WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic energy authority

  1. 76 FR 17751 - Hazardous Materials: Request for U.S. Competent Authority Approval of International Atomic Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... arrangement transport certificate issued in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA... Authority Approval of International Atomic Energy Agency Special Arrangement CDN/ 5255/X-96 (Rev. 0... February 4, 2011, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) issued a transport license and certificate...

  2. 14th April 2008 - Signature of a Cooperation Agreement between Turkey represented by the President of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority O. Cakiroglu and CERN, represented by Director-General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Mona Schweizer

    2008-01-01

    14th April 2008 - Signature of a Cooperation Agreement between Turkey represented by the President of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority O. Cakiroglu and CERN, represented by Director-General R. Aymar.

  3. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  4. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  5. Transition energies of atomic lawrencium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U. [Tel Aviv Univ., School of Chemistry (Israel); Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y. [Puerto Rico Univ., Dept. of Chemistry (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Transition energies of the superheavy element lawrencium, including the ionization potential, excitation energies and electron affinities, are calculated by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method. A large basis set (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i) is used, as well as an extensive P space (6s5p4d2f1g). The outer 43 electrons are correlated. Accuracy is monitored by applying the same approach to lutetium, the lighter homologue of Lr, and comparing with experimentally known energies. QED corrections are included. The main goal is to predict excitation energies, in anticipation of planned spectroscopy of Lr. The ground state of Lr is 7s{sup 2}7p {sup 2}P(1/2), unlike the 5d6s{sup 2} {sup 2}D(3/2) of Lu. Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20.000-30.000 cm{sup -1}, are 7p {yields} 8s at 20.100 cm{sup -1} and 7p {yields} 7d at 28.100 cm{sup -1}. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm{sup -1}, and the error limits for Lr are put at 700 cm{sup -1}. The two electron affinities measured recently for Lu are reproduced within 55 cm{sup -1}, and a third bound state of Lu{sup -} is predicted. (authors)

  6. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  7. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  8. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  9. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, A.L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  10. Jobs in the Atomic Energy Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1974

    1974-01-01

    According to a recent government survey, employment in privately-owned atomic energy facilities now exceeds employment in government facilities. In this field, engineers, scientists, technicians, and craft workers account for the highest proportion of total employment. (MW)

  11. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  12. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I

    2015-01-01

    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  13. Atomic spectroscopy sympsoium, Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 23--26, 1975. [Program, abstracts, and author index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Abstracts of one hundred papers given at the conference are presented along with the conference program and an author index. Session topics include: highly ionized atoms; laser spectroscopy and hyperfine structure; complex spectra; laser spectroscopy, radiation theory; theory of highly ionized atoms and analysis of plasmas; plasma spectroscopy, line strengths; spectral analysis, instrumentation, reference wavelengths; beam foil spectroscopy, line strengths, energy levels; absorption spectroscopy, autoionization, and related theory; and spectral analysis, instrumentation, and VUV physics. (GHT)

  14. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-01-01

    This booklet lists selected commercially published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. Books for young readers have school grade annotations.This booklet contains an author index, a title index, and a list of publishers’ addresses.

  15. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  16. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  17. 29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    29 October 2013 - Former Director-General of IAEA H. Blix on the occasion of the Thorium Energy Conference at CERN with Chair of the ThEC13 Organization Committee E. Lillestol and Author of the book “Atome Vert” (Green Atom) J.-C. de Mestral; in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Machine Protection & Electrical Integrity Group, Performance Evaluation Section Member A. Verweij.

  18. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  19. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hinds, E.A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Ed.Hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  20. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  1. Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K. C.; Ko, Y. C.; Kwon, K. C.; and others

    2012-12-15

    Project of the Atomic Energy Technology Record is the project that summarizes and records whole process, from the background to the performance, of each category in all fields of nuclear science technology which have been researched and developed at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced at KAERI. This project includes development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) to collect, organize and preserve various records occurred in each research and development process. In addition, it means the whole records related to nuclear science technology for the past, present and future. This report summarizes research contents and results of 'Project of Atomic Energy Technology Record'. Section 2 summarizes the theoretical background, the current status of records management in KAERI and the overview of this project. And Section 3 to 6 summarize contents and results performed in this project. Section 3 is about the process of sectoral technology record, Section 4 summarizes the process of Information Strategy Master Plan(ISMP), Section 5 summarizes the development of Data And Documents Advanced Management System(DADAMS) and Section 6 summarizes the process of collecting, organizing and digitalizing of records.

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pu-239 (Plutonium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pu-239 (Plutonium, atomic number Z = 94, mass number A = 239).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-349 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-349 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 349).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-298 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-298 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 298).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-333 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-333 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 333).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-326 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-326 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 326).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-313 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-313 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 313).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-321 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-321 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 321).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-304 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-304 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 304).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-311 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-311 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 311).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-323 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-323 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 323).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-335 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-335 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 335).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-322 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-322 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 322).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-325 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-325 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 325).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-316 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-316 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 316).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-355 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-355 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 355).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-336 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-336 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 336).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-286 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-286 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 286).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-305 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-305 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 305).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-283 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-283 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 283).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-334 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-334 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 334).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-302 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-302 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 302).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-280 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-280 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 280).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-341 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-341 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 341).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-351 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-351 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 351).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-344 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-344 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 344).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-319 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-319 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 319).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-342 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-342 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 342).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-345 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-345 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 345).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-306 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-306 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 306).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-301 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-301 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 301).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-289 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-289 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 289).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-348 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-348 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 348).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-290 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-290 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 290).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-299 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-299 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 299).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-356 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-356 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 356).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-307 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-307 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 307).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-292 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-292 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 292).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-340 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-340 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 340).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-293 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-293 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 293).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-288 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-288 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 288).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-317 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-317 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 317).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-318 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-318 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 318).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-353 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-353 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 353).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-354 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-354 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 354).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-278 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-278 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 278).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-343 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-343 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 343).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-310 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-310 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 310).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-296 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-296 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 296).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-324 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-324 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 324).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-330 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-330 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 330).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-295 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-295 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 295).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-309 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-309 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 309).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-359 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-359 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 359).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-294 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-294 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 294).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-300 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-300 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 300).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-328 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-328 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 328).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-346 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-346 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 346).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-284 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-284 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 284).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-361 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-361 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 361).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-315 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-315 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 315).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-352 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-352 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 352).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-287 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-287 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 287).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-357 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-357 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 357).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-337 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-337 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 337).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-360 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-360 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 360).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-358 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-358 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 358).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-331 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-331 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 331).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-339 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-339 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 339).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-312 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-312 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 312).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-282 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-282 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 282).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-291 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-291 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 291).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-285 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-285 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 285).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-332 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-332 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 332).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-338 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-338 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 338).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-279 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-279 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 279).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-281 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-281 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 281).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-320 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-320 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 320).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-303 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-303 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 303).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-297 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-297 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 297).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-327 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-327 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 327).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-347 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-347 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 347).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-308 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-308 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 308).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-329 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-329 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 329).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-314 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-314 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 314).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hs-350 (Hassium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hs-350 (Hassium, atomic number Z = 108, mass number A = 350).

