WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic energy industry

  1. The industrial development of atomic energy; Le developpement industriel de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarski, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material ({sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) or concentrated material ({sup 235}U mixed with small quantities of {sup 238}U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with {sup 238}U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate {sup 238}U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in {sup 239}Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and {sup 238}U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England

  2. Safeguarding of installations, industrial safety regulations, and labour-management relations in Atomic Energy Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1982-10-01

    The contribution first deals with the legal provisions governing physical protection against sabotage and other unauthorized activities, as required by the Atomic Energy Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to obtain a more precise explanation of the concept of ''physical protection'', catalogues of recommended physical protection measures and strategies, issued by the Conference of the Home Secretaries of the Laender or by the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit, (GRS), are referred to. Also, the recommendations published by the IAEA in INFCIRC 225 are mentioned. In the second part, the legal provisions governing occupational safety in the FRG are reviewed, especially regulations concerning the prevention of accidents and protection from the hazards of ionizing radiation. Examples are given to explain situations in practice where the interests of occupational safety (radiation protection) and physical protection may not be easy to reconcile.

  3. Atomic nanoscale technology in the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Taeho

    2011-01-01

    Developments at the nanoscale are leading to new possibilities and challenges for nuclear applications in areas ranging from medicine to international commerce to atomic power production/waste treatment. Progress in nanotech is helping the nuclear industry slash the cost of energy production. It also continues to improve application reliability and safety measures, which remain a critical concern, especially since the reactor disasters in Japan. Exploring the new wide-ranging landscape of nuclear function, Atomic Nanoscale Technology in the Nuclear Industry details the breakthroughs in nanosca

  4. Energy Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, James; Bekbenbetov, Marat; Coffman, Katherine; Davies, Kirk; Farrar, Michael R; Fletcher, Scott N; Hall, Robert; Kljajic, Senad; Koprucu, Feza; Leek, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    .... This policy must address energy supply stability, support infrastructure improvements, promote greater use of nuclear power, and reduce hazardous emissions through the development of cleaner burning...

  5. Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose Ethanol in the Spot Light. Geothermal energy is generated from the earth’s natural convective movement of internal gradients nearly 6,500...recoverable natural gas prospects, which are located in the Outer Continental Shelf, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico , Alaska North Slope, Arctic National...The majority are located in the Gulf of Mexico with one on the Northeast coast and none on the west coast. Currently, government regulators have

  6. Industry and energy; Industrie et energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birules y Bertran, A.M. [Ministere des Sciences et de la Technologie (Spain); Folgado Blanco, J. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Economie, a l' Energie et aux PME du Royaume d' Espagne (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This document is the provisional version of the summary of the debates of the 2433. session of the European Union Council about various topics relative to the industry and the energy. The energy-related topics that have been debated concern: the government helps in coal industry, the internal electricity and gas market, the trans-European energy networks, the bio-fuels in transportation systems, the energy charter, the pluri-annual energy program, and the green book on the security of energy supplies. (J.S.)

  7. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  8. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, A.L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  9. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  10. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  11. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    The document represents the 1961 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report consists of four parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry for 1961 and Related Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Power Programs for 1961; Part Three, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Four, Regulatory Activities. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  12. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The document represents the first annual reporting versus semiannual reporting of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report consists of three parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1959 and Related Activities; Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Three, Management of Radioactive Wastes. Nineteen appendices are also included.

  13. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  14. Energy End-Use : Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, R.; Gong, Y; Gielen, D.J.; Januzzi, G.; Marechal, F.; McKane, A.T.; Rosen, M.A.; Es, D. van; Worrell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The industrial sector accounts for about 30% of the global final energy use and accounts for about 115 EJ of final energy use in 2005. 1Cement, iron and steel, chemicals, pulp and paper and aluminum are key energy intensive materials that account for more than half the global industrial use. There

  15. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  16. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  17. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  18. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  19. Jobs in the Atomic Energy Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1974

    1974-01-01

    According to a recent government survey, employment in privately-owned atomic energy facilities now exceeds employment in government facilities. In this field, engineers, scientists, technicians, and craft workers account for the highest proportion of total employment. (MW)

  20. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    The document covers activities for the period January - December 1960. The report consists of two parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1960 and Related Activities; and Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs. Twenty-one appendices are also included.

  1. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I

    2015-01-01

    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  2. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  3. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  4. Transition energies of atomic lawrencium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U. [Tel Aviv Univ., School of Chemistry (Israel); Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y. [Puerto Rico Univ., Dept. of Chemistry (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Transition energies of the superheavy element lawrencium, including the ionization potential, excitation energies and electron affinities, are calculated by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method. A large basis set (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i) is used, as well as an extensive P space (6s5p4d2f1g). The outer 43 electrons are correlated. Accuracy is monitored by applying the same approach to lutetium, the lighter homologue of Lr, and comparing with experimentally known energies. QED corrections are included. The main goal is to predict excitation energies, in anticipation of planned spectroscopy of Lr. The ground state of Lr is 7s{sup 2}7p {sup 2}P(1/2), unlike the 5d6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D(3/2) of Lu. Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20.000-30.000 cm{sup -1}, are 7p {yields} 8s at 20.100 cm{sup -1} and 7p {yields} 7d at 28.100 cm{sup -1}. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm{sup -1}, and the error limits for Lr are put at 700 cm{sup -1}. The two electron affinities measured recently for Lu are reproduced within 55 cm{sup -1}, and a third bound state of Lu{sup -} is predicted. (authors)

  5. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  6. Energy Management in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bruneo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid vision imposes a new approach towards energy supply that is more affordable, reliable and sustainable. The core of this new vision is the use of advanced technology to monitor power system dynamics in real time and identify system in stability. In order to implement strategic vision for energy management, it is possible to identify three main areas of investigation such as smart generation, smart grid and smart customer. Focusing on the latter topic, in this paper we present an application specifically designed to monitor an industrial site with particular attention to power consumption. This solution is a real time analysis tool, able to produce useful results to have a strategic approach in the energy market and to provide statistic analysis useful for the future choices of the industrial company. The application is based on a three layers architecture. The technological layer uses a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN to acquire data from the electrical substations. The middleware layer faces the integration problems by processing the raw data. The application layer manages the data acquired from the sensors. This WSN based architecture represents an interesting example of a low cost and non-invasive monitoring application to keep the energy consumption of an industrial site under control. Some of the added value features of the proposed solution are the routing network protocol, selected in order to have an high availability of the WSN, and the use of the WhereX middleware, able to easily implement integration among the different architectural parts.

  7. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hinds, E.A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Ed.Hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  8. [Energy expenditure in construction industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, M; Borleri, D; Bresciani, M; Riva, M M; Ielapi, M; Bonelli, G; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the results obtained from measuring energy expenditure (EE) during work, through portable devices, in a group of male construction workers. After defining cardio-respiratory parameters in laboratory, authors applied to all subjects an heart rate monitor for measuring the heart rate (HR) and, at the same time, a calorimeter for measuring energy expenditure (EE). To analyse data obtained, authors calculate the Relative Aerobic Strain (RAS), both for the measurements of EE and for HR detected. Results confirm that in many of the typical activities of construction industry, in particular in those characterised by an higher component of manual engagement compared to foreman, workloads are exceeding limits of the probable threshold fatigue (33% of RAS), both for energy expenditure than for HR measured.

  9. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  10. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  11. Energy Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    sector.36 Ethanol can be made from corn or sugarcane . Ethanol burns cleaner than oil and is considered more environmentally friendly to the...and solar power generation, hydrogen, and the manufacture, distribution and sale of alternative fuels such as ethanol . Summary of Energy Sources...disposal oppose it. Renewables Bio-fuels—Planting Energy! Bio-fuels ( ethanol , in particular) have been increasingly used in the transportation

  12. Energy conservation in mechanical industry; Maitrise de l`energie dans les industries mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The workshop is composed of 12 communications on the theme of energy consumption, conservation and management in industry, and more especially in metal industry: evaluation of the energy savings potential in the French industry; official energy diagnosis procedure in buildings; the French national gas utility policy for energy conservation and economical performance in industry; energy conservation with speed variators for electric motors; energy audits and energy metering for conservation objectives. Examples of energy efficient systems or energy audits in various industrial sectors (compressed air, industrial buildings, heat treatments, curing...) are also presented. The electric power quality EDF`s contract is also discussed

  13. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  14. Twenty-fifth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1959. Atomic Industrial Process and Second World Conference, July - December 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1959-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-fifth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program in Part Three, covering the period July - December 1958. A special Part One of this semiannual report is titled ''Industrial Atomic Progress During 1958", and a Part Two entitled "Second World Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy".

  15. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  16. Restructuring the energy industry: A financial perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper present eight tables summarizing financial aspects of energy industry restructuring. Historical, current, and future business characteristics of energy industries are outlined. Projections of industry characteristics are listed for the next five years and for the 21st century. Future independent power procedures related to financial aspects are also outlined. 8 tabs.

  17. Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K. C.; Ko, Y. C.; Kwon, K. C.; and others

    2012-12-15

    Project of the Atomic Energy Technology Record is the project that summarizes and records whole process, from the background to the performance, of each category in all fields of nuclear science technology which have been researched and developed at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) to collect, organize and preserve various records occurred in each research and development process. In addition, it means the whole records related to nuclear science technology for the past, present and future. This report summarizes research contents and results of 'Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record'. Section 2 summarizes the theoretical background, the current status of records management in KAERI and the overview of this project. And Section 3 to 6 summarize contents and results performed in this project. Section 3 is about the process of sectoral technology record, Section 4 summarizes the process of Information Strategy Master Plan(ISMP), Section 5 summarizes the development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) and Section 6 summarizes the process of collecting, organizing and digitalizing of records.

  18. Overview of atomic layer etching in the semiconductor industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanarik, Keren J., E-mail: keren.kanarik@lamresearch.com; Lill, Thorsten; Hudson, Eric A.; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Tan, Samantha; Marks, Jeffrey; Vahedi, Vahid; Gottscho, Richard A. [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Atomic layer etching (ALE) is a technique for removing thin layers of material using sequential reaction steps that are self-limiting. ALE has been studied in the laboratory for more than 25 years. Today, it is being driven by the semiconductor industry as an alternative to continuous etching and is viewed as an essential counterpart to atomic layer deposition. As we enter the era of atomic-scale dimensions, there is need to unify the ALE field through increased effectiveness of collaboration between academia and industry, and to help enable the transition from lab to fab. With this in mind, this article provides defining criteria for ALE, along with clarification of some of the terminology and assumptions of this field. To increase understanding of the process, the mechanistic understanding is described for the silicon ALE case study, including the advantages of plasma-assisted processing. A historical overview spanning more than 25 years is provided for silicon, as well as ALE studies on oxides, III–V compounds, and other materials. Together, these processes encompass a variety of implementations, all following the same ALE principles. While the focus is on directional etching, isotropic ALE is also included. As part of this review, the authors also address the role of power pulsing as a predecessor to ALE and examine the outlook of ALE in the manufacturing of advanced semiconductor devices.

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pu-239 (Plutonium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pu-239 (Plutonium, atomic number Z = 94, mass number A = 239).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-349 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-349 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 349).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-298 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-298 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 298).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-333 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-333 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 333).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-326 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-326 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 326).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-313 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-313 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 313).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-321 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-321 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 321).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-304 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-304 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 304).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-311 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-311 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 311).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-323 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-323 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 323).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-335 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-335 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 335).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-322 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-322 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 322).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-325 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-325 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 325).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-316 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-316 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 316).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-355 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-355 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 355).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-336 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-336 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 336).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-286 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-286 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 286).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-305 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-305 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 305).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-283 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-283 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 283).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-334 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-334 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 334).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-302 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-302 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 302).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-280 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-280 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 280).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-341 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-341 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 341).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-351 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-351 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 351).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-344 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-344 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 344).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-319 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-319 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 319).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-342 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-342 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 342).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-345 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-345 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 345).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-306 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-306 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 306).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-301 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-301 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 301).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-289 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-289 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 289).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-348 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-348 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 348).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-290 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-290 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 290).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-299 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-299 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 299).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-356 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-356 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 356).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-307 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-307 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 307).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-292 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-292 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 292).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-340 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-340 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 340).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-293 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-293 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 293).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-288 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-288 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 288).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-317 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-317 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 317).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-318 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-318 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 318).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-353 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-353 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 353).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-354 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-354 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 354).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-278 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-278 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 278).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-343 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-343 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 343).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-310 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-310 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 310).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-296 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-296 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 296).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-324 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-324 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 324).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-330 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-330 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 330).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-295 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-295 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 295).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-309 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-309 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 309).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-359 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-359 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 359).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-294 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-294 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 294).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-300 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-300 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 300).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-328 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-328 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 328).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-346 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-346 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 346).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-284 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-284 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 284).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-361 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-361 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 361).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-315 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-315 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 315).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-352 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-352 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 352).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-287 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-287 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 287).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-357 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-357 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 357).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-337 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-337 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 337).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-360 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-360 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 360).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-358 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-358 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 358).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-331 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-331 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 331).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-339 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-339 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 339).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-312 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-312 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 312).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-282 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-282 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 282).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-291 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-291 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 291).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-285 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-285 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 285).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-332 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-332 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 332).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-338 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-338 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 338).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-279 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-279 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 279).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-281 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-281 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 281).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-320 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-320 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 320).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-303 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-303 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 303).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-297 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-297 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 297).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-327 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-327 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 327).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-347 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-347 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 347).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-308 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-308 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 308).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-329 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-329 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 329).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-314 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-314 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 314).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-350 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-350 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 350).

  4. Energy Intensity analysis of Indian manufacturing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Soni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy has been recognized as one of the key inputs for the economic growth and social development of a country. India being one of the largest and rapidly growing developing countries, there is an impending energy crisis which requires immediate measures to be adopted. In this situation the concept of Energy Intensity comes under special focus to ensure energy security in an environmentally sustainable way. Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is among the highest in the world and stands for enormous energy consumption. Hence, reducing the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries is one of the challenges. This study attempts to analyse the factors which influence the Energy Intensity of Indian manufacturing industries and how they can be improved to reduce the Energy Intensity. The paper considers five of the largest energy consuming manufacturing industrial sectors in India viz. Aluminium, Cement, Iron & Steel Industries, Textile Industries and Fertilizer Industries and conducts a detailed Energy Intensity analysis using the data from PROWESS database of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE for the period 2005–2014.

  5. Energy management system certification in industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Bojana V.

    2014-01-01

    Energy management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements aiming to establish an energy policy and energy objectives, including processes and procedures to achieve those objectives. Certification of energy management systems according to standards EN 16001 and new standard ISO 50001 is a way to sustain energy use in an organization. There has been a lot of research about different aspects of energy efficiency and energy management in global industries, but none about the state...

  6. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point......Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...

  7. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  8. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  10. Energy management system certification in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojana V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements aiming to establish an energy policy and energy objectives, including processes and procedures to achieve those objectives. Certification of energy management systems according to standards EN 16001 and new standard ISO 50001 is a way to sustain energy use in an organization. There has been a lot of research about different aspects of energy efficiency and energy management in global industries, but none about the state of certification of energy management systems in global industries. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of certification of energy management systems in different industries and its subsectors globally. Statistical analysis of available ISO 50001 certification data was used in this research.

  11. Transforming and Building the Future Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Vernon

    1998-12-31

    The petroleum industry is experiencing unprecedented change: increasing competition within a global context, deregulation in the European gas market, technological innovation that will fundamentally alter the economics of the industry. Sustainable Development, the challenge of balancing the Financial, Social and Environmental demands: collectively these demands are fundamentally altering the future shape of the industry. In this presentation the author describes his perspectives on the impact of change on the future shape of the energy industry in the years to come

  12. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  13. Industrial energy management; Betriebliches Energiemanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, D.

    2007-07-01

    Effective and successful energy and facility management uses a holistic view in which the life cycles of plants and buildings are considered, plus efficient controlling and reporting. The challenge is not in short-term cost reduction but in ensuring long-term effects. This requires management strategies which make use of synergy effects by means of interdisciplinary measures. Main topics: management of energy utilization, energy conversion and energy supply. (GL)

  14. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  15. Books on Atomic Energy for Adults and Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    This booklet contains two lists of atomic energy books, one for students and one for adults. The student list has grade annotations. The lists are not all-inclusive but comprise selected basic books on atomic energy and closely related subjects.

  16. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy [Laban Hrad Vidyapith, AD-369, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Basu, Arindam [Department of Physics, Maheshtala College, Chandannagar, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata 700 140 (India); Sarkar, Nirmal K [Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith, 1, Desh Bandhu Nagar, Sodepur, 743 174 (India); Sinha, Prabal K [Department of Physics, Bangabasi College, 19, Raj Kumar Chakravorty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2004-04-28

    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time.

  17. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  18. Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gui-Bing; Su, Te-Li; Chen, Hua-Wei [Department of Cosmetic Application and Management, St. Mary' s Medicine Nursing and Management College, 100, Lane. 265, Section 2, Sanxing Road, Sanxing Township, Yilan County (China); Lee, Jenq-Daw; Hsu, Tsung-Chi [Technology Center for Service Industries, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Section 4, Chung Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline. (author)

  19. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  20. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  1. Industrial energy-efficiency improvement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies is described. Practices which will improve energy efficiency, encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels, and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams are enumerated. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. A summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix is presented.

  2. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  3. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  4. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  5. Industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the industrial utilization of geopressured geothermal energy is currently limited by the limited knowledge of the resource's distribution. However, the resource assessment activity in the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, has identified a number of fairway or potential resource zones. These zones are located in Kenedy County; in and about Corpus Christi and Nueces Bays in Nueces, San Patricio, and Aransas Counties; in the coastal zones of Matagorda County; and in a crescent-shaped zone parallel to the coastline in Brazoria and Galveston Counties. The Kenedy and Matagorda County zones are situated in rural areas with little or no industrial activity. The Corpus Christi and Brazoria-Galveston zones are in and adjacent to highly industrialized and urbanized districts. The rural zones will require the establishment of new industries for geothermal fluid utilization while the industrial-urban zones will require either new industry, expansion to existing industry, or modification to existing plant and process. Proposed industries for geothermal fluid utilization can be considered with respect to fitting the industry to the available fluids; this has been the usual approach. An alternate approach is to fit the abailable fluids to the proposed industry. In order to follow the alternate approach requires consideration of ways to upgrade the quality of existing geothermal fluids or geothermal-derived or -energized fluids.

  6. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  7. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  8. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  9. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Essel; Eric T Glover; Serwaa Yeboah; Yaw Adjei-Kyereme; Israel Nutifafa Doyi Yawo; Mawutoli Nyarku; Godfred S Asumadu-Sakyi; Gustav Kudjoe Gbeddy; Yvette Agyiriba Agyiri; Evans Mawuli Ameho; Emmanuel Atule Aberikae

    2016-01-01

      Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  10. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essel, Paul; Glover, Eric T; Yeboah, Serwaa; Adjei-Kyereme, Yaw; Yawo, Israel Nutifafa Doyi; Nyarku, Mawutoli; Asumadu-Sakyi, Godfred S; Gbeddy, Gustav Kudjoe; Agyiri, Yvette Agyiriba; Ameho, Evans Mawuli; Aberikae, Emmanuel Atule

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  11. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  12. The US textile industry: An energy perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

  13. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting an Energy Audit in Industrial Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2010-10-07

    Various studies in different countries have shown that significant energy-efficiency improvement opportunities exist in the industrial sector, many of which are cost-effective. These energy-efficiency options include both cross-cutting as well as sector-specific measures. However, industrial plants are not always aware of energy-efficiency improvement potentials. Conducting an energy audit is one of the first steps in identifying these potentials. Even so, many plants do not have the capacity to conduct an effective energy audit. In some countries, government policies and programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency. However, usually only limited technical and financial resources for improving energy efficiency are available, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. Information on energy auditing and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to industrial plants. This guidebook provides guidelines for energy auditors regarding the key elements for preparing for an energy audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities, conducting cost-benefit analysis, preparing energy audit reports, and undertaking post-audit activities. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist energy auditors and engineers in the plant to conduct a well-structured and effective energy audit.

