) requires some degree of "defect engineering" for controlled deposition of metal oxides through atomic layer deposition (ALD). The type, quantity, and distribution of such defects rules the deposition rate and defines the growth behavior. In this work, we employed ALD to grow titanium oxide (TiO2) on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT). The effects of nitrogen doping and oxygen plasma pretreatment of the CNT on the morphology and total amount of TiO2 were systematically studied using transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route were identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The TiO2 mass fraction deposited with the same number of cycles for the pristine CNT, nitrogen-doped CNT, and plasma-treated CNT were 8, 47, and 80%, respectively. We demonstrate that TiO2 nucleation is dependent mainly on surface incorporation of heteroatoms and their distribution rather than structural defects that govern the growth behavior. Therefore, selecting the best way to functionalize CNT will allow us to tailor TiO2 distribution and hence fabricate complex heterostructures.

  10. Inelastic scattering of light by a cold trapped atom: Effects of the quantum center-of-mass motion

    CERN Document Server

    Bienert, M; Morigi, G; Bienert, Marc; Merkel, Wolfgang; Morigi, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The light scattered by a cold trapped ion, which is in the stationary state of laser cooling, presents features due to the mechanical effects of atom-photon interaction. These features appear as additional peaks (sidebands) in the spectrum of resonance fluorescence. Among these sidebands the literature has discussed the Stokes and anti-Stokes components, namely the sidebands of the elastic peak. In this manuscript we show that the motion also gives rise to sidebands of the inelastic peaks. These are not always visible, but, as we show, can be measured in parameter regimes which are experimentally accessible.

  11. Coaxial atomic force microscope probes for dielectrophoresis of DNA under different buffer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yinglei; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a coaxial AFM nanoprobe device for dielectrophoretic (DEP) trapping of DNA molecules in Tris-EDTA (TE) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffers. The DEP properties of 20 nm polystyrene beads were studied with coaxial probes in media with different conductivities. Due to the special geometry of our DEP probe device, sufficiently high electric fields were generated at the probe end to focus DNA molecules with positive DEP. DEP trapping for both polystyrene beads and DNA molecules was quantitatively analyzed over the frequency range from 100 kHz to 50 MHz and compared with the Clausius-Mossotti theory. Finally, we discussed the negative effect of medium salinity during DEP trapping.

  12. The difference of energies of Si atoms with single-crystalline, amorphous, free and nanoparticle configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Deng, Z. C.; Chu, L. Z.; Fu, G. S.; Peng, Y. C.

    2009-04-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films were systematically prepared via three ways: a) laser anneal or b) thermal anneal of the amorphous silicon (α-Si) films deposited by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) in base vacuum, c) direct PLA in high-purity Ar gas with pressure of 10 Pa. The anneal-laser fluence, thermal-anneal temperature and ablation-laser fluence thresholds corresponding to the beginning of nanoparticles formation were respectively determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Incorporated with crystallization mechanism, energies compensated for the formation of one Si nanoparticle in the three ways were calculated approximately. The result shows that for different crystallization ways, the potential barriers during the formation of one ~16 nm nanoparticle are on the order of 10-9 mJ.

  13. The global chemical properties of high-mass star forming clumps at different evolutionary stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Esimbek, Jarken; He, Yu-Xin; Li, Da-Lei; Tang, Xin-Di; Ji, Wei-Guang; Yuan, Ye; Guo, Wei-Hua

    2016-06-01

    A total of 197 relatively isolated high-mass star-forming clumps were selected from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey data and their global chemical evolution investigated using four molecular lines, N2H+ (1--0), HCO+ (1--0), HCN (1-0), and HNC (1-0). The results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios I(HCO+)/I(HNC), I(HCN)/I(HNC), I(N2H+)/I(HCO+), and I(N2H+)/ I(HCN) are promising tracers for evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. The global averaged column densities and abundances of N2H+, HCO+, HCN, and HNC increase as clumps evolve. The global averaged abundance ratios X(HCN)/X(HNC) could be used to trace evolution of high-mass star forming clumps, X(HCO+)/X(HNC) is more suitable for distinguishing high-mass star-forming clumps in prestellar (stage A) from those in protostellar (stage B) and HII/PDR region (stage C). These results suggest that the global averaged integrated intensity ratios between HCN (1-0), HNC (1-0), HCO+ (1--0) and N2H+ (1--0) are more suitable for tracing the evolution of high-mass star forming clumps. We also studied the chemical properties of the target high-mass star-forming clumps in each spiral arm of the Galaxy, and got results very different from those above. This is probably due to the relatively small sample in each spiral arm. For high-mass star-forming clumps in Sagittarius arm and Norma-Outer arm, comparing two groups located on one arm with different Galactocentric distances, the clumps near the Galactic Center appear to be younger than those far from the Galactic center, which may be due to more dense gas concentrated near the Galactic Center, and hence more massive stars being formed there.

  14. Elephant grass silage with the addition of crambe bran conjugated to different specific mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Moraes Cardoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion of crambe bran concentrations (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. with different specific masses in elephant grass silage (Penninsetum purpureum Schum.. For that, the bromatological and microbiological compositions of the experimental silages were determined. We used 48 mini silos distributed in a completely randomized design, arranged in a factorial 4 × 3, four levels of inclusion of crambe bran (0; 10; 20 and 30% and three specific masses (400; 500 and 600 kg MN m-3, with four replications. After 240 days of fermentation the silos were opened. It was observed linear effect on DM, CP, NDFap, ADFap, HEM, LIG, NFC, TC and population of bacteria that produce lactic acid with the addition of crambe meal. There was interaction between the crambe bran factors and specific masses on the values of pH and N-NH3. For MM variables and yeast count there was a negative linear effect due to the evaluated specific mass. The inclusion of crambe bran helps to increase the fermentative profile and the bromatological composition of elephant grass silages studied, and the best results were obtained with the addition of 30% of this coproduct, based on the natural matter.

  15. A large difference in the progenitor masses of active and passive galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative number density matching of galaxies is a method to observationally connect descendent galaxies to their typical main progenitors at higher redshifts and thereby to assess the evolution of galaxy properties. The accuracy of this method is limited due to galaxy merging and scatter in the stellar mass growth history of individual galaxies. Behroozi et al. (2013) have introduced a refinement of the method, based on abundance matching of observed galaxies to the Bolshoi dark-matter-only simulation. The EAGLE cosmological hydro-simulation is well suited to test this method, because it reproduces the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and has a representative sample of passive/active galaxies. We find agreement with the Behroozi et al. (2013) method for the complete sample of main progenitors of z = 0 galaxies, but we also find a strong dependence on the current star formation rate. Passive galaxies with a stellar mass up to 10^10.75 Msun have a completely different median mass history...

  16. Mass changes accompanying the pseudocapacitance of hydrous RuO{sub 2} under different experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopcic, Suzana; Rokovic, Marijana Kraljic [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of Electrochemistry, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Mandic, Zoran, E-mail: zmandic@fkit.h [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of Electrochemistry, University of Zagreb, Marulicev trg 19, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Roka, Andras [Department of Physical Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Inzelt, Gyoergy, E-mail: inzeltgy@chem.elte.h [Department of Physical Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-04-01

    Pseudocapacitance reaction of hydrous ruthenium oxide was investigated by cyclic voltammetry combined with electrochemical quartz-crystal nanobalance (EQCN) in sulfuric acid as well as in neutral solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The ruthenium oxide electrode was prepared by attaching the ruthenium oxide particles on gold covered quartz electrode. The results show that there are different types of charge taking place simultaneously during the redox reaction of ruthenium oxide electrode. Their contribution to the overall charge depends on the experimental conditions. Depending on the potential and electrolyte used the redox reaction of ruthenium oxide is accompanied either by mass loss or by mass gain. The average molar masses of the species exchanged between the solid phase and the electrolyte solution depend on the potential and scan rate. The effect of Nafion{sup TM} top layer was also investigated. It has been found that it does not affect significantly the overall specific capacitance of ruthenium oxide electrode but the apparent molar masses of exchanged species decrease in comparison with the uncovered electrodes.

  17. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermedia...

  18. Hydrogen atom scrambling in selectively labeled anionic peptides upon collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Nicolai; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2008-01-01

    have now measured the level of hydrogen scrambling in a deprotonated, selectively labeled peptide using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results conclusively show that hydrogen scrambling is prevalent in the deprotonated peptide upon collisional activation. The amide hydrogens ((1)H...

  19. Comment on [arXiv:1009.5250] "Electromagnetic mass differences of SU(3) baryons within a chiral soliton model"

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2011-01-01

    In a recent letter, several electromagnetic mass difference formulae for baryons were presented. However, because the derivation did not include important colormagnetic terms, the mass relations do not correctly give isospin mass splittings for the baryons. Correct mass formulae were published some time ago in a model independent approach that was more general and correct than the approach in this letter. In this Comment, the errors in the letter are pointed out and some correct formulae presented.

  20. Precision measurement of the D$_{s}^{*+}$ - D$_{s}^{+}$ mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell Univ. Ithaca

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the vector-pseudoscalar mass splitting M(D.sub(s).sup(*+))- M(D.sub(s).sup(+)) =144.22\\pm 0.47\\pm 0.37 MeV, significantly more precise than the previous world average. We minimize the systematic errors by also measuring the vector-pseudoscalar mass difference M(D^{*0})-M(D^0) using the radiative decay D^{*0}\\rightarrow D^0\\gamma, obtaining [M(D_s^{*+})-M(D_s^+)]- [M(D^{*0})-M(D^0)] = 2.09\\pm 0.47\\pm 0.37 MeV. This is then combined with our previous high-precision measurement of M(D^{*0})-M(D^0), which used the decay D^{*0}\\rightarrow D^0\\pi^0. We also measure the mass difference M(D_s^+)-M(D^+)=99.5\\pm 0.6\\pm 0.3 MeV, using the \\phi\\pi^+ decay modes of the D_s^+ and D^+ mesons. hardcopies with figures can be obtained upon written request to: Pam Morehouse preprint secretary Newman Lab Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 or by sending mail to: preprints@lns62.lns.cornell.edu

  1. Characterization of different food-isolated Enterococcus strains by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Fernández-No, Inmaculada C; Morandi, Stefano; Alnakip, Mohammed E; Caamaño-Antelo, Sonia; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Calo-Mata, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    Enterococcus is a controversial genus due to its great variability; this genus includes pathogenic strains, spoilage strains, and apparently safe strains including some probiotic strains. Previous studies focused on the characterization of strains of Enterococcus spp. involved in nosocomial infections. However, little research has been conducted on Enterococcus strains in foodstuffs. In the present work, 36 strains of different species of Enterococcus have been characterized by means of MALDI-TOF MS, resulting in highly specific mass spectral fingerprints. Characteristic peak masses common to certain bacterial species of Enterococcus have been identified. Thus, a peak at m/z 4426 ± 1 was assigned as a genus-specific biomarker. In addition, phyloproteomic relationships based on the mass spectral data were compared to the results of a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A better grouping at the species level was observed in the phyloproteomic tree, especially for the Enterococcus faecium group. Presumably, the assortment of some strains or ecotypes could be related to their ecological niche specialization. The approach described in this study leads the way toward the rapid and specific identification of different strains and species of Enterococcus in food based on molecular protein markers, aiming at the early detection of pathogenic strains and strains implicated in food poisoning or food spoilage.

  2. [Analysis and comparison of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Cai, Miao-zhen; Wang, Hong; Yu, Rui-peng; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2010-07-01

    Herba euphorbiae humifusae is the dried whole plant of Euphorbia humi fusa Willd. that belongs to euphorbiaceae. In the present paper, the microwave digestion procedure was used to digest herba euphorbiae humifusae collected in different periods, and then flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of eight kinds of trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, and the change in the contents of trace elements at different times was studied and analysed. The results showed that of all the trace elements of herba euphorbiae humifusae in different periods, element Fe was the highest in June, element K was in August at the highest level, element Mn reached the highest content in September, elements Na and Ca were dividedly at the highest content in October and November, and in December the highest content elements were Zn, Cu and Mg. In one word, the change of Na and Ca was jumping, while the change of Cu and Zn was comparatively mild. The results provide scientific basis for the time of collection of herba euphorbiae humifusae.

  3. [Determination of trace elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn from different habitat by microwave digestion-atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Xue, Yue-Qin; Gui, Ren-Yi; Sun, Su-Qin; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2010-03-01

    A method of microwave digestion technique was proposed to determine the content of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, K, Ca, Mg, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Al, Se and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The RSD of the method was between 1.23% and 3.32%, and the recovery rates obtained by standard addition method were between 95.8% and 104.20%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of metal elements in Lophatherum gracile brongn. The experimental results also indicated that different areas' Lophantherum gracile brongn had different trace elements content. The content of trace elements K, Mg, Ca, Fe and Mn beneficial to the human body was rich. The content of the heavy metal trace element Pb in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Hunan province was slightly high. The content of the heavy metal trace element Cu in Lophantherum gracile brongn of Guangdong province and Anhui province is also slightly higher. Beside, the contents of harmful trace heavy metal elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and As in Lophatherum gracile brongn of different habitat are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation and National Food Sanitation Standard. These determination results provided the scientific data for further discussing the relationship between the content of trace elements in Lophantherum gracile brongn and the medicine efficacy.

  4. Don't Forget the Forest for the Trees: The Stellar-Mass Halo-Mass Relation in Different Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnesen, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The connection between dark matter halos and galactic baryons is often not well-constrained nor well-resolved in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Thus, Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) models that assign galaxies to halos based on halo mass are frequently used to interpret clustering observations, even though it is well-known that the assembly history of dark matter halos is related to their clustering. In this paper we use high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations to compare the halo and stellar mass growth of galaxies in a large-scale overdensity to those in a large-scale underdensity (on scales of about 20 Mpc). The simulation reproduces assembly bias, that halos have earlier formation times in overdense environments than in underdense regions. We find that the stellar mass to halo mass ratio is larger in overdense regions in central galaxies residing in halos with masses between 10$^{11}$-10$^{12.9}$ M$_{\\odot}$. When we force the local density (within 2 Mpc) at z=0 to be the same ...

  5. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  6. Formulation of geopotential difference determination using optical-atomic clocks onboard satellites and on ground based on Doppler cancellation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we propose an approach for determining the geopotential difference using high-frequency-stability microwave links between satellite and ground station based on Doppler cancellation system. Suppose a satellite and a ground station are equipped with precise optical-atomic clocks (OACs) and oscillators. The ground oscillator emits a signal with frequency fa towards the satellite and the satellite receiver (connected with the satellite oscillator) receives this signal with frequency fb which contains the gravitational frequency shift effect and other signals and noises. After receiving this signal, the satellite oscillator transmits and emits, respectively, two signals with frequencies fb and fc towards the ground station. Via Doppler cancellation technique, the geopotential difference between the satellite and the ground station can be determined based on gravitational frequency shift equation by a combination of these three frequencies. For arbitrary two stations on ground, based on similar procedures as described above, we may determine the geopotential difference between these two stations via a satellite. Our analysis shows that the accuracy can reach 1 m2 s- 2 based on the clocks' inaccuracy of about 10-17 (s s-1) level. Since OACs with instability around 10-18 in several hours and inaccuracy around 10-18 level have been generated in laboratory, the proposed approach may have prospective applications in geoscience, and especially, based on this approach a unified world height system could be realized with one-centimetre level accuracy in the near future.

  7. Influence of different oxidants on the band alignment of HfO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Ji-Bin; Liu Hong-Xia; Gao Bo; Ma Fei; Zhuo Qing-Qing; Hao Yue

    2012-01-01

    Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),influences of different oxidants on band alignment of HfO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated in this paper.The measured valence band offset (VBO) value for H2O-based HfO2 increases from 3.17 eV to 3.32 eV after annealing,whereas the VBO value for O3-based HfO2 decreases from 3.57 eV to 3.46 eV.The research results indicate that the silicate layer changes in different ways for H2O-based and O3-based HfO2 films after the annealing process,which plays a key role in generating the internal electric field formed by the dipoles.The variations of the dipoles at the interface between the HfO2 and SiO2 after annealing may lead the VBO values of H2O-based and O3-based HfO2 to vary in different ways,which fits with the variation of fiat band (VFB) voltage.

  8. Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

  9. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Clairotte, M.; Mohr, C.; Crippa, M.; Slowik, J. G.; Pfaffenberger, L.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-02-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and compared to SOA from α-pinene. The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production. Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS) showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25-0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions. The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using principal component analysis (PCA). The model showed a significant separation of the four SOA types and clustering of the duplicate experiments on the first two principal components (PCs), which explained 79% of the total variance. Projection of ambient SV-OOA spectra resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that this approach could be useful to identify large contributions of the tested SOA sources to SV-OOA. The first results from this

  10. Imaging Dirac-mass disorder from magnetic dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic topological insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon J L; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A; Liu, Tiansheng; Valla, Tonica; Tranquada, John M; Gu, Genda; Davis, J C Séamus

    2015-02-03

    To achieve and use the most exotic electronic phenomena predicted for the surface states of 3D topological insulators (TIs), it is necessary to open a "Dirac-mass gap" in their spectrum by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Use of magnetic dopant atoms to generate a ferromagnetic state is the most widely applied approach. However, it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale or, conversely, whether the ferromagnetic interactions between dopant atoms are influenced by the topological surface states. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate is directly related to fluctuations in n(r), the Cr atom areal density in the termination layer. We find the relationship of surface-state Fermi wavevectors to the anisotropic structure of Δ(r) not inconsistent with predictions for surface ferromagnetism mediated by those states. Moreover, despite the intense Dirac-mass disorder, the anticipated relationship [Formula: see text] is confirmed throughout and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV·nm(2). These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap locally and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.

  11. Single degenerate supernova type Ia progenitors. Studying the influence of different mass retention efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, M. C. P.; Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.

    2013-04-01

    Context. There is general agreement that supernovae Ia correspond to the thermonuclear runaway of a white dwarf that is part of a compact binary, but the details of the progenitor systems are still unknown and much debated. One of the proposed progenitor theories is the single-degenerate channel in which a white dwarf accretes from a companion, grows in mass, reaches a critical mass limit, and is then consumed after thermonuclear runaway sets in. However, there are major disagreements about the theoretical delay time distribution and the corresponding time-integrated supernova Ia rate from this channel. Aims: We investigate whether the differences are due to the uncertainty in the common envelope phase and the fraction of transferred mass that is retained by the white dwarf. This so-called retention efficiency may have a strong influence on the final amount and timing of supernovae Ia. Methods: Using the population synthesis code SeBa, we simulated large numbers of binaries for various assumptions on common envelopes and retention efficiencies. We compare the resulting supernova Ia rates and delay time distributions with each other and with those from the literature, including observational data. Results: For the three assumed retention efficiencies, the integrated rate varies by a factor 3-4 to even more than a factor 100, so in extreme cases, the retention efficiency strongly suppresses the single-degenerate channel. Our different assumptions for the common envelope phase change the integrated rate by a factor 2-3. Although our results do recover the trend in the theoretical predictions from different binary population synthesis codes, they do not fully explain the large disagreement among them.

  12. Measuring the Stau Minus Neutralino Mass Difference in Co-annihilation Scenarios at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arnowitt, R; Dutta, B; Kamon, T; Kolev, N; Simeon, P; Toback, D; Wagner, P

    2006-01-01

    We study the prospects for the measurement of the stau - lightest neutralino mass difference (dM) and the gluino mass (Mg) in the supersymmetric co-annihilation region at the LHC using tau leptons. Recent WMAP measurements of the amount of cold dark matter and previous accelerator experiments indicate that the allowed parameter space of mSUGRA is characterized by a small dM (5-15 GeV). Focusing on taus from N2 -> tau stau -> tau tau N1 decays in gluino and squark production, we consider inclusive 3 tau+jet+missing Et production, with two taus above a high Et threshold and a third tau above a lower threshold. Two observables, the number of opposite-signed tau pairs minus the number of like-signed tau pairs and the peak of the ditau invariant mass distribution, allow for the simultaneous determination of dM, and Mg. For dM = 9 GeV and Mg = 850 GeV and with 30 fb^-1 of data, we can measure dM to 15% and Mg to 6%.

  13. Rummukainen-Gottlieb's formula on two-particle system with different mass

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Ziwen

    2011-01-01

    A proposal by L\\"uscher enables us to extract elastic scattering phases from two-particle energy spectrum using lattice simulations. Rummukainen-Gottlieb further extend it to the moving frame (MF), which is devoted to the system of two identical particles. In this work, we generalize Rummukainen-Gottlieb's formula to the case where two particles are distinguishable, i.e., the masses of the two particles are different. Their relation with the elastic scattering phases of the two particles in the continuum are obtained for $C_{4v}$ symmetry. Our results will be very helpful for the study of some resonances, such as kappa, and so on.

  14. Comment on "The GSI method for studying neutrino mass differences - For Pedestrians"

    OpenAIRE

    Peshkin, Murray

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the reported temporal oscillations in the weak decay of H-like ions circulating in the GSI storage ring may be accounted for by interference between two different momentum components of the wave function of the parent ions. In that model, the interference is said to come about through coupling of those two momentum components to the two mass components in the wave function of the electron neutrino in the decayed state. I show here that quantum mechanics allows no su...

  15. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  16. Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Braziliansubjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Strunz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years. Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients

  17. Imaging of oxide charges and contact potential difference fluctuations in Atomic Layer Deposited AL203 on Si

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, J.M.; Zinine, A.; Wormeester, H.; Poelsema, B.; Bankras, R.G.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrathin 2.5 nm high-k aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films on p-type silicon (001) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated with noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) in ultrahigh vacuum, using a conductive tip. Constant force gradient images revealed the presence of oxide charge

  18. Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

    2006-11-01

    Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

  19. Impact of mass and bond energy difference and interface defects on thermal boundary conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, ChangJin

    The objective of this study is to use molecular dynamics simulation techniques in order to improve the understanding of phonon transport at the interface of dissimilar materials and the impact of different material properties on thermal boundary conductance (TBC). In order to achieve this goal, we investigated the contributions of mass and bond energy difference and interface defects on TBC at the interface of nanostructured materials using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation and phonon wave-packet (PWP) simulation techniques. NEMD is used to distinguish relative and combined contributions of mass and bond energy difference on TBC. As a result, it is found that the mass has a stronger contribution than the bond energy on lowering the TBC and that the TBC is dependent on the length of interdiffusion region as well as temperature. In addition, evidence of inelastic scattering is observed with interdiffusion regions especially when two materials differ in the bond energy. A detailed description of phonon interactions at the interface is obtained performing PWP simulations. A frequency dependence of the TBC based on phonon dispersion relation is observed. As it is expected, minimum scattering occurs when there exists only vibrational mismatch at the interface and inelastic scattering is to take place at high frequency region when the bond energy of the two materials is different resulting in the strain at the interface. It is also shown that the level of inelastic scattering is dependent on the length of the interdiffusion region. In addition, the TBC calculated with the results of PWP simulations is compared with that of NEMD simulations as well as theoretical predictions from the acoustic mismatch model and the diffuse mismatch model. A simple analytical model, which utilizes knowledge of thermal interface resistance and the interface geometry for the prediction of effective thermal conductivity, is developed. This model is generated based on Si

  20. Photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance of low-band gap polymers based on dithiophene with different bridging atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Sørensen, Thomas J.; Manceau, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    (tetradecyloxy)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (DBT1) and 4,7-bis(4-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole (DBT2). In thin films the polymers had optical band gaps in the range of 1.51-1.70 eV where the DBT2 based polymers are red shifted 61-81 nm compared to the DBT1 based polymers......New low-band gap polymers based on dithienylbenzothiadiazole (DBT) and dithiophene with different bridging atoms have been synthesized and explored in a comparative study on the photochemical stability and photovoltaic performance. Two differently modified DBT units were exploited, namely 5,6- bis...... indicating greater interchain packing when the side chains are situated on the thienyl groups compared to on the benzothiadiazole unit. The best photovoltaic devices based on blends of polymer and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared with polymers based on the DBT1 unit giving...

  1. Evaluation of the interactions between polymeric chains and surfaces with different structures performed by an atomic force microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oréfice Rodrigo Lambert

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between polymers and inorganic surfaces are present in a series of phenomena involving processes such as coagulation and deffloculation of ceramic powder and adsorption of organic macromolecules on the surface of implants, among others. In this work, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM was modified to allow the evaluation of interactions between polymeric chains and inorganic surfaces (silica with different structures. Polymers (sulfonated polysulfone were grafted onto AFM cantilevers. AFM force-distance curves were obtained for this modified tip against a series of substrates produced by depositing silica films on silicon wafers. The structure of the silica layer was modified by employing heat treatments at different temperatures. The results showed that the interactions between polymer and surfaces are dependent on the structure of the surfaces. Penetration of the polymeric chains can occur through a soft gel layer (substrates treated at low temperature, 110 °C. For surfaces with dense silica layers, the results showed that not only the concentration of hydroxy groups but also their spatial distribution along the surfaces are important in defining the magnitude of interactions between polymers and surfaces. A model involving a molecular recognition process, in which interactions are maximized for inorganic surfaces with structures that can match the chemical architecture of the polymer, was then used to explain the obtained results.

  2. Determination of electrostatic force and its characteristics based on phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Cheng, Jia; Yao, Shiji; Lu, Yijia; Ji, Linhong; Xu, Dengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Electrostatic force measurement at the micro/nano scale is of great significance in science and engineering. In this paper, a reasonable way of applying voltage is put forward by taking an electrostatic chuck in a real integrated circuit manufacturing process as a sample, applying voltage in the probe and the sample electrode, respectively, and comparing the measurement effect of the probe oscillation phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. Based on the phase difference obtained from the experiment, the quantitative dependence of the absolute magnitude of the electrostatic force on the tip-sample distance and applied voltage is established by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that the varying characteristics of the electrostatic force with the distance and voltage at the micro/nano scale are similar to those at the macroscopic scale. Electrostatic force gradually decays with increasing distance. Electrostatic force is basically proportional to the square of applied voltage. Meanwhile, the applicable conditions of the above laws are discussed. In addition, a comparison of the results in this paper with the results of the energy dissipation method shows the two are consistent in general. The error decreases with increasing distance, and the effect of voltage on the error is small.