  7. Characterizing the field of Atomic Layer Deposition: Authors, topics, and collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Alvaro

    Full Text Available This paper describes how Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD has evolved over time using a combination of bibliometric, social network, and text analysis. We examined the rate of knowledge production as well as changes in authors, journals, and collaborators, showing a steady growth of ALD research. The study of the collaboration network of ALD scientists over time points out that the ALD research community is becoming larger and more interconnected, with a largest connected component that spans 90% of the authors in 2015. In addition, the evolution of network centrality measures (degree and betweenness centrality and author productivity revealed the central figures in ALD over time, including new "stars" appearing in the last decade. Finally, the study of the title words in our dataset is consistent with a shift in focus on research topics towards energy applications and nanotechnology.

  8. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  9. Third Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, February 2, 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-02-02

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the third semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. The letter of submittal was titled ''Letter from the Chairman and Members of the United States Atomic Energy Commission transmitting pursuant to law the third semiannual report of the Atomic Energy Commission''. It was authored by David E. Lilienthal, Chairman, and Robert F. Bacher, Sumner T. Pike, Lewis L. Strauss, and William W. Waymack of the AEC.

  10. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  11. Books on Atomic Energy for Adults and Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    This booklet contains two lists of atomic energy books, one for students and one for adults. The student list has grade annotations. The lists are not all-inclusive but comprise selected basic books on atomic energy and closely related subjects.

  12. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy [Laban Hrad Vidyapith, AD-369, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Basu, Arindam [Department of Physics, Maheshtala College, Chandannagar, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata 700 140 (India); Sarkar, Nirmal K [Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith, 1, Desh Bandhu Nagar, Sodepur, 743 174 (India); Sinha, Prabal K [Department of Physics, Bangabasi College, 19, Raj Kumar Chakravorty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2004-04-28

    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time.

  13. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Tran, T.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  14. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Essel; Eric T Glover; Serwaa Yeboah; Yaw Adjei-Kyereme; Israel Nutifafa Doyi Yawo; Mawutoli Nyarku; Godfred S Asumadu-Sakyi; Gustav Kudjoe Gbeddy; Yvette Agyiriba Agyiri; Evans Mawuli Ameho; Emmanuel Atule Aberikae

    2016-01-01

      Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  15. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essel, Paul; Glover, Eric T; Yeboah, Serwaa; Adjei-Kyereme, Yaw; Yawo, Israel Nutifafa Doyi; Nyarku, Mawutoli; Asumadu-Sakyi, Godfred S; Gbeddy, Gustav Kudjoe; Agyiri, Yvette Agyiriba; Ameho, Evans Mawuli; Aberikae, Emmanuel Atule

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate...

  16. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the ...

  17. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy ...

  18. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-09

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  19. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energies. K CHAKRABARTI. Department of Mathematics, Scottish Church College, 1 & 3 Urquhart Square, Calcutta 700 006,. India. MS received 26 June 2000. Abstract. Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant ΘЅѕ, ...

  20. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant 12, equal energy sharing geometry. The TDCS reveal considerable differences in physics compared to electron impact ionization under the same geometry.

  1. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Haslinger, Philipp; Simmons, Quinn; Müller, Holger; Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    If dark energy --- which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe --- consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultra-high vacu...

  2. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  3. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    The document represents the 1961 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report consists of four parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry for 1961 and Related Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Power Programs for 1961; Part Three, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Four, Regulatory Activities. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  4. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The document represents the first annual reporting versus semiannual reporting of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report consists of three parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1959 and Related Activities; Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs; and Part Three, Management of Radioactive Wastes. Nineteen appendices are also included.

  5. Multipolar electrostatics for proteins: atom-atom electrostatic energies in crambin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongna; Mills, Matthew J L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-02-15

    Accurate electrostatics necessitates the use of multipole moments centered on nuclei or extra point charges centered away from the nuclei. Here, we follow the former alternative and investigate the convergence behavior of atom-atom electrostatic interactions in the pilot protein crambin. Amino acids are cut out from a Protein Data Bank structure of crambin, as single amino acids, di, or tripeptides, and are then capped with a peptide bond at each side. The atoms in the amino acids are defined through Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) as finite volume electron density fragments. Atom-atom electrostatic energies are computed by means of a multipole expansion with regular spherical harmonics, up to a total interaction rank of L = ℓA+ ℓB + 1 = 10. The minimum internuclear distance in the convergent region of all the 15 possible types of atom-atom interactions in crambin that were calculated based on single amino acids are close to the values calculated from di and tripeptides. Values obtained at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ levels are only slightly larger than those calculated at HF/6-31G(d,p) level. This convergence behavior is transferable to the well-known amyloid beta polypeptide Aβ1-42. Moreover, for a selected central atom, the influence of its neighbors on its multipole moments is investigated, and how far away this influence can be ignored is also determined. Finally, the convergence behavior of AMBER becomes closer to that of QCT with increasing internuclear distance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Scientists credit `Atoms for Peace' for progress on energy, security

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Fifty years after President Eisenhower unveiled his plan for developing peaceful uses for nuclear fission, the scientific advances spawned by his Atoms for Peace program have made possible major advances in energy and national security, a panel of physicists said last week" (1 page).

  7. Delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Hafeez Hoorani (NCP) and Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment with a delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Mr Saeed Ahmed, Director SES, PAEC, Mr Muhammad Naeem, Director PWI and Mr Javed Iqleem, Deputy Chairman PAEC visiting the CMS magnet assembly hall at Point 5.

  8. THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY’s SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio-Andrés, Gabriel; Universidad Católica de Cordoba

    2008-01-01

    Entrusted with the responsibility of establishing and administering the international safeguards system with the purpose of ensuring that nuclear energy would not be used for furthering military purposes, the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter “IAEA” or “the Agency”) is a key piece of the international system for the maintenance of world peace and security. Despite the initial enthusiasm surrounding the foundation of the IAEA in the 1950s, it required several years for the Agency...