  14. Geothermal energy market potential in industrial processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.J.; Hanny, J.A.; Knuth, W.H.

    1978-11-01

    Geothermal energy is currently being used for a number of industrial processes in countries throughout the world. Its application in the United States is mainly limited to space heating even though the temperature of the geothermal fluid is sufficient for process uses, and could be sold at attractive prices while maintaining a high return on investment. The temperature span for industrial use ranges from 40 to 275/sup 0/C, thus encompassing both the abundant low temperature and the less available high temperature resources. Hydrothermal fluids can be used either directly or indirectly dependent upon fluid quality and process needs. The barriers facing hydrothermal industrial process development are (a) the development infrastructure does not exist, (b) energy users are not aware of hydrothermal energy and its advantages, (c) federal incentives are limited, (d) resources are not fully defined.

  15. Energy use trends in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, L. [Cemex Corporation (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The overheads/viewgraphs give statistics and trace trends on the use of coal in the cement industry in the different regions of the world. Coal is still the dominant fuel in the cement industry in North America, Asia and Europe but in Latin America the choice depends on each country's domestic energy structure. Petcoke is becoming an important fuel in Europe and the US and also Brazil. The differences in the coal and petcoke markets that influence the cement consumer are discussed. Although Cemex has in the last decade favored petcoke, the market for petcoke in the cement industry is expected to remain small.

  16. Energy conservation: motors in industry; Maitrise de l`energie: les moteurs dans l`industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoine, O.; David, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1996-12-31

    The Electricite de France demand side management policy towards industry is particularly aimed at reducing industry`s power consumption from electric motors through the use of electronic speed variators which may induce mean energy savings of 25 percent. Pumps, fans and compressors, amounting to two-third of the total electric motor energy consumption, are the main application fields for electronic variators. EDF proposes technical and energy diagnosis and audits in industrial plants in order to evaluate the possibility and potential of electronic variator introduction

  17. Energy consumption in the pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-12-31

    Estimates are developed of the energy consumption and energy intensity (EI) of five categories of U.S. pipeline industries: natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, coal slurry, and water. For comparability with other transportation modes, it is desirable to calculate EI in Btu/Ton-Mile, and this is done, although the necessary unit conversions introduce additional uncertainties. Since water and sewer lines operate by lift and gravity, a comparable EI is not definable.

  18. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-01-01

    In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS) Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of at...

  19. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  20. Energy potential in the food industry; Store energipotensialer i naeringsmiddelindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E; Risberg, T M; Mydske, H J; Helgerud, H E

    2007-07-01

    The food industry is one of the most power consuming industries (excluding the heavy industry) and has large potential for reducing the energy consumption. This report explains the most energy efficient measures and if the injunctions are followed

  1. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  2. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the ...

  3. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy ...

  4. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-09

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  5. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energies. K CHAKRABARTI. Department of Mathematics, Scottish Church College, 1 & 3 Urquhart Square, Calcutta 700 006,. India. MS received 26 June 2000. Abstract. Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant ΘЅѕ, ...

  6. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant 12, equal energy sharing geometry. The TDCS reveal considerable differences in physics compared to electron impact ionization under the same geometry.

  7. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G. [French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission CEA/DEN/DADN Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling

  8. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  9. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  10. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  11. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Haslinger, Philipp; Simmons, Quinn; Müller, Holger; Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    If dark energy --- which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe --- consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultra-high vacu...

  12. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  13. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  14. E-commerce and the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J. [Global Energy Assets, Inc. (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed.

  15. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-01-31

    The document represents the 1966 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Summary of Atomic Energy Programs in 1966 and includes 18 Chapters, 11 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (2) Reactor and Other Nuclear Facility Licensing; (3) The Regulation of Radioactive Materials; (4) Source and Special Nuclear Materials; (5) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (6) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (7) Reactor Development and Technology; (8) Space Nuclear Systems; (9) Isotopic Heat and Power Applications; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) The Plowshare Program; (12) International Cooperation Activities; (13) Research Facilities and Projects; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Informational Activities; (16) Operational Safety; (17) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (18) Administrative and Management Matters.

  16. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1970-01-31

    The document represents the 1969 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1969'' followed by 17 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source, Special, and Byproduct Nuclear Materials; (2) Nuclear Materials Safeguards; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational and Public Safety; (8) Space Nuclear Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (12) International Affairs and Cooperation; (13) Informational and Related Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Biomedical and Physical Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  17. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-31

    The document represents the 1967 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Summary of Atomic Energy Programs in 1967 and includes 17 Chapters, 11 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source and Special Nuclear Materials; (2) Safeguards and Materials Management; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational Safety; (8) Nuclear Rocket Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power Units; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) The Plowshare Program; (12) International Cooperation Activities; (13) Informational Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Basic Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  18. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1969-01-31

    The document represents the 1968 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1968'' followed by 17 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source, Special, and Nuclear Byproduct Materials; (2) Nuclear Materials Safeguards; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational and Public Safety; (8) Nuclear Rocket Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (12) International Affairs and Cooperation; (13) Informational and Related Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Biomedical and Physical Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  19. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1971-01-29

    The document represents the 1970 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1970'' followed by 14 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) The Industrial Base; (2) Environmental and Safety Aspects; (3) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (4) Source, Special, and Byproduct Nuclear Materials; (5) National Defense Programs; (6) Reactor Development and Technology; (7) Space Nuclear Systems; (8) Isotopic Systems Development; (9) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (10) International Affairs and Cooperation; (11) Nuclear Educational Activities; (12) Biomedical and Physical Research; (13) Administrative and Management Matters; and, (14) License Reviews and Adjudicatory Proceedings.

  20. Multipolar electrostatics for proteins: atom-atom electrostatic energies in crambin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongna; Mills, Matthew J L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-02-15

    Accurate electrostatics necessitates the use of multipole moments centered on nuclei or extra point charges centered away from the nuclei. Here, we follow the former alternative and investigate the convergence behavior of atom-atom electrostatic interactions in the pilot protein crambin. Amino acids are cut out from a Protein Data Bank structure of crambin, as single amino acids, di, or tripeptides, and are then capped with a peptide bond at each side. The atoms in the amino acids are defined through Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) as finite volume electron density fragments. Atom-atom electrostatic energies are computed by means of a multipole expansion with regular spherical harmonics, up to a total interaction rank of L = ℓA+ ℓB + 1 = 10. The minimum internuclear distance in the convergent region of all the 15 possible types of atom-atom interactions in crambin that were calculated based on single amino acids are close to the values calculated from di and tripeptides. Values obtained at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ levels are only slightly larger than those calculated at HF/6-31G(d,p) level. This convergence behavior is transferable to the well-known amyloid beta polypeptide Aβ1-42. Moreover, for a selected central atom, the influence of its neighbors on its multipole moments is investigated, and how far away this influence can be ignored is also determined. Finally, the convergence behavior of AMBER becomes closer to that of QCT with increasing internuclear distance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Scientists credit `Atoms for Peace' for progress on energy, security

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Fifty years after President Eisenhower unveiled his plan for developing peaceful uses for nuclear fission, the scientific advances spawned by his Atoms for Peace program have made possible major advances in energy and national security, a panel of physicists said last week" (1 page).

  2. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-01-01

    This booklet lists selected commercially published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. Books for young readers have school grade annotations.This booklet contains an author index, a title index, and a list of publishers’ addresses.

  3. Delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Hafeez Hoorani (NCP) and Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment with a delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Mr Saeed Ahmed, Director SES, PAEC, Mr Muhammad Naeem, Director PWI and Mr Javed Iqleem, Deputy Chairman PAEC visiting the CMS magnet assembly hall at Point 5.

  4. THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY’s SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio-Andrés, Gabriel; Universidad Católica de Cordoba

    2008-01-01

    Entrusted with the responsibility of establishing and administering the international safeguards system with the purpose of ensuring that nuclear energy would not be used for furthering military purposes, the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter “IAEA” or “the Agency”) is a key piece of the international system for the maintenance of world peace and security. Despite the initial enthusiasm surrounding the foundation of the IAEA in the 1950s, it required several years for the Agency...

  5. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  6. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Mesa P. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A. (Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., Bend, OR); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  7. Data sources and methods for industrial energy analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Following an introductory and overview section of industrial energy-use patterns, Section II of this report describes a number of the major industrial-energy-use data bases often used to analyze industrial energy use. Section III gives the results of an analysis which used a number of energy and industrial-location data bases to estimate plant-specific energy use in ten of the largest energy-using industries. The section summarizes the results of the analysis and discusses the implications of the energy use per plant distributions for the industrial market for high- and low-Btu coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Section IV outlines a methodology for segmenting the industrial energy market and evaluating the competitiveness of low- and medium-Btu gas relative to other alternatives. The methodology demonstrates the uses of the industrial energy data bases in performing market penetration analysis.

  8. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for commercial and industrial pumps published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2...

  9. Conservation of electrical energy in a petrochemical industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petrochemical industry can achieve system reliability, higher productivity, reduce energy cost, and reduce down time and maintenance costs through proper conservation of electrical power. Key words: Petrochemical industry, Control technologies, Power technologies, Electric motors, Energy efficiency, Power Factor.

  10. Development of a microlesson in teaching energy levels of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cherilyn A.; Buan, Amelia T.

    2018-01-01

    Energy levels of atoms is one of the difficult topics in understanding atomic structure of matter. It appears tobe abstract, theoretical and needs visual representation and images. Hence, in this study a microlesson in teaching the high school chemistry concept on the energy levels of atoms is developed and validated. The researchers utilized backward curriculum design in planning the microlesson to meet the standards of the science K-12 curriculum. The planning process of the microlesson involved a) Identifying the learning competencies in K-12 science curriculum b) write learning objectives c) planning of assessment tools d) making a storyboard e) designing the microlesson and validate and revise the microlesson. The microlesson made use of varied resources in the internet from which the students accessed and collected information about energy levels of atoms. Working in groups, the students synthesized the information on how and why fireworks produce various colors of light through a post card. Findings of the study showed that there was an increase of achievement in learning the content and the students were highly motivated to learn chemistry. Furthermore, the students perceived that the microlesson helped them to understand the chemistry concept through the use of appropriate multimedia activities.

  11. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  12. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  13. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  14. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  15. Machine Learning of Dynamic Electron Correlation Energies from Topological Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, James L; Silva, Arnaldo F; Vincent, Mark A; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-12-06

    We present an innovative method for predicting the dynamic electron correlation energy of an atom or a bond in a molecule utilizing topological atoms. Our approach uses the machine learning method Kriging (Gaussian Process Regression with a non-zero mean function) to predict these dynamic electron correlation energy contributions. The true energy values are calculated by partitioning the MP2 two-particle density-matrix via the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first time such energies have been predicted by a machine learning technique. We present here three important proof-of-concept cases: the water monomer, the water dimer, and the van der Waals complex H2···He. These cases represent the final step toward the design of a full IQA potential for molecular simulation. This final piece will enable us to consider situations in which dispersion is the dominant intermolecular interaction. The results from these examples suggest a new method by which dispersion potentials for molecular simulation can be generated.

  16. Atomic Energy is "Moonshine": What did Rutherford Really Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In the 1930s Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) repeatedly suggested, sometimes angrily, that the possibility of harnessing atomic energy was "moonshine." Yet, as war approached he secretly advised the British government to "keep an eye on the matter." I suggest that Rutherford did not really believe his "moonshine" claim but did have profound reasons for making it. If I am correct, then this casts additional light on his personality, stature, and career.

  17. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  18. Energy conservation in industry; Energibesparelser i erhvervslivet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S (Denmark)); Maagoee Petersen, P. (Viegand and Maagoee ApS (Denmark))

    2010-02-15

    The report describes the completed survey and the methodology used for the analysis of energy saving opportunities and potentials for processing technologies and equipment in the industry. The report also includes a total of fourteen technology descriptions, of which eleven relate to end use of energy, while the three descriptions are for cross-technologies. The technology descriptions analyse any significant savings opportunities in the processing technologies concerned and work out the potentials of 'here and now' cost savings, with 2, 4 and 10-year payback time, respectively. The survey makes it possible to prioritize the instruments with the shortest payback times. The total savings potential for the eleven end-use technologies is estimated to be 10% at 2 years of payback time, 15% at four year payback time, and 32% at the 10 year payback time. The percentage potential is somewhat greater for the end-use technologies using electricity than the end-use which mainly uses fuel. That the potential is less for fuel-based end-use technologies may be explained by the fact that they are key processes that are regularly upgraded to increase product quality, to reduce production time and waste, etc. Such improvements also help to save energy and means that further improvements are relatively expensive. (ln)

  19. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  20. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50, ndD23/2(n=6--50, and ndD25/2(n=6--50 spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1 and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  1. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Shizhong; Sun Qiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50), ndD23/2(n=6--50), and ndD25/2(n=6--50) spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1) and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  2. REFERENCE MATERIALS IN THE SPHERE OF USE OF ATOMIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the chronology of development of the system of reference materials in the nuclear industry of the Russian Federation. The basic documents used in the sphere of nuclear energy are described. The nomenclature of reference materials and feature of their application in the "Rosatom" is given. The prospects of development activities in the field of reference materials are formulated.

  3. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  4. Energy efficiency opportunities in the Canadian brewing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This guide is one of several that will be issued over time as part of the Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC). The objective in this instance is to describe data related to industrial energy use in the Canadian brewing industry and the opportunities for energy efficiency within the industry. The various industry task forces within CIPEC act as the focal point for identifying energy efficiency potential and improvement opportunities, establish energy efficiency targets for their respective sectors, reviewing and addressing barriers, and developing and implementing strategies for the achievement of targets. This guide, compiled on behalf of the brewing industry task force of CIPEC, is designed to demonstrate practical support for federal government objectives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, help in the development of the industry`s energy efficiency targets and draw up an action plan to realize this target. Accordingly, the guide provides brief descriptions of energy efficiency opportunities, and describes proven and tested energy and money-saving methods. These methods include procedural changes, employee involvement, common-sense good housekeeping tips, energy audits, improvements in maintenance practices, changes in the operational and control functions, capital investments, and improvements through monitoring and targeting. Integrating energy efficiency improvement efforts with an environmental management system is also described as part of demonstrating good corporate citizenship. Various energy efficiency case histories taken from brewing industry experiences are described as examples of the kind of energy efficiency measures that breweries could profitably undertake. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1966-01-31

    The document represents the 1965 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Foreword - a letter from President Lyndon B. Johnson. The main portion is divided into 3 major sections for 1965, plus 10 appendices and the index. Section names and chapters are as follows. Part One reports on Developmental and Promotional Activities with the following chapters: (1) The Atomic Energy Program - 1965; (2) The Industrial Base ; (3) Industrial Relations; (4) Operational Safety; (5) Source and Special Nuclear Materials Production; (6) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (7) Civilian Nuclear Power; (8) Nuclear Space Applications; (9) Auxiliary Electrical Power for Land and Sea; (10) Military Reactors; (11) Advanced Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety Research; (12) The Plowshare Program; (13) Isotopes and Radiation Development; (14) Facilities and Projects for Basic Research; (15) International Cooperation; and, (16) Nuclear Education and Information. Part Two reports on Regulatory Activities with the following chapters: (1) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (2) Reactors and other Nuclear Facilities; and, (3) Control of Radioactive Materials. Part Three reports on Adjudicatory Activities.

  6. Energy distributions for ionization in ion-atom collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Amaya-Tapia, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how through the process of applying the Fourier transform to solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the Close Coupling approach, good results for the ionization differential cross section in energy for electrons ejected in ion-atom collisions are obtained. The differential distributions are time dependent and through their time average, the comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported in the literature can be made. The procedure is illustrated with reasonable success in two systems, $p+H$ and $p+He$, and is expected to be extended without inherent difficulties to more complex systems. This allows advancing in the understanding of the calculation of ionization processes in ion-atom collisions.

  7. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  8. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapas, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colwell, Jeffery A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  9. Workshop proceeding of the industrial building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Gadgil, A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    California has a large number of small and medium sized industries which have a major impact on the demand growth of California utilities. Energy use in building services (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.). These industries constitute an important but largely neglected fraction of the total site energy use. The ratio of energy use in building service to the total site energy use is a function of the industrial activity, its size, and the climate at the site of the facility. Also, energy use in building services is more responsive to weather and occupant schedules than the traditional base-load'' industrial process energy. Industrial energy use is considered as a base-load'' by utility companies because it helps to increase the utilities' load factor. To increase this further, utilities often market energy at lower rates to industrial facilities. Presently, the energy use in the building services of the industrial sector is often clubbed together with industrial process load. Data on non-process industrial energy use are not readily available in the literature. In cases where the major portion of the energy is used in the building services (with daily and seasonal load profiles that in fact peak at the same time as systemwide load peaks), the utility may be selling below cost at peak power times. These cases frequently happen with electric utilities. 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Fifth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy Development, 1947- 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.

    1949-01-01

    The document represents the fifth semiannual report to Congress, covering specifically the various developments in atomic energy since the inception of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1946. This fifth report represents an expansion of effort in all phases of atomic energy development and is prepared against a background of world affairs.

  11. Fiscal 1997 R an D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (high-efficiency and analysis and manipulation technology for DNA); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Genshi bunshi kyokugen sosa gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (DNA nado kokoritsu kaiseki sosa gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes R and D of the ultimate manipulation technology of atoms and molecules (atom technology). Through the observation of super spiral DNA fixed on a spermin or spermidine treated mica substrate by AFM (atomic force microscope), fixation of DNA without any deformation in solution was clarified, and visualization of the spiral structure of DNA were successfully achieved. Manipulation of Xe atoms adsorbed on an Si(111) surface was certainly possible by using STM (scanning tunneling microscope)/atom probe equipment. A nucleation mechanism in crystal growth was studied for various organic source-molecules/GaAs(001) surface systems, and formation of high-density nuclei on the GaAs surface was achieved by accelerating the translational energy of Ga material molecules up to 6eV or more. Ziegler- Natta catalysis important for industrial polymerization of olefin molecules was precisely analyzed by first-principle dynamic simulation. A large-scale simulation of zeolite catalyst is also in promotion for methanol to gasoline conversion. 51 refs., 87 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A Simple Local Correlation Energy Functional for Spherically Confined Atoms from ab Initio Correlation Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2017-09-03

    We propose a simple method of calculating the electron correlation energy density ec (r) and the correlation potential Vc (r) from second-order Møller-Plesset amplitudes and its generalization for the case of a configuration interaction wavefunction, based on Nesbet's theorem. The correlation energy density obtained by this method for free and spherically confined Be and He atoms was employed to fit a local analytical density functional based on Wigner's functional. The functional is capable of producing a strong increase in the correlation energy with decreasing confined radius for the Be atom. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Energy conservation: industry is on the way; Economies d'energie: l'industrie en progres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesnais, L.