  3. Atomic Oxygen (ATOX) simulation of Teflon FEP and Kapton H surfaces using a high intensity, low energy, mass selected, ion beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vered, R.; Grossman, E.; Lempert, G. D.; Lifshitz, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A high intensity (greater than 10(exp 15) ions/sq cm) low energy (down to 5 eV) mass selected ion beam (MSIB) facility was used to study the effects of ATOX on two polymers commonly used for space applications (Kapton H and Teflon FEP). The polymers were exposed to O(+) and Ne(+) fluences on 10(exp 15) - 10(exp 19) ions/sq cm, using 30eV ions. A variety of analytical methods were used to analyze the eroded surfaces including: (1) atomic force microscopy (AFM) for morphology measurements; (2) total mass loss measurements using a microbalance; (3) surface chemical composition using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (4) residual gas analysis (RGA) of the released gases during bombardment. The relative significance of the collisional and chemical degradation processes was evaluated by comparing the effects of Ne(+) and O(+) bombardment. For 30 eV ions it was found that the Kapton is eroded via chemical mechanisms while Teflon FEP is eroded via collisional mechanisms. AFM analysis was found very powerful in revealing the evolution of the damage from its initial atomic scale (roughness of approx. 1 nm) to its final microscopic scale (roughness greater than 1 micron). Both the surface morphology and the average roughness of the bombarded surfaces (averaged over 1 micron x 1 micron images by the system's computer) were determined for each sample. For 30 eV a non linear increase of the Kapton roughness with the O(+) fluence was discovered (a slow increase rate for fluences phi less than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm, and a rapid increase rate for phi greater than 5 x 10(exp 17) O(+)/sq cm). Comparative studies on the same materials exposed to RF and DC oxygen plasmas indicate that the specific details of the erosion depend on the simulation facility emphasizing the advantages of the ion beam facility.

  4. Different body mass index grade on the risk of developing glioma: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zifeng Dai; Qilin Huang; Haipeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported conflicting results about the risk of developing glioma and different body mass index.So we decided to execute a meta-analysis to solve the dispute.Methods: Comprehensive literature retrieval was carried in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to September 15, 2014.Hand literature information retrieval was not carried.Six studies were fit for this meta-analysis.Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of different body mass index grade were performed by fixed/random-effects models, except for normal weight which was referent.Results: Data of 3726 cases were included.Compared with normal weight (20 kg.m-2 < body mass index (BMI) ≤ 24.9 kg.m-2), the underweight (BMI ≤ 20 kg.m-2) might have lower incidence on the risk of developing glioma (HR =1.08, 95 % CI ranged 0.74 to 1.58, P =0.678).While the overweight (25 kg.m-2 < BMI ≤ 29.9 kg.m-2)and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg.m-2) were performed as a risk factor of developing glioma.The pooled HR of overweight group was 1.12 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.22, P=0.013);the pooled HR of obesity was 1.14 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.27, P =0.017).Sensitivity analysis approved that our results were stable.There was no publication bias of these studies.Conclusions: Underweight could decrease the risk of developing glioma.Excess BMI was considered as a risk factor to develop glioma.

  5. Setting the agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sebastián; Balenzuela, Pablo; Dorso, Claudio O.

    2016-09-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about news with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a fixed feature, representing its point of view in the topic of discussion, while it tries to attract new consumers, by taking advantage of feedback mechanisms, represented by adaptive features. We explore different strategies that the Media can adopt in order to increase the affinity with potential consumers and then the probability to be successful in imposing this particular topic.

  6. Low-mass protostars and dense cores in different evolutionary stages in IRAS 00213+6530

    CERN Document Server

    Busquet, G; Estalella, R; Girart, J M; Anglada, G; Sepúlveda, I

    2009-01-01

    We aim at studying with high angular resolution a dense core associated with a low-luminosity IRAS source, IRAS 00213+6530, in order to investigate whether low mass star formation is really taking place in isolation. We performed observations at 1.2mm with the IRAM 30m telescope, VLA observations at 6cm, 3.6cm, 1.3cm, 7mm, and H2O maser and NH3 lines, and observations with the NASA 70m antenna in CCS and H2O maser. The cm and mm continuum emission, together with the near infrared data from the 2MASS allowed us to identify 3 YSOs, IRS1, VLA8A, and VLA8B, with different radio and infrared properties, and which seem to be in different evolutionary stages. The NH3 emission consists of three clouds. Two of these, MM1 and MM2, are associated with dust emission, while the southern cloud is only detected in NH3. The YSOs are embedded in MM1, where we found evidence of line broadening and temperature enhancements. On the other hand, the southern cloud and MM2 appear to be quiescent and starless. We modeled the radial ...

  7. Binary functionalization of H:Si(111) surfaces by alkyl monolayers with different linker atoms enhances monolayer stability and packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Hadi H; Nolan, Michael; Fagas, Giorgos

    2016-05-14

    Alkyl monolayer modified Si forms a class of inorganic-organic hybrid materials with applications across many technologies such as thin-films, fuel/solar-cells and biosensors. Previous studies have shown that the linker atom, through which the monolayer binds to the Si substrate, and any tail group in the alkyl chain, can tune the monolayer stability and electronic properties. In this paper we study the H:Si(111) surface functionalized with binary SAMs: these are composed of alkyl chains that are linked to the surface by two different linker groups. Aiming to enhance SAM stability and increase coverage over singly functionalized Si, we examine with density functional theory simulations that incorporate vdW interactions, a range of linker groups which we denote as -X-(alkyl) with X = CH2, O(H), S(H) or NH(2) (alkyl = C6 and C12 chains). We show how the stability of the SAM can be enhanced by adsorbing alkyl chains with two different linkers, e.g. Si-[C, NH]-alkyl, through which the adsorption energy is increased compared to functionalization with the individual -X-alkyl chains. Our results show that it is possible to improve stability and optimum coverage of alkyl functionalized SAMs linked through a direct Si-C bond by incorporating alkyl chains linked to Si through a different linker group, while preserving the interface electronic structure that determines key electronic properties. This is important since any enhancement in stability and coverage to give more densely packed monolayers will result in fewer defects. We also show that the work function can be tuned within the interval of 3.65-4.94 eV (4.55 eV for bare H:Si(111)).

  8. A new method to discriminate secondary organic aerosols from different sources using high-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Heringa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic aerosol (OA represents a significant and often major fraction of the non-refractory PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter da < 1 μm mass. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is an important contributor to the OA and can be formed from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors. Here we present results from the characterization of SOA produced from the emissions of three different anthropogenic sources. SOA from a log wood burner, a Euro 2 diesel car and a two-stroke Euro 2 scooter were characterized with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS and compared to SOA from α-pinene.

    The emissions were sampled from the chimney/tailpipe by a heated inlet system and filtered before injection into a smog chamber. The gas phase emissions were irradiated by xenon arc lamps to initiate photo-chemistry which led to nucleation and subsequent particle growth by SOA production.

    Duplicate experiments were performed for each SOA type, with the averaged organic mass spectra showing Pearson's r values >0.94 for the correlations between the four different SOA types after five hours of aging. High-resolution mass spectra (HR-MS showed that the dominant peaks in the MS, m/z 43 and 44, are dominated by the oxygenated ions C2H3O+ and CO2+, respectively, similarly to the relatively fresh semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA observed in the ambient aerosol. The atomic O:C ratios were found to be in the range of 0.25–0.55 with no major increase during the first five hours of aging. On average, the diesel SOA showed the lowest O:C ratio followed by SOA from wood burning, α-pinene and the scooter emissions. Grouping the fragment ions revealed that the SOA source with the highest O:C ratio had the largest fraction of small ions.

    The HR data of the four sources could be clustered and separated using

  9. Differences in elasticity of vinculin-deficient F9 cells measured by magnetometry and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, W. H.; Galneder, R.; Ludwig, M.; Xu, W.; Adamson, E. D.; Wang, N.; Ezzell, R. M.; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated a mouse F9 embryonic carcinoma cell line, in which both vinculin genes were inactivated by homologous recombination, that exhibits defective adhesion and spreading [Coll et al. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 9161-9165]. Using a magnetometer and RGD-coated magnetic microbeads, we measured the local effect of loss and replacement of vinculin on mechanical force transfer across integrins. Vinculin-deficient F9Vin(-/-) cells showed a 21% difference in relative stiffness compared to wild-type cells. This was restored to near wild-type levels after transfection and constitutive expression of increasing amounts of vinculin into F9Vin(-/-) cells. In contrast, the transfection of vinculin constructs deficient in amino acids 1-288 (containing the talin- and alpha-actinin-binding site) or substituting tyrosine for phenylalanine (phosphorylation site, amino acid 822) in F9Vin(-/-) cells resulted in partial restoration of stiffness. Using atomic force microscopy to map the relative elasticity of entire F9 cells by 128 x 128 (n = 16,384) force scans, we observed a correlation with magnetometer measurements. These findings suggest that vinculin may promote cell adhesions and spreading by stabilizing focal adhesions and transferring mechanical stresses that drive cytoskeletal remodeling, thereby affecting the elastic properties of the cell.

  10. The solid-liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty acids differing by six carbon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Mariana C. [LPT, Department of Chemical Process, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, 13083-862, Campinas-SP (Brazil); CICECO, Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rolemberg, Marlus P. [DETQI, Department of Chemical Technology, Federal University of Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, 13083-862, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Coutinho, Joao A.P. [CICECO, Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Kraehenbuehl, M.A., E-mail: mak@feq.unicamp.br [LPT, Department of Chemical Process, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-10

    This study was aimed at using the solid-liquid phase diagrams for three binary mixtures of saturated fatty acids, especially the phase transitions below the liquidus line. These mixtures are compounded by caprylic acid (C{sub 8:0}) + myristic acid (C{sub 14:0}), capric acid (C{sub 10:0}) + palmitic acid (C{sub 16:0}), lauric acid (C{sub 12:0}) + stearic acid (C{sub 18:0}), differing by six carbon atoms between carbon chains. The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polarized light microscopy was used to complement the characterization for a full grasp of the phase diagram. Not only do these phase diagrams present peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also metatectic reactions, due to solid-solid phase transitions common, in fatty acids. These findings have contributed to the elucidation of the phase behavior of these important biochemical molecules with implications in various industrial production.

  11. On the difference between the pole and the MS masses of the top quark at the electroweak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu.; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    We argue that for a Higgs boson mass M{sub H} {proportional_to} 125 GeV, as estimated from recent Higgs searches at the LHC, the inclusion of the electroweak radiative corrections in the relationship between the pole and MS masses of the top quark reduces the difference to about 1 GeV. This fact is relevant for the scheme dependence of electroweak observables as well as for the extraction of the top quark mass from experimental data.

  12. Comparison of different sample preparation methods for platinum determination in cultured cells by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Platinum-based agents are widely used in chemotherapy against solid tumors and insufficient intracellular drug accumulation is one of the leading causes of platinum resistance which is associated with poor survival of tumor patients. Thus, the detection of intracellular platinum is pivotal for studies aiming to overcome platinum resistance. In the present study, we aimed to establish a reliable graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS-based assay to quantify the intracellular platinum content for cultured cells. Methods Several most commonly applied cell preparation methods, including 0.2% HNO3, 0.2% Triton X-100, concentrated nitric acid, RIPA combined with concentrated nitric acid and hydroxide, followed by GFAAS for platinum detection were compared in ovarian, cervical and liver cancer cell lines to obtain the optimal one, and parameters regarding linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity were evaluated. Influence of other metals on platinum detection and the storage conditions of samples were also determined. Results The treatment of cells with 0.2% HNO3 was superior to other approaches with fewer platinum loss and better repeatability. The recovery rate and precision of this method were 97.3%–103.0% and 1.4%–3.8%, respectively. The average recoveries in the presence of other metals were 95.1%–103.1%. The detection limit was 13.23 ug/L. The recovery rate of platinum remained acceptable even in cell samples stored in −20 °C or −80 °C for two months. Discussion After comparison, we found that 0.2% HNO3 was optimal for intracellular platinum quantification based on GFAAS, which presented values compatible with that of inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS, and this is partially attributed to the simplicity of this method. Moreover, the assay was proved to be accurate, sensitive, cost-effective and suitable for the research of platinum-based antitumor therapy.

  13. Estimated H-atom anisotropic displacement parameters: a comparison between different methods and with neutron diffraction results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munshi, Parthapratim; Madsen, Anders Ø; Spackman, Mark A;

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are compared for H atoms estimated using three recently described procedures, both among themselves and with neutron diffraction results. The results convincingly demonstrate that all methods are capable of giving excellent results for several benchmark...

  14. Axion dark matter detection using atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikivie, P

    2014-11-14

    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to millikelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears to be an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the 10^{-4}  eV mass range.

  15. Axion Dark Matter Detection using Atomic Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sikivie, P

    2014-01-01

    Dark matter axions may cause transitions between atomic states that differ in energy by an amount equal to the axion mass. Such energy differences are conveniently tuned using the Zeeman effect. It is proposed to search for dark matter axions by cooling a kilogram-sized sample to milliKelvin temperatures and count axion induced transitions using laser techniques. This appears an appropriate approach to axion dark matter detection in the $10^{-4}$ eV mass range.

  16. Biscuit melanoidins of different molecular masses protect human HepG2 cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Rufián-Henares, José Angel; Morales, Francisco José; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Soluble melanoidins from biscuits were enzymatically solubilized and isolated by sequential ultrafiltration and separated by molecular mass in three different fractions, below 3 kDa, between 3 and 10 kDa, and over 10 kDa; the latter was subsequently digested by simulating gastric plus pancreatic digestive conditions. The four fractions were investigated for their protective effect against an oxidative challenge in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment of cells for 20 h with 0.5-10 microg/mL of any of the four fractions prevented the increased cell damage evoked by the challenge but, except for the intermediate size fraction, did not suppress the increased reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant defenses were rapidly restored after the challenge, and the increase of the oxidative stress biomarker malondialdehyde was prevented by the pretreatment with all but the undigested high molecular mass fraction. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of biscuit melanoidins within the expected physiological range confers on the cells a significant protection against an oxidative challenge.

  17. Energy and mass transfer parameters in a brazilian semi-arid ecosystem under different thermohydrological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Heriberto de Castro Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian semi-arid region, the natural vegetation ("Caatinga" has been replaced by irrigated agriculture, emphasising the importance for quantification of the energy and mass exchanges. Eddy covariance and micro-climatic measurements in this natural ecosystem, were analysed for two years under different thermohydrological conditions. Sensible heat flux (H accounted for 49 and 64% of the net radiation (Rn, respectively, during the wetter and the drier conditions of 2004 and 2005. The corresponding fractions of Rn partitioned as latent heat flux (LE were 40% and 25%. Evapotranspiration (ET in 2004, with 693 mm, represented 96% of precipitation (P, while in 2005 (399 mm, it was 18% higher than P, which evidenced the use of the remaining soil moisture from the previous wetter year. All the soil-water-vegetation-atmosphere transfer parameters were influenced by the rainfall amounts. However, the surface resistance (rs was the most strongly affected by the soil moisture status, dropping with increases of the ratio of ET to reference evapotranspiration (ET0. On the other hand, the highest rs values were related to increases in both vapour pressure deficit (De and aerodynamic temperature (T0. The current research aimed to quantify the energy and mass exchange between the "Caatinga" and the lower atmosphere, testing in which circumstances the biophysical controlling parameters can be reasonably predicted from agrometeorological data, throughout parameterizations, to incorporate in large-scale models.

  18. Setting the Agenda: Different strategies of a Mass Media in a model of cultural dissemination

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Sebastián; Dorso, Claudio O

    2015-01-01

    Day by day, people exchange opinions about a given new with relatives, friends, and coworkers. In most cases, they get informed about a given issue by reading newspapers, listening to the radio, or watching TV, i.e., through a Mass Media (MM). However, the importance of a given new can be stimulated by the Media by assigning newspaper's pages or time in TV programs. In this sense, we say that the Media has the power to "set the agenda", i.e., it decides which new is important and which is not. On the other hand, the Media can know people's concerns through, for instance, websites or blogs where they express their opinions, and then it can use this information in order to be more appealing to an increasing number of people. In this work, we study different scenarios in an agent-based model of cultural dissemination, in which a given Mass Media has a specific purpose: To set a particular topic of discussion and impose its point of view to as many social agents as it can. We model this by making the Media has a ...

  19. Phonon contributions to ab initio double mass differences of magic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Saperstein, E E; Gnezdilov, N V; Tolokonnikov, S V

    2015-01-01

    Odd-even double mass differences (DMD) of magic nuclei are found within the approach starting from the free $NN$ interaction with account for particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects. We consider three PC effects: the phonon induced effective interaction, the renormalization of the ``ends'' due to the $Z$-factor corresponding to the pole PC contribution to the nucleon mass operator and the change of the single-particle energies. The perturbation theory in $g^2_L$, where $g_L$ is the vertex of the $L$-phonon creation, is used for PC calculations. PC corrections to single-particle energies are found self-consistently with an approximate account for the tadpole diagram. Results for magic $^{40,48}$Ca, $^{56,78}$Ni, $^{100,132}$Sn and $^{208}$Pb nuclei are presented. For lighter part of this set of nuclei, from $^{40}$Ca till $^{56}$Ni, the cases divide approximately in half between those where the PC corrections to DMD values make agreement with the data better and the ones with the opposite result. In the major pa...

  20. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  1. Comparison of body mass index in children of two different regions of welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Shapouri Moghadam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic basis of children obesity is of high importance for preventive policies. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of obesity among children living in two different levels of welfare regions in Mashhad northeast of Iran. A total of 625 primary school girls and boys aged 78-127 months were randomly selected, and values of their body mass index (BMI were measured. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher among students of enriched area in comparison with that of resource restricted (P<0.05.The prevalence of overweight concerns in urban and rural areas. These results highlight the relation between socio-economic status and prevalence of obesity among children.

  2. Measurement of D* photoproduction at three different centre-of-mass energies at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Arslan, O; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Barakbaev, A N; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bokhonov, V; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Brock, I; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; D'Agostini, G; Dementiev, R K; Devenish, R C E; Dolinska, G; Drugakov, V; Dusini, S; Ferrando, J; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Gach, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, L K; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grzelak, G; Gueta, O; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hartner, G; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Iudin, A; Januschek, F; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Khein, L A; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Kondrashova, N; Kononenko, O; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kotz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Lohr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Maeda, J; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Martin, J F; Mergelmeyer, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Mujkic, K; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nigro, A; Nobe, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Pokrovskiy, N S; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Samojlov, V; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schorner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Shcheglova, L M; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Sola, V; Solano, A; Spiridonov, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tassi, E; Temiraliev, T; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Trofymov, A; Trusov, V; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zotkin, D S

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the photoproduction of $D^*$ mesons have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different ep centre-of-mass energies, $\\sqrt{s}$, of 318, 251 and 225 GeV. For each data set, $D^*$ mesons were required to have transverse momentum, $p_T^{D^*}$, and pseudorapidity, $\\eta^{D^*}$, in the ranges $1.9 < p_T^{D^*} < 20$ GeV and $|\\eta^{D^*}|<1.6$. The events were required to have a virtuality of the incoming photon, $Q^2$, of less than 1 GeV$^2$. The dependence on $\\sqrt{s}$ was studied by normalising to the high-statistics measurement at $\\sqrt{s} =318$ GeV. This led to the cancellation of a number of systematic effects both in data and theory. Predictions from next-to-leading-order QCD describe the $\\sqrt{s}$ dependence of the data well.

  3. Evaluation of correction in shaping body mass women first adulthood with different personal features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaylova S.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessed the effectiveness of training method of the "Shaping Classic" on the catabolic program correction of body weight the first mature age women with different personality characteristics. The study involved 20 women aged 26 - 30 years with a body mass index above average and high. Conducted anthropometric measurements. Used physiological tests, step test Prohorovtseva, engine test, psychodiagnostic methods. The efficiency of the program in reducing total body weight and body fat. The positive impact of the program on the functional state of the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system is shown. Found that particular dispositions eating and self-esteem of women may reduce the level of impact of training. It is revealed that these features contribute to devaluing recommendations coach and weaken the motivation to train.

  4. Mass, phylogeny, and temperature are sufficient to explain differences in metabolic scaling across mammalian orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Werner, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Whether basal metabolic rate-body mass scaling relationships have a single exponent is highly discussed, and also the correct statistical model to establish relationships. Here, we aimed (1) to identify statistically best scaling models for 17 mammalian orders, Marsupialia, Eutheria and all mammals, and (2) thereby to prove whether correcting for differences in species' body temperature and their shared evolutionary history improves models and their biological interpretability. We used the large dataset from Sieg et al. (The American Naturalist174, 2009, 720) providing species' body mass (BM), basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body temperature (T). We applied different statistical approaches to identify the best scaling model for each taxon: ordinary least squares regression analysis (OLS) and phylogenetically informed analysis (PGLS), both without and with controlling for T. Under each approach, we tested linear equations (log-log-transformed data) estimating scaling exponents and normalization constants, and such with a variable normalization constant and a fixed exponent of either ⅔ or ¾, and also a curvature. Only under temperature correction, an additional variable coefficient modeled the influence of T on BMR. Except for Pholidata and Carnivora, in all taxa studied linear models were clearly supported over a curvature by AICc. They indicated no single exponent at the level of orders or at higher taxonomic levels. The majority of all best models corrected for phylogeny, whereas only half of them included T. When correcting for T, the mathematically expected correlation between the exponent (b) and the normalization constant (a) in the standard scaling model y = a x(b) was removed, but the normalization constant and temperature coefficient still correlated strongly. In six taxa, T and BM correlated positively or negatively. All this hampers a disentangling of the effect of BM, T and other factors on BMR, and an interpretation of linear BMR-BM scaling

  5. Into the atom and beyond

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    Magnifying an atom to football pitch size. The dense nucleus, carrying almost all the atomic mass, is much smaller than the ball. The players (the electrons) would see something about the size of a marble!

  6. Applicability and limits of simple hydrodynamic scaling for collisions of water-rich bodies in different mass regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Schäfer, C. M.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions in very different mass regimes, but an otherwise identical parameter setup, comprising the impact velocity (v/vesc), impact angle, mass ratio, and initial composition, w.r.t. simple hydrodynamic scaling. The colliding bodies' masses range from ≈ 10^{16} to 10^{24} kg, which includes km-sized planetesimals up to planetary-sized objects. Our analysis of the results comprises the time evolution of fragment masses, the fragments' water contents and fragment dynamics, where we start with bodies consisting of basalt and water ice. The usual assumption of hydrodynamic scaling over a wider range of masses is based on material behavior similar to a fluid, or a rubble pile, respectively. All our simulations are carried out once including full solid-body physics, and once for strengthless ? but otherwise identical ? bodies, to test for the influence of material strength. We find that scale-invariance over a wider range of masses is mostly only a very crude approximation at best, but can be applied to constrained mass ranges if tested carefully. For the chosen scenarios the outcomes of solid-body objects compared to strengthless fluid bodies differ most for our intermediate masses, but are similar for the lowest and highest masses. The most energetic, planet-sized collisions produce considerably faster and more fragments, which is also reflected in high water losses ? above 50% in a single collision.

  7. Study of bisphosphonates by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry--influence of alkali atoms on fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénin, Erwann; Lecouvey, Marc; Hardouin, Julie

    2009-05-01

    1-hydroxymethylene-1,1-bisphosphonic acids (or bisphosphonates) are compounds that have interesting pharmacological applications. However, few mass spectrometric investigations have been carried out to determine their fragmentation patterns. Herein, we evaluated different matrices for the study by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) of the formation and fragmentation of the protonated, the cationized (MNa+ and MK+) and the deprotonated bisphosphonates. Some in-source fragmentations were observed both in positive and in negative ion modes. The fragmentation patterns obtained in post-source decay mode are also discussed. In contrast to previous electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) studies, some new fragmentation pathways were deduced and the effects of alkali ions on the fragmentation patterns were shown. The results summarized here completed the data previously recorded by ESI-MSn and could be used for the characterization of bisphosphonates as alkali complexes in biological mixtures.

  8. Synthetic oligomer analysis using atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry at different photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmazières, Bernard [Global Bioenergies, 5 rue Henri Desbruyeres, 91030 Evry (France); Legros, Véronique [CNRS, UMR8587, Université d’Evry-Val-d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, F-91025 Evry (France); Giuliani, Alexandre [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); UAR1008, CEPIA, INRA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Buchmann, William, E-mail: william.buchmann@univ-evry.fr [CNRS, UMR8587, Université d’Evry-Val-d’Essonne, Laboratoire Analyse et Modélisation pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, F-91025 Evry (France)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Atmospheric pressure photoIonization mass spectra of synthetic oligomers were recorded in the negative mode by varying the photon energy using synchrotron radiation. Photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to ionization potential of the solvent (for example 9.4 eV for tetrahydrofuran). -- Highlights: •Atmospheric pressure photoionization was performed using synchrotron radiation. •Photoionization of oligomers in THF with 10% CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} produces intact [M + Cl]{sup −} ions. •The photon energy required corresponds to ionization potential of the solvent. •Polymer distributions depend on source parameters such T °C and applied voltages. •Liquid chromatography was coupled to MS using an APPI interface for polymer analysis. -- Abstract: Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) followed by mass spectrometric detection was used to ionize a variety of polymers: polyethylene glycol, polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, and polysiloxane. In most cases, whatever the polymer or the solvent used (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, acetone or toluene), only negative ion mode produced intact ions such as chlorinated adducts, with no or few fragmentations, in contrast to the positive ion mode that frequently led to important in-source fragmentations. In addition, it was shown that optimal detection of polymer distributions require a fine tuning of other source parameters such as temperature and ion transfer voltage. Series of mass spectra were recorded in the negative mode, in various solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, toluene, and acetone), by varying the photon energy from 8 eV up to 10.6 eV using synchrotron radiation. To these solvents, addition of a classical APPI dopant (toluene or acetone) was not necessary. Courtesy of the synchrotron radiation, it was demonstrated that the photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to the

  9. Competition between Eurasian red and introduced Eastern grey squirrels: the energetic significance of body-mass differences.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryce, J. M.; Speakman, J.R.; Johnson, P J; Macdonald, D W

    2001-01-01

    Daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured in sympatric populations of red and grey squirrels using the doubly labelled water technique. Grey squirrels had significantly higher DEEs than red squirrels. However, the difference between the species was not separable from the effects of body mass on DEE. The DEEs of both species were in accordance with published allometric predictions incorporating body mass and ambient temperature. The differences in energetic requirements and social dominance,...