  9. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  10. Development of a microlesson in teaching energy levels of atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cherilyn A.; Buan, Amelia T.

    2018-01-01

    Energy levels of atoms is one of the difficult topics in understanding atomic structure of matter. It appears tobe abstract, theoretical and needs visual representation and images. Hence, in this study a microlesson in teaching the high school chemistry concept on the energy levels of atoms is developed and validated. The researchers utilized backward curriculum design in planning the microlesson to meet the standards of the science K-12 curriculum. The planning process of the microlesson involved a) Identifying the learning competencies in K-12 science curriculum b) write learning objectives c) planning of assessment tools d) making a storyboard e) designing the microlesson and validate and revise the microlesson. The microlesson made use of varied resources in the internet from which the students accessed and collected information about energy levels of atoms. Working in groups, the students synthesized the information on how and why fireworks produce various colors of light through a post card. Findings of the study showed that there was an increase of achievement in learning the content and the students were highly motivated to learn chemistry. Furthermore, the students perceived that the microlesson helped them to understand the chemistry concept through the use of appropriate multimedia activities.

  11. French Atomic Energy Commission Decommissioning Programme and Feedback Experience - 12230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiberteau, Ph.; Nokhamzon, J.G. [French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission CEA/DEN/DADN Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Since the French Atomic and Alternatives Energy Commission (CEA) was founded in 1945 to carry out research programmes on use of nuclear, and its application France has set up and run various types of installations: research or prototypes reactors, process study or examination laboratories, pilot installations, accelerators, nuclear power plants and processing facilities. Some of these are currently being dismantled or must be dismantled soon so that the DEN, the Nuclear Energy Division, can construct new equipment and thus have available a range of R and D facilities in line with the issues of the nuclear industry of the future. Since the 1960's and 1970's in all its centres, the CEA has acquired experience and know-how through dismantling various nuclear facilities. The dismantling techniques are nowadays operational, even if sometimes certain specific developments are necessary to reduce the cost of operations. Thanks to availability of techniques and guarantees of dismantling programme financing now from two dedicated funds, close to euro 15,000 M for the next thirty years, for current or projected dismantling operations, the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division has been able to develop, when necessary, its immediate dismantling strategy. Currently, nearly thirty facilities are being dismantled by the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division operational units with industrial partners. Thus the next decade will see completion of the dismantling and radioactive clean-up of the Grenoble site and of the facilities on the Fontenay-aux-Roses site. By 2016, the dismantling of the UP1 plant at Marcoule, the largest dismantling work in France, will be well advanced, with all the process equipment dismantled. After an overview of the French regulatory framework, the paper will describe the DD and R (Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation) strategy, programme and feedback experience inside the CEA's Nuclear Energy Division. A special feature of dismantling

  12. Machine Learning of Dynamic Electron Correlation Energies from Topological Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, James L; Silva, Arnaldo F; Vincent, Mark A; Popelier, Paul L A

    2017-12-06

    We present an innovative method for predicting the dynamic electron correlation energy of an atom or a bond in a molecule utilizing topological atoms. Our approach uses the machine learning method Kriging (Gaussian Process Regression with a non-zero mean function) to predict these dynamic electron correlation energy contributions. The true energy values are calculated by partitioning the MP2 two-particle density-matrix via the Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first time such energies have been predicted by a machine learning technique. We present here three important proof-of-concept cases: the water monomer, the water dimer, and the van der Waals complex H2···He. These cases represent the final step toward the design of a full IQA potential for molecular simulation. This final piece will enable us to consider situations in which dispersion is the dominant intermolecular interaction. The results from these examples suggest a new method by which dispersion potentials for molecular simulation can be generated.

  13. Investigation of energy thresholds of atomic and cluster sputtering of some elements under ion bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Atabaev, B G; Lifanova, L F

    2002-01-01

    Threshold energies of sputtering of negative cluster ions from the Si(111) surface were measured at bombardment by Cs sup + , Rb sup + , and Na sup + ions with energy of 0.1-3.0 keV. These results are compared with the calculations of the similar thresholds by Bohdansky etc. formulas (3) for clusters Si sub n sup - and Cu sub n sup - with n=(1-5) and also for B, C, Al, Si, Fe, Cu atoms. Threshold energies of sputtering for the above elements were also estimated using the data from (5). Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained. (author)

  14. Atomic Energy is "Moonshine": What did Rutherford Really Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In the 1930s Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) repeatedly suggested, sometimes angrily, that the possibility of harnessing atomic energy was "moonshine." Yet, as war approached he secretly advised the British government to "keep an eye on the matter." I suggest that Rutherford did not really believe his "moonshine" claim but did have profound reasons for making it. If I am correct, then this casts additional light on his personality, stature, and career.

  15. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shizhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50, ndD23/2(n=6--50, and ndD25/2(n=6--50 spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1 and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  16. Calculation of the Rydberg Energy Levels for Francium Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Shizhong; Sun Qiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of nsS21/2(n=8--50), ndD23/2(n=6--50), and ndD25/2(n=6--50) spectrum series for francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 74 known experimentally measured levels (the absolute difference is less than 0.03 cm-1) and 58 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  17. Energy distributions for ionization in ion-atom collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Amaya-Tapia, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how through the process of applying the Fourier transform to solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the Close Coupling approach, good results for the ionization differential cross section in energy for electrons ejected in ion-atom collisions are obtained. The differential distributions are time dependent and through their time average, the comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported in the literature can be made. The procedure is illustrated with reasonable success in two systems, $p+H$ and $p+He$, and is expected to be extended without inherent difficulties to more complex systems. This allows advancing in the understanding of the calculation of ionization processes in ion-atom collisions.

  18. Fifth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy Development, 1947- 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.

    1949-01-01

    The document represents the fifth semiannual report to Congress, covering specifically the various developments in atomic energy since the inception of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1946. This fifth report represents an expansion of effort in all phases of atomic energy development and is prepared against a background of world affairs.