    2005-03-01

    The energy consumption of the French industry sector has dropped by at least 25% between 1993 and 2002 which is all the more stunning since during the same period the growth of the added value of this sector reached 37%. According to the experts of the SESSI (department of industrial studies and statistics) 2/3 of this decrease is due to the decline of heavy industries to the benefits of innovative ones like car industry, pharmaceutical industry or electronic components manufacturing that are less greedy in energy. The last third is due to the technological improvements that were implemented in most industrial sectors particularly in glass industry, steel industry or chemical industry in order to conserve energy and to protect the environment. (A.C.)

  14. Regional industrial ecology: examples from regional economic systems of forest industry and energy supply in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, J

    2001-12-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) promotes the development of industrial systems based on recycling of matter and cascading of energy through cooperation. In this paper, the local/regional industrial ecosystem approach is reflected in two examples from Finland. The local forest industry system is based on renewable resources, waste materials and energy utilisation between forestry companies, a saw-mill, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a forest industry power plant. Waste energy from electricity production is used for production of heat and process steam. Regional city energy supply systems in Finland are also to a large extent arranged around power plants that utilise waste energy. The potential of combining the forest industry system with the energy supply systems of cities is considered and the conditions for success in the Finnish case are discussed.

  15. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Photo 01: Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing. Looking on are Christoph Eck (far left), resource manager of the LCG Project and Les Robertson, LCG Project Leader. Photo 02: (left to right) Christoph Eck, resource manager of the LCG Project; G. Govindrajan, Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation G...

  16. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing.

  17. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D. R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T. D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis; (2) market development; (3) end use matching; (4) industrial applications case studies; and (5) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2, 3, and 4 digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed.

  18. ASTROPHYSICS. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P; Jaffe, M; Haslinger, P; Simmons, Q; Müller, H; Khoury, J

    2015-08-21

    If dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, we reduced the screening mechanism by probing the field with individual atoms rather than with bulk matter. We thereby constrained a wide class of dark energy theories, including a range of chameleon and other theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O`Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site.

  20. Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The study provides energy estimates for the following four cases: current average mill energy consumption, state-of-the-art art mill energy consumption, mill energy consumption if advanced technologies requiring further R&D were employed, and theoretical minimum mill energy consumption.

  1. Monitoring Industrial Energy and Carbon flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the impact of global energy use on the climate system, consistent and reliable monitoring of energy use, energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy efficiency developments is of vital importance. This thesis aims to improve the monitoring of energy use,

  2. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland.......The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  3. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Nicola; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto; Schiro, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees) for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  4. EU energy policies achievement by industries in decentralized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destro Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy Roadmap outlined by the European Commission sets out several routes for a more sustainable, competitive and secure energy system in 2050. All the outlined scenarios consider energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. In this paper, more attention has been devoted to the energy efficiency issue, by the identification of new micro and small networks opportunity fed by hybrid plants in the North-East of Italy. National energy balance and national transmission system operator data allowed to collect industrial energy consumptions data on the investigated area. Applying industrial statistics to the local energy needs allows to collect a dataset including consumption information by factory and by company structure (size and employees for each industrial sector highlighting the factory density in the area. Preliminary outcomes from the model address to the exploitation of local by-product for energy purposes.

  5. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  6. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  7. Page 1 Industrial and domestic energy consumption in Nellore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Industrial and domestic energy consumption in Nellore villages 325. Table 8. Willage industrial data. Time for Area. - operation Period of Operationſ covered Villages Population. Industry (hr) operation year (km”) covered covered. º Potteries at - i) Balijapalyam 6 January–August 10(12)" 9:0 15 3000 ... ii) Kummarimitta - 5 ...

  8. Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Graus, Wina H J; Worrell, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes

  9. Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports on the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) experiment that will be flown on the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1. The SARA is a low energy neutral atom. (LENA) imaging mass spectrometer, which will perform remote sensing of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy ...

  10. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Amelie [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States); Taylor, Robert P. [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States); Hedman, Bruce [Institute for Industrial Productivity (United States)

    2014-03-21

    This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.

  11. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  12. Potential of energy efficiency measures in the world steel industry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, Tjebbe

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The world steel industry plays a major role in energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions now and in the future. Implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost-effective investments that the industry could make in improv

  13. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  14. Plants as a raw material for industry and energy; Pflanzen fuer Industrie und Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pude, Ralf [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Werner, Antje; Vollrath, Birgit [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Weinbau und Gartenbau (LWG), Veitshoechheim (Germany); Goedeke, Katja [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Jena (Germany)

    2012-06-21

    Dwindling fossil resources, perceptible climatic change as well as an increased environmental awareness allow a reflection to energy crops and industrial crops. In order to explain the renewable resources by means of examples and illustrations, and in order to maintain an overview on the variety of renewable resources, the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) has published this brochure. The range and variety of use capacities of renewable resources are discussed. Cultural technical applications on cultivation and harvesting of crops round off the issue.

  15. Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy, exergy and embodied exergy methods. The 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industry, were modelled and analysed in details for the years......% to 56% in 2012. Industries with high-temperature processes, such as the cement and metal production sectors, present the highest exergy efficiencies but the lowest energy ones. The opposite conclusion is drawn for the food, paper and chemical industries. The exergy losses, which indicate the potential...... for recovering and valorising heat, amounted to 3,800 TJ for the same year. Meanwhile, the embodied exergy losses, from the central production of heat and power, exceeded 8,700 TJ. The comparison of the embodied energy efficiencies from 2006 to 2012 shows a clear increase of 4.2%-points, but this trend...

  16. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  17. Challenges and Strength of Current Industrial Energy Efficiency Management Practices in Steam Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, S. B.; Pretorius, J. H. C.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve greater output by examining the existing way of coordinating the determined attempts of Steam Industries in South Africa to successfully reach a sustainable industrial development by using energy source adequately in a more competent way. Furthermore into the study we look at obstacles that prevent and those that leads to maximum utilization of energy management measures and also highlights the effects of implementing cheap available energy source in South Africa. The investigation and analysis have shown that energy is not well managed in Steam Industries and that the use of energy is minimized and not fully utilized due to poor management and lack of knowledge. Another detection was that lack of government structured and strategic measures of implementing and motivating the use of energy effectively. The effective and rational use of available power by Steam Industries in South Africa is a key player in developing a sustainable industrial development. The use of energy efficiency management strategies has contributed an increase in economic and improve environmentally friendly in the industrial sector. The slow pace adoption of energy saving and cost effective management programmes are negatively impacting on the benefits to Steam Industries in South Africa. In conclusion the study finds that the economy can be boosted by implementing energy efficiency management programmes and environmentally friendly. These will also stabilize the negative impact of energy raising prices.

  18. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic potential energy: induction energy for degenerate ground-state atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The inductive contribution to the retarded interatomic potential energy of two atoms in degenerate ground states is calculated up to all multipole orders on the basis of quantum electrodynamics. The result, which is found to have nonretarded character, is written in such a way as to show the

  19. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B.; Keegan, P. [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  20. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  2. Atomic excitation and molecular dissociation by low energy electron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyland, Marvin

    2016-11-16

    In this work, momentum imaging experiments have been conducted for the electron impact excitation of metastable states in noble gases and for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in polyatomic molecules. For the electron impact excitation study a new experimental technique has been developed which is able to measure the scattering angle distribution of the electrons by detection of the momentum transfer to the atoms. Momentum transfer images have been recorded for helium and neon at fixed electron impact energy close to the excitation threshold and good agreement with current R-matrix theory calculations was found. A new momentum imaging apparatus for negative ions has been built for the purpose of studying DEA in biologically relevant molecules. During this work, DEA was investigated in the molecules ammonia, water, formic acid, furan, pyridine and in two chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, the change of DEA resonance energies when molecules form clusters compared to monomers was investigated in ammonia and formic acid. The experimental results of most studied molecules could be compared to recent theoretical calculations and they support further development in the theoretical description of DEA. The new apparatus built in this work also delivered a superior momentum resolution compared to existing setups. This allows the momentum imaging of heavier fragments and fragments with lower kinetic energy.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  4. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GROSU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

  7. Energy use in the paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J

    2013-01-01

    The paper sector is affected by many challenges, especially related to increased competition for raw materials and energy. In this thesis several opportunities are identified that enable the sector to reduce its’ dependency on energy and resources, lower its energy costs and reduce its carbon

  8. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  9. Quantifying the savings of an industry energy efficiency programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.J. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Gallachoir, B.P.O. [Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2012-05-15

    In a developed economy, improving the energy performance of the industry sector can make an important contribution to achieving national energy efficiency goals. Policy measures aimed at increasing energy efficiency in industry must be proven to be effective. In Ireland one such measure is the Large Industry Energy Network (LIEN) programme. LIEN is a voluntary network of large energy users, facilitated by the national energy agency, working to maintain strong energy management practices. In this paper, we combine top-down methods for analysing national energy statistics with company-level figures supplied by LIEN participants to quantify the energy savings achieved by the companies and to determine the fraction of national savings that can be attributed to them. By comparing the collective performance of participant companies with the performance of the rest of industry we provide an indication of the effectiveness of the programme and quantify the savings that may be directly attributable to it. These figures when combined with national energy forecasts for industry help us assess the likely contribution of the programme to future national energy savings targets.

  10. Energy Reporting Practices among Top Energy Intensive Industries in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasrip, N. E.; Mat Husin, N.; Alrazi, B.

    2016-03-01

    This study content analyses the energy content in the corporate report of top 30 Malaysian energy-intensive companies. Motivated by the gap among prior corporate social responsibility and environmental reporting studies in respect of energy, this study provides evidence of Malaysian companies’ initiative to reduce energy consumption. While the evidence suggests that not all 30 companies have reported energy-related information, the findings provide an overview on the response of energy intensive companies in relation to Malaysian government initiatives on energy.

  11. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  12. Energy management techniques in the pottery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    As a signatory of the United Kingdom Department of the Environment`s Making a Corporate Commitment campaign, the company H and R Johnson Tiles Ltd, which manufactures ceramic tiles, is commited to energy efficiency and concomitant reduction in gas and electricity comsumption. A spread sheet based energy management system was developed in-house in 1991 which provides for the monitoring and forecasting of energy and raw material consumption and helps to identify areas which should be targeted for savings. Together with an energy awareness campaign amongst the employees and a building energy management system, this has resulted in a significant reduction in energy costs. To date this has amounted to Pound 727,000/year accompanied by a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of over 57,000 tonnes/year. (UK)

  13. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence.

  14. Industrial energy efficiency: Achieving success in a difficult environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellow, Carl

    2010-09-15

    Energy use and the resulting environmental impacts are major points of concern for the world in the 21st century. Opinions that define the challenges of sustainable energy options are as diverse as the proposed solutions. The industrial sector is a key area both from the standpoint of the amount of energy consumed and the magnitude of the energy options that exist there. However, history has shown that success in the industrial energy sector requires careful planning and consideration of the unique challenges of the manufacturing environment.

  15. The impact of atomic precision measurements in high energy physics

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the relevance of atomic physics in understanding some important questions about elementary particle physics. A particular attention is devoted to atomic parity violation measurements which seem to suggest new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic physics might also be relevant in discovering possible violations of the CPT symmetry.

  16. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  17. Energy Industry Study, AY 2004-2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almazrouei, Faris K; Anders, Monica; Bagaein, Wael; Deltuva, Janet; Doucette, John W; Hutchison, Mike; Johnson, Thomas; Julhes, Frederic; Leinz, Andreas; Montgomery, Robert

    2005-01-01

    .... The USG should create market incentives to encourage investment, development, and deployment of a broad portfolio of renewable alternative energy supplies and enhanced conservation measures to reduce...

  18. Internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers-An assessment of the marine energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovdal, Nicolai, E-mail: nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.n [Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Neumann, Frank, E-mail: frank@wave-energy-centre.or [Wave Energy Centre, Av. Manuel Maia, 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Research on conditions to develop new innovations within emerging renewable energy industries is often done with a national focus. However, recent research on international entrepreneurship has revealed that firms operate on international levels very early in their life time. Thus, based on former research on international entrepreneurship and case examples, we build the propositions that firms in the marine energy industry use internationalization as a strategy to overcome industry barriers. Our primary source of data is a unique dataset from a global survey of all the companies in the marine energy industry who are aiming to commercialize a wave or tidal energy device. This paper is organized in two steps: first we identified the most challenging industry barriers perceived by companies. Second we use these to form propositions which we assess through empirical data. The two most challenging barriers perceived by the companies are need for capital and need for supportive political schemes. Our findings reveal that internationalization certainly is a common strategy to access capital and attractive support schemes in foreign countries. The early internationalization has implications for researchers, managers and policy makers. - Research highlights: {yields} Industry barriers identified as access to capital and supportive political schemes. {yields} International entrepreneurship is used to overcome industry barriers. {yields} Start-ups in emerging energy industries 'shop' national support schemes. {yields} Future research to provide policy advice should adapt to the international reality. {yields} Research based on a worldwide survey of wave and tidal energy device developers.

  19. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  20. Energy conservation in the industry. Innovators talking; Energiebesparing in de industrie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the industry [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de industrie.

  1. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  2. Implementation of dose management system at radiation protection board of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, F; Amoako, J K; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Sosu, E K; Otoo, F; Asiedu, G O

    2012-01-01

    The dose management system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency for managing data on occupational exposure to radiation sources and intake of radionuclides. It is an integrated system for the user-friendly storage, processing and control of all existing internal and external dosimetry data. The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has installed, customised, tested and using the DMS as a comprehensive DMS to improve personnel and area monitoring in the country. Personnel dose records from the RPBs database from 2000 to 2009 are grouped into medical, industrial and education/research sectors. The medical sector dominated the list of monitored institutions in the country over the 10-y period representing ∼87 %, while the industrial and education/research sectors represent ∼9 and ∼4 %, respectively. The number of monitored personnel in the same period follows a similar trend with medical, industrial and education/research sectors representing ∼74, ∼17 and ∼9 %, respectively. Analysis of dose data for 2009 showed that there was no instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, however, 2.7 % of the exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. The highest recorded individual annual dose and total collective dose in all sectors were 4.73 mSv and 159.84 man Sv, respectively. Workers in the medical sector received higher individual doses than in the other two sectors, and average dose per exposed worker in all sectors is 0.25 mSv.

  3. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  4. Report on the atom what you should know about atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-01

    The American approach to the atom ; Uranium is where you find it ; the production line: ore to bombs ; the expanding programme ; the headaches ; the pay-off: weapons ; the military and the atoms ; power: the peaceful goals, first phase ; power: the peaceful goals, second goals ; radioisotopes: servants of man ; the quest for knowledge ; secrecy, security and spies ; the international atom ; behind the Iron Curtain ; the way ahead.

  5. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  6. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1961 - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1961 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1961.

  7. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  8. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  9. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  10. Energy conservation in buildings and industrial plants. [includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckler, M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is made of the opportunities and alternatives for energy conservation where great savings are possible - the design, construction, and operation of buildings and industrial facilities. Contrasts are made between the actual energy requirements of various building types (office buildings, schools, hospitals, shopping centers) and results are described of recent energy conservation measures applied to existing buildings. Energy-saving options available in the design and construction of new buildings covered are: measures in planning on-site operations; energy-intensive construction materials; energy-saving methods in designing and constructing a building's exterior envelope; ways to conserve energy in interior building spaces. Basics of energy management methods in buildings and the various building-automation systems available are reviewed. Energy-saving opportunities in areas of maintenance, providing better training for and communications with operating personnel, using computers and microprocessors for load computations, energy analysis, and monitoring or control of various energy consuming systems are explored. Other topics covered are: power generation, including solar energy as a conservation strategy; energy use at the construction site; fuel-resource utilization; load management; on-site energy systems; and alternative options such as waste recycling and geothermal energy. A broad nationwide overview of energy policies and overall strategies, a historical review of industrial sector conservation opportunities, and the environmental impact of the various energy technologies are presented. (MCW)

  11. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  12. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    The document represents the 1962 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report opens with a section of Highlights of the Atomic Energy Programs of 1962, followed by five parts: Part One, Commission Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Three, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Four, Other Major Programs; and Part Five, The Regulatory Program. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  13. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  14. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, G.; Klavis, G.; Schaller, K. H.; Haas, T.

    1969-01-01

    Lehnert, G., Klavis, G., Schaller, K. H., and Haas, T. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 156-158. Cadmium determination in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry as a screening test in industrial medicine. Cadmium was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in the urine and serum of 18 workers exposed to cadmium dust and fume in a zinc smelting plant. In all cases the concentrations of cadmium in the serum were within the normal range, but those in the urine were elevated. The elevated urine concentrations showed that the exposed group had taken up more cadmium than normal, although they showed no clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning. Analysis of urine for cadmium is therefore of value in preventive medicine, and should be used for periodic check-ups on those occupationally exposed. PMID:5780108

  15. Industrial Energy Mapping: THERMCYC WP6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Baijia; Bühler, Fabian; Holm, Fridolin Müller

    these natural resources. Solar can supply heat at temperatures up to 100°C, geothermal energy can supply heat at temperatures up to 90 °C and air/water average around 2°C during colder seasons and 17 °C in warmer seasons. When looking across all the sectors there are two major energy sources. One of them origi......, the accessible heat from three natural energy sources is also included in the evaluation. The quantification of the potential waste heat is based on a number of approaches such as, professional experience within Viegand Maagøe, input from project partners, theoretical calculations, case studies, input from...... suppliers, input from end-users etc. It must be emphasized that the total energy consumption used in this study covers all end-users and utility companies and therefore the total energy consumption can be higher than what can be found in other statistic. By including both utility companies and end...

  16. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... finalized key provisions related to small electric motor testing in a 2009 final rule at 74 FR 32059 (July 7... Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...

  17. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Paul; Glover, Eric T; Yeboah, Serwaa; Adjei-Kyereme, Yaw; Yawo, Israel Nutifafa Doyi; Nyarku, Mawutoli; Asumadu-Sakyi, Godfred S; Gbeddy, Gustav Kudjoe; Agyiri, Yvette Agyiriba; Ameho, Evans Mawuli; Aberikae, Emmanuel Atule

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate. Monthly rainfall data, for the period 2003-2012 were used to compute annual rainfall erosivity indices for the site, using the Modified Fournier index. Values of the annual rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 73.5 mm for 2004 to 200.4 mm for the year 2003 with a mean annual erosivity index of 129.8 mm for the period. The Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation was used to establish the relationship between annual rainfall and annual rainfall erosivity. This showed a high degree of positive relationship (r = 0.7) for the study area. The computed mean annual erosivity index revealed that the site is in the high erosion risk zone. Therefore, it is necessary to develop soil protection and management strategies to protect the soil from erosion.

  18. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  19. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  20. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  1. Industrial Energy Efficiency Practices in Indonesia: Lesson Learned from Astra Green Energy (AGen) Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaga, A. S.; Hartanto, I. D.