  10. Synthetic oligomer analysis using atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry at different photon energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmazières, Bernard; Legros, Véronique; Giuliani, Alexandre; Buchmann, William

    2014-01-15

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) followed by mass spectrometric detection was used to ionize a variety of polymers: polyethylene glycol, polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, and polysiloxane. In most cases, whatever the polymer or the solvent used (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, acetone or toluene), only negative ion mode produced intact ions such as chlorinated adducts, with no or few fragmentations, in contrast to the positive ion mode that frequently led to important in-source fragmentations. In addition, it was shown that optimal detection of polymer distributions require a fine tuning of other source parameters such as temperature and ion transfer voltage. Series of mass spectra were recorded in the negative mode, in various solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, toluene, and acetone), by varying the photon energy from 8eV up to 10.6eV using synchrotron radiation. To these solvents, addition of a classical APPI dopant (toluene or acetone) was not necessary. Courtesy of the synchrotron radiation, it was demonstrated that the photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to the ionization energy of the solvent. As commercial APPI sources typically use krypton lamps with energy fixed at 10eV and 10.6eV, the study of the ionization of polymers over a wavelength range allowed to confirm and refine the previously proposed ionization mechanisms. Moreover, the APPI source can efficiently be used as an interface between size exclusion chromatography or reverse phase liquid chromatography and MS for the study of synthetic oligomers. However, the photoionization at fixed wavelength of polymer standards with different molecular weights showed that it was difficult to obtain intact ionized oligomers with molecular weights above a few thousands.

  11. A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass scales

    CERN Document Server

    Teerikorpi, P; Nurmi, P; Chernin, A D; Einasto, M; Valtonen, M; Byrd, G

    2015-01-01

    The current cosmological paradigm sees the formation and evolution of the cosmic large-scale structure as governed by the gravitational attraction of the Dark Matter (DM) and the repulsion of the Dark Energy (DE). We characterize the relative importance of uniform and constant dark energy, as given by the Lambda term in the standard LCDM cosmology, in galaxy systems of different scales, from groups to superclusters. An instructive "Lambda significance graph" is introduced where the matter-DE density ratio /rho_Lambda for different galaxy systems is plotted against the radius R. This presents gravitation and DE dominated regions and shows directly the zero velocity radius, the zero-gravity radius, and the Einstein-Straus radius for any fixed value of mass. Example galaxy groups and clusters from the local universe illustrate the use of the Lambda significance graph. These are generally located deep in the gravity-dominated region /rho_Lambda > 2, being virialized. Extended clusters and main bodies of superclus...

  12. Comparison of serum calcium measurements with respect to five models of atomic absorption spectrometers using NBS-AACC calcium reference method and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry as the definitive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, B E; Grisley, D W; Casella, J; Bailey, H

    1976-10-01

    Utilizing the recently described reference method for calcium (NBS-AACC) and the recently developed definitive (referee) NBS method for serum calcium measurement by isotopedilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), an evaluation of five recent-model atomic absorption spectrometers was carried out. Under optimal conditions of instrument operation using aqueous standards, significant differences were found during the comparative analyses of three lyophilized pool samples and one liquid serum pool sample. Use of the NBS-AACC serum calcium protocol did not guarantee analytic results within +/- 2% of the IDMS value. In four of eight comparisons, differences from IDMS greater than 2% were observed. Several variables were studied to account for these differences. It was shown that a serum matrix, when present in standards used to bracket the unknown sample, reduced differences between instruments in four of four instances and improved the accuracy of the results from a range of -1.1 to +3.5% to +0.1 to +1.0%. It is concluded that a serum sample with a verified IDMS calcium value is a valuable tool that establishes an accurate and stable reference point for serum calcium measurement. The use of transfer-of-NBS-technology multipliers is suggested. Regional quality control serum pools and clinical chemistry survey sample materials that have been analyzed for calcium concentration by the NBS-IDMS definitive method are examples of these multipliers.

  13. Constraint on the mass scale of a left-right-symmetric electroweak theory from the K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beall, G.; Bander, M.; Soni, A.

    1982-03-29

    The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference provides a stringent constraint on the mass (M/sub R/) of the charged right-handed gauge field occurring in a ''manifest'' left-right-symmetric electroweak theory, yielding M/sub R/> or approx. =1.6 TeV. Taken in the context of a grand-unifying gauge theory, e.g., O(10), such a large bound on M/sub R/, along with the measured value of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/, implies that M/sub R/> or approx. =10/sup 9/ GeV.

  14. Bone mass in schizophrenia and normal populations across different decades of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Ching-Mo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic schizophrenic patients have been reported as having higher osteoporosis prevalence. Survey the bone mass among schizophrenic patients and compare with that of the local community population and reported data of the same country to figure out the distribution of bone mass among schizophrenic patients. Methods 965 schizophrenic patients aged 20 years and over in Yuli Veterans Hospital and 405 members aged 20 and over of the community living in the same town as the institute received bone mass examination by a heel qualitative ultrasound (QUS device. Bone mass distribution was stratified to analyzed and compared with community population. Results Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass while they are young. But aging effect on bone mass cannot be seen. Accelerated bone mass loss during menopausal transition was not observed in the female schizophrenic patients as in the subjects of the community female population. Conclusion Schizophrenic patients have lower bone mass than community population since they are young. Further study to investigate the pathophysiological process is necessary to delay or avoid the lower bone mass in schizophrenia patients.

  15. Biosynthesis of pyridoxine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae--origin of the pyridoxine nitrogen atom differs under anaerobic and aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shiho; Yamada, Kazuko

    2002-12-01

    The amide nitrogen atom of glutamine is incorporated into pyridoxine in four eukaryotes (i.e., Emericella nidulans, Mucor racemosus, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and two prokaryotes (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). However, in the prokaryotes Pseudomonas putida, Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli, it is the nitrogen atom of glutamate that is incorporated into pyridoxine (J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (2000) 46, 55-57). As these results were from experiments conducted under aerobic conditions, we investigated the biosynthesis of pyridoxine on S. cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that [amide-15N]L-glutamine was not incorporated into pyridoxine, unlike the results for aerobic conditions. The incorporation of [15N]ammonium salts into pyridoxine was not inhibited in the presence of casamino acids and tryptophan. The results showed that the nitrogen atoms of amino acids are not used for the biosynthesis of pyridoxine. The incorporation of 15N into pyridoxine was inhibited in the presence of adenine, but not in that of hypoxanthine. Thus, the nitrogen atom of pyridoxine may be from the amino group attached to the C-6 of adenine.

  16. A pseudo-atomic model for the capsid shell of bacteriophage lambda using chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pragya; Nakatani, Eri; Goodlett, David R; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2013-09-23

    Bacteriophage lambda is one of the most exhaustively studied of the double-stranded DNA viruses. Its assembly pathway is highly conserved among the herpesviruses and many of the bacteriophages, making it an excellent model system. Despite extensive genetic and biophysical characterization of many of the lambda proteins and the assembly pathways in which they are implicated, there is a relative dearth of structural information on many of the most critical proteins involved in lambda assembly and maturation, including that of the lambda major capsid protein. Toward this end, we have utilized a combination of chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry and computational modeling to construct a pseudo-atomic model of the lambda major capsid protein as a monomer, as well as in the context of the assembled procapsid shell. The approach described here is generalizable and can be used to provide structural models for any biological complex of interest. The procapsid structural model is in good agreement with published biochemical data indicating that procapsid expansion exposes hydrophobic surface area and that this serves to nucleate assembly of capsid decoration protein, gpD. The model further implicates additional molecular interactions that may be critical to the assembly of the capsid shell and for the stabilization of the structure by the gpD decoration protein.

  17. Simple and sensitive determination of o-phenylphenol in citrus fruits using gas chromatography with atomic emission or mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Nina; Andersson, Jan T

    2006-08-09

    In this work, a simple and sensitive method for the analysis of the pesticide o-phenylphenol (OPP) on citrus fruits was developed. OPP is extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication and derivatized with ferrocenecarboxylic acid chloride. Using ferrocene as a label, residues of OPP are determined by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection in the iron selective mode or with mass spectrometric detection. Sample cleanup is simple and rapid and merely involves a removal of excess reagent on an alumina minicolumn. The method detection limit is 2 ng of OPP/g of fruit, and recoveries from lemon samples fortified at levels of 35 and 140 ng/g are 101 and 106%, respectively. The citrus fruits analyzed (oranges, grapefruits, lemons) contained between 60 ng/g and 0.37 microg/g OPP (RSD = 8-13%), and the results were in good agreement with results obtained when OPP was analyzed using an established HPLC-FLD method. Several alcohols could also be identified in the fruit peel.

  18. The masses of nobelium and lawrencium isotopes, the mass difference between {sup 180}W and {sup 180}Hf, and a characterization of the future cryogenic stopping cell of the online mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droese, Christian

    2015-01-29

    This work describes the recent scientific and technical achievements obtained at the high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The scientific focus of the SHIPTRAP experiment are mass measurements of short-lived nuclides with proton number larger than 100. The masses of these isotopes are usually determined via extrapolations, systematic trends, predictions based on theoretical models or alpha-decay spectroscopy. In several experiments the masses of the isotopes {sup 252-255}No and {sup 255,256}Lr have been measured directly. With the obtained results the region of enhanced nuclear stability at the deformed shell closure at the neutron number 152 was investigated. Furthermore, the masses have been used to benchmark theoretical mass models. The measured masses were compared selected mass models which revealed differences between few keV/c² up to several MeV/c² depending on the investigated nuclide and model. In order to perform mass measurements on superheavy nuclei with lower production rates, the efficiency of the SHIPTRAP setup needs to be increased. Currently, the efficiency is 2% and mainly limited by the stopping- and extraction efficiency of the buffer gas cell. The stopping and extraction efficiency of the current buffer gas cell is 12%. To this end, a modified version of the buffer gas cell was developed and characterized with {sup 223}Ra ion source. Besides a larger stopping volume and a coaxial injection the new buffer gas cell is operated at a temperature of 40 K. The operation at cryogenic temperatures increases the cleanliness of the buffer gas. From extraction measurements and simulations an overall efficiency of 62(3)% was determined which results in an increase by a factor of 5 in comparison to the current buffer gas cell. Aside from high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides the mass differences of metastable isobars was measured to identify candidates for the neutrinoless double-electron capture. Neutrinoless double

  19. Interindividual differences in leg muscle mass and pyruvate kinase activity correlate with interindividual differences in jumping performance of Hyla multilineata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rob S; Wilson, Robbie S; de Carvalho, José E; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Gomes, Fernando R; Navas, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    Frog jumping is an excellent model system for examining the structural basis of interindividual variation in burst locomotor performance. Some possible factors that affect jump performance, such as total body size, hindlimb length, muscle mass, and muscle mechanical and biochemical properties, were analysed at the interindividual (intraspecies) level in the tree frog Hyla multilineata. The aim of this study was to determine which of these physiological and anatomical variables both vary between individuals and are correlated with interindividual variation in jump performance. The model produced via stepwise linear regression analysis of absolute data suggested that 62% of the interindividual variation in maximum jump distance could be explained by a combination of interindividual variation in absolute plantaris muscle mass, total hindlimb muscle mass (excluding plantaris muscle), and pyruvate kinase activity. When body length effects were removed, multiple regression indicated that the same independent variables explained 43% of the residual interindividual variation in jump distance. This suggests that individuals with relatively large jumping muscles and high pyruvate kinase activity for their body size achieved comparatively large maximal jump distances for their body size.

  20. Comparison of Different Measures of Fat Mass and Their Association with Serum Cystatin C Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Wee Teo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystatin C (CysC is a glomerular filtration rate (GFR marker affected by GFR and obesity. Because percentage body fat (%BF distribution is affected by ethnicity, different measures of %BF may improve CysC prediction. This study aims to create multivariate models that predict serum CysC and determine which %BF metric gives the best prediction. Methods. Serum CysC was measured by nephelometric assay. We estimated %BF by considering weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, triceps skin fold, bioimpedance, and Deurenberg and Yap %BF equations. A base multivariate model for CysC was created with a %BF metric added in turn. The best model is considered by comparing P values, R2, Akaike information criterion (AIC, and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Results. There were 335 participants. Mean serum CysC and creatinine were 1.27 mg/L and 1.44 mg/dL, respectively. Variables for the base model were age, gender, ethnicity, creatinine, serum urea, c-reactive protein, log GFR, and serum albumin. %BF had a positive correlation with CysC. The best model for predicting CysC included bioimpedance-derived %BF (P=0.0011, with the highest R2 (0.917 and the lowest AIC and BIC (−371, −323. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with CysC, and the best predictive model for CysC includes bioimpedance-derived %BF.

  1. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  2. A methodology for lining design of circular mine shafts in different rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozturk Hasan⇑; Guler Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the finite element numerical modelling of 2D shaft sections in a Hoek–Brown medium are carried out in a non-hydrostatic stress state in an attempt to predict pressures developing around mine shafts. An iterative process of applying support pressure until observing no failure zone around the shaft is used to simulate the required lining support pressure for different shaft models. Later, regression anal-ysis is carried out to find a generic shaft pressure equation representing the rock mass and the stress state. Finally, the developed pressure equation which shows a good agreement with a case study is used in elastic‘thick-walled cylinder”equation to calculate the lining thickness required to prevent the devel-opment of a failure zone around the shaft. At the end of the study, a user-friendly object-oriented com-puter program‘Shaft 2D”is developed to simplify the rigorous shaft lining thickness calculation process.

  3. Fat and Lean Masses in Youths with Down Syndrome: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajus, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP)…

  4. Imaging with Mass Spectrometry: A SIMS and VUV-Photoionization Study of Ion-Sputtered Atoms and Clusters from GaAs and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle; Zhou, Jia; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2008-12-05

    A new mass spectrometry surface imaging method is presented in which ion-sputtered neutrals are postionized by wavelength-tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from a synchrotron source. Mass spectra and signal counts of the photoionized neutrals from GaAs (100) and Au are compared to those of the secondary ions. While clusters larger than dimers are more efficiently detected as secondary ions, certain species, such as As2, Au and Au2, are more efficiently detected through the neutral channel. Continuously tuning the photon wavelength allows photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves to be obtained for sputtered Asm (m=1,2) and Aun (n=1-4). From the observed ionization thresholds, sputtered neutral As and Au show no clear evidence of electronic excitation, while neutral clusters have photoionization onsets shifted to lower energies by ~;;0.3 eV. These shifts are attributed to unresolved vibrational and rotational excitations. High-spatial resolution chemical imaging with synchrotron VUV postionization is demonstrated at two different photon energies using a copper TEM grid embedded in indium. The resulting images are used to illustrate the use of tunable VUV light for verifying mass peak assignments by exploiting the unique wavelength-dependent PIE of each sputtered neutral species. This capability is valuable for identifying compounds when imaging chemically complex systems with mass spectrometry-based techniques.

  5. Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of AGB stars at different metallicities (III): intermediate mass models, revised low mass models and the ph-FRUITY interface

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, S; Piersanti, L; Gobrecht, D

    2015-01-01

    We present a new set of models for intermediate mass AGB stars (4.0, 5.0 and, 6.0 Msun) at different metallicities (-2.15<=Fe/H]<=+0.15). This integrates the existing set of models for low mass AGB stars (1.3<=M/M<=3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the Main Sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. The latter is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, then, Thermal Pulses are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it to deeply penetrate the radiative underlying layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy elements nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the \

  6. Molecular Mass Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans with Different Degrees of Sulfation in Bioengineered Heparin Process by Size Exclusion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Different degrees of glycosaminoglycan sulfation result in their different charge densities. The charge density differences impact their migration behavior in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography, two of the most common methods for determining relative molecular masses of polysaccharides. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using commercially available heparin oligosaccharides as calibrants for measuring the relative molecular masses of intermediates in a bioengineered heparin process that have different levels of sulfation. A size exclusion chromatography method was established that eliminates this charge density effect and allows the determination of relative molecular mass using a single calibration curve with heparin oligosaccharides calibrants. This is accomplished by overcoming the electrostatic interaction between the glycosaminoglycans and size exclusion chromatography stationary phase using high ionic strength mobile phase.

  7. Matrix effects on the determination of manganese in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry under different flame conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    Suppression caused by five of the seven matrix elements studied (Si, Al, Fe, Ca and Mg) was observed in the atomic-absorption determination of manganese in geological materials, when synthetic solutions and the recommended oxidizing air-acetylene flame were used. The magnitude of the suppression effects depends on (1) the kind and concentration of the interfering elements, (2) the type of acid medium, and (3) the concentration of manganese to be determined. All interferences noted are removed or alleviated by using a reducing nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The atomic-absorption method using this flame can be applied to the determination of total and extractable manganese in a wide range of geological materials without interferences. Analyses of six U.S. Geological Survey rock standards for manganese gave results in agreement with the reported values. ?? 1978.

  8. Imaging Dirac-Mass Disorder from Magnetic Dopant-Atoms in the Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-x Te3 - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Inhee; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C. Seamus

    2015-03-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have a gapless surface state of Dirac fermions protected by the time reversal symmetry (TRS). However, TRS can be broken in the ferromagnetic state induced by magnetic doping. This leads to the opening of ``mass gap'' at the Dirac point. Such a gap is predicted to involve many exotic phenomena for which understanding the microscopic role of magnetic dopants is critical. But it is unknown how the spatial arrangements of the magnetic dopant atoms influence the Dirac-mass gap at the atomic scale. Here we image the locations of the magnetic (Cr) dopant atoms in the ferromagnetic TI Cr0.08(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.92 Te3. Simultaneous visualization of the Dirac-mass gap Δ(r) reveals its intense disorder, which we demonstrate directly is related to fluctuations in n(r), the areal Cr atom density at the surface. The relationship of the surface-state Fermi wavevectors to both the correlation length and anisotropic structure of Δ(r) are found consistent with predictions for ferromagnetism mediated by the surface states.

  9. Mass-radius relations for white dwarf stars of different internal compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Panei, J A; Benvenuto, O G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present accurate and detailed mass-radius relations for white dwarf (WD) models with helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon and iron cores, by using a fully updated stellar evolutionary code. We considered masses from 0.15 to 0.5 Mo for the case of helium core, from 0.45 to 1.2 Mo for carbon, oxygen and silicon cores and from 0.45 to 1.0 Mo for the case of an iron core. In view of recent measurements made by Hipparcos that strongly suggest the existence of WDs with an iron-dominated core, we focus our attention mainly on the finite-temperature, mass-radius relations for WD models with iron interiors. Furthermore, we explore the effects of gravitational, chemical and thermal diffusion on low-mass helium WD models with hydrogen and helium envelopes.

  10. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE CENTER OF MASS FOR THREE DIFFERENT JUDO THROWING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney T. Imamura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Four black belt throwers (tori and one black belt faller (uke were filmed and analyzed in three-dimensions using two video cameras (JVC 60 Hz and motion analysis software. Average linear momentum in the anteroposterior (x, vertical (y, and mediolateral (z directions and average resultant impulse of uke's center of mass (COM were investigated for three different throwing techniques; harai-goshi (hip throw, seoi-nage (hand throw, and osoto-gari (leg throw. Each throw was broken down into three main phases; kuzushi (balance breaking, tsukuri (fit-in, and kake (throw. For the harai-goshi and osoto-gari throws, impulse measurements were the largest within kuzushi and tsukuri phases (where collision between tori and uke predominantly occurs. Both throws indicated an importance for tori to create large momentum prior to contact with uke. The seoi-nage throw demonstrated the lowest impulse and maintained forward momentum on the body of uke throughout the entire throw. The harai-goshi and osoto-gari are considered power throws well-suited for large and strong judo players. The seoi-nage throw is considered more technical and is considered well-suited for shorter players with good agility. A form of resistance by uke was found during the kuzushi phase for all throws. The resistance which can be initiated by tori's push or pull allows for the tsukuri phase to occur properly by freezing uke for a good fit-in. Strategies for initiating an effective resistance include initiating movement of uke so that their COM is shifted to their left (for right handed throw by incorporating an instantaneous "snap pull" with the pulling hand during kuzushi to create an opposite movement from uke

  11. Hanging angles of two electrostatically repelling pith balls of different masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuc G.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2011-09-01

    An analytic solution can be derived for the angles of two mutually repelling charged pith balls of unequal mass hanging from strings from a common point of attachment. Just as in the equal-mass case, a cubic equation is found for the square of the sine of either angle, and an approximation can be used to avoid Cardano's formula for small angles. These results extend a standard problem treated in introductory undergraduate courses in electricity and magnetism.

  12. The Eccentricity-Mass Distribution of Exoplanets: Signatures of Different Formation Mechanisms?

    CERN Document Server

    Ribas, I; Ribas, Ignasi; Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    We examine the distributions of eccentricity and host star metallicity of exoplanets as a function of their mass. Planets with M sin i >~ 4 M_J have an eccentricity distribution consistent with that of binary stars, while planets with M sin i <~ 4 M_J are less eccentric than binary stars and more massive planets. In addition, host star metallicities decrease with planet mass. The statistical significance of both of these trends is only marginal with the present sample of exoplanets. To account for these trends, we hypothesize that there are two populations of gaseous planets: the low-mass population forms by gas accretion onto a rock-ice core in a circumstellar disk and is more abundant at high metalliticities, and the high-mass population forms directly by fragmentation of a pre-stellar cloud. Planets of the first population form in initially circular orbits and grow their eccentricities later, and may have a mass upper limit from the total mass of the disk that can be accreted by the core. The second pop...

  13. Coupling ultracold atoms to mechanical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, David; Korppi, Maria; Jöckel, Andreas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Treutlein, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss and compare different ways to engineer an interface between ultracold atoms and micro- and nanomechanical oscillators. We start by analyzing a direct mechanical coupling of a single atom or ion to a mechanical oscillator and show that the very different masses of the two systems place a limit on the achievable coupling constant in this scheme. We then discuss several promising strategies for enhancing the coupling: collective enhancement by using a large number of atoms in an optical lattice in free space, coupling schemes based on high-finesse optical cavities, and coupling to atomic internal states. Throughout the manuscript we discuss both theoretical proposals and first experimental implementations.

  14. Fine splits of photon emission spectrum of hydrogen atom caused by transitions between different dressed states in intense high frequency laser field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhao-Yan; Yuan Jian-Min

    2008-01-01

    The photon emission spectrum of the hydrogen atoms in an intense high-frequency laser pulse is simulated by using one-dimensional soft Coulomb potential. Regular fine structures appear on the two sides of both the odd and even multiples of photon energy of the laser field besides the ordinary odd harmonic peaks. It is proved that the splits of the fine structures are responsible for hyper-Raman lines and the energy spacing between the odd harmonic lines is equal to the difference in energy between the eigenstates with the same parity of the time averaged Krameters-Henneberger (KH) potential. By analysing the features of the fine structures, we also verify that the so-called even order harmonics under the stabilization condition are indeed hyper-Raman lines caused by the transitions between the dressed atomic states with different values of parity.

  15. Different Ways to On-Line Hyphenate Centrifugal Partition Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry: Application to Prenylated Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destandau, Emilie; Michel, Thomas; Toribio, Alix; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-11-01

    Centrifugal partition chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation method well adapted for the fractionation or purification of natural compounds from plant extracts. However, following the preparative isolation, the fractions collected must be analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography to evaluate their composition and/or their purity. These additional steps are time-consuming and increase the risk of compound degradation. In order to get an instantaneous analysis of fraction content with structural information on the phytochemicals eluted, it is possible to hyphenate on-line centrifugal partition chromatography with mass spectrometry. Depending on the complexity of the extract, two different kinds of centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling can be performed: centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry or centrifugal partition chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling. In the first case, one part of the centrifugal partition chromatography effluent is directly introduced in the mass spectrometry ionisation source to identify the eluted compounds, while in the second case, it is directed to a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system where compounds are first separated thanks to high-performance liquid chromatography and then identified using mass spectrometry.

  16. Comparing binary systems from rotating parent gas structures with different total masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreaga-García, Guillermo

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we continue the investigation reported by Arreaga-Garcia (Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofís. 52(1):1-15, 2016) concerning the morphology of binary configurations obtained via the collapse of rotating parent gas structures with total masses in the range of MT= 1 to 5 M_{⊙}. Here we extend the mass range and consider the collapse of two uniform gas clumps of MT = 50 and 400 M_{⊙}, so that they also rotate rigidly in such a way that its approximate virial parameter takes the values of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 and their collapse is induced initially by implementing an azimuthal mass perturbation. To assess the effects of the total mass of the parent gas structure on the nature of the resulting binary configurations, we also consider the collapse of two cores of MT = 1 and 5 M_{⊙}. We calculate the collapse of all these parent gas structures using three values of the ratio of thermal energy to potential energy, α, and for two values of the mass perturbation amplitude. For most of our models, we next calculate the extreme value of the ratio of rotational energy to potential energy, β, so that a model with a slightly higher β value would no longer collapse. We finally calculate the binary separations, masses and some integral properties of the binary fragments, the αf and βf and present them in terms of the total mass of the parent structure.

  17. Application of atomic absorption spectrometry with continuous light source to analyze selected metals important for human health in different parts of oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwerc Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The publication describes the application of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (H-R CS AAS to determine some physiologically essential and toxic elements occurring in citrus fruits of different origins. Before analysis, the samples were mineralized using a mixture of deionized water and 69% nitric acid 3:1 (v/v in high pressure microwave digestion at 188°C during one hour.