  19. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  20. A Simple Local Correlation Energy Functional for Spherically Confined Atoms from ab Initio Correlation Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2017-09-03

    We propose a simple method of calculating the electron correlation energy density ec (r) and the correlation potential Vc (r) from second-order Møller-Plesset amplitudes and its generalization for the case of a configuration interaction wavefunction, based on Nesbet's theorem. The correlation energy density obtained by this method for free and spherically confined Be and He atoms was employed to fit a local analytical density functional based on Wigner's functional. The functional is capable of producing a strong increase in the correlation energy with decreasing confined radius for the Be atom. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. ASTROPHYSICS. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P; Jaffe, M; Haslinger, P; Simmons, Q; Müller, H; Khoury, J

    2015-08-21

    If dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, we reduced the screening mechanism by probing the field with individual atoms rather than with bulk matter. We thereby constrained a wide class of dark energy theories, including a range of chameleon and other theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Proposal for the International Atomic Energy Agency Training Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site has hosted similar activities, including both Hanford Summits I and II. The Hanford Summits were two-day televised events to discuss the commitment of the current Presidential administration to the environmental restoration of the Hanford Site. Public involvement and strategic issues established from Hanford Summit I include: Regulatory issues, training and education, economic development and partnership, and technology transfer. Hanford Summit II provided a summary of how Secretary of Energy O`Leary is proceeding on the above strategic issues. The DOE and Westinghouse School for Environmental Excellence frequently offers a six-week course for environmental professionals and workers. Approximately thirty to forty individuals attend the training course, which provides training in environmental regulation compliance. The Hanford Site has hosted two previous International Atomic Energy Agency training courses. The courses lasted two weeks and had approximately eight to ten participants. Nuclear Material Management and Neutron Monitoring were the courses hosted by the Hanford Site.

  3. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    The document covers activities for the period January - December 1960. The report consists of two parts: Part One, The Atomic Energy Industry in 1960 and Related Activities; and Part Two, Major Activities in Atomic Energy Programs. Twenty-one appendices are also included.

  4. Licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Act in comparison to those under the Federal Pollution Control Act. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Wolleschlaeger, M.

    1981-07-01

    Since there is the possibility in uranium enrichment plants of major quantities of gaseous fluorine compounds being released, it is necessary in the Federal Republic of Germany to consider for such plants not only a permit under the Atomic Energy Act, but also a permit under the Federal Pollution Control Act. Under Sec. 8, Subsec. 2, such permit is included in the permit under the Atomic Energy Act, but the licensing authority under the Atomic Energy Act must take its decision in agreement with the state authority responsible for pollution control.

  5. Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports on the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) experiment that will be flown on the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1. The SARA is a low energy neutral atom. (LENA) imaging mass spectrometer, which will perform remote sensing of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy ...

  6. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  7. Law project adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the international atomic energy agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en Franc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This project of law concerns an additional protocol to the agreement of warranties signed on September 22, 1998 between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA. This agreement concerns the declaration of all information relative to the R and D activities linked with the fuel cycle and involving the cooperation with a foreign country non endowed with nuclear weapons. These information include the trade and processing of nuclear and non-nuclear materials and equipments devoted to nuclear reactors (pressure vessels, fuel loading/unloading systems, control rods, force and zirconium tubes, primary coolant pumps, deuterium and heavy water, nuclear-grade graphite), to fuel reprocessing plants, to isotope separation plants (gaseous diffusion, laser enrichment, plasma separation, electromagnetic enrichment), to heavy water and deuterium production plants, and to uranium conversion plants. (J.S.)

  8. Multipole expansion of the retarded interatomic potential energy: induction energy for degenerate ground-state atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1972-01-01

    The inductive contribution to the retarded interatomic potential energy of two atoms in degenerate ground states is calculated up to all multipole orders on the basis of quantum electrodynamics. The result, which is found to have nonretarded character, is written in such a way as to show the

  9. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  10. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  11. Atomic excitation and molecular dissociation by low energy electron collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyland, Marvin

    2016-11-16

    In this work, momentum imaging experiments have been conducted for the electron impact excitation of metastable states in noble gases and for dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in polyatomic molecules. For the electron impact excitation study a new experimental technique has been developed which is able to measure the scattering angle distribution of the electrons by detection of the momentum transfer to the atoms. Momentum transfer images have been recorded for helium and neon at fixed electron impact energy close to the excitation threshold and good agreement with current R-matrix theory calculations was found. A new momentum imaging apparatus for negative ions has been built for the purpose of studying DEA in biologically relevant molecules. During this work, DEA was investigated in the molecules ammonia, water, formic acid, furan, pyridine and in two chlorofluorocarbons. Furthermore, the change of DEA resonance energies when molecules form clusters compared to monomers was investigated in ammonia and formic acid. The experimental results of most studied molecules could be compared to recent theoretical calculations and they support further development in the theoretical description of DEA. The new apparatus built in this work also delivered a superior momentum resolution compared to existing setups. This allows the momentum imaging of heavier fragments and fragments with lower kinetic energy.

  12. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper set out to explore the following research question: “what shape and form should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the exploratory case study of a spheroid building, the Greater London Authority (GLA) building.

  13. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence.

  14. The impact of atomic precision measurements in high energy physics

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the relevance of atomic physics in understanding some important questions about elementary particle physics. A particular attention is devoted to atomic parity violation measurements which seem to suggest new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic physics might also be relevant in discovering possible violations of the CPT symmetry.

  15. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  16. Report on the atom what you should know about atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-01

    The American approach to the atom ; Uranium is where you find it ; the production line: ore to bombs ; the expanding programme ; the headaches ; the pay-off: weapons ; the military and the atoms ; power: the peaceful goals, first phase ; power: the peaceful goals, second goals ; radioisotopes: servants of man ; the quest for knowledge ; secrecy, security and spies ; the international atom ; behind the Iron Curtain ; the way ahead.

  17. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1961. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1961 - December 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1962-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1961 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1961.

  18. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  19. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  20. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  1. The Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    The document represents the 1962 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. This year's report opens with a section of Highlights of the Atomic Energy Programs of 1962, followed by five parts: Part One, Commission Activities; Part Two, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Three, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Four, Other Major Programs; and Part Five, The Regulatory Program. Sixteen appendices are also included.

  2. Rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Paul; Glover, Eric T; Yeboah, Serwaa; Adjei-Kyereme, Yaw; Yawo, Israel Nutifafa Doyi; Nyarku, Mawutoli; Asumadu-Sakyi, Godfred S; Gbeddy, Gustav Kudjoe; Agyiri, Yvette Agyiriba; Ameho, Evans Mawuli; Aberikae, Emmanuel Atule

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall erosivity is the potential ability for rainfall to cause soil loss. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rainfall erosivity index for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission site in order to compute the surface erosion rate. Monthly rainfall data, for the period 2003-2012 were used to compute annual rainfall erosivity indices for the site, using the Modified Fournier index. Values of the annual rainfall erosivity indices ranged from 73.5 mm for 2004 to 200.4 mm for the year 2003 with a mean annual erosivity index of 129.8 mm for the period. The Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation was used to establish the relationship between annual rainfall and annual rainfall erosivity. This showed a high degree of positive relationship (r = 0.7) for the study area. The computed mean annual erosivity index revealed that the site is in the high erosion risk zone. Therefore, it is necessary to develop soil protection and management strategies to protect the soil from erosion.