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have used award system to promote energy efficiency practices in industry. The award system has been found to have significant impact to increase energy conservation and sustainability adoption in companies. Astra International (AI) as a holding company of more than 200 companies also organised Astra green energy (AGen) award to all affiliated companies (AFFCO) in Astra group. The event has been used to share energy efficiency best practices among AFFCO in Astra group. AFFCOs of Astra International are among the biggest and the leader in their industrial sectors Therefore, analyses from AFFO’s energy efficiency case studies represents current practices in Indonesia industrial sectors. Analyses are divided into industry, building, and renewable energy. The results from analyses found that AFFCOs already aware of energy conservation and have implemented projects to promote energy efficiency. However, the AFFCOs do not optimally use monitoring data for energy reduction.

  2. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  3. Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    09) was determined by calibration method in which CH4 photolysis at 121⋅6 nm was used as a reference source of well-defined H atom concentrations. The line shapes of the measured H atom Doppler profiles indicate a Gaussian velocity ...

  4. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, (Fermi-1) located in Monroe County, Michigan. Environmental Assessment Identification of...

  5. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  6. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  7. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelesen, Peter [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  8. Energy analysis of 108 industrial processes. Phase 1, industrial applications study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, B. B.; Brown, H. L.

    1979-06-01

    Extensive data are compiled for energy balances in 108 industrial processes. Specific information on unit operation, material, temperature, unrecoverable losses, along with the process flow diagram is given for each of the industries. The following industries are included: meak packing; milk; canned fruits and vegetables; baked goods; sugar refining; soybean; textiles; wood products; building materials; alkalies and chlorine; inorganic gases; pigments, chemicals; plastic materials and resins; synthetic rubbers; organic fibers; pharmaceutical preparations; organic chemicals; petroleum products; fertilizers; rubber products; glass; blast furnaces and steel mills; metals; farm machinery; motor vehicles; and photographic materials. The SIC's for each industry are identified.

  9. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  10. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  11. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  12. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fumin Ma; Gregory M. P. O’Hare; Tengfei Zhang; Michael J. O’Grady

    2015-01-01

    Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry en...

  14. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  15. Degradation of fast electrons energy and atomic hydrogen generation in an emission plume from atomic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, G. A.; Penin, S. T.; Chistyakova, L. K.

    2006-02-01

    The problem of remote detecting of a radioactivity in emissions from atomic power stations (APS) is devoted. The basic radionuclides contained in emissions of nuclear energy stations with various types of reactors have been analyzed. The total power spectrum of electrons is determined taking into account their multiplication. Physical and chemical reactions reducing to generation of atomic hydrogen are considered. For definition of the radiating volume in the emission from APS, the spatial distribution of atomic hydrogen concentration has been calculated with the use Pasquill- Gifford model. Power radiating by the emission plume from the APS with the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) is estimated. It has been shown, that for estimation of radiation effect on the atmosphere, it is necessary to take into account many generations of electrons, because they have average energies exceeding considerably the ionization potentials for atoms and molecules of the atmospheric components. The area of the maximum concentration of atomic hydrogen in an emission plume can be determined by modelling the transport processes of admixture. The power radiated at frequency 1420 MHz by the volume 1 km from the APS emissions can amount to ~10 -13 W that allows one to detect the total level of activity confidently. The possible configuration of an emission plume has been calculated for various atmospheric stratification and underlying surfaces.

  16. Energy. How industry bears up the shock; Energie. Comment l'industrie encaisse le choc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V.; Lucas, Th.; Remoue, A.; Leroy, Ch.; Rouaud, P.O

    2005-09-01

    With the increase of energy prices, industrialists have to find solutions to bear the energy shock: modernization of equipments, energy optimization of processes (electric motors, production and distribution of working fluids, space heating, energy conservation), use of alternate energy sources, negotiation with energy suppliers to take advantage of competition and to increase the duration of contracts, or delocalization of companies towards countries offering lower energy prices. (J.S.)

  17. The history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This book deals with the history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute with the title ; rich energy, clean environment and healthy life. It reports the message of publication and congratulatory address, the period of building foundation in 1970s the period of technical independence in 1980s, the period of maturity of technical independence in 1990s the period of advanced technology in 2000s, prospect on research and development on Korea atomic energy, research on atomic reactor for studying, introduction on nuclear reactor for generating energy, safety, radiation, nuclear fuel cycle human resource and international cooperation and general management.

  18. Comparing projections of industrial energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in long-term energy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; Kermeli, K.; Crijns-Graus, W.; Worrell, E.; Bibas, R.; Fais, B.; Fujimori, S.; Kyle, P.; Sano, F.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    The industry sector is a major energy consumer and GHG emitter. Effective climate change mitigation strategies will require a significant reduction of industrial emissions. To better understand the variations in the projected industrial pathways for both baseline and mitigation scenarios, we compare

  19. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  20. Fast-ion-beam laser probing of ion-source energy distributions and atomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Richard A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.ca; Rosner, S. David [University of Western Ontario, Physics and Astronomy Department (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Collinear fast-ion-beam laser spectroscopy is a very high resolution probe for measuring ion-beam energy distributions and atomic structure parameters of interest in nuclear physics, atomic physics, and astrophysics. We have used offline 10-keV beams of atomic ions and a CW laser system to study the behavior of a Penning ion source and to measure hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, atomic lifetimes, spontaneous-emission branching fractions, oscillator strengths, and absolute wavelengths of a variety of atomic species from the lanthanide and transition-metal groups.

  1. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  2. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  3. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  4. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  5. Diffusion of energy-efficient technologies in industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    United States energy policies aim at cutting down dependence on foreign oil in two ways: by energy conservation and by finding new domestic supplies. The study investigates how the first goal can be achieved in the industrial sector (manufacturing) of the economy, which accounts for about 40% (about 7.3 million barrels per day) of the total energy consumption in the US. It is noted that industry is able to conserve as much as 25 to 30% of its energy consumption by adopting simple conservation measures and energy-efficient technologies. These technologies can be implemented without major alterations of the original equipment. The schools of thought on innovative processes are discussed; these will serve as the conceptual and methodological base of the project. (MCW)

  6. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  7. Energy Transition for Industry: India and the Global Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication further develops the analysis presented in the India chapter of Energy Technology Perspectives 2010 and provides insights on the implications of achieving deep energy and CO2 emission cuts in the industrial sector both for India and globally. It investigates the least-cost combination of options that can significantly reduce energy and CO2 emissions in India's industrial sector, while enabling the Indian economy to continue to grow and alleviate energy poverty. For India to play its part in helping to realise deep cuts in global CO2 emissions by the middle of the 21st century, it will need to achieve rapid economic development over the next 40 years with only a very small increase in emissions. Currently there is no precedent for such a low-CO2 development path. The challenge for India will be to achieve strong economic growth while improving energy security, but without locking in high emissions.

  8. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  9. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  10. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    an empirical study on the distribution and cluster pattern of China׳s REEI based on the analysis on the industrial output value, the number and location of key companies/industrial bases, through on-site survey and updating statistical data. Results highlighted that in general, four REEI clusters were formed......China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... in western China, while R&D and high-tech equipment manufacture were clustered in eastern coastal regions. Based on the empirical study and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of the roles of stakeholders involved REEI of China, we further proposed various strategic measures and policy implications to better...

  11. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  12. Tumor radiosensitizers - current status of development of various approaches: Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Bohm, Lothar; Margison, Geoffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare...... and contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials...... and for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries.PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those...

  13. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  14. The international atomic energy agency's programme on utilization of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, Nikolai [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Mank, Guenter [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.mank@iaea.org; Rosengard, Ulf [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Bamford, Samuel [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Markowicz, Andrzej [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-06-23

    Low-energy accelerators have in the past produced a major part of our current knowledge of nuclear physics. Today they are mainly used for applied research and industrial applications. In view of this, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has during recent years initiated several Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) concerning Ion Beam Analysis of Materials, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Microprobe Techniques. The CRPs involve laboratories from developing as well as developed Member States, networking on a common topic coordinated by the IAEA. In order to facilitate networking, the IAEA has recently published the 'World Survey of Accelerator Based Analytical Techniques' available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM. The IAEA maintains also a beamline at a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Small and medium power accelerator driven spallation neutron sources will become more important as many small neutron producing research reactors are approaching the end of their useful working life. The IAEA has, within its Department for Nuclear Sciences and Applications, a programme on the Effective Utilization of Accelerators. This programme helps Member States, in particular developing Member States, in finding new areas of applications for their low and medium energy accelerators through increased participation in activities such as Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings and Conferences. This paper describes the IAEA's current programme on accelerator utilization and proposed future activities.

  15. Third Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, February 2, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-02-02

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the third semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. The letter of submittal was titled ''Letter from the Chairman and Members of the United States Atomic Energy Commission transmitting pursuant to law the third semiannual report of the Atomic Energy Commission''. It was authored by David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, and Robert F. Bacher, Sumner T. Pike, Lewis L. Strauss, and William W. Waymack of the AEC.

  16. Low-energy Scattering of Positronium by Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hasi

    2007-01-01

    The survey reports theoretical studies involving positronium (Ps) - atom scattering. Investigations carried out in last few decades have been briefly reviewed in this article. A brief description of close-coupling approximation (CCA), the first-Born approximation (FBA) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) for Ps-Atom systems are made. The CCA codes of Ray et a1 [1-6] are reinvestigated using very fine mesh-points to search for resonances. The article advocates the need for an extended basis set & a systematic study using CCAs.

  17. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  18. Fourteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1953-07-31

    The document represents the fourteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1953.

  19. Twelfth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1952-07-01

    The document represents the twelfth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1952.

  20. Eighteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-07-30

    The document represents the eighteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1955.

  1. Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, July - December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The document represents the fifteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1953.

  2. Potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, VLATKO

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, potentials for energy efficiency improvements and implementation of renewable energy sources in hotel industry in Macedonia are discussed. This presentation was part of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia. It was prsented at the joint workshop between University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia and the Bashkent Un...

  3. Assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinneck, J.W.

    1984-08-03

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of a new procedure for modelling industrial energy systems. The new procedure combines second-law methods of analysis with simple component models that allow all of the plant energy forms to be included in a single model. As an example, the new procedure is used to analyze the steam system for a large Canadian petrochemicals plant. Changes in the system operation resulting in an estimated savings of $600,000 per year are identified. It is concluded that the new procedure can be used in Canadian industry to save energy and money. The recommended course of action is to incorporate the second-law measures into the ENERGY Mark II program that is currently under develpment and to consider funding the development of a version of the optimization model at a later date. 58 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Multi criteria analysis in the renewable energy industry

    CERN Document Server

    San Cristóbal Mateo, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers in the Renewable Energy sector face an increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario in their decision process. Different groups of decision-makers become involved in the process, each group bringing along different criteria therefore, policy formulation for fossil fuel substitution by Renewable Energies must be addressed in a multi-criteria context. Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry is a direct response to the increasing interest in the Renewable Energy industry which can be seen as an important remedy to many environmental problems that the world faces today. The multiplicity of criteria and the increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario makes multi-criteria analysis a valuable tool in the decision-making process for fossil fuel substitution. The detailed chapters explore the use of the Multi-criteria decision-making methods and how they provide valuable assistance in reaching equitable and accept...

  5. Technology Innovation for Energy Intensive Industry in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallack, H. [Stockholm Environment Institute, Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Timmis, A. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Robinson, K. [Centre for Low Carbon Futures, IT Centre, York Science Park, Innovation Way, York (United Kingdom); Sato, M. [Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science LSE, London (United Kingdom); Kroon, P.; Plomp, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    The Centre for Low Carbon Futures has prepared a report for the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and the Energy Intensive Users Group (EIUG) to consider the innovative low carbon technology solutions needed for key energy intensive sectors. UK companies producing steel, cement, ceramics, glass, aluminium and chemicals are vital to the UK economy, but face serious risks as a result of rising energy costs and the report reflects the aligned interests between employers, unions and the government to support the transition of these key industries to a low carbon economy. The study took first-hand evidence from industry to assess the innovative low carbon technology solutions needed for the UK's key energy intensive sectors. Potential technology options, barriers to low carbon investment and the need for policy support and technical co-operation were examined sector by sector.

  6. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  7. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  8. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  9. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, W.E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Holst, B. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: bodil@cantab.net

    2008-05-15

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  10. Perturbation calculations of the interaction energies between non-bonded hydrogen atoms - Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laidlaw, W.G.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Wieser, H.

    1971-01-01

    Calculations of the interaction energy between non-bonded hydrogen atoms in the fragments A—H---H'—A' for selected displacements of the hydrogen atoms enable one to evaluate corrections to the force field due to the non-bonded interactions and to discuss the changes in the stretching vibration

  11. Evaluating the Management System Approach for Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zobel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS based on the international standard ISO 14001 have become widespread globally in recent years. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of voluntary management systems on energy efficiency in the Swedish manufacturing industry by means of objective industrial energy data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in energy efficiency over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified companies and non-certified companies. Consideration is given to energy improvement efforts in the companies before the adoption of ISO 14001. The analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for two different industrial energy parameters: electricity and fossil fuel consumption. The results indicate that ISO 14001 adoption and certification has increased energy efficiency regarding the use of fossil fuel. In contrast, no effect of the management systems has been found concerning the use of electricity. The mixed results of this study are only partly in line with the results of previous studies based on perceptions of company representatives.

  12. energy management in the industrial sector of nigerias economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Savings can be made by government on initial power generation costs by leveling out power consumption and reducing peak consumption rates. This the government can do by enforcing a timeofday tariff. Consumer awareness of the strategic importance of energy use can significantly contribute to encouraging industries ...

  13. Automation Power Energy Management Strategy for Mobile Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong-Ching; Chen, Jung-Chin; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Huang, Yi-Chao

    The aim of this research is to study the power energy cost reduction of the mobile telecom industry through the supervisor control and data acquisition (SCADA) system application during globalization and liberalization competition. Yet this management system can be proposed functions: operating monitors, the analysis on load characteristics and dropping the cost of management.

  14. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... decades, energy use and CO 2 emissions in manufacturing industries could be reduced by a further quarter to a third, if best available technology were to be applied worldwide. Some of these additional reductions may not be economic in the shortand medium-term, but the sheer extent of the potential suggests that striving for significa...

  15. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  16. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... energy costs, free up future capital for businesses to invest, reduce air pollution, and create jobs.... competitiveness, create jobs, and reduce harmful air pollution. In doing so, they shall engage States, industrial..., or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE...

  17. Energy requirements of the U. S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    According to the American Paper Institute, the paper industry is the fifth largest consumer of purchased energy in the U.S. and the largest consumer of fuel oil. Almost one-half of its total energy consumption comes from the industry's own process wasts: spent pulping liquors, bark, and hogged wood. In 1976 non-fossil fuels provided 44.6% of the total Btu consumption, up from 41.1% in 1972 and 42.6% in 1975. (Self-generated hydro power and other electricity produced from fossil fuel supplied another 1.5% of total needs in 1972 and 2.1% in 1975.) The industry has established a mechanism for self-policing by submitting periodic reports on its energy consumption to the API. The target set by the industry is a 20% saving of purchased energy by 1980. So far a reduction of about 15% has been achieved, making adjustments for add-ons required because of environmental regulations and other changes vs the base year of 1972.

  18. Occupational contact dermatitis in the wind energy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. DEFINITION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POSTS FOR ENERGY INDUSTRY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to identify the personnel categories from energy industry, the approach in the selection, recruitment, hiring, as well as optimizing the working process, with examples from the process in a multinational company with private capital and integrated compartment in the human resources S.C. ELECTRICA S.A.

  20. Energy and minerals industries in national, regional, and state economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. Shields; S. A. Winter; G. S. Alward; K. L. Hartung

    1996-01-01

    This report presents information on the contribution of the extractive industries to the domestic economy at different geopolitical scales. Areas where resource production is important to gross state or regional product, employment, or income are highlighted. Output, employment, value added, and personal and total income multipliers are reported for the energy and...

  1. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  2. Seventh Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy and the Physical Sciences, January 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.

    1950-01-01

    The document represents the seventh semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up briefly the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program in Part I. Part II focuses on research in the physical sciences and progress in atomic energy.

  3. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  4. Greening Industry:Essays on industrial energy use and markets for forest raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mansikkasalo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate market developments and policy issues that influence the environmental performance of the industry sector. The analysis concentrates mainly on the industry’s input use in the form of energy and forest raw materials. The thesis consists of an introductory part, and five self-contained papers. Paper I addresses important market signals and firm specific management practices that may explain differences in observed energy intensities across in...

  5. Mr Parvez Butt, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr. Parvez Butt, Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (standing 4th from left) with his delegation and ATLAS team standing in front of the Barrel Supports manufactured in HMC3 - Pakistan.

  6. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  7. 78 FR 25627 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation... to each of the analyses (e.g., market assessment, engineering analysis, energy use analysis, life.... Introduction A. Authority B. Background C. Rulemaking Process II. Planned Rulemaking Analyses A. Market...

  8. 76 FR 69295 - Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by... over the following proceeding: Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project) This proceeding involves a license application from Peninsula Minerals, Ltd., doing business as Strata Energy, Inc...

  9. In Situ Roughness Measurements for the Solar Cell Industry Using an Atomic Force Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-Jorge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Areal roughness parameters always need to be under control in the thin film solar cell industry because of their close relationship with the electrical efficiency of the cells. In this work, these parameters are evaluated for measurements carried out in a typical fabrication area for this industry. Measurements are made using a portable atomic force microscope on the CNC diamond cutting machine where an initial sample of transparent conductive oxide is cut into four pieces. The method is validated by making a comparison between the parameters obtained in this process and in the laboratory under optimal conditions. Areal roughness parameters and Fourier Spectral Analysis of the data show good compatibility and open the possibility to use this type of measurement instrument to perform in situ quality control. This procedure gives a sample for evaluation without destroying any of the transparent conductive oxide; in this way 100% of the production can be tested, so improving the measurement time and rate of production.

  10. Cost-energy dynamics: An engineering-economic basis for industrial energy conservation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, D. L.; Vangool, W.

    1980-10-01

    A theory of cost energy dynamics that can be used to shape policies for industrial energy conservation is developed. The theory is built on two relationships commonly observed in process engineering: cost varies as a positive power function of system size and complexity, whereas energy consumption varies as a negative power function of the same attributes. These functions, rooted in thermodynamics, may be combined to yield a technological parameter (denoted c) that can be determined for each unit process. The lower the value of c, the greater the energy savings may be for a given expenditure. Cost energy dynamics ranks energy conservation potentials of industrial processes by the technology parameter c, aggregates energy consumption by unit processes, accounts for energy embodied in the investments, considers the tradeoffs between cost and energy and distinguishes bases for decision making in the public and private sectors.

  11. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  12. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  13. Mobilizing private finance to drive an energy industrial revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Eni Chair in Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania, 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Kidney, Sean [ClimateRisk Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Mallon, Karl; Hughes, Mark [ClimateRisk Ltd, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed. (author)

  14. Fourth Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, July 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-07-01

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the Fourth semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. This fourth report incorporates some changes to the report. In order to make these reports of maximum value to Members of Congress, the Commission has prepared this mid-year report as a specialized document giving a comprehensive account of several major phases of the atomic energy program.

  15. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1965-01-29

    The document represents the 1964 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report is divided into 6 areas for 1964, plus 8 appendices and the index. Section names are: Part One, The Atomic Energy Program - 1964; Part Two, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Three, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Four, Other Major Activities; Part Five, Support-Type Activities; and Part Six, Regulatory Activities.