  18. The Contribution of Halos with Different Mass Ratios to the Overall Growth of Cluster-Sized Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Lemze, Doron; Genel, Shy; Ford, Holland C; Balestra, Italo; Donahue, Megan; Kelson, Daniel; Nonino, Mario; Mercurio, Amata; Biviano, Andrea; Rosati, Piero; Umetsu, Keiichi; Sand, David; Koekemoer, Anton; Meneghetti, Massimo; Melchior, Peter; Newman, Andrew B; Bhatti, Waqas A; Voit, G Mark; Medezinski, Elinor; Zitrin, Adi; Zheng, Wei; Broadhurst, Tom; Bartelmann, Matthias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan; Graves, Genevieve; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jimenez-Teja, Yolanda; Jouvel, Stephanie; Lahav, Ofer; Maoz, Dan; Merten, Julian; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas; Ogaz, Sara; Scodeggio, Marco; Seitz, Stella

    2013-01-01

    We provide a new observational test for a key prediction of the \\Lambda CDM cosmological model: the contributions of mergers with different halo-to-main-cluster mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. We perform this test by dynamically analyzing seven galaxy clusters, spanning the redshift range $0.13 < z_c < 0.45$ and caustic mass range $0.4-1.5$ $10^{15} h_{0.73}^{-1}$ M$_{\\odot}$, with an average of 293 spectroscopically-confirmed bound galaxies to each cluster. The large radial coverage (a few virial radii), which covers the whole infall region, with a high number of spectroscopically identified galaxies enables this new study. For each cluster, we identify bound galaxies. Out of these galaxies, we identify infalling and accreted halos and estimate their masses and their dynamical states. Using the estimated masses, we derive the contribution of different mass ratios to cluster-sized halo growth. For mass ratios between ~0.2 and ~0.7, we find a ~1 $\\sigma$ agreement with \\Lambda CDM expectations ...

  19. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei (Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan Zhao; Runmei Wang; Yunan Wu; Mengsi Wu; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate (BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis (Garrulax canorus). Methods:Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system. Results:Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer. Conclusions:This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  20. Daily variation in body mass and thermoregulation in male Hwamei(Garrulax canorus) at different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidan; Zhao; Runmei; Wang; Yunan; Wu; Mengsi; Wu; Weihong; Zheng; Jinsong; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acclimatization to winter conditions is an essential prerequisite for survival of small passerines of the northern temperate zone. In the present study, we measured diurnal variations in body mass, body temperature and basal metabolic rate(BMR) for seasonally acclimatized Hwameis(Garrulax canorus).Methods: Body mass was determined with a Sartorius balance. Metabolic rates of Hwameis were measured with an open-circuit respirometry system.Results: Body masses varied with time of day and were higher in daytime for Hwameis in both summer and winter, and body masses in winter were higher compared to that in summer. Body temperatures of Hwameis were higher in daytime, and the summer acclimatized birds had significantly higher body temperatures compared to the winter acclimatized birds. BMRs of Hwameis were significantly higher during the daytime compared to the nighttime of the daily cycle in both summer and winter, and Hwameis in winter had significantly higher BMRs than that in summer.Conclusions: This result showed that Hwameis rely mostly on metabolic capacity to maintain their body temperature in cold weathers, and Hwameis exhibited daily and seasonal flexibility in morphology and physiology which is important under changing environmental conditions.

  1. Simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies formed in dark matter halos with different mass assembly histories

    CERN Document Server

    González-Samaniego, A; Avila-Reese, V; Rodríguez-Puebla, A; Valenzuela, O

    2013-01-01

    We present high-resolution N-body/Hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies formed in isolated CDM halos with the same virial mass, Mv~2.5x10^10 Msun at z=0, in order to (1) study the mass assembly histories (MAHs) of the halo, stars, and gas components, and (2) explore the effects of the halo MAHs on the stellar/baryonic assembly of the simulated dwarfs and on their z~0 properties. Overall, the simulated dwarfs are roughly consistent with observations. Our main results are: a) The stellar-to-halo mass ratio is ~0.01 and remains roughly constant since z~1 (the stellar MAHs follow closely the halo MAHs), with a smaller value at higher z's for those halos that assemble their mass later. b) The evolution of the galaxy gas fraction, fg, is episodic and higher, most of the time, than the stellar fraction. When fg decreases (increases), the gas fraction in the halo typically increases (decreases), showing that the SN driven outflows play an important role in regulating the gas fractions -and hence the SFR- of the...

  2. Temperature-difference-driven mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struchtrup, H.; Kjelstrup, S.H.; Bedeaux, D.

    2012-01-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics provides interface conditions that yield temperature and chemical potential jumps at phase boundaries. The interfacial jumps allow unexpected transport phenomena, such as the inverted temperature profile [ Pao Phys. Fluids 14 306 (1971)] and mass transfer from a cold to a

  3. Effects of different types of jump impact on trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture in growing rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-In Ju

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence from animal studies indicates that jumping increases bone mass and strength. However, most studies have focused on the take-off, rather than the landing phase of jumps. Thus, we compared the effects of landing and upward jump impact on trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture. Male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks were randomly assigned to the following groups: sedentary control (CON, 40-cm upward jumps (40UJ; 40-cm drop jumps (40DJ; and 60-cm drop jumps (60DJ (n = 10 each. The upward jump protocol comprised 10 upward jumps/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks to a height of 40 cm. The drop jump protocol comprised dropping rats from a height of 40 or 60 cm at the same frequency and time period as the 40UJ group. Trabecular bone mass, architecture, and mineralization at the distal femoral metaphysis were evaluated using microcomputed tomography. Ground reaction force (GRF was measured using a force platform. Bone mass was significantly higher in the 40UJ group compared with the DJ groups (+49.1% and +28.3%, respectively, although peak GRF (-57.8% and -122.7%, respectively and unit time force (-21.6% and -36.2%, respectively were significantly lower in the 40UJ group. These results showed that trabecular bone mass in growing rats is increased more effectively by the take-off than by the landing phases of jumps and suggest that mechanical stress accompanied by muscle contraction would be more important than GRF as an osteogenic stimulus. However, the relevance of these findings to human bone physiology is unclear and requires further study.

  4. A novel methodology for rapid digestion of rare earth element ores and determination by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and dynamic reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmeczi, Erick; Wang, Yong; Brindle, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    Short-wavelength infrared radiation has been successfully applied to accelerate the acid digestion of refractory rare-earth ore samples. Determinations were achieved with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) and dynamic reaction cell - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). The digestion method developed was able to tackle high iron-oxide and silicate matrices using only phosphoric acid in a time frame of only 8min, and did not require perchloric or hydrofluoric acid. Additionally, excellent recoveries and reproducibilities of the rare earth elements, as well as uranium and thorium, were achieved. Digestions of the certified reference materials OREAS-465 and REE-1, with radically different mineralogies, delivered results that mirror those obtained by fusion processes. For the rare-earth CRM OKA-2, whose REE data are provisional, experimental data for the rare-earth elements were generally higher than the provisional values, often exceeding z-values of +2. Determined values for Th and U in this reference material, for which certified values are available, were in excellent agreement.

  5. Band-edge electronic structure of β-In2S3: the role of s or p orbitals of atoms at different lattice positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongyan; Cao, Yuechan; Yi, Juan; He, Xijia; Ma, Chenshuo; Qiu, Jianbei

    2012-04-23

    As a promising solar-energy material, the electronic structure and optical properties of Beta phase indium sulfide (β-In(2)S(3)) are still not thoroughly understood. This paper devotes to solve these issues using density functional theory calculations. β-In(2)S(3) is found to be an indirect band gap semiconductor. The roles of its atoms at different lattice positions are not exactly identical because of the unique crystal structure. Additonally, a significant phenomenon of optical anisotropy was observed near the absorption edge. Owing to the low coordination numbers of the In3 and S2 atoms, the corresponding In3-5s states and S2-3p states are crucial for the composition of the band-edge electronic structure, leading to special optical properties and excellent optoelectronic performances.

  6. Indium determination in different environmental materials by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Amberlite XAD-2 coated with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez A, N C; Barrera, Adela Bermejo; Bermejo B, P

    2005-04-30

    Methods were developed for indium (In) determination in complex ores by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modification after its separation with Amberlite XAD-2 coated with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). Palladium-magnesium, nickel, and zinc nitrates were used as matrix modifiers and were compared in terms of maximum pyrolysis temperature, sensitivity and background signal. They have enhanced the absorption signals for indium, respectively eliminating the matrix interferences. The standard additions method was applied. The relative standard deviations for six replicate determinations were in the range 0.3-4.0% for indium in different ores samples for indium concentrations 7.6-209mugg(-1). The recommended method was applied to the indium determination in real samples. The data obtained by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by ICP-AES.

  7. Evolution of the habitable zone of low-mass stars. Detailed stellar models and analytical relationships for different masses and chemical compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal evolution of the habitable zone (HZ) of low-mass stars - only due to stellar evolution - and evaluate the related uncertainties. These uncertainties are then compared with those due to the adoption of different climate models. We computed stellar evolutionary tracks from the pre-main sequence phase to the helium flash at the red-giant branch tip for stars with masses in the range [0.70 - 1.10] Msun, metallicity Z in the range [0.005 - 0.04], and various initial helium contents. We evaluated several characteristics of the HZ, such as the distance from the host star at which the habitability is longest, the duration of this habitability, the width of the zone for which the habitability lasts one half of the maximum, and the boundaries of the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) for which the habitability lasts at least 4 Gyr. We developed analytical models, accurate to the percent level or lower, which allowed to obtain these characteristics in dependence on the mass and the chemical composit...

  8. Agro-economic performance of Comum tannia cultivated with plant spacing and different seed-rhizome masse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Pereira Gassi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the increase in plant height and agro-economic productivity of Comum tannia cultivated using two different row spacing (0.10 and 0.15 m and four seed-rhizome masses (5.52 g; 3.76 g, 2.17 g, and 1.44 g, mean of 480 rhizomes. The plants were cultivated in a 2 × 4-factorial scheme, completely randomized block design, with three replications. The maximum height of the plants reached 43.2 cm at 179 days after planting with a seed-rhizome mass of 5.52 g and 0.15-m space between plants. The highest fresh mass yields of the aerial parts (1.74 t·ha-1 of medium (3.25 t·ha-1 and small (4.24 t·ha-1 cormels were obtained in plants propagated using a seed-rhizome mass of 3.76 g. The highest yields of corm (2.64 t·ha-1 and large cormels (2.37 t·ha-1 were achieved using a seed-rhizome mass of 5.52 g. The diameters and lengths of corms and cormels showed a direct relationship with the seedling mass, except for the diameters of small cormels, which were higher in plants propagated using a seed-rhizome mass of 1.44 g. Thus, it was concluded that to achieve increased plant height, production of commercial rhizomes, and gross and net incomes, Comum tannia should be propagated using seed-rhizome mass of 5.52 g and plant spacing of 0.15 m.

  9. Selection of Universities by Students in Journalism and Mass Communication Courses: Do Criteria Differ between Caucasian and Minority Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Masudul; Perkins, Lyle; Izard, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the significance of factors used by minority students in their selection of universities/colleges. This web survey was conducted mainly on 778 students enrolled in journalism/mass communication courses representing five historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and twelve other universities. Differences were found…

  10. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  11. Different effects of surface heterogeneous atoms of porous and non-porous carbonaceous materials on adsorption of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weifeng; Ni, Jinzhi

    2017-05-01

    The surface heterogeneous atoms of carbonaceous materials (CMs) play an important role in adsorption of organic pollutants. However, little is known about the surface heterogeneous atoms of CMs might generate different effect on adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds by porous carbonaceous materials - activated carbons (ACs) and non-porous carbonaceous materials (NPCMs). In this study, we observed that the surface oxygen and nitrogen atoms could decrease the adsorption affinity of both ACs and NPCMs for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), but the degree of decreasing effects were very different. The increasing content of surface oxygen and nitrogen ([O + N]) caused a sharper decrease in adsorption affinity of ACs (slope of lg (kd/SA) vs [O + N]: -0.098∼-0.16) than that of NPCMs (slope of lg (kd/SA) vs [O + N]: -0.025∼-0.059) for TeCA. It was due to the water cluster formed by the surface hydrophilic atoms that could block the micropores and generate massive invalid adsorption sites in the micropores of ACs, while the water cluster only occupied the surface adsorption sites of NPCMs. Furthermore, with the increasing concentration of dissolved TeCA, the effect of surface area on adsorption affinity of NPCMs for TeCA kept constant while the effect of [O + N] decreased due to the competitive adsorption between water molecule and TeCA on the surface of NPCMs, meanwhile, both the effects of micropore volume and [O + N] on adsorption affinity of ACs for TeCA were decreased due to the mechanism of micropore volume filling. These findings are valuable for providing a deep insight into the adsorption mechanisms of CMs for TeCA.

  12. Relationships betweeninterspeciifc differences inthe mass ofinternal organs, biochemical markers ofmetabolic activity, andthe thermogenic properties ofthree small passerines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minlan Bai; Xujian Wu; Kejing Cai; Weihong Zheng; Jinsong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The capacity for thermogenesis is considered part of an animal’s adaptive strategy for survival, and basal metabolic rate (BMR) is one of the fundamental physiological standards for assessing the energy cost of ther-moregulation in endotherms. BMR has been shown to be a highly lfexible phenotypic trait both between, and within, species, but the metabolic mechanisms involved in the regulation of BMR, which range from variation in organ mass to biochemical adjustments, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between organ mass, biochemical markers of metabolic tissue activity, and thermogenesis, in three species of small passerines: wild Bram-blings (Fringilla montifringilla), Little Buntings (Emberiza pusilla) and Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus), caught in Wenzhou, southeastern China. Methods: Oxygen consumption was measured using an open-circuit respirometry system. Mitochondrial state-4 res-piration and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in liver and pectoral muscle were measured with a Clark electrode. Results: Our results show that Eurasian Tree Sparrows had signiifcantly higher BMR, digestive organ mass, mitochon-drial state-4 respiration capacity and COX activity in liver and muscle, than Bramblings and Little Buntings. Further-more, interspeciifc differences in BMR were strongly correlated with those indigestive tract mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity. Conclusions: Our ifndings suggest that the digestive organ mass, state-4 respiration and COX activity play an impor-tant role in determining interspeciifc differences in BMR.

  13. Impact of atomization technique on the stability and transport efficiency of nebulized liposomes harboring different surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehofer, Bernhard; Bloder, Florian; Jain, Pritesh P; Marsh, Leigh M; Leitinger, Gerd; Olschewski, Horst; Leber, Regina; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of nebulization on liposomes with specific surface characteristics by applying three commercially available inhaler systems (air-jet, ultrasonic and vibrating-mesh). Conventional liposome formulations composed of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were compared to sterically stabilized PEGylated liposomes and cationic polymer coated liposomes.Liposomes of similar size (between 140 and 165 nm in diameter with polydispersity indices atomization process, while polymer coated and especially positively charged liposomes showed enhanced leakage. The release rates for the hydrophilic model drug system were highest for the vibrating-mesh nebulizers regardless of the surface characteristics of the liposomes (increasing from 10% to 20% and 50% for the conventional, PEGylated and positively charged formulations, respectively). In view of surface modified liposomes our data suggest that drug delivery via nebulization necessitates the finding of a compromise between nebulizer efficiency, formulation stability and drug release profile to accomplish the development of tailored formulations suitable for advanced inhalation therapy.

  14. Mass attenuation coefficients of X-rays in different medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabad, R.B. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Kerur, B.R. [Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com

    2010-02-15

    The mass attenuation coefficients of specific parts of several plants, (fruits, leaves, stem and seeds) often used as medicines in the Indian herbal system, have been measured employing NaI (TI)) detector. The electronic setup used is a NaI (TI) detector, which is coupled to MCA for analysis of the spectrum. A source of {sup 241}Am is used to get X-rays in the energy range 8-32 keV from Cu, Rb, Mo, Ag and Ba targets. In the present study, the measured mass attenuation coefficient of Ocimum sanctum, Catharanthus roseus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, Anacardium occidentale, Momordica charantia and Syzygium cumini show a linear relation with the energy.

  15. Mass transfer and microbiological profile of pork meat dehydrated in two different osmotic solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of osmotic dehydration on mass transfer properties and microbiological profile were investigated in order to determine the usefulness of this technique as pre-treatment for further treatment of meat. Process was studied in two solutions (sugar beet molasses, and aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sucrose, at two temperatures (4 and 22°C at atmospheric pressure. The most significant parameters of mass transfer were determined after 300 minutes of the dehydration. The water activity (aw values of the processed meat were determined, as well as the change of the microbiological profile between the fresh and dehydrated meat. At the temperature of 22°C the sugar beet molasses proved to be most suitable as an osmotic solution, despite the greater viscosity.

  16. More Is Different: Reconciling eV Sterile Neutrinos and Cosmological Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In this paper we discuss a scenario that $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$ can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch, but leading to a decrease of $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced.

  17. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  18. Effect of Different Blood Cycle Modes on Mass Transfer of Artificial Kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; He Li-qun; DING Wei-ping; Zhao Gang; GAO Da-yong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the one-dimensional and unsteady-state Krogh model, this paper investigates mass transfer of artificial kidney under three blood cycle modes during the course of hemodialysis. The variations of the permeable solute clearance with increasing time and the dialysis time with increasing blood flux are simulated in detail ,and then one optimal blood cycle mode is acquired. The results are very important to improve the clinical dialysis efficiency of artificial kidney.

  19. How Different kinds of Communication and the Mass Media Affect Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    32 1. Hypodermic Needle Model or "Bullet" U ~ Theory ------------------------------------ 33 2. The Two-Step Flow Model or Theory --------- 36...bringing about change in knowledge or attitude [Ref. 20: p. 13]. 1. Hypodermic Needle Model or "Bullet" Theory Following World War I, several...developing. The result of these trends was the emergence of the hypodermic needle model of mass communication or "bullet" theory . This model assumed

  20. Differences in Dietary Patterns among College Students According to Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong; Zhong, Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors surveyed 557 undergraduate students aged 18-56 years to assess weight status, health behaviors, and dietary variety. Methods: They used body mass index (BMI) to divide students into 4 weight categories: underweight (BMI less than 19 kg/m2), healthy weight (19 kg/m2 to 24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 to…

  1. Evolution, nucleosynthesis and yields of low mass AGB stars at different metallicities (II): the FRUITY database

    CERN Document Server

    Cristallo, Sergio; Straniero, Oscar; Gallino, Roberto; Dominguez, Inma; Abia, Carlos; DiRico, Gianluca; Quintini, Massimo; Bisterzo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    By using updated stellar low mass stars models, we can systematically investigate the nucleosynthesis processes occurring in AGB stars, when these objects experience recurrent thermal pulses and third dredge-up episodes. In this paper we present the database dedicated to the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars: the FRUITY (FRANEC Repository of Updated Isotopic Tables & Yields) database. An interactive web-based interface allows users to freely download the full (from H to Bi) isotopic composition, as it changes after each third dredge-up episode and the stellar yields the models produce. A first set of AGB models, having masses in the range 1.5 < M/Msun < 3.0 and metallicities 1e-3 < Z < 2e-2, is discussed here. For each model, a detailed description of the physical and the chemical evolution is provided. In particular, we illustrate the details of the s-process and we evaluate the theoretical uncertainties due to the parametrization adopted to model convection and mass loss. The resulting nucleosynt...

  2. Facile distinction of neutral and acidic tetraether lipids in archaea membrane by halogen atom adduct ions in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murae, Tatsushi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Muraoka, Ryohei; Endoh, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Noriaki

    2002-02-01

    Calditocaldarchaeol (neutral tetraether lipid) from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (acidothermophilic archaea) and intact total lipid from the thermoacidophilic archaea Sulfolobus sp. was examined by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the negative-ion mode using high resolution. When the sample was injected as a solution in a 3:1 mixture of methanol (MeOH) and chloroform (CHCl(3)) using an infusion system, the total ether lipid afforded molecular-related ions as [M - H](-) for acidic polar lipids containing a phosphoric or sulfuric group, and as [M + Cl](-) ion for neutral glycolipids. The attachment of chloride was confirmed by the observation of [M + Br](-) ion, instead of [M + Cl](-) ion, when a 3:1 mixture of MeOH and CHBr(3) was used in place of MeOH-CHCl(3) as the solvent. The composition of tetraether neutral glycolipids that are different from each other only in the number of five-membered rings in the isoprenoid chain was determined on the basis of the isotope-resolved mass spectrum of [M + Cl](-) ions. As for acidic tetraether lipids, molecular-related ions [M - H](-)) were not observed when the 3:1 MeOH-CHBr(3) mixture was used as the solvent. These results together afforded a facile method of distinguishing neutral from acidic tetraether lipids in intact total lipids of acidothermophilic archaea. This method was applied to determine the difference of the number of five-membered rings in isoprenyl chains of neutral tetraether glycolipids yielded by the Sulfolobus sp. grown at different temperatures. Discrimination of neutral tetraether glycolipids from acidic tetraether lipids in the total lipids obtained from Thermoplasma sp. was also achieved by this method.

  3. Neutron to proton mass difference, parton distribution functions and baryon resonances from dynamics on the Lie group u(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole

    PiMinus invariant mass in B decays. We give a controversial prediction of the relative neutron to proton mass difference 0.138 % as originating in period doublings of certain parametric states. The group space dynamics communicates with real space via the exterior derivative which projects out quark and gluon...... fields from the allospatial state. The allostate in turn is excited from space by the momentum operators which act as toroidal generators on the group manifold. Such generators can be used to trace out parton distribution functions and examples are shown to mimic the valence quark content of the proton....

  4. Stau with Large Mass Difference and Enhancement of the Higgs to Diphoton Decay Rate in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS and the CMS collaborations have presented results which show an excess of the Higgs to diphoton decay channel. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), this situation can be achieved by a light stau and a large left-right mixing of the staus. However, this parameter region is severely constrained by vacuum stability. In order to relax the vacuum meta-stability condition, we focus on the parameter region where the mass difference between the two staus is large. This region has not been considered yet. In this paper, we show that staus with a large mass difference can relax the vacuum meta-stability condition sufficiently even if the lighter stau mass is kept light. We find that when the mass difference of two staus is large, the enhancement of the Higgs to diphoton decay rate becomes small in spite of a relaxation of the vacuum meta-stability condition. Because of this feature, an O(70)% enhancement of the Higgs to diphoton decay rate is difficult to achieve in the light stau scenario in ...

  5. Theoretical study on ground-state proton/H-atom exchange in formic acid clusters through different H-bonded bridges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUA FANG

    2016-09-01

    The ground-state triple proton/H-atom transfer (GSTPT/GSTHAT) reactions in HCOOH complexed cyclically with H₂O, CH₃OH, NH₃ and mixed solvents H₂O-NH₃/CH₃ OH-NH₃ were studied byquantum mechanical methods in heptane. The GSTPT/GSTHAT in HCOOH-(H₂O) ₂, HCOOH-(CH₃OH)₂, HCOOH-(NH₃)₂, HCOOH-H₂O-NH₃, HCOOH-NH₃-H₂O, HCOOH-CH₃OH-NH₃ and HCOOH-NH₃-CH₃ OH systems all occurred in an asynchronous but concerted protolysis mechanism. The formation pattern of the H-bonded chain was important to reduce the proton/H-atom transfer barrier. For the HCOOH-S₁-S₂ (S₁, S₂: H₂O, CH₃OH, NH₃) complex, the GSTPT/GSTHAT barrier height of the HCOOH-S₁-S₂ complex, in which the H-bonded chain was formed with different solvent molecules, was lower than that of HCOOH-S₁-S₂ complex, in which the H-bonded chain was composed of same solvent molecules. H-bonded chain consisting of mixed solvent molecules can accumulate their proton-accepting abilities and then speed up proton/H-atom transfer. When the less-basic H₂O or CH₃OH is connected to O-H group of HCOOH directly and the PT/HAT process is started by accepting a proton/H-atom from HCOOH, the PT/HAT reaction would be pulled by the more basic NH₃ along the H-bonded chain from the front. On the contrary, when the more-basic NH₃ is bonded to O-H group of HCOOH directly, the less-basic H₂O or CH₃OH hardly pulled PT/HAT process from the front. A good correlation between the proton-accepting ability (basicity) of the H-bonded chain and the GSTPT/GSTHAT barrier height was obtained.

  6. Measurement of the mass and lifetime differences between the heavy and light B/sub s/ eigenstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, I.

    1987-11-01

    This report concerns measurements of the mass and lifetime differences of the B/sub s/ - anti B/sub s/ system. A large mass difference, (DELTA m/gamma)/sub B//sub s/ greater than or equal to 5, is predicted in the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model with three generations of quarks. This prediction follows from two factors. The first is the ARGUS collaboration report of a large B/sub d/ - anti B/sub d/ mixing, (DELTA m/gamma)/sub B//sub d/ approxi.1. The second is the unitarity of the 3 x 3 KM matrix. The prediction does not depend whether the KM model is relevant for CP violation. Thus, a much smaller (DELTA m/gamma)/sub B//sub s/ << 5 would indicate new physics. An argument for an observable lifetime difference will be given. This report discusses time-dependent ways to extract the mass difference and lifetime difference of the neutral B/sub s/ system.

  7. Light quark mass differences in the $\\pi^0 - \\eta - \\eta'$ system

    CERN Document Server

    Osipov, A A; Blin, A H; Moreira, J

    2016-01-01

    A generalized 3 flavor Nambu-Jona--Lasinio Lagrangian including the explicit chiral symmetry breaking interactions which contribute at the same order in the large $1/N_c$ counting as the $U_A(1)$ 't Hooft flavor determinant is considered to obtain the mixing angles in the $\\pi^0-\\eta-\\eta'$ system and related current quark mass ratios in close agreement with phenomenological values. At the same time an accurate ordering and magnitude of the splitting of states in the low lying pseudoscalar nonet is obtained.

  8. Effectiveness of different trap design in mass trapping of Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Ivan L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of an aggregation attractant for Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ. raised several questions for possible improvements of IPM of Bothynoderes punctiventris in sugar beet. First results on exploration of possibilities for its use for monitoring purposes as well as for mass trapping of adults of the pest are described in this paper. Trap design effectiveness was evaluated in the overwintering fields of sugar beet weevil for two years in localities in Serbia and Hungary. Among trap designs tested it was proved that baited CSALOMON® TAL trap design was optimal.