  3. Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    09) was determined by calibration method in which CH4 photolysis at 121⋅6 nm was used as a reference source of well-defined H atom concentrations. The line shapes of the measured H atom Doppler profiles indicate a Gaussian velocity ...

  4. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, (Fermi-1) located in Monroe County, Michigan. Environmental Assessment Identification of...

  5. A calculation of internal kinetic energy and polarizability of compressed argon from the statistical atom model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldam, C.A. ten; Groot, S.R. de

    1952-01-01

    From Jensen's and Gombás' modification of the statistical Thomas-Fermi atom model, a theory for compressed atoms is developed by changing the boundary conditions. Internal kinetic energy and polarizability of argon are calculated as functions of pressure. At 1000 atm. an internal kinetic energy of

  6. Degradation of fast electrons energy and atomic hydrogen generation in an emission plume from atomic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, G. A.; Penin, S. T.; Chistyakova, L. K.

    2006-02-01

    The problem of remote detecting of a radioactivity in emissions from atomic power stations (APS) is devoted. The basic radionuclides contained in emissions of nuclear energy stations with various types of reactors have been analyzed. The total power spectrum of electrons is determined taking into account their multiplication. Physical and chemical reactions reducing to generation of atomic hydrogen are considered. For definition of the radiating volume in the emission from APS, the spatial distribution of atomic hydrogen concentration has been calculated with the use Pasquill- Gifford model. Power radiating by the emission plume from the APS with the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) is estimated. It has been shown, that for estimation of radiation effect on the atmosphere, it is necessary to take into account many generations of electrons, because they have average energies exceeding considerably the ionization potentials for atoms and molecules of the atmospheric components. The area of the maximum concentration of atomic hydrogen in an emission plume can be determined by modelling the transport processes of admixture. The power radiated at frequency 1420 MHz by the volume 1 km from the APS emissions can amount to ~10 -13 W that allows one to detect the total level of activity confidently. The possible configuration of an emission plume has been calculated for various atmospheric stratification and underlying surfaces.

  7. The history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This book deals with the history for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute with the title ; rich energy, clean environment and healthy life. It reports the message of publication and congratulatory address, the period of building foundation in 1970s the period of technical independence in 1980s, the period of maturity of technical independence in 1990s the period of advanced technology in 2000s, prospect on research and development on Korea atomic energy, research on atomic reactor for studying, introduction on nuclear reactor for generating energy, safety, radiation, nuclear fuel cycle human resource and international cooperation and general management.

  8. Fast-ion-beam laser probing of ion-source energy distributions and atomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Richard A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.ca; Rosner, S. David [University of Western Ontario, Physics and Astronomy Department (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Collinear fast-ion-beam laser spectroscopy is a very high resolution probe for measuring ion-beam energy distributions and atomic structure parameters of interest in nuclear physics, atomic physics, and astrophysics. We have used offline 10-keV beams of atomic ions and a CW laser system to study the behavior of a Penning ion source and to measure hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, atomic lifetimes, spontaneous-emission branching fractions, oscillator strengths, and absolute wavelengths of a variety of atomic species from the lanthanide and transition-metal groups.

  9. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  10. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  11. Determining Nuclear Fingerprints: Glove Boxes, Radiation Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentetzi, Maria

    2017-06-01

    In a nuclear laboratory, a glove box is a windowed, sealed container equipped with two flexible gloves that allow the user to manipulate nuclear materials from the outside in an ostensibly safe environment. As a routine laboratory device, it invites neglect from historians and storytellers of science. Yet, since especially the Gulf War, glove boxes have put the interdependence of science, diplomacy, and politics into clear relief. Standing at the intersection of history of science and international history, technological materials and devices such as the glove box can provide penetrating insight into the role of international diplomatic organizations to the global circulation and control of scientific knowledge. The focus here is on the International Atomic Energy Agency. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-energy Scattering of Positronium by Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hasi

    2007-01-01

    The survey reports theoretical studies involving positronium (Ps) - atom scattering. Investigations carried out in last few decades have been briefly reviewed in this article. A brief description of close-coupling approximation (CCA), the first-Born approximation (FBA) and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) for Ps-Atom systems are made. The CCA codes of Ray et a1 [1-6] are reinvestigated using very fine mesh-points to search for resonances. The article advocates the need for an extended basis set & a systematic study using CCAs.

  13. Fourteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1953-07-31

    The document represents the fourteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1953.

  14. Twelfth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1952-07-01

    The document represents the twelfth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1952.

  15. Eighteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, January - June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-07-30

    The document represents the eighteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period January - June 1955.

  16. Fifteenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. Major Activities in the Atomic Energy Programs, July - December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The document represents the fifteenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1953.

  17. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  18. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, W.E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Holst, B. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: bodil@cantab.net

    2008-05-15

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  19. Perturbation calculations of the interaction energies between non-bonded hydrogen atoms - Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laidlaw, W.G.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Wieser, H.

    1971-01-01

    Calculations of the interaction energy between non-bonded hydrogen atoms in the fragments A—H---H'—A' for selected displacements of the hydrogen atoms enable one to evaluate corrections to the force field due to the non-bonded interactions and to discuss the changes in the stretching vibration

  20. Seventh Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy and the Physical Sciences, January 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.

    1950-01-01

    The document represents the seventh semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up briefly the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program in Part I. Part II focuses on research in the physical sciences and progress in atomic energy.

  1. Mr Parvez Butt, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr. Parvez Butt, Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (standing 4th from left) with his delegation and ATLAS team standing in front of the Barrel Supports manufactured in HMC3 - Pakistan.

  2. 76 FR 69295 - Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by... over the following proceeding: Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project) This proceeding involves a license application from Peninsula Minerals, Ltd., doing business as Strata Energy, Inc...

  3. Fourth Semiannual Report to the Congress by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, July 1948

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.; Waymack, William W.