  16. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  17. Low-energy measurements of electron capture by multicharged ions from excited hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havener, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesse 37831-6372 (United States)); Haque, M.A. (Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi 39096 (United States)); Smith, A.C.H. (University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)); Urbain, X. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (United States))

    1993-06-05

    For very low collision energies electron capture from excited hydrogen by multicharged ions is characterized by enormous cross sections, the predicted maximum being comparable to the geometric size of the Rydberg atom. The ion-atom merged-beams technique is being used to study these collisions for the variety of charge states and the wide range of energies (0.1 to 1000 eV/amu) accessible to the apparatus. A neutral D beam containing a Rydberg atom population proportional to 1/n[sup 3] is produced by collisional electron detachment of 8 keV D[sup [minus

  18. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  20. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Kazuo; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kishimoto, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The conventional approach for energy saving in a process system is to maximize heat recovery without changing any process conditions by using pinch technology. “Self-heat recuperation technology” was developed to achieve further energy saving in the process system by eliminating the necessity for any external heat input, such as firing or imported steam. Advanced Energy Saving and its Applications in Industry introduces the concept of self-heat recuperation and the application of such technology to a wide range of processes from heavy chemical complexes to other processes such as drying and gas separation processes, which require heating and cooling during operation.   Conventional energy saving items in a utility system are applied and implemented based on a single site approach, however, when looking at heavy chemical complexes, it was apparent that the low-grade heat discharged as waste from a refinery could also be used in an adjacent petrochemical plant. There could therefore be a large energy savin...

  1. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  2. Quantitative material analysis by dual-energy computed tomography for industrial NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtrab, F.; Weis, S.; Keßling, P.; Sukowski, F.; Haßler, U.; Fuchs, T.; Uhlmann, N.; Hanke, R.

    2011-05-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is an established method in the field of medical CT to obtain quantitative information on a material of interest instead of mean attenuation coefficients only. In the field of industrial X-ray imaging dual-energy techniques have been used to solve special problems on a case-by-case basis rather than as a standard tool. Our goal is to develop an easy-to-use dual-energy solution that can be handled by the average industrial operator without the need for a specialist. We are aiming at providing dual-energy CT as a measurement tool for those cases where qualitative images are not enough and one needs additional quantitative information (e.g. mass density ρ and atomic number Z) about the sample at hand. Our solution is based on an algorithm proposed by Heismann et al. (2003) [1] for application in medical CT . As input data this algorithm needs two CT data sets, one with low (LE) and one with high effective energy (HE). A first order linearization is applied to the raw data, and two volumes are reconstructed thereafter. The dual-energy analysis is done voxel by voxel, using a pre-calculated function F(Z) that implies the parameters of the low and high energy measurement (such as tube voltage, filtration and detector sensitivity). As a result, two volume data sets are obtained, one providing information about the mass density ρ in each voxel, the other providing the effective atomic number Z of the material therein. One main difference between medical and industrial CT is that the range of materials that can be contained in a sample is much wider and can cover the whole range of elements, from hydrogen to uranium. Heismann's algorithm is limited to the range of elements Z=1-30, because for Z>30 the function F(Z) as given by Heismann is not a bijective function anymore. While this still seems very suitable for medical application, it is not enough to cover the complete range of industrial applications. We therefore investigated the

  3. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  4. Production of dimeson atoms in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasyev, L.; Gevorkyan, S.; Voskresenskaya, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The production of two-meson electromagnetic bound states and free meson pairs π{sup +}π{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, π{sup +}K{sup -+} in relativistic collisions has been considered. It is shown that using of exact Coulomb wave functions for dimeson atom (DMA) allows one to calculate the yield of discrete states with the desired accuracy. The relative probabilities of production of DMA and meson pairs in the free state are estimated. The amplitude of DMA transition from 1S to 2P state, which is essential for the pionium Lamb shift measurements, has been obtained. (orig.)

  5. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2012-10-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations are based on the Müller-Schottky equation, which is modified to include different atomic neighborhoods and their characteristic bonds. The local environment is considered up to the fifth next nearest neighbors. To compare the experimental with simulated APT data, the AtomVicinity algorithm, which provides statistical information about the positions of the neighboring atoms, is applied. The quality of this information is influenced by the field evaporation behavior of the different species, which is connected to the bonding energies. © Microscopy Society of America 2012.

  6. New effects in low energy scattering of p{mu} atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, J. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Adamczak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Beer, G.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Bystritsky, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Filipowicz, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Fujiwara, M.C. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus College (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [University of California (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, P.E. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Kunselman, A.R. [University of Wyoming (United States); Maier, M. [University of Victoria (Canada); Markushin, V.E. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Mulhauser, F. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Olin, A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Porcelli, T.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Stolupin, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    1999-06-15

    Strong solid state effects in low energy scattering of p{mu} atoms in solid hydrogen are reported and analyzed. Such effects have been observed in TRIUMF experiment E742 where muons are stopped in thin frozen (3 K) layers of hydrogen. Emission of low energy p{mu} atoms from the hydrogen layer into adjacent vacuum was much higher than expected, based on calculations which ignored the solid nature of hydrogen. Monte Carlo simulations, performed using the scattering cross-sections with solid state effects taken into account, show the important role of the coherent elastic Bragg scattering in the diffusion of p{mu} atoms. For p{mu} energies lower than the Bragg cut-off limit ({approx}2 meV) the total scattering cross-section falls by several orders of magnitude, the hydrogen target becomes transparent and the emission of cold p{mu} atoms takes place.

  7. Matter, energy, and heat transfer in a classical ballistic atom pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy A; Das, Kunal K; Mitchell, Kevin A; Aubin, Seth; Delos, John B

    2014-11-01

    A ballistic atom pump is a system containing two reservoirs of neutral atoms or molecules and a junction connecting them containing a localized time-varying potential. Atoms move through the pump as independent particles. Under certain conditions, these pumps can create net transport of atoms from one reservoir to the other. While such systems are sometimes called "quantum pumps," they are also models of classical chaotic transport, and their quantum behavior cannot be understood without study of the corresponding classical behavior. Here we examine classically such a pump's effect on energy and temperature in the reservoirs, in addition to net particle transport. We show that the changes in particle number, of energy in each reservoir, and of temperature in each reservoir vary in unexpected ways as the incident particle energy is varied.

  8. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  9. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  10. Energy Audit as a Tool for Improving System Efficiency in Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gopi Srinath,; N. Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of energy consumption in industrial sector, the methodology and results of energy audits (EA) performed in industrial sites and potentials for energy efficiency (EE) improvements. The present state of industrial energy in India could be characterized by significant technological out-of–date, low energy efficiency and low level of environmental protection. Presented analysis of the results of conducted energy audits in selected industrial...

  11. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladiran, M.T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Botswana, P/Bag 0061, Gaborone (Botswana)]. E-mail: Oladiran@mopipi.ub.bw; Meyer, J.P. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)]. E-mail: jmeyer@up.ac.za

    2007-10-15

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries.

  12. Translations from the Soviet Journal of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-02-15

    both ferrous and non-ferrous metal- lurgy, radioactive isotopes and ionizing radiations make it possible to maintain continuous control over the auto ...used to obtain pho- tographe of the plat’na in- the traps at various moments of’ time. "Me use ot electricoal probes of various types madie it possible...the chemical industry, rtdioactive isotopes.and nuclear radiation are finding wide application in auto - mation and control devices. Mass-produced

  13. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  14. Assisting the Tooling and Machining Industry to Become Energy Efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Bennett [Arizona Commerce Authority, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Arizona Commerce Authority (ACA) conducted an Innovation in Advanced Manufacturing Grant Competition to support and grow southern and central Arizona’s Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry and its supply chain. The problem statement for this grant challenge was that many A&D machining processes utilize older generation CNC machine tool technologies that can result an inefficient use of resources – energy, time and materials – compared to the latest state-of-the-art CNC machines. Competitive awards funded projects to develop innovative new tools and technologies that reduce energy consumption for older generation machine tools and foster working relationships between industry small to medium-sized manufacturing enterprises and third-party solution providers. During the 42-month term of this grant, 12 competitive awards were made. Final reports have been included with this submission.

  15. Socioeconomic impact management in the western energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of what western energy companies are doing with respect to socioeconomic impact mitigation. Coal and uranium energy industries can initiate a variety of long-term and short-term impact mitigating actions in parallel with their plans for new coal and uranium mines, coal-fired power plants, uranium mills, and coal gasification and liquefaction plants. There are essentially eight socioeconomic impact management actions; these being the following: (1) construction of a whole community, (2) dramatic alteration of an existing community, (3) subdivision development, (4) temporary construction phase housing, (5) house financing, (6) community services being upgraded, (7) community planning, and (8) industry-community communication. Each of these actions is discussed. 37 references.

  16. Energy Consumption Trends for Industry Segments in Northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerroug Abdellah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes trends of the total final energy consumption in sectors of building materials, residential, and transport industry in Algeria. The total final energy by sector and type of fuel is analyzed. The evolution of the total energy intensity and the impact of energy consumption on the environment are discussed. Consumption per capita in Algeria is 1,058.0 kg of oil equivalent per person, while in Morocco, the country with almost the same number of inhabitants it is 458 Kgoe and in Tunisia it is 843 Kgoe. The total emission of gases is equal to 46 million Tons of CO2, with an average of 3 TECO2 / TOE.

  17. Model Property Based Material Balance and Energy Conservation Analysis for Process Industry Energy Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional historical data based material and energy balance analyses are static and isolated computations. Such methods cannot embody the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow in the process industry; furthermore, they cannot easily realize the effective evaluation and comparison of different energy transfer processes by alternating the model module. In this paper, a novel method for material balance and energy conservation analysis of process industry energy transfer system is developed based on model property. Firstly, a reconfigurable energy transfer process model, which is independent of energy types and energy-consuming equipment, is presented from the viewpoint of the cross-coupling effect of energy flow, material flow and information flow. Thereafter the material balance determination is proposed based on both a dynamic incidence matrix and dynamic balance quantity. Moreover, the model-weighted conservation determination theorem is proved, and the energy efficiency analysis method is also discussed. Results confirmed the efficacy of the proposed methods, confirming its potential for use by process industry in energy efficiency analyses.

  18. Control systems in the intersection of energy and ICT industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, K.; Kaessi, T.; Mustonen, T.; Paetaeri, S.; Soininen, L.

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this research report is to shed light on business possibilities that are related to monitoring and control systems in the intersection of energy and ICT industries. The study uses both primary and secondary data sources that include a qualitative Delphi study, themed interviews, idea generation session, quantitative data regarding the alliances between the energy and ICT sectors as well as relevant literature. The environmental issues, the availability of energy, the opening energy markets, modern distributed generation and the saturation of existing transmission and distribution grids have raised a need to develop new energy solutions and business activities based on them. At the same time, the fast development in ICT technologies and automation has offered better possibilities for their implementation. Thus, the external factors and demands posed e.g. by political and social quarters as well as the internal needs of the energy companies make the cooperation in the intersection necessary and elaborate. The report reveals two major areas for the development of the cooperation between the energy and ICT sectors: households' energy utilization and distributed energy generation. In the former theme, e.g. the follow-up and guidance of energy consumption as well as new ways of electricity purchasing came up as issues for further examination. As regards to the second theme, the distributed energy solutions are seen to increase unavoidably and forcefully in the future. The emergence of distributed generation poses many new challenges for the whole energy system but also a vast amount of opportunities for the two sectors' co-operative activities, as the interfaces between the small local units and networks and the centralized system need to be controlled effectively and legitimately. (orig.)

  19. Industrial steam systems and the energy-water nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael E; Lv, Zhen; Masanet, Eric

    2013-11-19

    This paper presents estimates for water consumption and steam generation within U.S. manufacturing industries. These estimates were developed through the integration of detailed, industry-level fuel use and operation data with an engineering-based steam system model. The results indicate that industrial steam systems consume approximately 3780 TBTU/yr (3.98 × 10(9) GJ/yr) to generate an estimated 2.9 trillion lb/yr (1.3 trillion kg/yr) of steam. Since a good portion of this steam is injected directly into plant processes, vented, leaked, or removed via blowdown, roughly 354 MGD of freshwater must be introduced to these systems as makeup. This freshwater consumption rate is approximately 11% of that for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector, or the total residential consumption rate of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the U.S. The majority of this consumption (>94%) can be attributed to the food, paper, petroleum refining, and chemicals industries. The results of the analyses presented herein provide previously unavailable detail on water consumption in U.S. industrial steam systems and highlight opportunities for combined energy and water savings.

  20. Global scenarios for the energy industry: challenge and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahane, A.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of far reaching change that will affect the future of the energy industry are identified - geopolitical changes, such as the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the relative decline of economic importance of the USA and the stimulus of European Community programmes; changes and difficulties in the international economy such as disagreement over trade and foreign direct investment; and thirdly, changing attitudes towards man's impact on the natural environment. These changes suggest two different images of the future, one called 'global mercantilism' and the other 'sustainable change'. In the first, the main global challenge is to deal with decline in the hegemonic position of the USA and Japan and the instability in international markets - the energy industry here faces new rules for business; in the 'sustainable world' the main challenge is to deal with common problems with implications for the redefining of the value of clean fuels and processes as well as substantial reconstruction of the energy industry. 10 figs.

  1. Securing the energy industry : perspectives in security risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, G.L. [Anadarko Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation offered some perspectives in security risk management as it relates to the energy sector. Since the events of September 11, 2001 much attention has been given to terrorism and the business is reviewing protection strategies. The paper made reference to each of the following vulnerabilities in the energy sector: information technology, globalization, business restructuring, interdependencies, political/regulatory change, and physical/human factors. The vulnerability of information technology is that it can be subject to cyber and virus attacks. Dangers of globalization lie in privacy and information security, forced nationalization, organized crime, and anti-globalization efforts. It was noted that the Y2K phenomenon provided valuable lessons regarding interdependencies and the effects of power outages, water availability, transportation disruption, common utility corridor accidents, and compounding incidents. The paper also noted the conflict between the government's desire to have a resilient infrastructure that can withstand and recover from attacks versus a company's ability to afford this capability. The physical/human factors that need to be considered in risk management include crime, domestic terrorism, and disasters such as natural disasters, industrial disasters and crisis. The energy industry has geographically dispersed vulnerable systems. It has done a fair job of physical security and has good emergency management practices, but it was noted that the industry cannot protect against all threats. A strategy of vigilance and awareness is needed to deal with threats. Other strategies include contingency planning, physical security, employee communication, and emergency response plans. tabs., figs.

  2. 77 FR 28927 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... test procedures, the new/amended energy conservation standards, and the representation requirements by... Federal Energy Conservation Standards, and Representations for Certain ASHRAE Equipment III. General.... Rheem argued that the industry would need a minimum of 6 months to revise its technical literature if...

  3. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing...: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, (William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2), Docket Nos. 52-018... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  4. Atomic collision and spectroscopy experiments with ultra-low-energy antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, Hiroyuki A; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Imao, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Naofumi; Varentsov, Victor L; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Antiproton, the antiparticle of proton, is a unique projectile in the study of atomic collision physics, which can be treated theoretically either as a 'negative proton' or a 'heavy electron'. Atomic capture of an antiproton will result in formation of a highly excited exotic atom. Antiprotonic helium atom has been studied intensively by means of precision laser spectroscopy, which has led to a stringent determination of antiproton mass and charge to a level of ppb. Comparison of these values with those of proton gives one of the best tests of CPT invariance, the most fundamental symmetry in physics. However, the dynamic processes of antiproton capture remain unclarified. With an aim to produce an antiproton beam at atomic-physics energies for 'pure' collision experiments, we have so far developed techniques to decelerate, cool and confine antiprotons in vacuo, using a sequential combination of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator (RFQD), and an electromagnetic tra...

  5. Potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian land-based industry; Potensial for energieffektivisering i norsk landbasert industri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Process Industry Association (PIL, now the Federation of Norwegian Industries) conducted in collaboration with Enova SF, Kjelforeningen - Norwegian Energy and Institute for Energy Technology, in 2002 a study to determine the potential for more environmentally efficient energy use and production in the Norwegian process industry. It was in 2007 conducted a review of the 2002-study, and this work showed that large parts of the potential identified in 2002 were not realized, and that in addition there was further potential. Enova therefore took the initiative in 2009 to do a new review of the potential for energy efficiency in the Norwegian industry. (AG)

  6. Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

  7. Developing an energy efficiency service industry in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Goldman, Charles; Levine, Mark; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-02-10

    industrial space over the last 5 years. It is one reason that China consumed over 60% of the world's cement production in 2003 (NBS 2004). Energy consumption in Shanghai has been growing at 6-8% annually, with the growth of electricity demand at over 10% per year. Shanghai, with very limited local energy resources, relies heavily on imported coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. While coal still constitutes over half of Shanghai's energy consumption, oil and natural gas use have been growing in importance. Shanghai is the major market for China's West to East (natural gas) Pipeline (WEP). With the input from WEP and off-shore pipelines, it is expected that natural gas consumption will grow from 250 million cubic meters in 2000 to 3000-3500 million cubic meters in 2005. In order to secure energy supply to power Shanghai's fast-growing economy, the Shanghai government has set three priorities in its energy strategy: (1) diversification of its energy structure, (2) improving its energy efficiency, and (3) developing renewable and other cleaner forms of energy. Efficiency improvements are likely to be most critical, particularly in the near future, in addressing Shanghai's energy security, especially the recent electricity shortage in Shanghai. Commercial buildings and industries consume the majority of Shanghai's, as well as China's, commercial energy. In the building sector, Shanghai has been very active implementing energy efficiency codes for commercial and residential buildings. Following a workshop on building codes implementation held at LBNL for senior Shanghai policy makers in 2001, the Shanghai government recently introduced an implementation guideline on residential building energy code compliance for the downtown area of Shanghai to commence in April, 2004, with other areas of the city to follow in 2005. A draft code for commercial buildings has been developed as well. In the industrial sector, the Shanghai government started an

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  9. Optimizing the energy efficiency of conventional multi-cylinder dryers in the paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J.; Gram, F.J. de; Worrell, E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper industry is, with about 6% of the total worldwide industrial energy use, an energy-intensive industry. The drying section is with approximately 50% the largest energy consumer in a paper mill, energy use in this section is mainly heat use. Several options to decrease heat use in

  10. Potential Energy Curves and Collisions Integrals of Air Components. 2; Interactions Involving Ionized Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Collision integrals are fundamental quantities required to determine the transport properties of the environment surrounding aerospace vehicles in the upper atmosphere. These collision integrals can be determined as a function of temperature from the potential energy curves describing the atomic and molecular collisions. Ab initio calculations provide a practical method of computing the required interaction potentials. In this work we will discuss recent advances in scattering calculations with an emphasis on the accuracy that is obtainable. Results for interactions of the atoms and ionized atoms of nitrogen and oxygen will be reviewed and their application to the determination of transport properties, such as diffusion and viscosity coefficients, will be examined.