  9. Physical activity and bone mineral accrual in boys with different body mass parameters during puberty: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donvina Vaitkeviciute

    Full Text Available The aim of our longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between physical activity and bone mass in boys with different body mass status during the years surrounding pubertal growth spurt. Two hundred and six boys entering puberty took part in this study. The subjects were divided into underweight (BMI 26.02 groups at baseline according to age related categories. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline, after 12 and 24 months to assess body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, and total body (TB, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD parameters. Physical activity was measured by 7-day accelerometry. For longitudinal analysis, multilevel fixed effects regression models were constructed. Biological age, height and lean body mass had an effect for explanation of TB BMD, FN BMD and LS BMD. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, vigorous physical activity (VPA and sedentary time (SED had the significant effect only on FN BMD. Being an underweight boy at the baseline indicated greater chance (p<0.01 to have lower TB BMD in the future (2 years at follow up development, compared to normal weight (estimates = -0.038, overweight (estimates = -0.061 and obese boys (estimates = -0.106.

  10. Strong-Isospin Violation in the Neutron-Proton Mass Difference from Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD and PQQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silas Beane; Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage

    2007-04-01

    We determine the strong-isospin violating component of the neutron-proton mass difference from fully-dynamical lattice QCD and partially-quenched QCD calculations of the nucleon mass, constrained by partially-quenched chiral perturbation theory at one-loop level. The lattice calculations were performed with domain-wall valence quarks on MILC lattices with rooted staggered sea-quarks at a lattice spacing of b = 0.125 fm, lattice spatial size of L = 2.5 fm and pion masses ranging from m{sub {pi}} {approx} 290 MeV to {approx} 350 MeV. At the physical value of the pion mass, we predict M{sub n}-M{sub p}|{sup d-u} = 2.26 {+-} 0.57 {+-} 0.42 {+-} 0.10 MeV where the first error is statistical, the second error is due to the uncertainty in the ratio of light-quark masses, {eta} = m{sub u}/m{sub d}, determined by MILC, and the third error is an estimate of the systematic due to chiral extrapolation.

  11. LOSS Revisited - II: The relative rates of different types of supernovae vary between low- and high-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong; Smith, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In Paper I of this series, we showed that the ratio between stripped-envelope supernova (SE SN) and Type II SN rates reveals a significant SE SN deficiency in galaxies with stellar masses $\\lesssim 10^{10}~{\\rm M}_\\odot$. Here, we test this result by splitting the volume-limited subsample of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) SN sample into low- and high-mass galaxies and comparing the relative rates of various SN types found in them. The LOSS volume-limited sample contains 180 SNe and SN impostors and is complete for SNe Ia out to 80 Mpc and core-collapse SNe out to 60 Mpc. All of these transients were recently reclassified by us in Shivvers et al. (in prep.) We find that the relative rates of some types of SNe differ between low- and high-mass galaxies: SNe Ib and Ic are underrepresented by a factor of ~3 in low-mass galaxies. These galaxies also contain the only examples of SN 1987A-like SNe in the sample and host ~9 times as many SN impostors. Normal SNe Ia are ~30% more common in low-mass galax...

  12. Intermediate Mass Stars <--> Massive Stars. A workshop around causes and consequences of differing evolutionary paths

    CERN Document Server

    Josselin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The post-main sequence evolution of stars of intermediate or large masses is notoriously complex. In the recent past, a number of workshops and meetings have focused on either the Asymptotic Giant Branch of intermediate mass stars, or the evolution of massive stars. But how well defined is the boundary between these categories of objects defined? How would an observer proceed to classify stars into one or the other category? How do objects near the boundary evolve, die, and contribute to the chemical evolution of their environment? During this 3-day international workshop, 26 high quality presentations were given by specialists in the relevant fields of astrophysics, and stimulating discussions followed. It is technically impossible to provide an exhaustive census of the results and ideas that emerged. In this brief article, we choose to point to key elements of the workshop, some of which are now the topic of new collaborations and will lead to publications elsewhere. For the sake of brevity, we deliberately...

  13. Comparison of human glomerulus proteomic profiles obtained from low quantities of samples by different mass spectrometry with the comprehensive database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously constructed an in-depth human glomerulus proteome database from a large amount of sample for understanding renal disease pathogenesis and aiding the biomarker exploration. However, it is usually a challenge for clinical research to get enough tissues for large-scale proteomic characterization. Therefore, in this study, we focused on high-confidence proteomics analysis on small amounts of human glomeruli comparable to those obtained from biopsies using different mass spectrometers and compared these results to the comprehensive database. Results One microgram of human glomerular protein digest was analyzed each on five LC- combined mass spectrometers (LIT-TOF, LTQ-Orbitrap, Q-TOF, LIT and MALDI-TOF/TOF yielding 139, 185, 94, 255 and 108 proteins respectively identified with strict criteria to ensure high confidence (> 99% and low false discovery rate (FDR ( Conclusion This study showed representative human glomerulus proteomic profiles obtained from biopsies through analysis of comparable amounts of samples by different mass spectrometry. Our results implicated that high abundant proteins are more likely to be reproducibly identified in multiple mass spectrometers runs and different mass spectrometers. Furthermore, many podocyte essential proteins such as nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin and synaptopodin were also identified from the small samples in this study. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis results extended our understanding of the major glomerular proteins about their subcellular distributions and functions. The present study indicated that the proteins localized in certain cellular compartments, such as actin cytoskeleton, mitochondrial matrix, cell surface, basolateral plasma membrane, contractile fiber, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and adherens junction, represent high abundant glomerular proteins and these subcellular structures are also highly significantly over-represented in the glomerulus

  14. Noncontact atomization of droplets using an aerial ultrasonic source with two vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Arisa; Yanagimoto, Miduki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru

    2015-07-01

    For use in mass spectrometry, we investigated the noncontact atomization of droplets using a rectangular transverse vibrating plate ultrasonic source. To determine the atomization properties of the ultrasonic source, we examined the sound pressure distribution of the standing wave acoustic field formed and observed the behavior of the atomized particles in the acoustic field. We determined the relationship between sound pressure and the conditions and location where atomization occurs with the variations in droplet surface tension and viscosity using three different compounds: water, ethanol, and glycerin. Furthermore, we clarifies the distribution of particle diameters in atomized water.

  15. Analytic Evaluation of Three Different Five-Electron Atomic Integrals Involving Exponentially Correlated Functions of $r_{ij}$ With $r_{ij}$'s Not Forming A Closed Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Padhy, B

    2016-01-01

    The simple method outlined in our earlier paper [B.Padhy, Orissa Journal of Physics, vol.19, No.1, p.1, February 2012] has been utilized here for analytic evaluation of three different five-electron atomic integrals with integrands involving products of s Slater-type orbitals and exponentially correlated functions of the form $r_{ij} exp(-\\lambda_{ij} r_{ij})$. Only products of those $r_{ij}$'s which do not form a closed loop by themselves, are considered.

  16. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  17. Comparison of the scintillation noise above different observatories measured with MASS instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Tokovinin, A; Travouillon, T; Voziakova, O

    2012-01-01

    Scintillation noise is a major limitation of ground base photometric precision. An extensive dataset of stellar scintillation collected at 11 astronomical sites world-wide with MASS instruments was used to estimate the scintillation noise of large telescopes in the case of fast photometry and traditional long-exposure regime. Statistical distributions of the corresponding parameters are given. The scintillation noise is mostly determined by turbulence and wind in the upper atmosphere and comparable at all sites, with slightly smaller values at Mauna Kea and largest noise at Tolonchar in Chile. We show that the classical Young's formula under-estimates the scintillation noise.The temporal variations of the scintillation noise are also similar at all sites, showing short-term variability at time scales of 1 -- 2 hours and slower variations, including marked seasonal trends (stronger scintillation and less clear sky during local winter). Some correlation was found between nearby observatories.

  18. Determination of Mass Spectrometric Sensitivity of Different Metalloporphyrin Esters Relative to Porphyrin Ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Møller, J.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of metalloporphyrin contamination in preparations of biologically important porphyrins was achieved mass spectrometrically by application of the integrated ion current technique. For this purpose, the relative molecular ion sensitivities of the contaminating metal compl...... complexes were determined from the ratios of the integrated molecular ion currents of a series of calibration samples containing a porphyrin ester and one of its metal complexes in known molar ratio. Complexes formed with divalent ions of Cu, Zn, Fe, Co and Ni of copro- as well as uro......-prophyrin permethylester were all found to have the same molecular ion sensitivities as their metal-free porphyrin ester. The relative metalloporphyrin ester content in a sample of porphyrin ester was thus obtained directly as the integrated ion current ratios of the normalized molecular ions. The preparation...

  19. Imaging Dirac-Mass Disorder from Magnetic Dopant-Atoms in the Ferromagnetic Topological Insulator Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3 - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inhee; Kim, Chung Koo; Lee, Jinho; Billinge, Simon; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Liu, Tiansheng; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Davis, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    We present Part II of the spectroscopic imaging - scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM) study of ferromagnetic Crx(Bi0.1Sb0.9)2-xTe3 single crystals measured at 4.5 K. As Part II we show how both spectroscopic analysis in real and momentum space demonstrate the coincident Dirac mass gap identified. Distribution of gap width, gap center, and gap anisotropy will be discussed. The anticipated relationship Δ (r) ~ n (r) is confirmed throughout, and exhibits an electron-dopant interaction energy J* = 145 meV .nm2. These observations reveal how magnetic dopant atoms actually generate the TI mass gap and that, to achieve the novel physics expected of time-reversal-symmetry breaking TI materials, control of the resulting Dirac-mass gap disorder will be essential.

  20. MASS TRANSFER LIMITATION IN DIFFERENT ANODE ELECTRODE SURFACE AREAS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DUAL CHAMBER MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeqzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different electrode surface areas on the performance of dual chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC was investigated. Four different electrodes with 12, 16, 20 and 24 cm2 surface areas were tested in an MFC system. The 20 cm2 electrode generated an output power of 76.5 mW/m2 was found to be the highest among all the electrodes tested. This might be due to better interactions with microorganism and less mass transfer limitation. In addition, this indicates that the chances for attachment of bacteria and generation of electricity in larger electrode surface areas might be limited by mass transport and by higher surface area. The output power generation was then followed by the 16, 12 and 24 cm2 electrodes which generated 69.6, 64.7 and 61.25 mW/m2 electricity, respectively.

  1. LOSS Revisited. II. The Relative Rates of Different Types of Supernovae Vary between Low- and High-mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, Or; Bianco, Federica B.; Modjaz, Maryam; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Smith, Nathan

    2017-03-01

    In Paper I of this series, we showed that the ratio between stripped-envelope (SE) supernova (SN) and Type II SN rates reveals a significant SE SN deficiency in galaxies with stellar masses ≲ {10}10 {M}ȯ . Here, we test this result by splitting the volume-limited subsample of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) SN sample into low- and high-mass galaxies and comparing the relative rates of various SN types found in them. The LOSS volume-limited sample contains 180 SNe and SN impostors and is complete for SNe Ia out to 80 Mpc and core-collapse SNe out to 60 Mpc. All of these transients were recently reclassified by us in Shivvers et al. We find that the relative rates of some types of SNe differ between low- and high-mass galaxies: SNe Ib and Ic are underrepresented by a factor of ∼3 in low-mass galaxies. These galaxies also contain the only examples of SN 1987A-like SNe in the sample and host about nine times as many SN impostors. Normal SNe Ia seem to be ∼30% more common in low-mass galaxies, making these galaxies better sources for homogeneous SN Ia cosmology samples. The relative rates of SNe IIb are consistent in both low- and high-mass galaxies. The same is true for broad-line SNe Ic, although our sample includes only two such objects. The results presented here are in tension with a similar analysis from the Palomar Transient Factory, especially as regards SNe IIb.

  2. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  3. Using Atomic Clocks to Detect Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Atomic clocks have recently reached a fractional timing precision of $<10^{-18}$. We point out that an array of atomic clocks, distributed along the Earth's orbit around the Sun, will have the sensitivity needed to detect the time dilation effect of mHz gravitational waves (GWs), such as those emitted by supermassive black hole binaries at cosmological distances. Simultaneous measurement of clock-rates at different phases of a passing GW provides an attractive alternative to the interferometric detection of temporal variations in distance between test masses separated by less than a GW wavelength, currently envisioned for the eLISA mission.

  4. Binary System with Components of Different Masses in the Linear Regime of the Characteristic Formulation of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    M., C E Cedeño

    2015-01-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity is provided. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particle's orbits are explored, when the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the News Bondi's functions, and the contribution to the gravitational radiation of several multipole terms is shown.

  5. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  6. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  7. Mass loss of four commercially available heat-polymerized acrylic resins after toothbrushing with three different dentifrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Freitas-Pontes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between a toothbrush and a dentifrice is the most used denture cleaning method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasiveness of specific and non-specific denture cleaning dentifrices on different heat-polymerized acrylic resins. Sixteen specimens (90x30x3mm of each acrylic resin (QC-20, Lucitone 550, Clássico, Vipi-Cril were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1: control (distilled water, 2: Colgate, 3: Bonyplus and 4: Dentu-Creme. The specimens were subjected to simulated toothbrushing in an automatic brushing machine using 35,600 brush strokes for each specimen. Brushing abrasion run at a 200-g load with the specimens immersed in 2:1 dentifrice/water slurry. Specimens were reconditioned to constant mass and the mass loss (mg was evaluated. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05. Analysis of dentifrices' abrasive particles was made by scanning electron microscopy. Colgate produced the greatest mass reduction (42.44 mg, p0.05. The mass loss values indicated that QC-20 (33.13 mg and Lucitone 550 (33.05 mg resins were less (p<0.05 resistant to abrasion than Clássico (26.04 mg and Vipi-Cril (23.43 mg. In conclusion, Colgate produced the greatest abrasion. Specific dentifrices for dentures tend to cause less damage to acrylic resins.

  8. A chemometric approach to the comparison of different sample treatments for metals determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy in aceto Balsamico tradizionale di Modena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Marina; Franchini, Giancarlo; Manzini, Daniela; Manfredini, Matteo; Marchetti, Andrea; Ulrici, Alessandro

    2004-06-30

    A comparison of different digestion procedures has been carried out for the analysis of metal concentration in samples of vinegars and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale of Modena (ABTM) coming from an unique barrel set. In particular, classical wet, dry ashing, and closed vessel microwave digestion procedure have been utilized and compared for each investigated species. In a few cases, direct metal determination on ABTM (without treatment procedure) is proposed as possible alternative to sample manipulation. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the quantification of iron and zinc, while graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for all the other elements (i.e., chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, and lead). The comparison among the different sample treatments was carried out by the use of statistical and chemometric tools. In particular, principal component analysis and ANOVA approaches were used to discriminate between the diverse analytical methods. Furthermore, for all the dissolving techniques, the analytical metal recovery was always evaluated by the application of the recovery function on the same sample matrix. In general, the recoveries were fairly good, ranging from 90 to 103%, except for Cd and Pb with dry ashing, which showed recovery values close to 55% and 67%, respectively. As regards the metals concentration of the investigated samples, the experimental data reveal for some species the presence of concentration slightly over the legal limit fixed for wine and wine vinegar.

  9. Application of dual-cloud point extraction for the trace levels of copper in serum of different viral hepatitis patients by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Abbasi, Abdul Rasool; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shanker, Bhawani; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2014-12-01

    An efficient, innovative preconcentration method, dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of copper (Cu2+) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients prior to couple with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The d-CPE procedure was based on forming complexes of elemental ions with complexing reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and subsequent entrapping the complexes in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Then the surfactant rich phase containing the metal complexes was treated with aqueous nitric acid solution, and metal ions were back extracted into the aqueous phase, as second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional nebulization. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables for the recovery of Cu2+ using d-CPE. In optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection and the enrichment factor were 0.046 μg L-1 and 78, respectively. The validity and accuracy of proposed method were checked by analysis of Cu2+ in certified sample of serum (CRM) by d-CPE and conventional CPE procedure on same CRM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu2+ in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients and healthy controls.

  10. Application of dual-cloud point extraction for the trace levels of copper in serum of different viral hepatitis patients by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Abbasi, Abdul Rasool; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shanker, Bhawani; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2014-12-10

    An efficient, innovative preconcentration method, dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of copper (Cu(2+)) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients prior to couple with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The d-CPE procedure was based on forming complexes of elemental ions with complexing reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and subsequent entrapping the complexes in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Then the surfactant rich phase containing the metal complexes was treated with aqueous nitric acid solution, and metal ions were back extracted into the aqueous phase, as second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional nebulization. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables for the recovery of Cu(2+) using d-CPE. In optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection and the enrichment factor were 0.046μgL(-1) and 78, respectively. The validity and accuracy of proposed method were checked by analysis of Cu(2+) in certified sample of serum (CRM) by d-CPE and conventional CPE procedure on same CRM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients and healthy controls.

  11. Observations on different resin strategies for affinity purification mass spectrometry of a tagged protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sujina; Moree, Wilna J; Mitchell, Morgan; Widger, William; Bark, Steven J

    2016-12-15

    Co-affinity purification mass spectrometry (CoAP-MS) is a highly effective method for identifying protein complexes from a biological sample and inferring important interactions, but the impact of the solid support is usually not considered in design of such experiments. Affinity purification (AP) experiments typically utilize a bait protein expressing a peptide tag such as FLAG, c-Myc, HA or V5 and high affinity antibodies to these peptide sequences to facilitate isolation of a bait protein to co-purify interacting proteins. We observed significant variability for isolation of tagged bait proteins between Protein A/G Agarose, Protein G Dynabeads, and AminoLink resins. While previous research identified the importance of tag sequence and their location, crosslinking procedures, reagents, dilution, and detergent concentrations, the effect of the resin itself has not been considered. Our data suggest the type of solid support is important and, under the conditions of our experiments, AminoLink resin provided a more robust solid-support platform for AP-MS.

  12. Comparison of denitrification performances using PLA/starch with different mass ratios as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Tang, Danqi; Wang, Qunhui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jianguo; Guo, Yan; Liu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    A suitable carbon source is significant for biological nitrate removal from groundwater. In this study, slow-release carbon sources containing polylactic acid (PLA) and starch at 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, and 3:7 ratios were prepared using a blending and fusing technique. The PLA/starch blend was then used as a solid carbon source for biological nitrate removal. The carbon release rate of PLA/starch was found to increase with increased starch content in leaching experiments. PLA/starch at 5:5 mass ratio was found to have the highest denitrification performance and organic carbon consumption efficiency in semi-continuous denitrification experiments, and was also revealed to support complete denitrification at 50 mg-N/L influent nitrate concentration in continuous experiments. The effluent nitrate concentration was PLA/starch increased with prolonged experimental time, which may be conducive to microorganism attachment. Therefore, PLA/starch was a suitable carbon source and biofilm carrier for groundwater remediation.

  13. Gender-Specific Differences in the Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms with Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Amoli, Mahsa M.; Heshmat, Ramin; Sajadi, Mohammadali; Derakhshan, Reza; Amiri, Parvin; Namakchian, Mahsa; Rezazadeh, Ebrahim; Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Javad; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Larijani, Bagher

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study evaluated possible associations of +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic Iranians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved two groups of subjects: 243 diabetic patients and 173 non-diabetic subjects recruited from Rafsanjan city in the south-east of Iran. RESULTS: No significant association was found between +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, male carriers of the TT genotype of +45T/G had a significantly higher mean BMI than male GG homozygotes (p = 0.018). Also, male carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean BMI than male GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.041). Female carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean WC than female GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly higher BMI in women, and GA or AA carriers of -11391G/A polymorphism. Also, there was a significantly lower WC in females and GG carriers of +45T/G. These results point to a gender-specific impact of the studied genotypes on BMI and WC. PMID:21409316

  14. Mass spectrometric evidence for the existence of distinct modifications of different proteins by 2(E),4(E)-decadienal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianye; Tochtrop, Gregory P; Anderson, Vernon E; Sayre, Lawrence M

    2010-03-15

    2(E),4(E)-Decadienal (DDE), a lipid peroxidation product, was found to covalently modify Lys residues of different proteins by different reactions using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS). DDE mainly formed Lys Schiff base adducts with cytochrome c and ribonuclease A at 10 min, but these reversibly formed adducts almost disappeared after 24 h. In contrast, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) was highly modified by DDE after 24 h. In addition to the Lys Schiff base adducts, DDE formed novel Lys pyridinium adducts as well as Cys Michael adducts with beta-LG.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Evidence for the Existence of Distinct Modifications of Different Proteins by 2(E), 4(E)-Decadienal

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Tang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianye; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Sayre, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    2(E), 4(E)-Decadienal (DDE), a lipid peroxidation product, was found to covalently modify Lys residues of different proteins by different reactions using mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS). DDE mainly formed Lys Schiff base adducts with cytochrome c and ribonuclease A at 10 min, but these reversibly-formed adducts almost disappeared after 24 h. In contrast, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) was highly modified by DDE after 24 h. In addition to the Lys Schiff base adducts, DDE formed novel Ly...

  16. Subtle differences in molecular recognition between modified glycopeptide antibiotics and bacterial receptor peptides identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Staroske, T; Roepstorff, P;

    1999-01-01

    showing that electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used in the rapid quantitative analysis of mixtures of vancomycin-group antibiotics and their bacterial cell-wall receptors allowing the identification of even subtle differences in binding constants. Differences in affinities...... are quantified for a mixture of vancomycin antibiotics (vancomycin, dechlorovancomycin and N-demethylvancomycin) and for a mixture of ristocetin A and its pseudoaglycone. Binding constants determined by ESI-MS were found to be in close agreement with those determined by more direct methods in aqueous solution....

  17. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  18. Interpretation of discrepancies in mass spectroscopy data obtained from different experimental configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Many helium mass spectrometer leak detectors at KSC employ sampling systems that feature hand held sniffer probes. Authors of general leakage-testing literature recommend sniffer probes for leak location but not for quantitative leakage measurement. Their use in the latter application at KSC involves assumptions that may be subtle. The purpose of the research effort reported herein was to establish the significance of indicated leak rates displayed by sniffer-probe equipped leak detectors and to determine whether the use of alternative hardware or testing procedures may reduce the uncertainty of leakage measurements made with them. The report classifies probe-type sampling systems for helium leak detectors according to their internal plumbing (direct or branched), presents a basic analysis of the fluid dynamics in the sampling system in the branched-conduit case, describes the usual test method for measuring the internal supply-to-sample flowrate ratio (a.k.a permeation ratio), and describes a concept for a sponge-tipped probe whose external supply-to-sample flowrate ratio promises to be lower than that of a simple-ended probe. One conclusion is that the main source of uncertainty in the use of probe-type sampling systems for leakage measurement is uncertainty in the external supply-to-sample flowrate ratio. In contrast, the present method for measuring the internal supply-to-sample flowrate ratio is quantitative and satisfactory. The implication is that probes of lower external supply-to-sample flowrate ratio must be developed before this uncertainty may be reduced significantly.

  19. Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Katrien; Van Reeth, Kristien; De Beer, Thomas; Landman, Wil J M; van Eck, Jo H H; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Dry powders containing a live-attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (LZ58 strain) and intended for mass vaccination of poultry were prepared by spray drying using mannitol in combination with trehalose or inositol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as stabilizers. These powders were evaluated for vaccine stabilizing capacity during production and storage (at 6 °C and 25 °C), moisture content, hygroscopicity and dry powder dispersibility. A mixture design, varying the ratio of mannitol, inositol and BSA, was used to select the stabilizer combination which resulted in the desired powder properties (i.e. good vaccine stability during production and storage, low moisture content and hygroscopicity and good dry dispersibility). Inositol-containing powders had the same vaccine stabilizing capacity as trehalose powders, but were less hygroscopic. Incorporation of BSA enhanced the vaccine stability in the powders compared to PVP-containing formulations. However, increasing the BSA concentration increased the hygroscopicity and reduced the dry dispersibility of the powder. No valid mathematical model could be calculated for vaccine stability during production or storage, but the individual experiments indicated that a formulation combining mannitol, inositol and BSA in a ratio of 73.3:13.3:13.3 (wt/wt) resulted in the lowest vaccine titre loss during production (1.6-2.0 log(10) 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) and storage at 6 °C (max. 0.8 log(10) EID(50) after 6 months) in combination with a low moisture content (1.1-1.4%), low hygroscopicity (1.9-2.1% water uptake at 60% relative humidity) and good dry dispersibility properties.

  20. Gender Differences in the Association Between Body Mass Index and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, Rani A.; Manley, Melinda; Desai, Mayur M.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine gender,differences in the relationship between weight group (under-weight to severely obese), and Axis I and Axis 11 psychopathology. Methods: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed.

  1. A Comparison of Continuous Mass-lumped Finite Elements and Finite Differences for 3D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhebel, E.; Minisini, S.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The finite-difference method is widely used for time-domain modelling of the wave equation because of its ease of implementation of high-order spatial discretization schemes, parallelization and computational efficiency. However, finite elements on tetrahedral meshes are more accurate in complex geo

  2. Phonon-particle coupling effects in odd-even double mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Saperstein, E E; Pankratov, S S; Tolokonnikov, S V

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to consider the particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects in the calculation of the odd-even double mass differences (DMD) in semi-magic nuclei starting from the free $NN$-potential. The PC correction $\\delta \\Sigma^{\\rm PC}$ to the mass operator $\\Sigma$ is found in $g_L^2$-approximation, $g_L$ being the vertex of creating the $L$-phonon. The tadpole term of the operator $\\delta \\Sigma^{\\rm PC}$ is taken into account. The method is based on a direct solution of the Dyson equation with the mass operator $\\Sigma(\\epsilon){=}\\Sigma_0{+}\\delta \\Sigma^{\\rm PC}(\\epsilon)$ for finding the single-particle energies and $Z$-factors. In its turn, they are used as an input for finding different PC corrections to the DMD values. Results for a chain of even semi-magic nuclei $^{200-206}$Pb show that the inclusion of the PC corrections makes agreement with the experimental data significantly better.