    1948-07-01

    The document includes the letter of submittal and the Fourth semiannual report. These reports are called for pursuant to Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. This fourth report incorporates some changes to the report. In order to make these reports of maximum value to Members of Congress, the Commission has prepared this mid-year report as a specialized document giving a comprehensive account of several major phases of the atomic energy program.

  4. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1965-01-29

    The document represents the 1964 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report is divided into 6 areas for 1964, plus 8 appendices and the index. Section names are: Part One, The Atomic Energy Program - 1964; Part Two, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Three, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Four, Other Major Activities; Part Five, Support-Type Activities; and Part Six, Regulatory Activities.

  5. Low-energy measurements of electron capture by multicharged ions from excited hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havener, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesse 37831-6372 (United States)); Haque, M.A. (Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi 39096 (United States)); Smith, A.C.H. (University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)); Urbain, X. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (United States))

    1993-06-05

    For very low collision energies electron capture from excited hydrogen by multicharged ions is characterized by enormous cross sections, the predicted maximum being comparable to the geometric size of the Rydberg atom. The ion-atom merged-beams technique is being used to study these collisions for the variety of charge states and the wide range of energies (0.1 to 1000 eV/amu) accessible to the apparatus. A neutral D beam containing a Rydberg atom population proportional to 1/n[sup 3] is produced by collisional electron detachment of 8 keV D[sup [minus

  6. Production of dimeson atoms in high-energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasyev, L.; Gevorkyan, S.; Voskresenskaya, O. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The production of two-meson electromagnetic bound states and free meson pairs π{sup +}π{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, π{sup +}K{sup -+} in relativistic collisions has been considered. It is shown that using of exact Coulomb wave functions for dimeson atom (DMA) allows one to calculate the yield of discrete states with the desired accuracy. The relative probabilities of production of DMA and meson pairs in the free state are estimated. The amplitude of DMA transition from 1S to 2P state, which is essential for the pionium Lamb shift measurements, has been obtained. (orig.)

  7. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2012-10-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations are based on the Müller-Schottky equation, which is modified to include different atomic neighborhoods and their characteristic bonds. The local environment is considered up to the fifth next nearest neighbors. To compare the experimental with simulated APT data, the AtomVicinity algorithm, which provides statistical information about the positions of the neighboring atoms, is applied. The quality of this information is influenced by the field evaporation behavior of the different species, which is connected to the bonding energies. © Microscopy Society of America 2012.

  8. New effects in low energy scattering of p{mu} atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, J. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Adamczak, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Beer, G.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Bystritsky, V.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Filipowicz, M. [Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques (Poland); Fujiwara, M.C. [University of British Columbia (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus College (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [University of California (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of); Knowles, P.E. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Kunselman, A.R. [University of Wyoming (United States); Maier, M. [University of Victoria (Canada); Markushin, V.E. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Marshall, G.M. [TRIUMF (Canada); Mulhauser, F. [University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Olin, A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Porcelli, T.A. [University of Victoria (Canada); Stolupin, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] (and others)

    1999-06-15

    Strong solid state effects in low energy scattering of p{mu} atoms in solid hydrogen are reported and analyzed. Such effects have been observed in TRIUMF experiment E742 where muons are stopped in thin frozen (3 K) layers of hydrogen. Emission of low energy p{mu} atoms from the hydrogen layer into adjacent vacuum was much higher than expected, based on calculations which ignored the solid nature of hydrogen. Monte Carlo simulations, performed using the scattering cross-sections with solid state effects taken into account, show the important role of the coherent elastic Bragg scattering in the diffusion of p{mu} atoms. For p{mu} energies lower than the Bragg cut-off limit ({approx}2 meV) the total scattering cross-section falls by several orders of magnitude, the hydrogen target becomes transparent and the emission of cold p{mu} atoms takes place.

  9. Matter, energy, and heat transfer in a classical ballistic atom pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy A; Das, Kunal K; Mitchell, Kevin A; Aubin, Seth; Delos, John B

    2014-11-01

    A ballistic atom pump is a system containing two reservoirs of neutral atoms or molecules and a junction connecting them containing a localized time-varying potential. Atoms move through the pump as independent particles. Under certain conditions, these pumps can create net transport of atoms from one reservoir to the other. While such systems are sometimes called "quantum pumps," they are also models of classical chaotic transport, and their quantum behavior cannot be understood without study of the corresponding classical behavior. Here we examine classically such a pump's effect on energy and temperature in the reservoirs, in addition to net particle transport. We show that the changes in particle number, of energy in each reservoir, and of temperature in each reservoir vary in unexpected ways as the incident particle energy is varied.

  10. The industrial development of atomic energy; Le developpement industriel de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarski, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material ({sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) or concentrated material ({sup 235}U mixed with small quantities of {sup 238}U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with {sup 238}U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate {sup 238}U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in {sup 239}Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and {sup 238}U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England

  11. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  12. Two atoms scattering at low and cold energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Hasi Ray1 2 3. National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research Kolkata, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 106, India; New Alipore College, New Alipore, Kolkata 700 053, India; Study Centre, S-1/407/6, B. P. Township, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  13. 78 FR 46829 - Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., whether conducted in the United States or abroad, directly or indirectly result in the development or... national whom the part 810 applicant seeks to employ abroad in either a general or specific authorization... comment on changes DOE is considering with regard to part 810. Additionally, working together with the...

  14. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing...: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, (William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2), Docket Nos. 52-018... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  15. Atomic collision and spectroscopy experiments with ultra-low-energy antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, Hiroyuki A; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Imao, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Naofumi; Varentsov, Victor L; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Antiproton, the antiparticle of proton, is a unique projectile in the study of atomic collision physics, which can be treated theoretically either as a 'negative proton' or a 'heavy electron'. Atomic capture of an antiproton will result in formation of a highly excited exotic atom. Antiprotonic helium atom has been studied intensively by means of precision laser spectroscopy, which has led to a stringent determination of antiproton mass and charge to a level of ppb. Comparison of these values with those of proton gives one of the best tests of CPT invariance, the most fundamental symmetry in physics. However, the dynamic processes of antiproton capture remain unclarified. With an aim to produce an antiproton beam at atomic-physics energies for 'pure' collision experiments, we have so far developed techniques to decelerate, cool and confine antiprotons in vacuo, using a sequential combination of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, a Radio-Frequency Quadrupole Decelerator (RFQD), and an electromagnetic tra...

  16. Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

  17. REFERENCE MATERIALS IN THE SPHERE OF USE OF ATOMIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the chronology of development of the system of reference materials in the nuclear industry of the Russian Federation. The basic documents used in the sphere of nuclear energy are described. The nomenclature of reference materials and feature of their application in the "Rosatom" is given. The prospects of development activities in the field of reference materials are formulated.