  11. The use of atomic spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical industry for the determination of trace elements in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewen, Nancy

    2011-06-25

    The subject of the analysis of various elements, including metals and metalloids, in the pharmaceutical industry has seen increasing importance in the last 10-15 years, as modern analytical instrumentation has afforded analysts with the opportunity to provide element-specific, accurate and meaningful information related to pharmaceutical products. Armed with toxicological data, compendial and regulatory agencies have revisited traditional approaches to the testing of pharmaceuticals for metals and metalloids, and analysts have begun to employ the techniques of atomic spectroscopy, such as flame- and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS, Flame AA or FAA and GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), to meet their analytical needs. Newer techniques, such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation ICP-MS (LAICP-MS) are also beginning to see wider applications in the analysis of elements in the pharmaceutical industry.This article will provide a perspective regarding the various applications of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in drug products, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's), raw materials and intermediates. The application of atomic spectroscopy in the analysis of metals and metalloids in clinical samples, nutraceutical, metabolism and pharmacokinetic samples will not be addressed in this work. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A tabulation of the bound-state energies of atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Horbatsch, M

    2016-01-01

    We present tables for the bound-state energies for atomic hydrogen. The tabulated energies include the hyperfine structure, and thus this work extends the work of Rev. Mod. Phys. {\\bf 84}, 1527 (2012), which excludes hyperfine structure. The tabulation includes corrections of the hyperfine structure due to the anomalous moment of the electron, due to the finite mass of the proton, and due to off-diagonal matrix elements of the hyperfine Hamiltonian. These corrections are treated incorrectly in most other works. Simple formulas valid for all quantum numbers are presented for the hyperfine corrections. The tabulated energies have uncertainties of less than 1 kHz for all states. This accuracy is possible because of the recent precision measurement [Nature, {\\bf 466}, 213 (2010); Science, {\\bf 339}, 417] of the proton radius. The effect of this new radius on the energy levels is also tabulated, and the energies are compared to precision measurements of atomic hydrogen energy intervals.

  13. ANALYSIS METHODS OF BANKRUPTCY RISK IN ROMANIAN ENERGY MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORICI MARIAN CATALIN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an analysis of bankruptcy risk and assessing the economic performance of the entity in charge of energy mining industry from southwest region. The scientific activity assesses the risk of bankruptcy using score’s method and some indicators witch reflecting the results obtained and elements from organization balance sheet involved in mining and energy which contributes to the stability of the national energy system. Analysis undertaken is focused on the application of the business organization models that allow a comprehensive assessment of the risk of bankruptcy and be an instrument of its forecast. In this study will be highlighted developments bankruptcy risk within the organization through the Altman model and Conan-Holder model in order to show a versatile image on the organization's ability to ensure business continuity

  14. Skilful seasonal predictions for the European energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin T.; Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Scaife, Adam A.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the utility of seasonal forecasts for the energy industry by showing how recently-established predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter allows predictability of near-surface wind speed and air temperature and therefore energy supply and demand respectively. Our seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) successfully reproduces the influence of the NAO on European climate, leading to skilful forecasts of wind speed and wind power and hence wind driven energy supply. Temperature is skilfully forecast using the observed temperature-NAO relationship and the NAO forecast. Using the correlation between forecast NAO and observed GB electricity demand, we demonstrate that skilful predictions of winter demand are also achievable on seasonal timescales well in advance of the season. Finally, good reliability of probabilistic forecasts of above/below-average wind speed and temperature is also demonstrated.

  15. Energy Saving Potential, Costs and Uncertainties in the Industry: A Case Study of the Chemical Industry in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Guminski, Andrej; Gruber, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ), which rank these measures according to specific implementation costs. Existing analyses, however, often do not take uncertainties in costs and potentials into account. The aim of this paper is to create a MCC of energy efficiency measures for the chemical industry in Germany, while quantifying...... to 1990. To achieve this ambitious goal, energy planners and industries alike require an overview of the existing energy efficiency measures, their technical potential as well as the costs for realizing this potential. Energy efficiency opportunities are commonly presented in marginal cost curves (MCCs......In Germany, 19.6 % of the industrial final energy consumption (FEC) can be allocated to the chemical industry. Energy efficiency measures with focus on the chemical industry could thus significantly contribute to reaching the German goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % in 2050 compared...

  16. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2016-12-05

    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  18. Collisions between low-energy antihydrogen and atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, E A G; Liu, Y; Martin, G D R

    2004-01-01

    Antihydrogen is currently the subject of great interest as cold H has recently been prepared at CERN by the ATHENA and ATRAP projects. This work is described elsewhere in this volume. In this paper, we describe a calculation that we have carried out recently for very low-energy HH scattering using the Kohn variational method and including three rearrangement channels in addition to the elastic channel. We also consider the He-H system and give a progress report on the calculation that we are currently carrying out for this system.

  19. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. UP-report. Energy intensive industry. Basis of the Development platform. Industry to the Swedish Energy Agency's strategy work FOKUS; UP-rapport. Energiintensiv industri. Underlag fraan Utvecklingsplattformen. Industri till Energimyndighetens strategiarbete FOKUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report serves as input to the Swedish Energy Agency's strategies and priorities for research and innovation under the thematic area of energy intensive industry for the period 2011 - 2016. The report has been compiled by members of the Development platform Industry. This report provides background and conditions for the energy intensive industry, and proposed priorities and activities for future efforts in this area. The development platform has contributed with valuable experience and knowledge which enabled the Swedish Energy Agency to then develop a strategy that meets needs of the society and business.

  1. Multiple-energy Techniques in Industrial Computerized Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberk, D.; Martz, H.; Azevedo, S.

    1990-08-01

    Considerable effort is being applied to develop multiple-energy industrial CT techniques for materials characterization. Multiple-energy CT can provide reliable estimates of effective Z (Z{sub eff}), weight fraction, and rigorous calculations of absolute density, all at the spatial resolution of the scanner. Currently, a wide variety of techniques exist for CT scanners, but each has certain problems and limitations. Ultimately, the best multi-energy CT technique would combine the qualities of accuracy, reliability, and wide range of application, and would require the smallest number of additional measurements. We have developed techniques for calculating material properties of industrial objects that differ somewhat from currently used methods. In this paper, we present our methods for calculating Z{sub eff}, weight fraction, and density. We begin with the simplest case -- methods for multiple-energy CT using isotopic sources -- and proceed to multiple-energy work with x-ray machine sources. The methods discussed here are illustrated on CT scans of PBX-9502 high explosives, a lexan-aluminum phantom, and a cylinder of glass beads used in a preliminary study to determine if CT can resolve three phases: air, water, and a high-Z oil. In the CT project at LLNL, we have constructed several CT scanners of varying scanning geometries using {gamma}- and x-ray sources. In our research, we employed two of these scanners: pencil-beam CAT for CT data using isotopic sources and video-CAT equipped with an IRT micro-focal x-ray machine source.

  2. Progression of Technology Education for Atomic Energy Engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Okada, Tadashi; Sato, Makoto; Sasai, Yuji; Konishi, Daijiro; Harada, Kanji; Taniguchi, Hironari; Toya, Hideaki; Inada, Tomomi; Sori, Hitoshi; Yagi, Hideyuki

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as “Subjects related to Atomic Power Education” for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the “Tsuyama model” is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  3. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1964-01-30

    The document represents the 1963 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. Beginning with this year's report, an index is included as part of the document, rather than as a separate publication.The report is divided into 7 areas for 1963, plus 11 appendices and the index. Section names are: Part One, The Atomic Energy Program - 1963; Part Two, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Three, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Four, Public Safety; Part Five, Other Major Activities; Part Six, Support-Type Activities; and Part Seven, Regulatory Activities.

  4. Mr. Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Mr. Malik Adalat Khan, Director Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (centre), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson. Photo 02: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (2nd form left), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson; Dr David Jacobs and Dr Philip Bryant, Joint Pakistan-CERN Committee.

  5. Energy optimization in industrial drying systems; Optimizacion energetica en sistemas de secado industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Daniel; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The drying of products -meaning the extraction of water or excess humidity down to adequate levels for its conservation and final presentation- demands a large amount of energy, mainly from fuels of fossil origin. Nevertheless, from the standpoint of the energy efficiency, the burning of fuels at very high temperature for using them at a very low temperature, represents an astonishing energy waste, which can be clearly established by means of an energy and exergy balance of these drying installations. In this study the methodology for the energy analysis for industrial drying systems is presented and it is applied to different practical cases. The efficiency of the entire system is evaluated and the losses for each concept, in order to obtain the potential energy saving. [Espanol] El secado de productos, entendido como la extraccion de agua o humedad en exceso, hasta niveles adecuados para su conservacion o presentacion final, demanda una gran cantidad de energeticos, principalmente de origen fosil. No obstante, desde el punto de vista de la eficiencia energetica, el quemar combustible a muy alta temperatura para emplearlos a una muy baja, representa un dispendio energetico impresionante, lo cual puede ser claramente establecido mediante el balance energetico y exergetico de dichas instalaciones de secado. En el presente estudio se presenta la metodologia de analisis energetico de sistemas industriales de secado y se aplica a distintos casos practicos. Se evalua la eficiencia total del sistema y las perdidas por cada concepto con la finalidad de obtener los potenciales de ahorro de energia.

  6. All-atom calculation of protein free-energy profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, S.; Ianeselli, A.; Spagnolli, G.; Faccioli, P.

    2017-10-01

    The Bias Functional (BF) approach is a variational method which enables one to efficiently generate ensembles of reactive trajectories for complex biomolecular transitions, using ordinary computer clusters. For example, this scheme was applied to simulate in atomistic detail the folding of proteins consisting of several hundreds of amino acids and with experimental folding time of several minutes. A drawback of the BF approach is that it produces trajectories which do not satisfy microscopic reversibility. Consequently, this method cannot be used to directly compute equilibrium observables, such as free energy landscapes or equilibrium constants. In this work, we develop a statistical analysis which permits us to compute the potential of mean-force (PMF) along an arbitrary collective coordinate, by exploiting the information contained in the reactive trajectories calculated with the BF approach. We assess the accuracy and computational efficiency of this scheme by comparing its results with the PMF obtained for a small protein by means of plain molecular dynamics.

  7. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  8. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    with data for the years 2006 and 2012. The sectoral energy and exergy losses, as well as the exergy destruction, were further established to quantify the potential for recovering and valorising heat otherwise lost. By also considering transformation processes occurring in the utility sector, the impact...... analyses. The exergy losses amounted to 3800 TJ for the same year. Meanwhile, the complete exergy losses, including the central production of heat and power, exceeded 8700 TJ. This analysis illustrates for the case study of Denmark how waste heat recovery potentials in the industrial sectors are found...

  9. Efficient energy conversion in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Perin-Levasseur, Z.

    2005-07-01

    This yearly report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done in 2005 and the work planned for 2006 within the framework of the Efficient Energy Conversion in the Pulp and Paper Industry project. The results of investigations made at a large pulp and paper facility in Switzerland are presented and analysed. Data models of the steam and condensate networks and of the processes involved are examined. An additional model of the sulphur loop has been also elaborated. From this analysis, a list of required measurements has been developed. Several performance indicators have also been calculated: A systematic analysis method developed to identify sections where condensate could be recovered is discussed. A systematic definition of the hot and cold streams in the process is being developed in order to compute the minimum energy requirements of the process. Evaluating this minimum energy requirement from the data available is to be used to prepare definitions of the energy savings possible.

  10. College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Potential Energy in the Context of Atomic-Molecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole M.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the energy changes that occur as atoms and molecules interact forms the foundation for understanding the macroscopic energy changes that accompany chemical processes. In order to identify ways to scaffold students' understanding of the connections between atomic-molecular and macroscopic energy perspectives, we conducted a…

  11. Energy Saving Separations Technologies for the Petroleum Industry: An Industry-University-National Laboratory Research Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorgan, John R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Way, J. Douglas

    2003-03-28

    This project works to develop technologies capable of replacing traditional energy-intensive distillations so that a 20% improvement in energy efficiency can be realized. Consistent with the DOE sponsored report, Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry, the approach undertaken is to develop and implement entirely new technology to replace existing energy intensive practices. The project directly addresses the top priority issue of developing membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project is organized to rapidly and effectively advance the state-of-the-art in membranes for hydrocarbon separations. The project team includes ChevronTexaco and BP, major industrial petroleum refiners, who will lead the effort by providing matching resources and real world management perspective. Academic expertise in separation sciences and polymer materials found in the Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Department of the Colorado School of Mines is used to invent, develop, and test new membrane materials. Additional expertise and special facilities available at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are also exploited in order to effectively meet the goals of the project. The proposed project is truly unique in terms of the strength of the team it brings to bear on the development and commercialization of the proposed technologies.

  12. Atomic energy: The rosetta stone of space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James A.

    1994-05-01

    From 1955 to 1973, the United States had a nuclear rocket development program that had many potential missions, although never an assigned one, and an unparalleled record of technical achievement. Project Rover/NERVA, as it was called, never fully cleared the hurdles of the US political process and its future was considered annually by US Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. The program began at the two nuclear weapons laboratories, Los Alamos and Livermore, in 1955 with potential intercontinental ballistic missile missions in mind; but, as weapons designers were able to make weapons smaller and lighter, the need for a heavy lifting nuclear rocket disappeared. Sputnik increased interest in 1957, but President Kennedy accelerated the program in his lunar landing speech of 1961, giving it focus, direction and, most important, funding. Private industrial contractors were brought in to engineer the pioneering work done by Los Alamos on the Kiwi series of reactors. Aerojet General and Westinghouse developed a number of reactors in 1964-69 - NRX-A2, NRX-A3, NRX-EST, NRX-A5, NRX-A6, and XE - each of which was more successful than its predecessor. A decision now was needed on a flight engine program. Influenced by his close friend and political ally Senator Clinton P. Anderson, President Johnson approved the development of NERVA II in February 1967, a 200 - 250,000 -pound-thrust engine capable of a wide variety of space missions: lunar resupply, deep space, and manned planetary. The Saturn rocket was to carry the NERVA II to Earth orbit. Despite strong support from a pocket of influential Senators led by Anderson, Congress rebelled, arguing that this was the camel's nose in the tent for a manned Mars mission. That would cost $200 billion. NERVA II was killed. NERVA I, a 75,000 -pound-thrust engine, was the compromise. President Nixon was no friend of the space program, at least expensive manned space efforts. The big Saturn rocket programme was terminated, NASA was

  13. Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, R.; Berry, R.B.; Eras, A. [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative examples of the MPC and A augmentation implemented at the MAEC.

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in

  15. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  16. Geothermal power for communities and industry. Lecture meeting; Geothermische Energie fuer Kommunen und Industrie. Vortragsveranstaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Geothermal energy is utilized in many ways in Germany for heating, cooling and power generation. The first industrial-scale power generation plant was commissioned in Neustadt-Glewe, Mecklenburg, in late 2003. This marks the beginning of an era of rapid development which will make geothermal power a key element of power supply in Germany. Studies show a vast geothermal potential. This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers which illustrate the many applications of geothermal power and its legal and economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  17. Solving atomic structures using statistical mechanical searches on x-ray scattering derived potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher James

    Engineering the next generation of materials, especially nanomaterials, requires a detailed understanding of the material's underlying atomic structure. These structures give us better insight into structure-property relationships, allowing for property driven material design on the atomic level. Even more importantly, understanding structures in-situ will translate stimuli and responses on the macroscopic scale to changes on the nanoscale. Despite the importance of precise atomic structures for materials design, solving atomic structures is difficult both experimentally and computationally. Atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) provide information on atomic structure, but the difficulty of extracting the PDF from x-ray total scattering measurements limits their use. Translating the PDF into an atomic structure requires the search of a very high dimensional space, the set of all potential atomic configurations. The large computational cost of running these simulations also limits the use of PDF as an atomistic probe. This work aims to address these issues by developing 1) novel statistical mechanical approaches to solving material structures, 2) fast simulation of x-ray total scattering and atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs), and 3) data processing procedures for experimental x-ray total scattering measurements. First, experimentally derived potential energy surfaces (PES) and the statistical mechanical ensembles used to search them are developed. Then the mathematical and computational framework for the PDF and its gradients will be discussed. The combined PDF-PES-ensemble system will be benchmarked against a series of nanoparticle structures to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. Experimental data processing procedures, which maximize the usable data, will be presented. Finally, preliminary results from experimental x-ray total scattering measurements will be discussed. This work presents one of the most complete end

  18. [Method for grading industrial sectors in energy consumption and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian-Su; Ma, Lan

    2013-04-01

    Energy is mainly consumed by the urban industry system, thus grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption may help to identify the concerned industrial sectors and provide necessary information for industrial energy management in China's industrialization and urbanization. In present article, based on a review of the fundamental relationships between energy consumption and industrial sectors, the contribution rates and energy efficiency of industrial sectors are chosen as typical parameters for energy consumption. The concept of distance index of industrial sectors for energy consumption is defined through China's average level as a reference base. The grade of industrial sectors in energy consumption is classed into 9 types from extreme advantage to extreme disadvantage according to the scope of distance index values, and the types of industrial sectors that need to be more concerned are pointed out. Taking Chongqing as a case study, the application for grading industrial sectors for their energy consumption was exhibited, by which, the main industrial sectors are grated and the industrial sectors that should be special concerned in energy management are determined.

  19. Energy change in the industrial society; Energiewende in der Industriegesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebeler, Timo; Hendler, Reinhard; Proelss, Alexander; Reiff, Peter (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The present volume contains the speeches and discussion reports of the 29th Trier colloquium on the environmental and techniques law, which was dedicated to the theme ''Energy change in the industrial society''. The goal a the colloquium consisted, to work out central questions of the energy change and also to look beyond the legal field. The documented speeches deal mainly with the promotional system of the renewal-energy law and its need for reform, whereby this topic is discussed from legal, economic, and business perspective. A further main topic form questions of planning. Hereby it deals both with the regulation of the increased use of renewable energies in zoning and land-use planning and with the network expansion including public participation. Object of the discussion are also the providing of the base load by conventional power plants as well as legal questions of the compensation and load balancing in the connection of off-shore facilities.

  20. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  1. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  2. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  3. Saving Energy in Industrial Companies: Case Studies of Energy Efficiency Programs in Large U.S. Industrial Corporations and the Role of Ratepayer-Funded Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-08

    This paper is designed for companies looking to cut costs through energy savings, ratepayer-funded program administrators interested in increasing large industrial company participation in energy efficiency program offerings, and state utility commissions.

  4. Energy supply for autarkic RF networks in the industrial sector; Energieversorgung fuer autarke Funknetzwerke in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, B.; Wallaschek, J. [Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Mechatronik und Dynamik (Germany); Hoeing, M.; Niggemann, E. [Weidmueller Interface GmbH und Co. KG, Detmold (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    The wireless factory requires beside rf transmission of process data also autarkic supply of the transmitter and sensors. Starting from the specifications of autarkic automation systems different principles of energy harvesting in an industrial environment are evaluated due to their respected energy gain. Measurements in the real industrial environment show - beside the theoretical approach - the available energy quantity, which can be transmitted to a converter. (GL)

  5. Assessing industrial energy use and CO2 emissions : Opportunities for energy efficiency, biomass and CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature deals with issues related to monitoring of industrial energy use and CO2 emissions, assessment of the potentials of low-carbon technologies and the development of long term scenarios. However, in these assessments knowledge gaps and large uncertainties continue to exist.

  6. A Joint Workshop on Energy Efficiency in Hotel Industry: Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, VLATKO; Biljana PETREVSKA; Golubovski, Roman; Gelev, Saso; Trajkov, Nikola; Citkuseva Dimitrovska, Biljana; Velkov, Tomce

    2015-01-01

    As a pert of the research project entitled "Opportunities and Methods for Energy Substitution, Savings and Efficiency Improvements in the Hotel Industry" funded by the University "Goce Delcev", Stip, Macedonia, a joint workshop was held in Ankara, Turkey. The Workshop was held at the Bashkent University in Ankara, Turkey between 10 and 13 of December 2015.