  3. Phonon-particle coupling effects in odd-even double mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, E. E.; Baldo, M.; Pankratov, S. S.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    A method is developed to consider the particle-phonon coupling (PC) effects in the calculation of the odd-even double mass differences (DMD) in semi-magic nuclei starting from the free NN potential. The PC correction δΣPC to the mass operator Σ is found in g L 2-approximation, g L being the vertex of creating the L-phonon. The tadpole term of the operator δΣPC is taken into account. The method is based on a direct, without any use of the perturbation theory, solution of the Dyson equation with the mass operator Σ(ɛ) = Σ0 + δΣPC(ɛ) for finding the single-particle energies and Z-factors. In its turn, they are used as an input for finding different PC corrections to the DMD values. Results for a chain of even semi-magic nuclei 200-206Pb show that the inclusion of the PC corrections makes agreement with the experimental data significantly better.

  4. Prediction of dispersed phase holdup in pulsed disc and doughnut solvent extraction columns under different mass transfer conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Kathryn H. Smith; Kathryn Mumford; Teobaldo F. Grabin; Zheng Li; Geoffrey W. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Using experimental data from a number of pulsed disc and doughnut solvent extraction columns, a unified correla-tion for the prediction of dispersed phase holdup that considers the effects of mass transfer is presented. Pulsed disc and doughnut solvent extraction columns (PDDC) have been used for a range of important applications such as ura-nium extraction and nuclear fuel recycling. Although the dispersed phase holdup in a PDDC has been presented by some researchers, there is stil the need to develop a robust correlation that can predict the experimental dispersed phase holdup over a range of operating conditions including the effects of mass transfer direction. In this study, dis-persed phase holdup data from different literature sources for a PDDC were used to refit constants for the correlation presented by Kumar and Hartland [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,27 (1988),131–138] which did not consider the effect of col-umn geometry. In order to incorporate the characteristic length of the PDDC (i.e. the plate spacing), the unified cor-relation for holdup proposed by Kumar and Hartland based on data from eight different types of columns [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,34 (1995) 3925–3940] was refitted to the PDDC data. New constants have been presented for each hold-up correlation for a PDDC based on regression analysis using published holdup data from PDDCs that cover a range of operating conditions and physical properties and consider the direction of mass transfer.

  5. Finite Difference Analysis of Radiative Free Convection Flow Past an Impulsively Started Vertical Plate with Variable Heat and Mass Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramachandra Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical solution of the unsteady radiative free convection flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past an impulsively started vertical plate with variable heat and mass flux is presented here. This type of problem finds application in many technological and engineering fields such as rocket propulsion systems, spacecraft re-entry aerothermodynamics, cosmical flight aerodynamics, plasma physics, glass production and furnace engineering. The fluid is gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The governing non-linear, coupled equations are solved using an implicit finite difference scheme. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, concentration, the local and average skinfriction, the Nusselt and Sherwood number are shown graphically, for different values of Prandtl number, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, radiation parameter, heat flux exponent and the mass flux exponent. It is observed that, when the radiation parameter increases, the velocity and temperature decrease in the boundary layer. The local and average skin-friction increases with the increase in radiation parameter. For increasing values of radiation parameter the local as well as average Nusselt number increases.

  6. On the use of big-bang method to generate low-energy structures of atomic clusters modeled with pair potentials of different ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J M C; Pais, A A C C; Abreu, P E

    2012-02-05

    The efficiency of the so-called big-bang method for the optimization of atomic clusters is analysed in detail for Morse pair potentials with different ranges; here, we have used Morse potentials with four different ranges, from long- ρ = 3) to short-ranged ρ = 14) interactions. Specifically, we study the efficacy of the method in discovering low-energy structures, including the putative global minimum, as a function of the potential range and the cluster size. A new global minimum structure for long-ranged ρ = 3) Morse potential at the cluster size of n= 240 is reported. The present results are useful to assess the maximum cluster size for each type of interaction where the global minimum can be discovered with a limited number of big-bang trials.

  7. Dynamical tides excited in rotating stars of different masses and ages and the formation of close in orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, S V; Ivanov, P B

    2013-01-01

    We study the tidal response of rotating solar mass stars, as well as more massive rotating stars, of different ages in the context of tidal captures leading to either giant exoplanets on close in orbits, or the formation of binary systems in star clusters. To do this, we adopt approaches based on normal mode and associated overlap integral evaluation, developed in a companion paper by Ivanov et al., and direct numerical simulation, to evaluate energy and angular momentum exchanges between the orbit and normal modes. The two approaches are found to be in essential agreement apart from when encounters occur near to pseudosynchronization, where the stellar angular velocity and the orbital angular velocity at periastron are approximately matched. We find that the strength of tidal interaction being expressed in dimensionless natural units is significantly weaker for the more massive stars, as compared to the solar mass stars, because of the lack of significant convective regions in the former case. On the other h...

  8. [Analysis of body mass index in different sector workers for over ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbellini, L; Zonzin, C; Baldo, M

    2010-01-01

    A critical review of the literature on obesity and overweight underlines that a low educational level, a low social-economic status, certain working conditions, the lack of physical activity in leisure time, together with the availability of food, are the main factors favouring increased prevalence of obesity. Certain jobs also contribute significantly to this problem. Automation, the use of machines for heavy works and sedentary activities favour body weight increase. Jobs that are a source of stress, such as work with night shift can cause metabolic disorders leading to an increased prevalence of obesity. The main aim of this article is to study the trend of body weight in different working area during ten years, comparing this parameter to different factors such as job, blood pressure, smoke, alcool and health diseases.

  9. ASSOCIATION OF BODY MASS INDEX WITH INTERARM BLOOD PRESSURE DIFFERENCE: A COMPARATIVE AND CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namala Surya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The major health problem faced by the 13% of world population is obesity and this obesity and overweight may lead to many health consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some cancers to mention a few. Objective of present study is to find the relation between the increased BMI and the interarm blood pressure difference. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 180 subjects with age ranging from 18 to 50 years. They were divided into two groups based on the BMI. Subjects with normal BMI (25Kg/M2. The study was conducted in the GSL Medical College and General Hospital, Rajahmundry. RESULTS On comparing the results in overweight subjects in the age group of 40-50 were found to have interarm difference in the mean systolic blood pressure of more than 10mmHg, i.e. Mean value of 13.04+ 2.34(<0.001. CONCLUSION The overweight individuals with age more than 40 years, there is interarm difference in the mean systolic blood pressure, which is an indicator of peripheral vascular disease.

  10. Atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  11. Effective atomic numbers of different types of materials for proton interaction in the energy region 1 keV-10 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2014-10-01

    The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) of different types of materials such as tissues, tissue equivalents, organic compounds, glasses and dosimetric materials have been calculated for total proton interactions in the energy region 1 keV-10 GeV. Also, effective atomic numbers relative to water (Zeff RW) have been presented in the entire energy region for the materials that show better water equivalent properties. Some human tissues such as adipose tissue, bone compact, muscle skeletal and muscle striated have been investigated in terms of tissue equivalency by comparing Zeff values and the better tissue equivalents have been determined for these tissues. With respect to the variation of Zeff with kinetic energy, it has been observed that Zeff seems to be more or less the same in the energy region 400 keV-10 GeV for the given materials except for the photographic emulsion, calcium fluoride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon. The values of Zeff have found to be constant for photographic emulsion after 1 GeV, for calcium fluoride between 1 MeV and 1 GeV and for silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon between 400 keV and 1 GeV. This constancy clearly shows the availability of using Zeff in estimating radiation response of the materials at first glance.

  12. Effective atomic numbers of different types of materials for proton interaction in the energy region 1 keV–10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurudirek, Murat, E-mail: mkurudirek@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    The effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of different types of materials such as tissues, tissue equivalents, organic compounds, glasses and dosimetric materials have been calculated for total proton interactions in the energy region 1 keV–10 GeV. Also, effective atomic numbers relative to water (Z{sub eff}RW) have been presented in the entire energy region for the materials that show better water equivalent properties. Some human tissues such as adipose tissue, bone compact, muscle skeletal and muscle striated have been investigated in terms of tissue equivalency by comparing Z{sub eff} values and the better tissue equivalents have been determined for these tissues. With respect to the variation of Z{sub eff} with kinetic energy, it has been observed that Z{sub eff} seems to be more or less the same in the energy region 400 keV–10 GeV for the given materials except for the photographic emulsion, calcium fluoride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon. The values of Z{sub eff} have found to be constant for photographic emulsion after 1 GeV, for calcium fluoride between 1 MeV and 1 GeV and for silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and Teflon between 400 keV and 1 GeV. This constancy clearly shows the availability of using Z{sub eff} in estimating radiation response of the materials at first glance.

  13. Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years - exploring differences between European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, L; Howe, L D; Sørensen, T I A;

    2016-01-01

    ) trajectories between large cohorts of children from UK and Scandinavian populations. METHODS: We compared BMI trajectories in participants from the English Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children born in 1991-1993 (ALSPAC) (N = 6517), the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 3321......) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920). We used multilevel models to estimate BMI trajectories from 2 to 18 years. We explored whether cohort differences were explained by maternal BMI, height, education or smoking during pregnancy and whether...

  14. Investigation of mass transfer between two parallel walls at different temperatures by a moment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, T. N.; Edwards, R. H.; Collins, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    One-dimensional flow between two fixed parallel walls composed of the same substance but at different temperatures and spaced a distance 1 apart is considered. The hot plate is the evaporating surface (source) and the cold plate is the condensing surface (sink). The vapor between the two plates is assumed to be a monatomic gas consisting of Maxwell molecules. Lee's moment method is used to obtain a set of six nonlinear equations. Both the nonlinear equations and a linearized approximation to them are solved.

  15. Scanning transmission ion microscopy mass measurements for quantitative trace element analysis within biological samples and validation using atomic force microscopy thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devès, Guillaume; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria; Ortega, Richard

    2004-10-01

    We used the nuclear microprobe techniques, micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission), micro-RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in order to perform the characterization of trace element content and spatial distribution within biological samples (dehydrated cultured cells, tissues). The normalization of PIXE results was usually expressed in terms of sample dry mass as determined by micro-RBS recorded simultaneously to micro-PIXE. However, the main limit of RBS mass measurement is the sample mass loss occurring during irradiation and which could be up to 30% of the initial sample mass. We present here a new methodology for PIXE normalization and quantitative analysis of trace element within biological samples based on dry mass measurement performed by mean of STIM. The validation of STIM cell mass measurements was obtained in comparison with AFM sample thickness measurements. Results indicated the reliability of STIM mass measurement performed on biological samples and suggested that STIM should be performed for PIXE normalization. Further information deriving from direct confrontation of AFM and STIM analysis could as well be obtained, like in situ measurements of cell specific gravity within cells compartment (nucleolus and cytoplasm).

  16. Scanning transmission ion microscopy mass measurements for quantitative trace element analysis within biological samples and validation using atomic force microscopy thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deves, Guillaume [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)]. E-mail: deves@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, F33405 Talence cedex (France); Ortega, Richard [Laboratoire de chimie nucleaire analytique et bioenvironnementale, UMR 5084, CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux 1, BP 120 Chemin du solarium, F33175 Gradignan cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    We used the nuclear microprobe techniques, micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission), micro-RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in order to perform the characterization of trace element content and spatial distribution within biological samples (dehydrated cultured cells, tissues). The normalization of PIXE results was usually expressed in terms of sample dry mass as determined by micro-RBS recorded simultaneously to micro-PIXE. However, the main limit of RBS mass measurement is the sample mass loss occurring during irradiation and which could be up to 30% of the initial sample mass. We present here a new methodology for PIXE normalization and quantitative analysis of trace element within biological samples based on dry mass measurement performed by mean of STIM. The validation of STIM cell mass measurements was obtained in comparison with AFM sample thickness measurements. Results indicated the reliability of STIM mass measurement performed on biological samples and suggested that STIM should be performed for PIXE normalization. Further information deriving from direct confrontation of AFM and STIM analysis could as well be obtained, like in situ measurements of cell specific gravity within cells compartment (nucleolus and cytoplasm)

  17. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  18. Speciation of four selenium compounds using high performance liquid chromatography with on-line detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1997-01-01

    spectrometry (ICP-MS). The signal-to-noise ratio of the FAAS detector was optimized using a hydrogen-argon entrained-air flame and a slotted-tube atom trap (STAT) in the flame. The limit of detection (3 sigma) achieved by the HPLC-FAAS system was 1 mg L-1 of selenium (100 mu L injections) for each of the four......An analytical method for the speciation of selenomethionine, selenocystine, selenite and selenate by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with atomic spectrometric detection is presented. An organic polymeric strong anion exchange column was used as the stationary phase in combination...... of 1300 W. The limit of detection achieved under these conditions was 1 mu g L-1 (100 mu L injections). The HPLC-ICP-MS system was used for selenium speciation of selenite and selenate in aqueous solutions during a BCR certification exercise and for selenium speciation in the certified reference material...

  19. Search for light scalar dark matter with atomic gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Hogan, Jason M; Rajendran, Surjeet; Van Tilburg, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We show that gravitational wave detectors based on a type of atom interferometry are sensitive to ultralight scalar dark matter. Such dark matter can cause temporal oscillations in fundamental constants with a frequency set by the dark matter mass, and amplitude determined by the local dark matter density. The result is a modulation of atomic transition energies. This signal is ideally suited to a type of gravitational wave detector that compares two spatially separated atom interferometers referenced by a common laser. Such a detector can improve on current searches for electron-mass or electric-charge modulus dark matter by up to 10 orders of magnitude in coupling, in a frequency band complementary to that of other proposals. It demonstrates that this class of atomic sensors is qualitatively different from other gravitational wave detectors, including those based on laser interferometry. By using atomic-clock-like interferometers, laser noise is mitigated with only a single baseline. These atomic sensors ca...

  20. Comment on the equivalence of Bakamjian-Thomas mass operators in different forms of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Polyzou, W N

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the scattering equivalence of the generalized Bakamjian-Thomas construction of dynamical representations of the Poincar\\'e group in all of Dirac's forms of dynamics. The equivalence was established by Sokolov in the context of proving that the equivalence holds for models that satisfy cluster separability. The generalized Bakamjian Thomas construction is used in most applications, even though it only satisfies cluster properties for systems of less than four particles. Different forms of dynamics are related by unitary transformations that remove interactions from some infinitesimal generators and introduce them to other generators. These unitary transformation must be interaction dependent, because they can be applied to a non-interacting generator and produce an interacting generator. This suggests that these transformations can generate complex many-body forces when used in many-body problems. It turns out that this is not the case. In all cases of interest the result of applying the unitary sca...

  1. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Pálffy, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects ...

  2. Uncertainties in surface mass and energy flux estimates due to different eddy covariance sensors and technical set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriga, Nicola; Fratini, Gerardo; Forgione, Antonio; Tomassucci, Michele; Papale, Dario

    2010-05-01

    Eddy covariance is a well established and widely used methodology for the measurement of turbulent fluxes of mass and energy in the atmospheric boundary layer, in particular to estimate CO2/H2O and heat exchange above ecologically relevant surfaces (Aubinet 2000, Baldocchi 2003). Despite its long term application and theoretical studies, many issues are still open about the effect of different experimental set-up on final flux estimates. Open issues are the evaluation of the performances of different kind of sensors (e.g. open path vs closed path infra-red gas analysers, vertical vs horizontal mounting ultrasonic anemometers), the quantification of the impact of corresponding physical corrections to be applied to get robust flux estimates taking in account all processes concurring to the measurement (e.g. the so-called WPL term, signal attenuation due to air sampling system for closed path analyser, relative position of analyser and anemometer) and the differences between several data transmission protocols used (analogue, digital RS-232, SDM). A field experiment was designed to study these issues using several instruments among those most used within the Fluxnet community and to compare their performances under conditions supposed to be critical: rainy and cold weather conditions for open-path analysers (Burba 2008), water transport and absorption at high air relative humidity conditions for closed-path systems (Ibrom, 2007), frequency sampling limits and recorded data robustness due to different transmission protocols (RS232, SDM, USB, Ethernet) and finally the effect of the displacement between anemometer and analyser using at least two identical analysers placed at different horizontal and vertical distances from the anemometer. Aim of this experiment is to quantify the effect of several technical solutions on the final estimates of fluxes measured at a point in the space and if they represent a significant source of uncertainty for mass and energy cycle

  3. Inductively Coupled Plasma(ICP) Mass Spectrometry(MS) Hyphenated with Atomic Emission Spectrometry(AES) for Simultaneous Determination of Major, Minor and Micro Amounts of Elements in Geochemical Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhen-yu; ZHANG Qin; HU Ke; WU Jian-ling; YANG Peng-yuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Geological resource survey demands for determining various constituents including major, minor, micro, trace and ultra-trace levels of elements for preparing the map of resource distribution of our country. As a powerful and popularly used technique for multi-element analysis, inductively coupled plasma(ICP) atomic emission spectrometry (AES) has been applied to this field for a period of time[1-3]. However, ICP spectrometric determination of those micro, trace and ultratrace elements needs enrichment procedures for improving the detection limit, which is unacceptable in case a great mass of samples should be analyzed as that in the task of geological resource survey. On the other hand, although ICP mass spectrometry(MS) is considered the most powerful method for trace elements determination[4,5], it is difficult for ICP-MS to be used to determine the trace and major analytes simultaneously in a spectrum.

  4. Measurement of the strong coupling constant. alpha. sub s at the Z sup 0 resonance using modified jet mass difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmeissani, M.A. (Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A modified jet mass difference (thrust criterion) technique is used to extract the value of {alpha}{sub {ital s}}({ital M}{sub {ital Z}}{sup 02}). This new technique suppresses fragmentation uncertainty, reducing the overall systematic error. Based on this method and using results from two experiments at the CERN {ital e}{sup +}{ital e{minus}} collider LEP, we determine {alpha}{sub {ital s}}({ital M}{sub {ital Z}}{sup 02})=0.127{plus minus}0.004, where the errors have been added in quadrature.

  5. The Area Between Exchange Curves as a Measure of Conformational Differences in Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sharlyn J.; Weber, Daniel P.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) provides information about protein conformational mobility under native conditions. The area between exchange curves, A bec , a functional data analysis concept, was adapted to the interpretation of HDX-MS data and provides a useful measure of exchange curve dissimilarity for tests of significance. Importantly, for most globular proteins under native conditions, A bec values provide an estimate of the log ratio of exchange-competent fractions in the two states, and thus are related to differences in the free energy of microdomain unfolding.

  6. MAGIA - using atom interferometry to determine the Newtonian gravitational constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhler, J; Fattori, M; Petelski, T; Tino, G M [Dipartimento di Fisica and LENS, Universita di Firenze, INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland), Italy

    2003-04-01

    We describe our experiment MAGIA (misura accurata di G mediante interferometria atomica), in which we will use atom interferometry to perform a high precision measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Free-falling laser-cooled atoms in a vertical atomic fountain will be accelerated due to the gravitational potential of nearby source masses (SMs). Detecting this acceleration with techniques of Raman atom interferometry will enable us to assign a value to G. To suppress systematic effects we will implement a double-differential measurement. This includes launching two atom clouds in a gradiometer configuration and moving the SMs to different vertical positions. We briefly summarize the general idea of the MAGIA experiment and put it in the context of other high precision G-measurements. We present the current status of the experiment and report on analyses of the expected measurement accuracy.

  7. Mass counts: ERP correlates of non-adjacent dependency learning under different exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2011-01-10

    Miniature language learning can serve to model real language learning as high proficiency can be reached after very little exposure. In a previous study by Mueller et al. [18] German participants acquired non-adjacent syntactic dependencies by mere exposure to correct Italian sentences, but their ERP pattern differed from the one shown by native speakers. The present study follows up on that experiment using a similar design and material and is focused on two important issues: the influence of acoustic cues in the material and the impact of the learning procedure. With respect to the latter we compared alternating learning and test phases to a continuous learning and test phase. In addition, a splicing procedure eliminated prosodic cues in order to ensure that non-adjacent dependencies were learned instead of adjacent ones. Results for the continuous phase design showed a native-like biphasic ERP pattern, an N400 followed by a left-focused positivity. In the alternating design behavioural accuracy was lower and only an N400 was found. The results suggest an advantage of continuous learning phases for adult learners, possibly due to the absence of ungrammatical items present in the test phases in the alternating learning procedure. Furthermore, the replication of the earlier study with prosodically controlled material adds evidence to the general finding that syntactic non-adjacent dependencies can be learned from mere exposure to correct examples.

  8. Bohmian picture of Rydberg atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Ghose; Manoj K Samal; Animesh Datta

    2002-08-01

    Unlike the previous theoretical results based on standard quantum mechanics that established the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly elliptical.

  9. Point particle binary system with components of different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño M, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-05-01

    A study of binary systems composed of two point particles with different masses in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity with a Minkowski background is provided. The present paper generalizes a previous study by Bishop et al. The boundary conditions at the world tubes generated by the particles's orbits are explored, where the metric variables are decomposed in spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The power lost by the emission of gravitational waves is computed using the Bondi News function. The power found is the well-known result obtained by Peters and Mathews using a different approach. This agreement validates the approach considered here. Several multipole term contributions to the gravitational radiation field are also shown.

  10. Rapid determination of {sup 135}Cs and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio in environmental samples by single-column chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-02-18

    For source identification, measurement of {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio not only provides information apart from the detection of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, but it can also overcome the application limit that measurement of the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio has due to the short half-life of {sup 134}Cs (2.06 y). With the recent advancement of ICP-MS, it is necessary to improve the corresponding separation method for rapid and precise {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratio analysis. A novel separation and purification technique was developed for the new generation of triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). The simple chemical separation, incorporating ammonium molybdophosphate selective adsorption of Cs and subsequent single cation-exchange chromatography, removes the majority of isobaric and polyatomic interference elements. Subsequently, the ICP-MS/MS removes residual interference elements and eliminates the peak tailing effect of stable {sup 133}Cs, at m/z 134, 135, and 137. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to measure {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios and {sup 135}Cs activities in environmental samples (soil and sediment) for radiocesium source identification. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs analytical method was developed. • The separation procedure was based on AMP adsorption and one column chromatography. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs was measured by ICP-MS/MS. • Decontamination factors for Ba, Mo, Sb, and Sn were improved. • {sup 135}Cs/{sup 137}Cs atomic ratios of 0.341–0.351 were found in Japanese soil samples.

  11. Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, B.; W. Zhang; Schöllkopf, W.

    2016-01-01

    Since de Broglie’s work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie’s formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electri...

  12. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1989-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  13. Synthesis, molecular structures and ESI-mass studies of copper(I) complexes with ligands incorporating N, S and P donor atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarlok S Lobana; Arvinder Kaur; Rohit Sharma; Madhu Bala; Amanpreet K Jassal; Courtney E Duff; Jerry P Jasinski

    2015-10-01

    Equimolar reaction of copper(I) bromide with 2-thiouracil (tucH2) in acetonitrile-methanol formed a light yellow solid which on subsequent treatment with a mole of triphenyl phosphine (PPh3) in chloroform has yielded a sulfur-bridged dinuclear complex, [Cu2Br2 (-S-tucH2)2 (PPh3)2]·2CHCl3 1. A reaction of copper(I) bromide with two moles of 2,4-dithiouracil (dtucH2) in acetonitrile-methanol followed by addition of two moles of PPh 3 , designed to form [Cu(-S,S-dtuc)2 (PPh3)4 Cu] 2a, instead resulted in the formation of previously reported polymer, {CuBr(-S,S-dtucH2)(PPh3)}n 2. Reaction of copper(I) iodide with 2- thiouracil (tucH2) and PPh3 in 1:1:2 molar ratio (Cu:H2 tuc:PPh3) as well as that of copper(I) thiocyanate with pyridine-2-thione (pySH) or pyrimidine-2-thione (pymSH) and PPh3 in similar ratio, yielded an iodo-bridged unsymmetrical dimer, [(PPh3)2 (-I)2 Cu(PPh3)] 3 and thiocyanate bridged symmetrical dimer, [(PPh3)2 Cu(- N,S- SCN)2 Cu(PPh3)2] 4, respectively. In both the latter reactions, thio-ligands which initially bind to Cu metal center, are de-ligated by PPh3 ligand. Crystal data: 1, P21/c: 173(2) K, monoclinic, a, 13.4900(6); b, 17.1639(5); c, 12.1860(5) Å; , 111.807(5)° ; R, 5.10%; 2, Pbca: 296(2) K, orthorhombic, a, 10.859(3); b, 17.718(4); c, 23.713(6) Å; = = , 90° ; R, 4.60%; 3, P2 1 : 173(2) K, monoclinic, a, 10.4208(7); b, 20.6402(12); c, 11.7260(7) Å; , 105.601(7)° ; R, 3.97%; 4, P-1: 173(2) K, triclinic, a, 10.2035(4); b, 13.0192(5); c, 13.3586(6) Å; , 114.856(4); , 92.872(4)° ; , 100.720(4) ° ; R, 3.71%. ESI-mass studies reveal different fragments of complexes.

  14. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal significant differences in interaction between antimycin and conserved amino acid residues in bovine and bacterial bc1 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Oleksandr; Shinkarev, Vladimir P

    2011-02-02

    Antimycin A is the most frequently used specific and powerful inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We used all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the dynamic aspects of the interaction of antimycin A with the Q(i) site of the bacterial and bovine bc(1) complexes embedded in a membrane. The MD simulations revealed considerable conformational flexibility of antimycin and significant mobility of antimycin, as a whole, inside the Q(i) pocket. We conclude that many of the differences in antimycin binding observed in high-resolution x-ray structures may have a dynamic origin and result from fluctuations of protein and antimycin between multiple conformational states of similar energy separated by low activation barriers, as well as from the mobility of antimycin within the Q(i) pocket. The MD simulations also revealed a significant difference in interaction between antimycin and conserved amino acid residues in bovine and bacterial bc(1) complexes. The strong hydrogen bond between antimycin and conserved Asp-228 (bovine numeration) was observed to be frequently broken in the bacterial bc(1) complex and only rarely in the bovine bc(1) complex. In addition, the distances between antimycin and conserved His-201 and Lys-227 were consistently larger in the bacterial bc(1) complex. The observed differences could be responsible for a weaker interaction of antimycin with the bacterial bc(1) complex.