  18. Potential Energy Curves and Collisions Integrals of Air Components. 2; Interactions Involving Ionized Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Collision integrals are fundamental quantities required to determine the transport properties of the environment surrounding aerospace vehicles in the upper atmosphere. These collision integrals can be determined as a function of temperature from the potential energy curves describing the atomic and molecular collisions. Ab initio calculations provide a practical method of computing the required interaction potentials. In this work we will discuss recent advances in scattering calculations with an emphasis on the accuracy that is obtainable. Results for interactions of the atoms and ionized atoms of nitrogen and oxygen will be reviewed and their application to the determination of transport properties, such as diffusion and viscosity coefficients, will be examined.

  19. A tabulation of the bound-state energies of atomic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Horbatsch, M

    2016-01-01

    We present tables for the bound-state energies for atomic hydrogen. The tabulated energies include the hyperfine structure, and thus this work extends the work of Rev. Mod. Phys. {\\bf 84}, 1527 (2012), which excludes hyperfine structure. The tabulation includes corrections of the hyperfine structure due to the anomalous moment of the electron, due to the finite mass of the proton, and due to off-diagonal matrix elements of the hyperfine Hamiltonian. These corrections are treated incorrectly in most other works. Simple formulas valid for all quantum numbers are presented for the hyperfine corrections. The tabulated energies have uncertainties of less than 1 kHz for all states. This accuracy is possible because of the recent precision measurement [Nature, {\\bf 466}, 213 (2010); Science, {\\bf 339}, 417] of the proton radius. The effect of this new radius on the energy levels is also tabulated, and the energies are compared to precision measurements of atomic hydrogen energy intervals.

  20. Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart, Red Mountain Tribal Energy

    2008-03-31

    The project, “Renewable Energy Feasibility Study” was designed to expand upon previous work done by the Tribe in evaluating utility formation, generation development opportunities, examining options for creating self-sufficiency in energy matters, and integrating energy management with the Tribe’s economic development goals. The evaluation of project locations and economic analysis, led to a focus primarily on solar projects.

  1. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F

    2016-12-05

    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Collisions between low-energy antihydrogen and atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, E A G; Liu, Y; Martin, G D R

    2004-01-01

    Antihydrogen is currently the subject of great interest as cold H has recently been prepared at CERN by the ATHENA and ATRAP projects. This work is described elsewhere in this volume. In this paper, we describe a calculation that we have carried out recently for very low-energy HH scattering using the Kohn variational method and including three rearrangement channels in addition to the elastic channel. We also consider the He-H system and give a progress report on the calculation that we are currently carrying out for this system.

  3. Progression of Technology Education for Atomic Energy Engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Okada, Tadashi; Sato, Makoto; Sasai, Yuji; Konishi, Daijiro; Harada, Kanji; Taniguchi, Hironari; Toya, Hideaki; Inada, Tomomi; Sori, Hitoshi; Yagi, Hideyuki

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as “Subjects related to Atomic Power Education” for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the “Tsuyama model” is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  4. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1964-01-30

    The document represents the 1963 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. Beginning with this year's report, an index is included as part of the document, rather than as a separate publication.The report is divided into 7 areas for 1963, plus 11 appendices and the index. Section names are: Part One, The Atomic Energy Program - 1963; Part Two, Production and Weapons Programs; Part Three, Nuclear Reactor Programs; Part Four, Public Safety; Part Five, Other Major Activities; Part Six, Support-Type Activities; and Part Seven, Regulatory Activities.

  5. Mr. Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Mr. Malik Adalat Khan, Director Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (centre), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson. Photo 02: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (2nd form left), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson; Dr David Jacobs and Dr Philip Bryant, Joint Pakistan-CERN Committee.

  6. All-atom calculation of protein free-energy profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, S.; Ianeselli, A.; Spagnolli, G.; Faccioli, P.

    2017-10-01

    The Bias Functional (BF) approach is a variational method which enables one to efficiently generate ensembles of reactive trajectories for complex biomolecular transitions, using ordinary computer clusters. For example, this scheme was applied to simulate in atomistic detail the folding of proteins consisting of several hundreds of amino acids and with experimental folding time of several minutes. A drawback of the BF approach is that it produces trajectories which do not satisfy microscopic reversibility. Consequently, this method cannot be used to directly compute equilibrium observables, such as free energy landscapes or equilibrium constants. In this work, we develop a statistical analysis which permits us to compute the potential of mean-force (PMF) along an arbitrary collective coordinate, by exploiting the information contained in the reactive trajectories calculated with the BF approach. We assess the accuracy and computational efficiency of this scheme by comparing its results with the PMF obtained for a small protein by means of plain molecular dynamics.

  7. College Chemistry Students' Understanding of Potential Energy in the Context of Atomic-Molecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole M.; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the energy changes that occur as atoms and molecules interact forms the foundation for understanding the macroscopic energy changes that accompany chemical processes. In order to identify ways to scaffold students' understanding of the connections between atomic-molecular and macroscopic energy perspectives, we conducted a…

  8. Department of Energy Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau, Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, R.; Berry, R.B.; Eras, A. [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, the US Department of Energy and Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC), Aktau, Republic of Kazakstan have cooperated to enhance existing MAEC MPC and A features at the BN-350 liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor. This paper describes the methodology of the enhancement activities and provides representative examples of the MPC and A augmentation implemented at the MAEC.

  9. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    annual energy consumption compared to a high specification office building. This claim was explored to better understand the ... that energy represents a small percentage of total occupancy costs, and therefore it is given little ... potential of sustainable design in a world city where, so far, that concept has made a negligible ...