  7. Deer browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Moore

    1967-01-01

    A procedure developed in Georgia was used to inventory the browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River Project Area near Aiken, South Carolina. Through this procedure, the forest land manager is supplied with relative carrying capacity data for deer . If silvical practices can be related to habitat quality and quantity, he can adjust...

  8. Presentation to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Air Force, June 14, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1962-10-01

    This volume contains the charts and backup material presented to the Atomic Energy Commission and Air Force on June 14, 1962 concerning General Electric's Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation (formerly the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department), during its work on the development of a nuclear power plant for manned aircraft.

  9. A Study on the Efficient Operating Management of Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sungwon; Chung, W. S.; Lee, D. S.; Park, S. J.

    2013-04-15

    This study aimed to provide professionals in humanities and social sciences, not only nuclear, with a place for communication by establishing a website of Atomic Energy Commission and people with a place for participation which help the nuclear policy reflect public opinions. By establishing the website of Atomic Energy Commission, experts (including those in humanities and social sciences) can suggest policy agenda and public opinions can be suggested through the place for public participation. Also the website should restrict on indiscreet search by separating sections only for experts and provide experts with a section for active and creative debate on nuclear policy. All the accessible meeting agenda and minutes have been chronologically organized and the findings of the committee have been announced to share with people concerning nuclear policy. In terms of the effective operation of Atomic Energy Commission, research has been conducted for standing committee, regular meeting, activating the commission through system change and expert committee in addition to support for the 2nd meeting of Atomic Energy Committee and the 31st Nuclear Expert Committee. Activation measures to improve the operating system of the commission is proposed as following; changing of the commission's chairman operating system, standing commission regular meeting, activation of subcommittee and expanding and diversifying of agenda.

  10. Challenging the myth of non-materiality. Energy consumption in service industries.

    OpenAIRE

    Fourcroy, Charlotte; Gallouj, Faïz; Decellas, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the issue of energy consumption in service industries. Official energy statistics show that the amount of energy consumed in service industries is quite small, and this is explained in the theoretical literature by the presumed intangibility of these services. Our hypothesis, however, is that the energy consumed by services has been underestimated. After identifying and analyzing the full range of sources of energy consumption in service industries...

  11. Effect of energy transfer from atomic electron shell to an α particle emitted by decaying nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashov, S. Yu., E-mail: igashov@theor.mephi.ru [All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The process of energy transfer from the electron shell of an atom to an α particle propagating through the shell is formulated mathematically. Using the decay of the {sup 226}Ra nucleus as an example, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon increases the α-decay intensity in contrast with other known effects of similar type. Moreover, the α decay of the nucleus is more strongly affected by the energy transfer than by all other effects taken together.

  12. An extension of the Eisberg-Resnick treatment for electron energies in many-electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, M. A. B.; Bennett, I.

    1989-03-01

    Eisberg and Resnick present a simple argument for the energy of an electron in a multielectron atom using the concept of shielding from electrons in inner shells. The results of such a treatment are unfortunately confined so as to be out of range of experimental values. Here, the effect of electrons in outer shells is included, and, in the nonrelativistic region, energies are obtained for electrons in the first and second shells in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  13. An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.

  14. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  15. Identifying the minimum-energy atomic configuration on a lattice: Lamarckian twist on Darwinian evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Zunger, Alex

    2008-08-01

    We examine how the two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on during mating to new offspring, in which case evolution is a product of environmental pressure and chance. In addition to this mechanism, Lamarck surmised that individuals can also pass on traits acquired during their lifetime. Here we show that the minimum-energy configurations of a binary A1-xBx alloy in the full 0≤x≤1 concentration range can be found much faster if the conventional Darwinian genetic progression—mating configurations and letting the lowest-energy (fittest) offspring survive—is allowed to experience Lamarckian-style fitness improvements during its lifetime. Such improvements consist of A↔B transmutations of some atomic sites (not just atomic relaxations) guided by “virtual-atom” energy gradients. This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated here by finding the ground states of face-centered-cubic Au1-xPdx using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total energies. The statistical rate of success of the search strategies and their practical applicability are rigorously documented in terms of average number of evaluations required to find the solution out of 400 independent evolutionary runs with different random seeds. We show that all exact ground states of a 12-atom supercell ( 212 configurations) can be found within 330 total-energy evaluations, whereas a 36-atom supercell ( 236 configurations) requires on average 39000 evaluations. Thus, this problem cannot be currently addressed with confidence using costly energy functionals [e.g., density-functional theory (DFT) based] unless it is limited to ≤20 atoms. The computational cost can be reduced at the

  16. A simple image based method for obtaining electron density and atomic number in dual energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Qi, Zhihua; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The extraction of electron density and atomic number information in computed tomography is possible when image values can be sampled using two different effective energies. The foundation for this extraction lies in the ability to express the linear attenuation coefficient using two basis functions that are dependent on electron density and atomic number over the diagnostic energy range used in CT. Material basis functions separate images into clinically familiar quantities such as 'bone' images and 'soft tissue' images. Physically, all basis function choices represent the expression of the linear attenuation coefficient in terms of a photoelectric and a Compton scattering term. The purpose of this work is to develop a simple dual energy decomposition method that requires no a priori knowledge about the energy characteristics of the imaging system. It is shown that the weighted sum of two basis images yields an electron density image where the weights for each basis image are the electron density of that basis image's basis material. Using the electron density image, effective atomic number information can also be obtained. These methods are performed solely in the image domain and require no spectrum or detector energy response information as required by some other dual energy decomposition methods.

  17. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  18. Discrete Energies of a Weakly Outcoupled Atom Laser Beam Outside the Bose–Einstein Condensate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budi Prayitno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a discrete set of energies of a weakly outcoupled atom laser beam to the homogeneous Schrödinger equation with anisotropic harmonic trap in Cartesian coordinates outside the Bose–Einstein condensate region. This treatment is used because working in the cylindrical coordinates is not really possible, even though we implement the cigar-shaped trap case. The Schrödinger equation appears to replace a set of two-coupled Gross– Pitaevskii equations by enabling the weak-coupling assumption. This atom laser can be produced in a simple way that only involves extracting the atoms in a condensate from by using the radio frequency field. We initially present the relation between condensates as sources and atom laser as an output by exploring the previous work of Riou et al. in the case of theoretical work for the propagation of atom laser beams. We also show that even though the discrete energies are obtained by means of an approaching harmonic oscillator, degeneracy is only available in two states because of the anisotropic external potential

  19. Dynamical theory of low-energy ionization of inert-gas atoms at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Y.; Newns, D. M.

    1988-04-01

    A quasi-ab-initio calculation of the ionization probability of a low-energy He atom at the surface of a linear chain of n atoms (modeling Si) has been made using the technique of numerical solution of the equations of motion for scrNij(t)≡Vak(z) between the orbitals centered on the He atom and the target atom must go through zero at distances z~=RC (the distance of closest approach). (2) The diabatic level centered on the projectile must shift up to near ɛF there. Fortunately, the first condition will be rather generally encountered, because of the oscillations in the target valence orbitals at small radius. On the other hand, feature (2) is more specific to the projectile-target material combination and leads to some target material dependencies. At energies higher than 2 keV, the ionization probabilities with and without the level shift Δ become identical, and only condition (1) is necessary. Thus, in this energy region the surface ionization effect will be more generally expected for such systems as, e.g., the He-->Cu surface, which has a noncrossing energy-level diagram or Δ=0, in good agreement with experiment. For energies greater than 50 or 100 keV, neither condition is necessary, and Pion oscillates as a function of E0, representing the quasiresonant ionization process. It is also found that the ionization probability Pion in surface scattering (n>=30) is nearly 1 order of magnitude greater than that in a binary collision (n=1), at an energy of 1 keV. The effect of the energy-band occupation has also been shown to be of essential importance.

  20. Modelling techniques to minimise operational costs in energy intensive industries / Jan Adriaan Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Jan Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    Energy cost savings are key for South African industry to remain competitive in an international market. The South African gold-, platinum, and cement industries are three such examples. Recent electricity price increases have forced these industries to focus on reducing operational costs. Various methods of energy cost reduction are utilised in modern industry, usually with extended payback periods. Efficient operation planning and optimisation can however reduce energy costs ...

  1. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  2. 77 FR 13121 - Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Energy Industries Association: Notice of Petition for Rulemaking Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Solar Energy Industries Association, pursuant to sections 205 and 206...

  3. Circular dichroism in free-free transitions of high energy electron-atom scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Cionga, Aurelia; Zloh, Gabriela; 10.1103/PhysRevA.62.063406

    2013-01-01

    We consider high energy electron scattering by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a laser field of moderate power and higher frequencies. If the field is a superposition of a linearly and a circularly polarized laser beam in a particular configuration, then we can show that circular dichroism in two photon transitions can be observed not only for the differential but also for the integrated cross sections, provided the laser-dressing of the atomic target is treated in second order perturbation theory and the coupling between hydrogenic bound and continuum states is involved.

  4. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  5. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  6. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    advance their economic interests, expressed in the success of their national corporations. However, they are also political rivals that consider the nuclear power industry generating billions of dollars and supplying energy to many countries as one of important geopolitical resources.

  7. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  8. 76 FR 17751 - Hazardous Materials: Request for U.S. Competent Authority Approval of International Atomic Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... arrangement transport certificate issued in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA... Authority Approval of International Atomic Energy Agency Special Arrangement CDN/ 5255/X-96 (Rev. 0... February 4, 2011, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) issued a transport license and certificate...

  9. Investigation of energy thresholds of atomic and cluster sputtering of some elements under ion bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Atabaev, B G; Lifanova, L F

    2002-01-01

    Threshold energies of sputtering of negative cluster ions from the Si(111) surface were measured at bombardment by Cs sup + , Rb sup + , and Na sup + ions with energy of 0.1-3.0 keV. These results are compared with the calculations of the similar thresholds by Bohdansky etc. formulas (3) for clusters Si sub n sup - and Cu sub n sup - with n=(1-5) and also for B, C, Al, Si, Fe, Cu atoms. Threshold energies of sputtering for the above elements were also estimated using the data from (5). Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained. (author)

  10. Japan Returns to Atom. Current Status and Prospects of the Japanese Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tolak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a year and a half after the events of March 2011, Japan excluded all their nuclear reactors, returning to fossil fuels as a basis in the energy field. The shock associated with nuclear disaster seemed to indicate an ultimate end of Japanese adventure with the atom. The situation has, however, significantly changed during the last several months, and the first nuclear reactor connected again to the electric network, is a proof of the change of the energy policy. The article aims to identify the current state of knowledge on the future of nuclear energy in the Japanese energy sector and adjustments proposed in the future energy mix. At the same time, it is an attempt to analyze the reasons that led the current Government of Prime Minister Abe to take very unpopular decisions to return to nuclear energy.

  11. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  12. Conceptual DFT analysis of the fragility spectra of atoms along the minimum energy reaction coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordon, Piotr; Komorowski, Ludwik; Jedrzejewski, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical justification has been provided to the method for monitoring the sequence of chemical bonds' rearrangement along a reaction path, by tracing the evolution of the diagonal elements of the Hessian matrix. Relations between the divergences of Hellman-Feynman forces and the energy and electron density derivatives have been demonstrated. By the proof presented on the grounds of the conceptual density functional theory formalism, the spectral amplitude observed on the atomic fragility spectra [L. Komorowski et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 32658 (2016)] reflects selectively the electron density modifications in bonds of an atom. In fact the spectral peaks for an atom reveal changes of the electron density occurring with bonds creation, breaking, or varying with the reaction progress.

  13. On Atoms-in-Molecules Energies from Kohn-Sham Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

    2017-10-06

    Herein, we discuss three methods to partition the total molecular energy into additive atomic contributions within the framework of Bader's atoms-in-molecules theory and in the particular context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The first method is derived from the virial theorem, whereas the two other schemes, termed "standard" and "model", are based on Pendás' interacting-quantum-atoms decomposition. The methods are then compared for a dataset of molecules of interest for direct application in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Finally, the relevance of the three methods for the prediction of intrinsic reactivity properties (e.g., electrophilicity) or for unravelling the nature of chemical bonding (e.g., in halogen bonds, beyond the pure electrostatic point of view), is examined and paves the way for their more systematic use for the in silico design of new reactants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  15. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  16. Characteristics of The Narrow Spectrum Beams Used in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N; El Balaa, H; Younes, G; Al Kattar, Z

    2017-06-15

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series. In order to perform this calibration work, it is very important to identify all the beam characteristics for the different types of sources and qualities of radiation. The following work describes the methods used for the determination of different beam characteristics and calibration coefficients with their uncertainties in order to enhance the radiation protection of workers and patient applications in the fields of medical diagnosis and industrial X-ray. All the characteristics of the X-ray beams are determined for the narrow spectrum series in the 40 and 200 keV range where the inherent filtration, the current intensity, the high voltage, the beam profile and the total uncertainty are the specific characteristics of these X-ray beams. An X-ray software was developed in order to visualize the reference values according to the characteristics of each beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A design for a subminiature, low energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Greene, S.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a type of scanning electron microscope that works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field, and focused to a spot using a microscale Einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 μm, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size, and an atomic emission site will give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 Å). Also, because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100 nm in diameter, the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids), it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field emission and can be up to 1×106 times larger than in a typical (high energy) electron microscope. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam electron microscope with atomic resolution are described and include the possibility of it being used to rapidly sequence the human genome from a single strand of DNA as well as being able to identify atomic species directly from the elastic scattering of electrons.

  18. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  19. A neural network potential-energy surface for the water dimer based on environment-dependent atomic energies and charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawietz, Tobias; Sharma, Vikas; Behler, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the unique properties of water still represents a significant challenge for theory and experiment. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics require a reliable description of the atomic interactions, and in recent decades countless water potentials have been reported in the literature. Still, most of these potentials contain significant approximations, for instance a frozen internal structure of the individual water monomers. Artificial neural networks (NNs) offer a promising way for the construction of very accurate potential-energy surfaces taking all degrees of freedom explicitly into account. These potentials are based on electronic structure calculations for representative configurations, which are then interpolated to a continuous energy surface that can be evaluated many orders of magnitude faster. We present a full-dimensional NN potential for the water dimer as a first step towards the construction of a NN potential for liquid water. This many-body potential is based on environment-dependent atomic energy contributions, and long-range electrostatic interactions are incorporated employing environment-dependent atomic charges. We show that the potential and derived properties like vibrational frequencies are in excellent agreement with the underlying reference density-functional theory calculations.

  20. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    2004-01-12

    This report contains two companion papers about radiological and environmental research that developed out of efforts of the Atomic Energy Commission in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Both papers were written for the Joint U.S.-Russian International Symposium entitled ''History of Atomic Energy Projects in the 1950s--Sociopolitical, Environmental, and Engineering Lessons Learned,'' which was hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxemberg, Austria, in October 1999. Because the proceedings of this symposium were not published, these valuable historic reviews and their references are being documented as a single ORNL report. The first paper, ''U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s,'' written by David Reichle and Stanley Auerbach, deals with the formation of the early radioecological research programs at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear production facilities at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington; and at the Savannah River Plant in Georgia. These early radioecology programs were outgrowths of the environmental monitoring programs at each site and eventually developed into the world renowned National Laboratory environmental program sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy. The original version of the first paper was presented by David Reichle at the symposium. The second paper, ''U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s,'' summarizes all the environmental research programs supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and discusses their present-day legacies. This paper is a modified, expanded version of a paper that was published in September 1997 in a volume commemorating the 50th anniversary symposium of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of

  1. A simple nonbinary scattering model applicable to atomic collisions is crystals at 1ow energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, Peter

    1966-01-01

    the projectile and each ring atom is described by a Born-Mayer potential, and the scattering is assumed to be elastic and governed by the classical equations of motion. Because of symmetry, the problem can be reduced to plane motion of a particle in a potential of elliptic symmetry. The elliptic force field...... the elliptic to the spherical potential are investigated. Special attention is paid to proper definitions of collision time and collision length which are important in collisions in crystals. Limitations to classical scattering arising from the uncertainty principle prove to be more serious than assumed...... previously. Inelastic contributions to the energy loss can easily be included. The oscillator forces binding lattice atoms turn out to influence the scattering process only at very small energies. The validity of the so-called momentum approximation and a related perturbation method are also investigated....

  2. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James R.

    1971-01-31

    The document represents the 1971 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1971'' followed by 3 Parts, each with various chapters, plus a final index. Parts and Chapters are as follows. Part One, Regulatory Activities, has Chapters (1) Licensing and Regulation; (2) Reactor Licensing; and (3) Materials Control. Part Two, Environmental Safety, has Chapters (4) Environmental Considerations; (5) Radioactive Wastes; and (6), Operational Safety. Part Three, Operating and Developmental Functions, has Chapters (7) National Defense; (8) Reactor Technology; (9) Nuclear Materials; (10) Applications Research; (11) Basic Research; (12) International Affairs; and, (13) Educational and Administrative.

  3. Molecular Energy Decompositions in the Hilbert-Space of Atomic Orbitals at Correlated Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Bochicchio, Roberto C.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia

    This work describes a new model to partition the molecular energy into one- and two-center contributions in the Hilbert-space of atomic orbitals at correlated level. Our proposal makes explicit use of the pairing nature of chemical bonding phenomena to accommodate appropriately the correlation effects within these contributions. The model is based on the treatment of the kinetic energy as contributing to both one- and two-atom terms, according to the pairing or unpairing character of the electron cloud, and on the appropriate assignment of the density cumulant dependent contributions. Numerical results for selected systems are reported and compared with those arising from other models, showing the reliability of our predictions.

  4. Local enhancement of radiation dose by using high atomic number materials with high energy photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad Khaled

    The goal of treatment planning in radiation therapy is to maximize the absorbed dose in abnormal cells and minimize the dose in normal cells. It is long established that the probability of pair production interactions (converting photon to electron and positron see chapter II) increases with the increase of the photon energy above a 1.02 MV threshold and with the square of the atomic number of the medium. In this work I tried to locally enhance the absorbed dose by using both a high energy photon beam and high Z material (Gold foils), to observe the effect of the secondary electrons that are produced in the high z material (gold) with high energy photons (end point energy 25MV). To observe the range of these secondary electrons, I changed the gap between two gold foils. I studied also the effect of varying the thickness of both gold foils. To verify the dependence of the atomic number (Z) I repeated the measurements with two Aluminum foils, and to observe the effect of The Higher photon energy I used a range of photon beams with end point energies 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV. I used Monte Carlo code to confirm the result. The calculated dose enhancements from the simulation were in general 5% higher the measured values.

  5. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  6. Comparison and Evolution of Energy Consumption in Moroccan Agro-food Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badaoui, Meryem; Touzani, Abdellatif

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this article is to establish a comparison between the Moroccan energy consumption and the BREF the reference document on best available techniques in the food industries, then an evolution of this consumption by 2030 in order to better understand it and to define strategies to reduce energy bill. According to a survey conducted among 5000 Moroccan companies, we were able to compare the energy consumption of the agro-food industries including sugar industry, dairy industry, cereal industry; fatty substances industry and fishing industry with that of the BREF. Also an evolution of Moroccan consumption was established by 2030 using the linear regression method, and then calculated a non-negligible average annual growth rate (AAGR). The results show that the Moroccan energy consumption is adequate to that of the BREF, and an energy consumption constantly increasing by registering a non-negligible AAGR.