  15. Comparative oxidation state specific analysis of arsenic species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled-mass spectrometry and hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of methylarsonous acid (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAsIII) in the course of inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolism plays an important role in the adverse effects of chronic exposure to iAs. High-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass ...

  16. Maxillary anterior en masse retraction using different antero-posterior position of mini screw: a 3D finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, mini screws are used in orthodontic tooth movement to obtain maximum or absolute anchorage. They have gained popularity among orthodontists for en masse retraction of anterior teeth after first premolar extraction in maximum anchorage cases. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of anterior tooth movement during the time when force was applied from different mini screw placements to the anterior power arm with various heights. Methods A finite element method was used for modeling maxillary teeth and bone structure. Brackets, wire, and hooks were also designed for modeling. Two appropriate positions for mini screw in the mesial and distal of the second premolar were designed as fixed nodes. Forces were applied from the mini screw to four different levels of anterior hook height: 0, 3, 6, and 9 mm. Initial tooth movement in eight different conditions was analyzed and calculated with ANSYS software. Results Rotation of anterior dentition was decreased with a longer anterior power arm and the mesial placement of the mini screw. Bodily movements occurred with the 9-mm height of the power arm in both mini screw positions. Intrusion or extrusion of the anterior teeth segment depended on the level of the mini screw and the edge of the power arm on the Z axis. Conclusions According to the findings of this study, the best control in the sagittal plane during anterior en masse retraction was achieved by mesial placement of the mini screw and the 9-mm height of the anterior power arm. Where control in the vertical plane was concerned, distal placement of the mini screw with the 6-mm power arm height had minimum adverse effect on anterior dentition.

  17. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  18. Using mass spectrometry for identification of ABC transporters from Xanthomonas citri and mutants expressed in different growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, J.N.; Balan, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paes Leme, A.F. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Xanthomonas citri is a phytopathogenic bacterium that infects citrus plants causing significant losses for the economy. In our group, we have focused on the identification and characterization of ABC transport proteins of this bacterium, in order to determinate their function for growth in vitro and in vivo, during infection. ABC transporters represent one of the largest families of proteins, which transport since small molecules as ions up to oligopeptides and sugars. In prokaryotic cells many works have reported the ABC transport function in pathogenesis, resistance, biofilm formation, infectivity and DNA repair, but until our knowledge, there is no data related to these transporters and X. citri. So, In order to determinate which transporters are expressed in X. citri, we started a proteomic analysis based on mono and bi-dimensional gels associated to mass spectrometry analyses. After growing X. citri and two different mutants deleted for ssuA and nitA genes in LB and minimum media, cellular extracts were obtained and used for preparation of mono and bi-dimensional gels. Seven bands covering the expected mass of ABC transporter components (20 kDa to 50 kDa) in SDS-PAGE were cut off the gel, treated with trypsin and submitted to the MS for protein identification. The results of 2D gels were good enough and will serve as a standard for development of similar experiments in large scale. (author)

  19. Body Mass Index in Different Dementia Disorders: Results from the Swedish Dementia Quality Registry (SveDem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Faxén-Irving

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most patients with dementia lose body weight over the course of the disease and have a lower body mass index (BMI than subjects with normal cognition. Aims: To examine body mass index and how it correlates with cognitive status, age and gender in patients with different dementia disorders. Materials and Methods: Data from newly diagnosed dementia patients in the Swedish Dementia Quality Registry (SveDem and recorded information about age, gender, cognitive status and BMI was analyzed using independent samples t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Results: A total of 12,015 patients, 7,121 females and 4,894 males were included in the study. The average BMI was 24. More than a quarter of the patients had a BMI of Conclusion: At the time of diagnosis, patients with various dementia disorders had a BMI within the normal range. However, a significant number had a BMI in a lower, suboptimal range for older persons stressing the need for nutritional assessment as part of the dementia work up. Further analyses with longitudinal follow-up are needed to investigate BMI changes over time.

  20. Role of the atom-atom scattering length and of symmetrization in unidimensional ultracold atom-diatom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quemener, G.; Launay, J.M. [Rennes-1 Univ., Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, 35 (France); Quemener, G. [Nevada Las Vegas niv., Dept. of Chemistry, NV (United States); Honvault, P. [University of Franche-Comte, Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The role of the atom-atom scattering length and of the symmetrization in ultracold atom-diatom collisions in one dimension is presented. For an ultracold atom-diatom collision and for a diatomic molecule in its highest vibrational state, inelastic rate coefficients vanish for a system composed of fermionic atoms as the atom-atom scattering length increases whereas they do not for a system composed of bosonic atoms. The differences come from the symmetrization of the wavefunction of the systems. We explain these differences by comparing the shape of the effective potentials of the atom-diatom approach. For the fermionic system, we use a zero-range interaction to model the adiabatic energies and we give a lower estimate of the atom-diatom scattering length as a function of the atom-atom scattering length. (authors)

  1. Extremely deep profiling analysis of the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) GaAs layers within power PIN diodes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Folomin, P. I.; Gritsenko, A. B.; Kryukov, V. L.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new opportunity to analyze the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) epitaxial GaAs layers by SIMS with lateral imaging of the cross section of a structure is demonstrated. The standard geometry of ldepth analysis turns out to be less informative owing to material redeposition from the walls of a crater to its floor occurring when the crater depth reaches several micrometers. The profiles of concentration of doping impurities Te and Zn and concentrations of Al and major impurities in PIN diode layers are determined down to a depth of 130 μm. The element sensitivity is at the level of 1016 at/cm3 (typical for depth analysis at a TOF.SIMS-5 setup), and the resolution is twice the diameter of the probing beam of Bi ions. The possibility of enhancing the depth resolution and the element sensitivity of the proposed analysis method is discussed.

  2. Atomic Coherence in the Micromaser Injected with Slow V-type Three-State Atoms: Emission Probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Ming; LIANG Wen-Qing; XIE Sheng-Wu

    2001-01-01

    The effects of atomic coherence on the single-mode two-photon rnicromaser injected with slow V-type three-state atoms are studied for the first time. It is shown that the atomic coherence can modify the atomic emission probability. The effects of the atomic centre-of-mass momentum, the cavity length and other parameters are also studied.

  3. A comparative evaluation of different ionic liquids for arsenic species separation and determination in wine varietals by liquid chromatography - hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Grijalba, Alexander; Fiorentini, Emiliano F; Martinez, Luis D; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2016-09-02

    The application of different ionic liquids (ILs) as modifiers for chromatographic separation and determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) species in wine samples, by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection (RP-HPLC-HG-AFS) was studied in this work. Several factors influencing the chromatographic separation of the As species, such as pH of the mobile phase, buffer solution concentration, buffer type, IL concentration and length of alkyl groups in ILs were evaluated. The complete separation of As species was achieved using a C18 column in isocratic mode with a mobile phase composed of 0.5% (v/v) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl) and 5% (v/v) methanol at pH 8.5. A multivariate methodology was used to optimize the variables involved in AFS detection of As species after they were separated by HPLC. The ILs showed remarkable performance for the separation of As species, which was obtained within 18min with a resolution higher than 0.83. The limits of detection for As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA were 0.81, 0.89, 0.62 and 1.00μg As L(-1). The proposed method was applied for As speciation analysis in white and red wine samples originated from different grape varieties.

  4. Finite-volume effects in the evaluation of the K_L - K_S mass difference

    CERN Document Server

    Christ, N H; Sachrajda, C T

    2014-01-01

    The RBC and UKQCD collaborations have recently proposed a procedure for computing the K_L-K_S mass difference. A necessary ingredient of this procedure is the calculation of the (non-exponential) finite-volume corrections relating the results obtained on a finite lattice to the physical values. This requires a significant extension of the techniques which were used to obtain the Lellouch-Luscher factor, which contains the finite-volume corrections in the evaluation of non-leptonic kaon decay amplitudes. We review the status of our study of this issue and, although a complete proof is still being developed, suggest the form of these corrections for general volumes and a strategy for taking the infinite-volume limit. The general result reduces to the known corrections in the special case when the volume is tuned so that there is a two-pion state degenerate with the kaon.

  5. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  6. Mapping of magnesium and of different protein fragments in sea urchin teeth via secondary ion mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, J S; Stock, S R; Veis, A

    2006-07-01

    Mature portions of sea urchin are comprised of a complex array of reinforcing elements yet are single crystals of high and very high Mg calcite. How a relatively poor structural material (calcite) can produce mechanically competent structures is of great interest. In teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we recorded high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) maps of Mg, Ca ,and specific amino acid fragments of mineral-related proteins including aspartic acid (Asp). SIMS revealed strong colocalization of Asp residues with very high Mg. Demineralized specimens showed serine localization on membranes between crystal elements and reduced Mg and aspartic acid signals, further emphasizing colocalization of very high Mg with ready soluble Asp-rich protein(s). The association of Asp with nonequilibrium, very high magnesium calcite provides insight to the makeup of the macromolecules involved in the growth of two different composition calcites and the fundamental process of biomineralization.

  7. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  8. Comparative analysis of different plant oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Annamaria; Héberger, Károly; Forgács, Esther

    2002-11-01

    Different vegetable oil samples (almond, avocado, corngerm, grapeseed, linseed, olive, peanut, pumpkin seed, soybean, sunflower, walnut, wheatgerm) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. A gradient elution technique was applied using acetone-acetonitrile eluent systems on an ODS column (Purospher, RP-18e, 125 x 4 mm, 5 microm). Identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was based on the pseudomolecular ion [M+1]+ and the diacylglycerol fragments. The positional isomers of triacylglycerol were identified from the relative intensities of the [M-RCO2]+ fragments. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) as a common multivariate mathematical-statistical calculation was successfully used to distinguish the oils based on their TAG composition. LDA showed that 97.6% of the samples were classified correctly.

  9. Nrf2 regulates mass accrual and the antioxidant endogenous response in bone differently depending on the sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gretel Gisela; Cregor, Meloney; McAndrews, Kevin; Morales, Cynthya Carolina; McCabe, Linda Doyle; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Burr, David; Weaver, Connie; Bellido, Teresita

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic mechanism underling the loss of bone mass and strength with aging and other conditions leading to osteoporosis. The transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) plays a central role in activating the cellular response to ROS. Here, we examined the endogenous response of bone regulated by Nrf2, and its relationship with bone mass and architecture in the male and female murine skeleton. Young (3 month-old) and old (15 month-old) Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice of either sex exhibited the expected reduction in Nrf2 mRNA expression compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Nrf2 deletion did not lead to compensatory increase in Nrf1 or Nrf3, other members of this transcription factor family; and instead, Nrf1 expression was lower in KO mice. Compared to the respective WT littermate controls, female KO mice, young and old, exhibited lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes; young male KO mice, displayed lower expression of detoxifying enzymes but not antioxidant enzymes; and old male KO mice showed no differences in either detoxifying or antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, old male WT mice exhibited lower Nrf2 levels, and consequently lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, compared to old female WT mice. These endogenous antioxidant responses lead to delayed rate of bone acquisition in female KO mice and higher bone acquisition in male KO mice as quantified by DXA and μCT, demonstrating that Nrf2 is required for full bone accrual in the female skeleton but unnecessary and even detrimental in the male skeleton. Therefore, Nrf2 regulates the antioxidant endogenous response and bone accrual differently depending on sex and age. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that target Nrf2 could be developed to enhance the endogenous antioxidant response in a sex- and age-selective manner. PMID:28152064

  10. Comparing momentum and mass (aerosol source function) fluxes for the North Atlantic and the European Arctic using different parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Iwona; Piskozub, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed has a disproportionate role in the forming of the climate as well it is important part in calculate of the air-sea interaction thanks which we can study climate change. It influences on mass, momentum and energy fluxes and the standard way of parametrizing those fluxes is use this variable. However, the very functions used to calculate fluxes from winds have evolved over time and still have large differences (especially in the case of aerosol sources function). As we have shown last year at the EGU conference (PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1) and in recent public article (OSD 12,C1262-C1264,2015) there is a lot of uncertainties in the case of air-sea CO2 fluxes. In this study we calculated regional and global mass and momentum fluxes based on several wind speed climatologies. To do this we use wind speed from satellite data in FluxEngine software created within OceanFlux GHG Evolution project. Our main area of interest is European Arctic because of the interesting air-sea interaction physics (six-monthly cycle, strong wind and ice cover) but because of better data coverage we have chosen the North Atlantic as a study region to make it possible to compare the calculated fluxes to measured ones. An additional reason was the importance of the area for the North Hemisphere climate, and especially for Europe. The study is related to an ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and is meant to be part of a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). We have used a modified version FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) for calculating trace gas fluxes to derive two purely wind driven (at least in the simplified form used in their parameterizations) fluxes. The modifications included removing gas transfer velocity formula from the toolset and replacing it with the respective formulas for momentum transfer and mass (aerosol production

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila Salim Al Hashmi; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L (T. vulgaris) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor. Methanol crude extracts of T. vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained. Results: Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds. Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important. Further, the T. vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation. The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T. vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T. vulgaris are biologically active molecules. Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T. vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of different organic crude extracts from the local medicinal plant of Thymus vulgaris L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laila; Salim; Al; Hashmi; Mohammad; Amzad; Hossain; Afaf; Mohammed; Weli; Qasim; Al-Riyami; Jamal; Nasser; Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To isolate and analyze the chemical composition in different crude extracts of from the leaves of locally grown of Thymus vulgaris L(T.vulgaris)by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).Methods:The shade dried leaves powder was extracted with methanol by using Soxhlet extractor.Methanol crude extracts of T.vulgaris and the derived fractions of hexane,chloroform,ethyl acetate and butanol were obtained.Results:Qualitative analyses of various organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris by using GC-MS showed that there were different types of high and low molecular weight compounds.Most of the isolated and identified compounds by GC-MS in the crude extracts are basically biologically important.Further,the T.vulgaris leaf possessed certain characteristics that can be ascribed to cultivation on a domestic plantation.The crude extracts were prepared from the powder leaves of T.vulgaris for respective compounds can be chosen on the basis of above GC-MS analysis.Conclusions:All the major compounds were identified and characterized by spectroscopic method in different organic crude extracts of T.vulgaris are biologically active molecules.Thus the identification of a good number of compounds in various crude extracts of T.vulgaris might have some ecological role.

  13. Evaluations of energy coefficients of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N

    2004-01-01

    A mass fit to the liquid drop model is presented. Coefficients of the volume, surface, coulomb, asymmetry and pairing energy terms of the semiemirical Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been determined by furnishing best fit to the observed mass excesses. Different sets of the weighting parameters for liquid drop model Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been obtained from minimizations of chisquare and mean square deviation. The recent exerimental and estimated mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table have been used for the least square fitting procedure. Some implications of the modifications of parameters have been discussed.

  14. The History of Nuclidic Masses and of their Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Audi, G

    2006-01-01

    This paper is centered on some historical aspects of nuclear masses, and their relations to major discoveries. Besides nuclear reactions and decays, the heart of mass measurements lies in mass spectrometry, the early history of which will be reviewed first. I shall then give a short history of the mass unit which has not always been defined as one twelfth of the carbon-12 mass. When combining inertial masses from mass spectrometry with energy differences obtained in reactions and decays, the conversion factor between the two is essential. The history of the evaluation of the nuclear masses (actually atomic masses) is only slightly younger than that of the mass measurements themselves. In their modern form, mass evaluations can be traced back to 1955. Prior to 1955, several tables were established, the oldest one in 1935.

  15. Degradation products of different water content sevoflurane in carbon dioxide absorbents by gas chromatogpy-mass spectromerty analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; LI Yi-cong; ZHANG Yi-nan; LIU Shu-jie; ZHOU Yan-mei; WANG Chang-song; GONG Yu-lei; LI En-you

    2011-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane is currently used as a volatile inhalation anesthetic with many clinical advantages. A representative degradation product,compound A,was quantitatively measured to investigate whether there are different reactions between two kinds of water content sevoflurane formulations with different carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents.Methods A closed-circle breathe bag with the Dr(a)ger Fabius GS anesthesia apparatus was used as an artificial rubber lung. The experiments were grouped according to different sevoflurane formulations:group A:higher-water sevoflurane (Ultane);group B:lower-water sevoflurane (Sevoness). During the experiment,CO2 (200 ml/min) was continually perfused to keep the end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PETCO2)at 35-45 mmHg. The artificial ventilation was set to 6 L/min,and the breathing rate at 12 breaths/min. The circuit was operated with constant fresh gas flow rate (1 L/min) and the sevoflurane concentration was kept at 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 240 minutes. At 0,10,20,30,60,90,120,180 and 240 minutes,gas was collected from the Y-piece. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)was used to quantify the major degradation product,compound A,with different water content sevoflurane. PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentration,and the temperature of the canister were continuously monitored during the experiment.Results There were no significant differences in PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentrations between the two groups.Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus produced the highest concentrations of compound A compared with other sodalimes,and Sevoness in Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus generated more compound A than Ultane (P <0.05). There were significant differences in the peak and average compound A concentrations between Ultane and Sevoness with Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus (P <0.05),while the compound A concentration produced by Sodasorb grase and sofonolime in the two groups showed no significant difference (P >0.05). In the same group,the peak and

  16. {sup 34}S determination by using mass spectrometry (% in atoms) of s-sulfate available in soil samples; Determinacao de {sup 34} S por espectrometria de massas (% em atomos), do s-sulfato disponivel em amostras de solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossete, Alessandra L.R.M.; Bendassolli, Jose A.; Trivelin, Paulo C.O.; Bicudo, Milena; Duarte, Debora C.S.; Teixeira, Gleuber M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis

    2002-07-01

    S{sup 34} determination in soil samples is used in agronomic investigations, involving the use of {sup 34} S tracer in sulfur cycle studies. The tests were accomplished with clay soil in two treatments: T1: fertilized with 48.78 mg S kg{sup -1} and abundance of 9.12 atom % {sup 34}S, and T2: control, without S fertilization. The experiment was carried out in pots with 7 kg of soil. The test plant was the soybean. The extraction of residual SO{sub 4}{sup -2} using Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution as extractor was done in soil samples from the treatments T1 and T2, after the harvesting of soybean plants. The extract was filtered and the S-SO{sub 4}{sup -2} concentration was determined by turbidimetric method. After extraction, SO{sub 4}{sup -2} was precipitated in the BaSO{sub 4} form by adding to the solution BaCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O. Finally, SO{sub 2} was obtained on high line vacuous, in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SiO{sub 2} presence, at 900 deg C temperature. {sup 34}S determination (atom %) in the SO{sub 2} was carried out at the mass spectrometer ATLAS-MAT model CH4. The average of concentrations of S-SO{sub 4} available in T1 and T2 were 37.3{+-}1.7 and 15.6{+-}2.0 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. {sup 34} S abundance were 6.04{+-}0.25 and 4.56{+-}0.02 atom %, respectively, for the treatments T1 and T2. (author)

  17. Long-term monitoring of PKS 2155$-$304 with ATOM and H.E.S.S.: investigation of optical/$\\gamma$-ray correlations in different spectral states

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Dalton, M; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadsch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Rob, L; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy $\\gamma$-ray ($>$200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155$-$304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy $\\gamma$-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states,and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy $\\gamma$-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which see...

  18. Effect of Atomic-Scale Differences on the Self-Assembly of Thiophene-based Polycatenars in Liquid Crystalline and Organogel States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Balaram; Vaisakh, V M; Nair, Geetha G; Rao, D S Shankar; Prasad, S Krishna; Sudhakar, Achalkumar Ammathnadu

    2016-12-05

    Two series of polycatenars are reported that contain a central thiophene moiety connected to two substituted oxadiazole or thiadiazole units. The number, position, and length of the peripheral chains connected to these molecules were varied. The oxadiazole-based polycatenars exhibited columnar phases with rectangular and hexagonal or oblique symmetry, whereas the thiadiazole-based polycatenars exhibited columnar phases with rectangular and/or hexagonal symmetry. All of the compounds exhibited bright emission in the solution and thin-film states. Two oxadiazole-based molecules and one thiadiazole-based molecule exhibited supergelation ability in hydrocarbon solvents, which is mainly supported by attractive π-π interactions. These gels showed aggregation-induced enhanced emission, which is of high technological importance for applications in solid-state emissive displays. X-ray diffraction studies of the xerogel fibers of oxadiazole-based polycatenars revealed a columnar rectangular organization, whereas a hexagonal columnar arrangement was observed for thiadiazole-based polycatenars. Rheological measurements carried out on the samples quantitatively confirmed the formation of gels and showed that these gels are mechanically robust. The impact of an atomic-scale difference (oxygen to sulfur, <2 % of the molecular weight) on the self-assembly and the macroscopic properties of those self-assembled structures are clearly visualized.

  19. On the difference between breakdown and quench voltages of argon plasma and its relation to $4p-4s$ atomic state transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Using a relaxation oscillator circuit, breakdown ($V_{\\mathrm{BD}}$) and quench ($V_{\\mathrm{Q}}$) voltages of a DC discharge microplasma between two needle probes are measured. High resolution modified Paschen curves are obtained for argon microplasmas including a quench voltage curve representing the voltage at which the plasma turns off. It is shown that, for a point to point microgap (e.g. the microgap between two needle probes) which describes many realistic microdevices, neither Paschen's law applies nor field emission is noticeable. Although normally $V_{\\mathrm{BD}}>V_{\\mathrm{Q}}$, it is observed that depending on environmental parameters of argon, such as pressure and the driving circuitry, plasma can exist in a different state with equal $V_{\\mathrm{BD}}$ and $V_{\\mathrm{Q}}$. Using emission line spectroscopy, it is shown that $V_{\\mathrm{BD}}$ and $V_{\\mathrm{Q}}$ are equal if the atomic excitation by the electric field dipole moment dominantly leads to one of the argon's metastable states ($4P_{5...

  20. On the difference between breakdown and quench voltages of argon plasma and its relation to 4p–4s atomic state transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forati, Ebrahim, E-mail: forati@ieee.org; Piltan, Shiva; Sievenpiper, Dan, E-mail: dsievenpiper@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Using a relaxation oscillator circuit, breakdown (V{sub BD}) and quench (V{sub Q}) voltages of a DC discharge microplasma between two needle probes are measured. High resolution modified Paschen curves are obtained for argon microplasmas including a quench voltage curve representing the voltage at which the plasma turns off. It is shown that for a point to point microgap (e.g., the microgap between two needle probes) which describes many realistic microdevices, neither Paschen's law applies nor field emission is noticeable. Although normally V{sub BD} > V{sub Q,} it is observed that depending on environmental parameters of argon, such as pressure and the driving circuitry, plasma can exist in a different state with equal V{sub BD} and V{sub Q.} Using emission line spectroscopy, it is shown that V{sub BD} and V{sub Q} are equal if the atomic excitation by the electric field dipole moment dominantly leads to one of the argon's metastable states (4P{sub 5} in our study)

  1. End-Functionalized Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide with d-Glucosamine through Different Initiator from C-1 and C-2 Positions via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Cui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regioselective modification of d-glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose, GA through C-1 and C-2 positions to synthesized thermo-responsive D-Glucosamine-poly(N-iso-propylacrylamide (PNIPAM via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was investigated for the first time. Two different schemes of the synthesis for GA derivatives (GA-PNIPAM (i and (ii with well-defined structures using 3,4,6-tri-o-acetyl-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-β-d-glucopyranose and 1,3,4,6-tetra-o-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose intermediates were examined. The GA-PNIPAM (ii had an amino at C-2 position, while there was a hydroxyl in GA-PNIPAM (i at this position. Both the resulting oligomers (i and (ii had a narrow dispersity, and no significant cytotoxic response of copolymers (i and (ii was observed in the cell line over the concentration range from 0.1 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL at any of the exposure times. In addition, it was discovered that GA-PNIPAM (i and (ii inhibited the proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells HepG2 as the concentration and the time changed, and the inhibitory activity of polymer (ii was higher than that of he (i. The results suggest that the GA-PNIPAM polymers show excellent biocompatibility in vitro.

  2. Contrasting effects of mass-flowering crops on bee pollination of hedge plants at different spatial and temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Haenke, Sebastian; Batáry, Péter; Jauker, Birgit; Báldi, András; Tscharntke, Teja; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Landscape-wide mass-flowering of oilseed rape (canola Brassica napus) can considerably affect wild bee communities and pollination success of wild plants. We aimed to assess the impact of oilseed rape on the pollination of wild plants and bee abundance during and after oilseed-rape bloom, including effects on crop-noncrop spillover at landscape and adjacent-field scales. We focused on two shrub species (hawthorn Crataegus spp., dog rose Rosa canina) and adjacent herb flowering in forest edges, connected hedges, and isolated hedges in Lower Saxony, Germany. We selected 35 landscape circles of 1 km radius, differing in the amount of oilseed rape; 18 were adjacent to oilseed rape and 17 to cereal fields, and we quantified bee density via pan traps at all sites. Adjacent oilseed rape positively affected fruit mass and seed number per fruit of simultaneously flowering hawthorn (no effect on dog rose, which flowers after the oilseed rape bloom). At the landscape scale, oilseed rape had a negative effect on bumble bee density in the hedges during flowering due to dilution of pollinators per unit area and the consequently intensified competition between oilseed rape and wild shrubs, but a positive effect after flowering when bees moved to the hedges, which still provided resources. In contrast, positive landscape-scale effects of oilseed rape were found throughout the season in forest edges, suggesting that edges support nesting activity and enhanced food resources. Our results show that oilseed rape effects on bee abundances and pollination success in seminatural habitats depend on the spatial and temporal scale considered and on the habitat type, the wild plant species, and the time of crop flowering. These scale-dependent positive and negative effects should be considered in evaluations of landscape-scale configuration and composition of crops. Food resources provided by mass-flowering crops should be most beneficial for landscape-wide enhancement of wild bee

  3. Densitometer-Specific Differences in the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Lumbar Spine Trabecular Bone Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Gillian; Berger, Claudie; Leslie, William D; Hans, Didier; Langsetmo, Lisa; Hanley, David A; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerrilyn C; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan R; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-12-26

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level texture measure derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images that predicts fractures independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Increased abdominal soft tissue in individuals with elevated body mass index (BMI) absorbs more X-rays during image acquisition for BMD measurement and must be accommodated by the TBS algorithm. We aimed to determine if the relationship between BMI and TBS varied between 2 major manufacturers' densitometers, because different densitometers accommodate soft tissues differently. We identified 1919 women and 811 men, participants of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, aged ≥40 yr with lumbar spine DXA scans acquired on GE Lunar (4 centers) or Hologic (3 centers) densitometers at year 10 of follow-up. TBS was calculated for L1-L4 (TBS iNsight® software, version 2.1). A significant negative correlation between TBS and BMI was observed when TBS measurements were performed on Hologic densitometers in men (Pearson r = -0.36, p Pearson r = -0.33, p correlations were not seen when TBS was measured on GE Lunar densitometers (Pearson r = 0.00 in men, Pearson r = -0.02 in women). Age-adjusted linear regression models confirmed significant interactions between BMI and densitometer manufacturer for both men and women (p correlations were observed between BMD and BMI on both Hologic and GE Lunar densitometers in men and women. In conclusion, BMI significantly affects TBS values in men and women when measured on Hologic but not GE Lunar densitometers. This finding has implications for clinical and research applications of TBS, especially when TBS is measured sequentially on DXA densitometers from different manufacturers or when results from different machines are pooled for analysis.