  7. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exotic atoms where one atomic 1s electron is replaced by a K−, the strong interaction between the K− and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z = 1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the 1s state of K− p and the 2p state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  8. Analysis on Potential of Electric Energy Market based on Large Industrial Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyi; Zhu, Xinzhi; Yang, Shuo; Xia, Huaijian; Yang, Di; Li, Hao; Lin, Haiying

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of electric energy substitution by enterprises plays an important role in promoting the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in china. In order to explore alternative energy potential of industrial enterprises, to simulate and analyze the process of industrial enterprises, identify high energy consumption process and equipment, give priority to alternative energy technologies, and determine the enterprise electric energy substitution potential predictive value, this paper constructs the evaluation model of the influence factors of the electric energy substitution potential of industrial enterprises, and uses the combined weight method to determine the weight value of the evaluation factors to calculate the target value of the electric energy substitution potential. Taking the iron and steel industry as an example, this method is used to excavate the potential. The results show that the method can effectively tap the potential of the electric power industry

  9. Towards increased energy efficiency in industry - a manager's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Erik (DynaMate Industrial Services AB, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: per-erik.johansson@dynamate-is.se; Thollander, Patrik; Moshfegh, Bahram (Dept. of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    Industry is one of the major users of fossils fuels resulting in emissions of GHG (Green House Gases), leading to global climate change. One means of promoting energy efficiency in industry is energy management. The aim of this paper is to outline a number of energy management related factors which affects energy management in industry positively. The paper is a result of collaboration between industry professionals and researchers within an ongoing research project and addresses the issue using a bottom-up energy management perspective. Results indicate that that the 'soft' issues of energy management play a crucial role in the success (or not) of energy management in industry, e.g. the manager's role and attitude towards the employees cannot be understated. Instead it addresses that implementation is not only about technology but equally or even more important, concerns the diffusion and adoption of energy management practices and principals

  10. 13. Amendment of the Atomic Energy Act and fundamental rights; 13. Atomgesetznovelle und Grundrechte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2011-11-15

    The contribution discusses whether the faster nuclear phaseout according to the 13th amendment of 2011 of the German Atomic Energy Act is in compliance with the fundamental rights as specified in the German constitution (Art. 14, 12, 3 GG). The focus is on the limited residual operating periods specified for each nuclear power plant and the annulment of the additional electricity capacities granted in 2010.

  11. Protein structure prediction by all-atom free-energy refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhinav; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background The reliable prediction of protein tertiary structure from the amino acid sequence remains challenging even for small proteins. We have developed an all-atom free-energy protein forcefield (PFF01) that we could use to fold several small proteins from completely extended conformations. Because the computational cost of de-novo folding studies rises steeply with system size, this approach is unsuitable for structure prediction purposes. We therefore investigate here a low-cost free-energy relaxation protocol for protein structure prediction that combines heuristic methods for model generation with all-atom free-energy relaxation in PFF01. Results We use PFF01 to rank and cluster the conformations for 32 proteins generated by ROSETTA. For 22/10 high-quality/low quality decoy sets we select near-native conformations with an average Cα root mean square deviation of 3.03 Å/6.04 Å. The protocol incorporates an inherent reliability indicator that succeeds for 78% of the decoy sets. In over 90% of these cases near-native conformations are selected from the decoy set. This success rate is rationalized by the quality of the decoys and the selectivity of the PFF01 forcefield, which ranks near-native conformations an average 3.06 standard deviations below that of the relaxed decoys (Z-score). Conclusion All-atom free-energy relaxation with PFF01 emerges as a powerful low-cost approach toward generic de-novo protein structure prediction. The approach can be applied to large all-atom decoy sets of any origin and requires no preexisting structural information to identify the native conformation. The study provides evidence that a large class of proteins may be foldable by PFF01. PMID:17371594

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Diplomacy of Sustainable International Nuclear Security

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Uadiale

    2011-01-01

    The increasing threat and proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and materials across national and international boundaries have combined to pose severe threat to the stability of the international system. In this respect, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has through its robust activities helped to enthrone the virtues of sustainable Nuclear security in our fast, but ever-changing world. This study concluded the IAEA, regardless of its numerous short comings, have proved to be an all i...

  13. Treatment of non-nuclear attractors within the theory of atoms in molecules II: Energy decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Bochicchio, Roberto C.

    2006-08-01

    This work describes the partitioning of the electronic energy in systems in which the atoms in molecules theory predicts the existence of non-nuclear attractors. The procedure is based on our previous proposals within studies of topological population analysis [D.R. Alcoba, L. Lain, A. Torre, R.C. Bochicchio, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407 (2005) 379]. Numerical determinations in the acetylene and dilithium molecules are reported and compared with those arising from other approaches.

  14. Structural Decomposition Analysis of China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Based on Input-Output Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. Y.; Zhou, J. Q.; Wang, Z.; Deng, L. C.; Hong, S.

    2017-05-01

    China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with energy-intensive industries contributing a large proportion of economic growth. In this study, we examined industrial energy consumption by decomposition analysis to describe the driving factors of energy consumption in China. Based on input-output (I-O) tables from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) website and China’s energy use data from 1995 to 2011, we studied the sectorial changes of energy efficiency during the examined period. The results showed that all industries increased their energy efficiency. Energy consumption was decomposed into three factors by the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The increase in production output was the leading factor that drives up China’s energy consumption. World Trade Organization accession and financial crises had great impact on the energy consumption. Based on these results, a series of energy policy suggestions for decision-makers has been proposed.

  15. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  16. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  17. The search for minimum-energy atomic configurations on a lattice: Lamarckian twist on Darwinian Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Zunger, Alex

    2008-03-01

    We examine how two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice-configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on to offsprings. Lamarck surmised additionally that offspring can inherit acquired traits. In the case of lattice-configurations, such improvements consist in AB transmutations of atomic sites as guided by ``Virtual Atom'' energy-gradients(M. d'Avezac and Alex Zunger, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt. 19, 402201 (2007)). This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated by finding the ground-states of face-centered cubic Au1-xPdx using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total-energies. For example, finding all minimum-energy structures of a 32-atom supercell with 95,% confidence requires evaluating 750, 000 configurations using local improvements only, 150, 000 using a reciprocal-space genetic algorithm only, and 14,000 using the hybrid approach. We consider applying the lamarckian search to further functionals.

  18. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New Strategies for Atomic Scale Measurements at Interfaces using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A.

    1997-03-01

    The local electronic structure of a material can be measured directly from the energy loss spectrum of a swift electron scattered through it. When the electron beam is focussed down to the width of an atomic column, the electronic density of states at an interface, grain boundary or impurity site can be decomposed by site, chemical species and angular momentum. Here, we discuss the use of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) fine structure to provide insight into the origin of grain boundary and interfacial properties. EELS can reveal the physics underlying why a particular local bonding arrangement develops. Even a qualitative understanding of local bonding can help indentify possible sites for chemical reactions and potentially weak points at a grain boundary. More can be done however: an EELS sum rule allows quantitative estimates of grain boundary energies. This is particularly useful at general, large angle grain boundaries where no other atomic scale information can be obtained. As an example, we show how atomic-scale EELS measurements of grain boundaries in Ni_3Al (D.A. Muller, S. Subramanian, P.E. Batson, S.L. Sass, J. Silcox, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75 4744 (1995). lead not only to rules-of-thumb for segregation and bond strength, but also to quantitative estimates of the boundary cohesion. Application to magnetic multilayers and Al:Cu interconnects will also be touched on. (Work at Cornell supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER45322 and NSF grant DMR-9121654.)

  20. Probing resonant energy transfer in collisions of ammonia with Rydberg helium atoms by microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of experiments demonstrating the spectroscopic detection of Förster resonance energy transfer from NH3 in the X1A1 ground electronic state to helium atoms in 1sns 3S1 Rydberg levels, where n = 37 and n = 40. For these values of n, the 1sns 3S1 → 1snp 3PJ transitions in helium lie close to resonance with the ground-state inversion transitions in NH3 and can be tuned through resonance using electric fields of less than 10 V/cm. In the experiments, energy transfer was detected by direct state-selective electric field ionization of the 3S1 and 3PJ Rydberg levels and by monitoring the population of the 3DJ levels following pulsed microwave transfer from the 3PJ levels. Detection by microwave spectroscopic methods represents a highly state selective, low-background approach to probing the collisional energy transfer process and the environment in which the atom-molecule interactions occur. The experimentally observed electric-field dependence of the resonant energy transfer process, probed both by direct electric field ionization and by microwave transfer, agrees well with the results of calculations performed using a simple theoretical model of the energy transfer process. For measurements performed in zero electric field with atoms prepared in the 1s40s 3S1 level, the transition from a regime in which a single energy transfer channel can be isolated for detection to one in which multiple collision channels begin to play a role has been identified as the NH3 density was increased.

  1. Scattering of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms at low collision energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J; van der Avoird, A

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm(-1). We focus on collisions in which NH3 is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH3 and ND3 as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH3 in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH3-He and NH3-Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Combined water and energy integration in industrial processes with restricted connections

    OpenAIRE

    Kermani, Maziar; Kantor, Ivan Daniel; Maréchal, François

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of industrial processes is highly linked with decreasing consumption of natural resources, energy, and water. In the context of climate change, as discussed during the Conference of Parties in Paris (COP21), the efficient use of energy, water and other resources is one of the solutions to substantially reduce the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from industry. Industries consume large quantities of energy and water in their processes which are often considered...

  4. Status and Analysis on Effects of Energy Efficiency Standards for Industrial Boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Liu, Meng; Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin

    2017-11-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection is the basic policy of China, and is an important part of ecological civilization construction. The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers.

  5. Energy conservation and circular economy in China's process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiquan; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Hongbin [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Production Technology of Hydrometallurgy, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Bao, Weijun; Xiu, Caihong [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Production Technology of Hydrometallurgy, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 353, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Since energy consumption in process industries accounts for a great proportion of China's total energy consumption, energy conservation becomes the practical choice to reduce the conflict between energy demand and energy supply in China, and therefore, promoting energy conservation is the long-term solution to China's energy and environment problems from the source. In this paper, based on the introduction of the concept of energy consumption status in China's key energy-consuming process industries, the main technical bottlenecks and resource-environment problems were analyzed with special emphasis on energy utilization efficiency, energy consumption mode, and waste emission. As for the measures to resolve these problems, at the policy level, policies and programs of Chinese government related to energy conservation were introduced in combination with China's circular economy structure. At the technical level, the key technologies and research progress to improve energy utilization efficiency, reducing energy consumption, as well as utilizing the resource of discharged wastes were reviewed. Finally, three typical cases of the development of circular economy at three levels, namely the chemical industry, metallurgical industry, and electric power industry, were studied for the enforcement of circular economy and energy conservation in China's process industries. (author)

  6. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    operation and maintenance procedures pertaining to building energy efficiency . _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ERDC

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIC FACTOR IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎRNU Doru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to conceive an environmental strategy intended to integrate harmoniously Gorj energy industry with principles of sustainable development. The sustainable development complies trinomial: ecological-economic-social. In our view, sustainable development, requires clean water and unpolluted air, land consolidated rejuvenated forests, biodiversity and protected nature reserves, churches and monasteries secular admired by visitors, welcoming places entered in the natural and cultural harmony. It is also necessary to reduce the pressure generated by socio-economic factors on the environment and the principles of sustainable development. The quality of life in urban and rural areas show extreme differences compared to European standards. For efficiency, we addressed the modeling method by designing a model valid for all thermoelectric power plants based on fossil fuels, allowing simultaneously, so adding value and environmental protection. The general objective that we propose for the environment, natural resources and patrimony, is related to the prevention of climate change by limiting the emission of toxic gases and their adverse effects on the environment The achievement of strategic objectives and implementation of proposals submitted, we consider that would have a double impact, on the one side, to protect the environment and the quality of life and, on the other side a positive influence on economic and social level.

  8. Energy management in industrial information systems. Energianhallinta osana teollisuuden informaatiojaerjestelmaeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taimisto, O. (Afora Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The research studies the energy management functions from the point of wiev of an utility or industry which do own generating capacity. Very soon the research was focused on the methods how to generate the data which is required in every day managing. From past experience it became clear that the problems can be solved with linear programming algorithms. During the work mostly well known algoritms were used with some new developement. The past experience of knowing the algorithms to be slow in a real time use were solved by carefully focusing into those part of the problem which were essential at a time. This lead into a separation of problems. Also some new techniques were developed in order to speed up the runtimes. Because a careful understanding of the expressed problems is required throughout the model building session a modelling environment was developed. This gave the advantage of having a person who well knew the process to build and test the model and to check that the solutions are rational. The model designer does not have to concentrate on the database interfacing and algorithms.

  9. Industrial consumption of energy survey - summary report of energy use in the Canadian manufacturing sector 1995-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    An Industrial Consumption of Energy (ICE) survey is conducted annually to collect data on the energy use of institutions in Canada's manufacturing sector. It plays a necessary role in monitoring the evolution of energy consumption by manufacturing industries and helping the Office of Energy (OEE) to fulfill Canada's commitment to improving energy conservation and energy efficiency. A number of factors affect energy demand in the manufacturing sector but it is difficult to establish an exhaustive list of them. Certain factors affect total energy demand while others take effect in combination; with the result attributing changes in manufacturing energy consumption to any one specific factor is quite difficult. Energy use data collected by the ICE survey from establishments representing all 21 subsectors of the manufacturing sector (NAICS 31-33) show that there is rapid growth in energy consumption, both as to amounts and energy intensity, in the manufacturing sector.

  10. Using uncertainty principle to find the ground-state energy of the helium and a helium-like Hookean atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbola, Varun, E-mail: varunh@iitk.ac.in [Kendriya Vidyalaya (Central School) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur-208 016 (India)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron cloud. Our calculation also shows how the Coulomb interaction between electrons affects their distribution. This leads to a physical picture of how electrons are located with respect to each other in these atoms. Finally, we also obtain through our calculations a general formula for the estimate of ground-state energy and radius of two electron atoms and ions with atomic number Z.

  11. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  12. Energy Intensity Development of the German Iron and Steel Industry between 1991 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.; Schleich, J.

    The iron and steel sector is the largest industrial CO2 emitter and energy consumer in the world. Energy efficiency is key to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions. To understand future developments of energy use in the steel sector, it is worthwhile to analyze energy efficiency developments

  13. Possibility of cogeneration from maritime and conventional energy sources for mining industry purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazov, I. I.; Shabalov, M. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Renewable energy sources in developed countries are usually considered as a possible alternative to traditional energy sources in the production of electricity and heat. Authors consider an importance of energy margin in regard to usability of renewable energy in mining industry. An original wave power plant is suggested as an additional energy source for some maritime mining operations and its features are thoroughly discussed.

  14. Energy efficiency and recovery of heat lost in the Industrial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounkid, S.; Loukili, A.

    2017-03-01

    the economic importance of energy is manifested at all levels of farms, the demand for energy is today one of the major challenges of societies, it constitutes an indispensable element to any activity of production, it is for this, the industry has an interest to anticipate and invest in energy efficiency in order to gain competitiveness, this last represents a tremendous lever for performance and economy. The Energy diagnosis allows unveils the potential energy sinks and the discovery of the various sources of energy losses in a manufacturing process or in all system user of energy. Use with the effectiveness of the energy help the industry to meet the challenges of competitiveness.

  15. Analysis on effects of energy efficiency regulations & standards for industrial boilers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Chen, Lili; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Meng

    2017-11-01

    The industrial boilers in China are featured by large quantity, wide distribution, high energy consumption and heavy environmental pollution, which are key problems faced by energy conservation and environmental protection in China. Meanwhile, industrial boilers are important equipment for national economy and people’s daily life, and energy conservation gets through all segments from type selection, purchase, installation and acceptance to fuel management, operation, maintenance and service. China began to implement such national mandatory standards and regulations for industrial boiler as GB24500-2009 The Minimum Allowable Values of Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Grades of Industrial Boilers and TSG G002-2010 Supervision Regulation on Energy-Saving Technology for Boilers since 2009, which obviously promote the development of energy conservation of industrial boilers, but there are also some problems with the rapid development of technologies for energy conservation of industrial boilers. In this paper, the implementation of energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers in China and the significance are analyzed based on survey data, and some suggestions are proposed for the energy efficiency standards for industrial boilers. Support by Project 2015424050 of Special Fund for quality control Research in the Public Interest

  16. Bayesian networks applied to process diagnostics. Applications in energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widarsson, Bjoern (ed.); Karlsson, Christer; Dahlquist, Erik [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Nielsen, Thomas D.; Jensen, Finn V. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    Uncertainty in process operation occurs frequently in heat and power industry. This makes it hard to find the occurrence of an abnormal process state from a number of process signals (measurements) or find the correct cause to an abnormality. Among several other methods, Bayesian Networks (BN) is a method to build a model which can handle uncertainty in both process signals and the process itself. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use BN for fault detection and diagnostics in combined heat and power industries through execution of two different applications. Participants from Aalborg University represent the knowledge of BN and participants from Maelardalen University have the experience from modelling heat and power applications. The co-operation also includes two energy companies; Elsam A/S (Nordjyllandsverket) and Maelarenergi AB (Vaesteraas CHP-plant), where the two applications are made with support from the plant personnel. The project ended out in two quite different applications. At Nordjyllandsverket, an application based (due to the lack of process knowledge) on pure operation data is build with capability to detect an abnormal process state in a coal mill. Detection is made through a conflict analysis when entering process signals into a model built by analysing the operation database. The application at Maelarenergi is built with a combination of process knowledge and operation data and can detect various faults caused by the fuel. The process knowledge is used to build a causal network structure and the structure is then trained by data from the operation database. Both applications are made as off-online applications, but they are ready for being run on-line. The performance of fault detection and diagnostics are good, but a lack of abnormal process states with known cause reduces the evaluation possibilities. Advantages with combining expert knowledge of the process with operation data are the possibility to represent

  17. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  18. Construction of an upconversion nanoprobe with few-atom silver nanoclusters as the energy acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Lingyu; Xia, Tian; Wu, Zhengjun; Liu, Zhihong

    2015-04-27

    Herein we report that few-atom silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) can be effective energy acceptors for upconversion phosphors (UCPs). A luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) probe for biothiols was constructed by decorating UCPs with dithiol-stabilized Ag NCs. Owing to the unique properties of ultrasmall NCs, properties which bridge the gap between those of small molecules and those of nanoparticles, the use of approximately 1.9 nm Ag NCs as energy acceptors endows the probe with high energy-transfer efficiency, good biocompatibility, and flexibility. The UCP-Ag NC nanoprobe enables rapid and robust target assay in solutions. It was also uploaded into living cells and used to detect intracellular biothiol levels with high discrimination. Moreover, the probe shows transportability in vivo and can be used for tissue imaging. The facile growth of few-atom metal NCs on diverse templates may enable the development of various nanoprobes combining UCPs and metal NCs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  20. Incorporating nuclear vibrational energies into the "atom in molecules" analysis: An analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-04-21

    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.