  4. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Body Mass Index and Prevalence of Obesity in School Children of Urumqi City, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-LI YAN; YU-JIAN ZHENG; JUN WU; SHU-FENG CHEN; XIAO-KAI TI; LING LI; XIAO-RUI LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of obesity and distribution of body mass index (BMI) in school children of four ethnic groups in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. Methods A total of 55 508 school children of Han, Hui, Uygur and Kazak nationalities aged 8-18 years were selected by a cluster sampling from a districts of Urumqi City for anthropometric measurement and demographic survey. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and distribution of body mass index (BMI) by gender, age, and nationality were analyzed and compared. Cutoff points of BMI for defining obesity and overweight were based on the proposal set by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to assess age-, gender- and nationality-specific prevalence of obesity and overweight. Results Prevalence of obesity was 5.34%, 6.78%, 3.39 %, and 1.22% for boys and 2.61%, 1.83%, 1.78%, and 1.40% for girls of Han, Hui, Uygur and Kazak nationalities, respectively. Prevalence of obesity tended to decrease with age overall, whereas that of overweight increased with age in Han children. Conclusions Prevalence of obesity in school children in Urumqi varies with their nationalities and is lower than that of an average national level and a level of western countries. Obesity is more prevalent in boys than in girls of Urmuqi overall, which is just the opposite in Kazak children. Han boys and Hui girls have the highest prevalence of obesity and Kazak boys and girls have the lowest ones. Prevalence of obesity decreases with age, but that of overweight shows a different trend.

  6. Difference in Postural Control during Quiet Standing between Young Children and Adults: Assessment with Center of Mass Acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Oba

    Full Text Available The development of upright postural control has often been investigated using time series of center of foot pressure (COP, which is proportional to the ankle joint torque (i.e., the motor output of a single joint. However, the center of body mass acceleration (COMacc, which can reflect joint motions throughout the body as well as multi-joint coordination, is useful for the assessment of the postural control strategy at the whole-body level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate children's postural control during quiet standing by using the COMacc. Ten healthy children and 15 healthy young adults were instructed to stand upright quietly on a force platform with their eyes open or closed. The COMacc as well as the COP in the anterior-posterior direction was obtained from ground reaction force measurement. We found that both the COMacc and COP could clearly distinguish the difference between age groups and visual conditions. We also found that the sway frequency of COMacc in children was higher than that in adults, for which differences in biomechanical and/or neural factors between age groups may be responsible. Our results imply that the COMacc can be an alternative force platform measure for assessing developmental changes in upright postural control.

  7. Difference in Postural Control during Quiet Standing between Young Children and Adults: Assessment with Center of Mass Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Naoko; Sasagawa, Shun; Yamamoto, Akio; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    The development of upright postural control has often been investigated using time series of center of foot pressure (COP), which is proportional to the ankle joint torque (i.e., the motor output of a single joint). However, the center of body mass acceleration (COMacc), which can reflect joint motions throughout the body as well as multi-joint coordination, is useful for the assessment of the postural control strategy at the whole-body level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate children's postural control during quiet standing by using the COMacc. Ten healthy children and 15 healthy young adults were instructed to stand upright quietly on a force platform with their eyes open or closed. The COMacc as well as the COP in the anterior-posterior direction was obtained from ground reaction force measurement. We found that both the COMacc and COP could clearly distinguish the difference between age groups and visual conditions. We also found that the sway frequency of COMacc in children was higher than that in adults, for which differences in biomechanical and/or neural factors between age groups may be responsible. Our results imply that the COMacc can be an alternative force platform measure for assessing developmental changes in upright postural control.

  8. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  9. The Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Event-Associated Coronal Mass Ejections Reported in Different CME Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Ian G; Cane, Hilary V

    2015-01-01

    We compare estimates of the speed and width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in several catalogs for the CMEs associated with ~200 solar energetic particle (SEP) events in 2006-2013 that included 25 MeV protons. The catalogs used are: CDAW, CACTUS, SEEDS and CORIMP, all derived from observations by the LASCO coronagraphs on the SOHO spacecraft, the CACTUS catalog derived from the COR2 coronagraphs on the STEREO-A and -B spacecraft, and the DONKI catalog, which uses observations from SOHO and the STEREO spacecraft. We illustrate how, for this set of events, CME parameters can differ considerably in each catalog. The well-known correlation between CME speed and proton event intensity is shown to be similar for most catalogs, but this is largely because it is determined by a few large particle events associated with fast CMEs, and small events associated with slow CMEs. Intermediate particle events "shuffle" in position when speeds from different catalogs are used. Quadrature spacecraft CME speeds do not improve...

  10. Dark forces and atomic electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibnejad, Heman; Derevianko, Andrei

    2015-02-01

    Postulating the existence of a finite-mass mediator of T,P-odd coupling between atomic electrons and nucleons, we consider its effect on the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of diamagnetic atoms. We present both numerical and analytical analysis for such mediator-induced EDMs and compare it with EDM results for the conventional contact interaction. Based on this analysis, we derive limits on coupling strengths and carrier masses from experimental limits on EDM of the 199Hg atom.

  11. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Coupling concentric and eccentric muscle contractions appears to be important in the development of muscle strength and hypertrophy. The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) currently used aboard the International Space Station does not seem to be as effective as free weight training in ambulatory subjects and has not completely protected against muscular deconditioning due to space flight. The lack of protection during space flight could be caused by iRED's proportionally lower eccentric resistance (60-70%) compared to concentric resistance. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training using five levels of eccentric resistance on muscle strength and lean tissue mass. METHODS: Forty untrained males (34.9 +/- 7 yrs, 80.9 +/- 9.8 kg, 178.2 +/- 7.1 cm; mean +/- SD) completed three 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength tests for both the supine leg press (LP) and supine heel raise (HR) prior to training; subjects were matched for LP strength and randomly assigned to one of five training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups during training, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%, or 138% of concentric). Subjects trained 3 d / wk for 8 wks using a periodized program for LP and HR based on percentages of the highest pre-training 1-RM. LP and HR 1-RM and leg lean mass (LLM; assessed by DEXA) were measured pre- and post-training. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all dependent measures. Tukey's post hoc tests were used to test significant main effects. Within group pre- to post-training changes were compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. Statistical significance was set a priori at p 0.05. All data are expressed as mean +/- SE. RESULTS: LP 1-RM strength increased significantly in all groups pre- to post-training. The 138% group increase (20.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly greater than the 0% (7.9 +/- 2.8%), 33% (7.7 +/- 4.6%), and 66% (7.5 +/- 4

  12. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, G.; Guilbaud, M.; Onillon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and the pairing and shell energies of the Thomas-Fermi model have been studied and compared. They include or not the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, the curvature energy, different forms of the Wigner term and powers of the relative neutron excess I=(N-Z)/A. Their coefficients have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses (G. Audi et al. (2003) [1]). The Coulomb diffuseness correction Z/A term or the charge exchange correction Z/A term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately but their coefficients are very unstable. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV. A large equivalent rms radius ( r=1.22-1.24 fm) or a shorter central radius may be used. An rms deviation of 0.54 MeV can be reached between the experimental and theoretical masses. The remaining differences come probably mainly from the determination of the shell and pairing energies. Mass predictions of selected expressions have been compared to 161 new experimental masses and the correct agreement allows to provide extrapolations to masses of 656 selected exotic nuclei.

  13. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  14. Structural analysis of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by [sup 1]H-N. M. R. spectroscopy and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, W.S.; Halbeek, H. van; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

    1990-01-01

    A method to determine rapidly the identities and proportions of the oligosaccharide repeating-units in plant cell-wall xyloglucans by 1D [sup 1]H-N.M.R. spectroscopy was developed. Six of the most commonly found xyloglucan oligosaccharide subunits (including three subunits that had not been fully characterized previously) were prepared by endo-(I [yields] 4)-[beta]-D-glucanase digestion of xyloglucans from various plant species. The oligosaccharides were reduced to the corresponding oligoglycosyl-alditols, purified, and characterized by glycosyl composition and linkage analysis, [sup 1]H-N.M.R. spectroscopy, and f.a.b.-mass spectrometry. Correlations between the [sup 1]H-N.M.R. spectra and the structures of the oligoglycosyl-alditols can be used to identify oligoglycosyl-alditols derived from xyloglucans of unknown structure. The identities and relative amounts of the oligosaccharide subunits of xyloglucans isolated from tamarind seed and rapeseed hulls were determined on this basis.

  15. International Conference on Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    CERN Document Server

    Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...

  16. The Impact of Different Amounts of Calcium Intake on Bone Mass and Arterial Calcification in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Aikawa, Yuki; Kakutani, Yuya; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced estrogen secretion and low calcium (Ca) intake are risk factors for bone loss and arterial calcification in female rodents. To evaluate the effects of Ca intake at different amounts on bone mass changes and arterial calcification, 8-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomly placed in ovariectomized (OVX) control and OVX with vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) treatment groups. The OVX with VDN rats were then divided into six groups to receive different amounts of Ca in their diets: 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, or 2.4% Ca. After 8 wk of administration, low Ca intake groups with 0.01% and 0.1% Ca diets had significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mechanical properties as compared with those of the other groups, whereas high Ca intake groups with 1.2% and 2.4% Ca diets showed no differences as compared with the 0.6% Ca intake group. For both the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca intake groups, Ca levels in their thoracic arteries were significantly higher as compared with those of the 0.6% Ca diet group, and that was highly correlated with serum PTH levels. An increase in relative BMP-2 mRNA expression in the arterial tissues of the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca diet groups was also observed. These results suggested that extremely low Ca intake during periods of estrogen deficiency may be a possible risk for the complications of reduced BMD and arterial calcification and that extremely high Ca intake may promote arterial calcification with no changes in BMD.

  17. Atom lens without chromatic aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Maxim A; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-01-01

    We propose a lens for atoms with reduced chromatic aberrations and calculate its focal length and spot size. In our scheme a two-level atom interacts with a near-resonant standing light wave formed by two running waves of slightly different wave vectors, and a far-detuned running wave propagating perpendicular to the standing wave. We show that within the Raman-Nath approximation and for an adiabatically slow atom-light interaction, the phase acquired by the atom is independent of the incident atomic velocity.

  18. Linear Atom Guides: Guiding Rydberg Atoms and Progress Toward an Atom Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Mallory A.

    In this thesis, I explore a variety of experiments within linear, two-wire, magnetic atom guides. Experiments include guiding of Rydberg atoms; transferring between states while keeping the atoms contained within the guide; and designing, constructing, and testing a new experimental apparatus. The ultimate goal of the atom guiding experiments is to develop a continuous atom laser. The guiding of 87Rb 59D5/2 Rydberg atoms is demonstrated. The evolution of the atoms is driven by the combined effects of dipole forces acting on the center-of-mass degree of freedom as well as internal-state transitions. Time delayed microwave and state-selective field ionization, along with ion detection, are used to investigate the evolution of the internal-state distribution as well as the Rydberg atom motion while traversing the guide. The observed decay time of the guided-atom signal is about five times that of the initial state. A population transfer between Rydberg states contributes to this lengthened lifetime, and also broadens the observed field ionization spectrum. The population transfer is attributed to thermal transitions and, to a lesser extent, initial state-mixing due to Rydberg-Rydberg collisions. Characteristic signatures in ion time-of-flight signals and spatially resolved images of ion distributions, which result from the coupled internal-state and center-of-mass dynamics, are discussed. Some groups have used a scheme to make BECs where atoms are optically pumped from one reservoir trap to a final state trap, irreversibly transferring those atoms from one trap to the other. In this context, transfer from one guided ground state to another is studied. In our setup, before the atoms enter the guide, they are pumped into the | F = 1, mF = --1> state. Using two repumpers, one tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 0 transition (R10) and the other tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 2 transition (R12), the atoms are pumped between these guided states. Magnetic reflections within the guide

  19. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  20. Radio-loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 under a different perspective: a revised black hole mass estimate from optical spectropolarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Ranieri D; Robinson, Andrew; Laor, Ari; Behar, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Several studies indicate that radio-loud (RL) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are produced only by the most massive black holes (BH), $M_{\\rm BH} \\sim 10^8$-$10^{10} M_\\odot$. This idea has been challenged by the discovery of RL Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (RL NLSy1), having estimated masses of $M_{\\rm BH}$$\\sim$$10^6$-$10^7$ M$_\\odot$. However, these low $M_{\\rm BH}$ estimates might be due to projection effects. Spectropolarimetry allows us to test this possibility by looking at RL NLSy1s under a different perspective, i.e., from the viewing angle of the scattering material. We here report the results of a pilot study of VLT spectropolarimetric observations of the RL NLSy1 PKS 2004-447. Its polarization properties are remarkably well reproduced by models in which the scattering occurs in an equatorial structure surrounding its broad line region, seen close to face-on. In particular, we detect a polarized H$\\alpha$ line with a width of $\\sim$ 9,000 km s$^{-1}$, $\\sim 6$ times broader than the width seen in direct ligh...

  1. Circulating levels of irisin in patients with anorexia nervosa and different stages of obesity--correlation with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Hofmann, Tobias; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Elbelt, Ulf; Kobelt, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F

    2013-01-01

    Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6±0.7 kg/m(2)), normal weight controls (22.6±0.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9±1.2 kg/m(2)), 40-50 (44.9±1.1 kg/m(2)) and >50 (70.1±2.7 kg/m(2), n=8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (p0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects.

  2. Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Robin; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Smith, Brenda J; Altman, Stephanie; Tou, Janet C

    2011-09-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) consumption has been reported to improve bone health. However, sources of ω-3 PUFAs differ in the type of fatty acids and structural form. The study objective was to determine the effect of various ω-3 PUFAs sources on bone during growth. Young (age 28d) female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil (CO) or ω-3 PUFA rich, flaxseed (FO), krill (KO), menhaden (MO), salmon (SO) or tuna (TO) for 8 weeks. Bone mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Bone turnover markers were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by calorimetric assays. Results showed that rats fed TO, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3) had higher (Pacid (ALA, 18:3ω-3), improved bone microarchitecture compared to rats fed CO or SO. Serum osteocalcin was higher (P=0.03) in rats fed FO compared to rats fed SO. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. The animal study results suggest consuming a variety of ω-3 PUFA sources to promote bone health during the growth stage.

  3. Estimation of Muscle Mass by Ultrasonography Differs between Observers and Life States of Models in Small Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer-Boutin, Pascal; Cortés, Pablo A; Milbergue, Myriam; Petit, Magali; Vézina, François

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be a valuable noninvasive method of measure of muscle size in birds, but validation of its use in birds as small as black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; 11 g) is scarce. The effect of observers and life state (dead or alive) of models used for calibration on measurement quality is also poorly documented. Using 31 dead and 22 live chickadees, linear regressions between ultrasound and dissection measurements of pectoral and thigh muscles were fitted and compared between five different observers. R(2) values varied greatly between observers and were generally weaker in live birds, ranging between 0.02 and 0.59, despite high repeatability of measurement. Using equations calculated from dead birds to estimate muscle mass of live birds yielded much higher measurement errors (9%-18%) than when using equations calculated from live birds (5%-8%). Our results suggest that with careful training and using only calibration from live birds, ultrasonography can be a useful but limited tool to estimate muscle size of birds as small as the black-capped chickadee.

  4. The collision between two hydrogen atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Hasi

    2013-01-01

    The electron-electron correlation term in two-atomic collision is the most important, most difficult term to obtain the effective interatomic potential. Generally the H and H collision is a four center problem. It is extremely difficult to compute the electron-electron correlation term to include the effect of exchange or antisymmetry between two system electrons exactly. All the two-atomic collision related theoretical data differ from each other due to its difference in approximating the electron-electron correlation term. I invent a trick to evaluate the term exactly. Earlier the positronium (Ps) and H system was easily approximated as a three center problem due to the light mass of Ps. My new code for H-H collision using the ab-initio and exact static-exchange model (SEM) can reproduce exactly the same data of Ps and H system just by using the appropriate atomic parameters. The success of the present trick makes the foundation of a big monument in cold and low energy atomic collision physics. The Feshbach...

  5. Weight gain in different periods of pregnancy and offspring's body mass index at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Schou; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age.......We investigated how average weekly gestational weight gain rates during three periods of pregnancy were related to the offspring's body mass index (BMI) at 7 years of age....

  6. Metabolic Profiling with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Carbon-Nitrogen Status of Tobacco Leaves Across Different Planting Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Hu, Chunxiu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Zeng, Jun; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-05

    The interaction between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism can reflect plant growth status and environmental factors. Little is known regarding the connections between C-N metabolism and growing regions under field conditions. To comprehensively investigate the relationship in mature tobacco leaves, we established metabolomics approaches based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). Approximately 240 polar metabolites were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the growing region greatly influenced the metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves. A metabolic correlation network and related pathway maps were used to reveal the global overview of the alteration of C-N metabolism across three typical regions. In Yunnan, sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were closely correlated with amino acid pools. Henan tobacco leaves showed positive correlation between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates and C-rich secondary metabolism. In Guizhou, the proline and asparagine had significant links with TCA cycle intermediates and urea cycle, and antioxidant accumulation was observed in response to drought. These results demonstrate that combined analytical approaches have great potential to detect polar metabolites and provide information on C-N metabolism related to planting regional characteristics.

  7. Constituents of the essential oil from different brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum L by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Roudha Ali Al-Hashmi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahib

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this present study was to isolate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oils from two different imported brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum (clove) samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The two essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from two different brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum (clove) such as Guzal and Shahi clove samples using Clevenger type apparatus. Results: Eleven chemical components were identified in the essential oil isolated from Guzal clove imported from Indonesia. The isolated components representing 99.03% of the Guzal clove oil were identified as eugenol (51.51%), caryophyllene (36.20%), α- caryophyllene (4.26%), acetyleugenol (2.64%), carvacrol (2.42%), α-cubebene (0.77%) and thymol (0.42%) were the major components with some other minor components isolated from the same. About twenty two components representing 99.73% were identified within the essential oil isolated from the Shahi brand clove which was imported from India with the main components being eugenol (46.53%), caryophyllene (43.03%),α-caryophyllene (4.61%), aceteugenol (2.54%), copaene (0.80%), α-farnesene (0.72%), germacrene (0.43%) and δ-cadinene (0.27%). Conclusions: Both the isolated essential oils were found to be rich in eugenol and caryophyllene. The clove essential oil from Guzal and Shahi was found to be comparable in terms of its eugenol and caryophyllene contents. According to the above findings, it is suggested that both brands of clove are of similar quality.

  8. Speciation of arsenic in different types of nuts by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannamkumarath, Sasi S; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Caruso, Joseph A

    2004-03-24

    In this work the quantitative determination and analytical speciation of arsenic were undertaken in different types of nuts, randomly purchased from local markets. The hardness of the whole nuts and high lipid content made the preparation of this material difficult for analysis. The lack of sample homogeneity caused irreproducible results. To improve the precision of analysis, arsenic was determined separately in nut oil and in the defatted sample. The lipids were extracted from the ground sample with the two portions of a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2:1). The defatted material was dried and ground again, yielding a fine powder. The nut oil was obtained by combining the two organic extracts and by evaporating the solvents. The two nut fractions were microwave digested, and total arsenic was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results obtained for oils from different types of nuts showed element concentration in the range 2.9-16.9 ng g(-)(1). Lower levels of arsenic were found in defatted material (pine nuts, peanuts, pistachio nuts, and sunflower seeds. The recovery for the speciation procedure was in the range 72.7-90.6%. The primary species found in the oil extracts were As(III) and As(V). The arsenic concentration levels in these two species were 0.7-12.7 and 0.5-4.3 ng g(-)(1), respectively. The contribution of As in DMAs(V) ranged from 0.1 +/- 0.1 ng g(-)(1) in walnuts to 1.3 +/- 0.3 ng g(-)(1) in pine nuts. MMAs(V) was not detected in almonds, peanuts, pine nuts, sunflower seeds, or walnuts, and the highest concentration was found in pistachio nuts (0.5 +/- 0.2 ng g(-)(1)).

  9. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Naeemullah, E-mail: khannaeemullah@ymail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders {yields} Pre-concentration of Pb{sup +2} in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. {yields} Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb{sup +2} {yields} The level of Pb{sup +2} in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb{sup 2+} for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb{sup 2+} standards (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb{sup 2+} in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  10. Mass fractal dimension and spectral dimension to characterize different horizons in La Herreria (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclan, Rosa Maria

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on three dimensional soil pore architecture is important to improve our understanding of the factors that control a number of critical soil processes as it controls biological, chemical and physical processes at various scales. Computed Tomography (CT) images provide increasingly reliable information about the geometry of pores and solids in soils at very small scale with the benefit that is a non-invasive technique. Fractal formalism has revealed as a useful tool in these cases where highly complex and heterogeneous meda are studied. One of these quantifications is mass dimension (Dm) and spectral dimension (d) applied to describe the water and gas diffusion coefficients in soils (Tarquis et al., 2012). In this work, intact soil samples were collected from the first three horizons of La Herreria soil. This station is located in the lowland mountain area of Sierra de Guadarrama (Santolaria et al., 2015) and it represents a highly degraded type of site as a result of the livestock keeping. The 3D images, of 45.1 micro-m resolution (256x256x256 voxels), were obtained and then binarized following the singularity-CA method (Martín-Sotoca et al. 2016). Based on these images Dm and d were estimated. The results showed an statistical difference in porosity, Dm and d for each horizon. This fact has a direct implication in diffusion parameters for a pore network modeling based on both fractal dimensions. These soil parameters will constitute a basis for site characterization for further studies regarding soil degradation; determining the interaction between soil, plant and atmosphere with respect to human induced activities as well as the basis for several nitrogen and carbon cycles modeling. References Martin Sotoca; J.J. Ana M. Tarquis, Antonio Saa Requejo, and Juan B. Grau (2016). Pore detection in Computed Tomography (CT) soil 3D images using singularity map analysis. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18, EGU2016-829. Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo and the Gu

  11. A Transportable Gravity Gradiometer Based on Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Thompson, Robert J.; Kellogg, James R.; Aveline, David C.; Maleki, Lute; Kohel, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A transportable atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer has been developed at JPL to carry out measurements of Earth's gravity field at ever finer spatial resolutions, and to facilitate high-resolution monitoring of temporal variations in the gravity field from ground- and flight-based platforms. Existing satellite-based gravity missions such as CHAMP and GRACE measure the gravity field via precise monitoring of the motion of the satellites; i.e. the satellites themselves function as test masses. JPL's quantum gravity gradiometer employs a quantum phase measurement technique, similar to that employed in atomic clocks, made possible by recent advances in laser cooling and manipulation of atoms. This measurement technique is based on atomwave interferometry, and individual laser-cooled atoms are used as drag-free test masses. The quantum gravity gradiometer employs two identical atom interferometers as precision accelerometers to measure the difference in gravitational acceleration between two points (Figure 1). By using the same lasers for the manipulation of atoms in both interferometers, the accelerometers have a common reference frame and non-inertial accelerations are effectively rejected as common mode noise in the differential measurement of the gravity gradient. As a result, the dual atom interferometer-based gravity gradiometer allows gravity measurements on a moving platform, while achieving the same long-term stability of the best atomic clocks. In the laboratory-based prototype (Figure 2), the cesium atoms used in each atom interferometer are initially collected and cooled in two separate magneto-optic traps (MOTs). Each MOT, consisting of three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating laser beams centered on a quadrupole magnetic field, collects up to 10(exp 9) atoms. These atoms are then launched vertically as in an atom fountain by switching off the magnetic field and introducing a slight frequency shift between pairs of lasers to create a moving

  12. Effects of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in the presence of inclined magnetic field and channel with different wave forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Safia, E-mail: safia_akram@yahoo.com [Department of Basic Sciences, MCS, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi 46000 (Pakistan); Nadeem, S.; Hussain, Anwar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2014-08-01

    In the present analysis we discussed the influence of heat and mass transfer on the peristaltic flow of a Bingham in an inclined magnetic field and channel with different wave forms. The governing two dimensional equations of momentum, heat and mass transfer are simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The exact solutions of momentum, heat and mass transfer are calculated. Finally, graphical behaviors of various physical parameters are also discussed through the graphical behavior of pressure rise, pressure gradient, temperature concentration and stream functions. - Highlights: • Combine effects of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow problem is discussed. • Effects of inclined magnetic field and channel on new fluid model are discussed. • Effects of different wave forms are also discussed in the present flow problem.

  13. Search for Charginos with a Small Mass Difference to the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle at $\\sqrt{s} = 189 GeV$

    CERN Document Server<