  10. Solving atomic structures using statistical mechanical searches on x-ray scattering derived potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher James

    Engineering the next generation of materials, especially nanomaterials, requires a detailed understanding of the material's underlying atomic structure. These structures give us better insight into structure-property relationships, allowing for property driven material design on the atomic level. Even more importantly, understanding structures in-situ will translate stimuli and responses on the macroscopic scale to changes on the nanoscale. Despite the importance of precise atomic structures for materials design, solving atomic structures is difficult both experimentally and computationally. Atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) provide information on atomic structure, but the difficulty of extracting the PDF from x-ray total scattering measurements limits their use. Translating the PDF into an atomic structure requires the search of a very high dimensional space, the set of all potential atomic configurations. The large computational cost of running these simulations also limits the use of PDF as an atomistic probe. This work aims to address these issues by developing 1) novel statistical mechanical approaches to solving material structures, 2) fast simulation of x-ray total scattering and atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs), and 3) data processing procedures for experimental x-ray total scattering measurements. First, experimentally derived potential energy surfaces (PES) and the statistical mechanical ensembles used to search them are developed. Then the mathematical and computational framework for the PDF and its gradients will be discussed. The combined PDF-PES-ensemble system will be benchmarked against a series of nanoparticle structures to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. Experimental data processing procedures, which maximize the usable data, will be presented. Finally, preliminary results from experimental x-ray total scattering measurements will be discussed. This work presents one of the most complete end

  11. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1967-01-31

    The document represents the 1966 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Summary of Atomic Energy Programs in 1966 and includes 18 Chapters, 11 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (2) Reactor and Other Nuclear Facility Licensing; (3) The Regulation of Radioactive Materials; (4) Source and Special Nuclear Materials; (5) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (6) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (7) Reactor Development and Technology; (8) Space Nuclear Systems; (9) Isotopic Heat and Power Applications; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) The Plowshare Program; (12) International Cooperation Activities; (13) Research Facilities and Projects; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Informational Activities; (16) Operational Safety; (17) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (18) Administrative and Management Matters.

  12. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1970-01-31

    The document represents the 1969 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1969'' followed by 17 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source, Special, and Byproduct Nuclear Materials; (2) Nuclear Materials Safeguards; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational and Public Safety; (8) Space Nuclear Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (12) International Affairs and Cooperation; (13) Informational and Related Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Biomedical and Physical Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  13. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-31

    The document represents the 1967 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Summary of Atomic Energy Programs in 1967 and includes 17 Chapters, 11 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source and Special Nuclear Materials; (2) Safeguards and Materials Management; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational Safety; (8) Nuclear Rocket Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power Units; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) The Plowshare Program; (12) International Cooperation Activities; (13) Informational Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Basic Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  14. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1969-01-31

    The document represents the 1968 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1968'' followed by 17 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) Source, Special, and Nuclear Byproduct Materials; (2) Nuclear Materials Safeguards; (3) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (4) Naval Propulsion Reactors; (5) Reactor Development and Technology; (6) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (7) Operational and Public Safety; (8) Nuclear Rocket Propulsion; (9) Specialized Nuclear Power; (10) Isotopic Radiation Applications; (11) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (12) International Affairs and Cooperation; (13) Informational and Related Activities; (14) Nuclear Education and Training; (15) Biomedical and Physical Research; (16) Industrial Participation Aspects; and, (17) Administrative and Management Matters.

  15. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1971-01-29

    The document represents the 1970 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1970'' followed by 14 Chapters, 8 appendices and an index. Chapters are as follows: (1) The Industrial Base; (2) Environmental and Safety Aspects; (3) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (4) Source, Special, and Byproduct Nuclear Materials; (5) National Defense Programs; (6) Reactor Development and Technology; (7) Space Nuclear Systems; (8) Isotopic Systems Development; (9) Peaceful Nuclear Explosives; (10) International Affairs and Cooperation; (11) Nuclear Educational Activities; (12) Biomedical and Physical Research; (13) Administrative and Management Matters; and, (14) License Reviews and Adjudicatory Proceedings.

  16. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  17. Kinetic Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms From Analysis of the D Lyman-a Line Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Marco; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The absolute cross sections of the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coeffiecients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  18. Deer browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Moore

    1967-01-01

    A procedure developed in Georgia was used to inventory the browse resources of the Atomic Energy Commission's Savannah River Project Area near Aiken, South Carolina. Through this procedure, the forest land manager is supplied with relative carrying capacity data for deer . If silvical practices can be related to habitat quality and quantity, he can adjust...

  19. Presentation to the Atomic Energy Commission and the Air Force, June 14, 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1962-10-01

    This volume contains the charts and backup material presented to the Atomic Energy Commission and Air Force on June 14, 1962 concerning General Electric's Nuclear Materials and Propulsion Operation (formerly the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Department), during its work on the development of a nuclear power plant for manned aircraft.

  20. A Study on the Efficient Operating Management of Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sungwon; Chung, W. S.; Lee, D. S.; Park, S. J.

    2013-04-15

    This study aimed to provide professionals in humanities and social sciences, not only nuclear, with a place for communication by establishing a website of Atomic Energy Commission and people with a place for participation which help the nuclear policy reflect public opinions. By establishing the website of Atomic Energy Commission, experts (including those in humanities and social sciences) can suggest policy agenda and public opinions can be suggested through the place for public participation. Also the website should restrict on indiscreet search by separating sections only for experts and provide experts with a section for active and creative debate on nuclear policy. All the accessible meeting agenda and minutes have been chronologically organized and the findings of the committee have been announced to share with people concerning nuclear policy. In terms of the effective operation of Atomic Energy Commission, research has been conducted for standing committee, regular meeting, activating the commission through system change and expert committee in addition to support for the 2nd meeting of Atomic Energy Committee and the 31st Nuclear Expert Committee. Activation measures to improve the operating system of the commission is proposed as following; changing of the commission's chairman operating system, standing commission regular meeting, activation of subcommittee and expanding and diversifying of agenda.

  1. Effect of energy transfer from atomic electron shell to an α particle emitted by decaying nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashov, S. Yu., E-mail: igashov@theor.mephi.ru [All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The process of energy transfer from the electron shell of an atom to an α particle propagating through the shell is formulated mathematically. Using the decay of the {sup 226}Ra nucleus as an example, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon increases the α-decay intensity in contrast with other known effects of similar type. Moreover, the α decay of the nucleus is more strongly affected by the energy transfer than by all other effects taken together.

  2. An extension of the Eisberg-Resnick treatment for electron energies in many-electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, M. A. B.; Bennett, I.

    1989-03-01

    Eisberg and Resnick present a simple argument for the energy of an electron in a multielectron atom using the concept of shielding from electrons in inner shells. The results of such a treatment are unfortunately confined so as to be out of range of experimental values. Here, the effect of electrons in outer shells is included, and, in the nonrelativistic region, energies are obtained for electrons in the first and second shells in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  3. Identifying the minimum-energy atomic configuration on a lattice: Lamarckian twist on Darwinian evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Zunger, Alex

    2008-08-01

    We examine how the two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on during mating to new offspring, in which case evolution is a product of environmental pressure and chance. In addition to this mechanism, Lamarck surmised that individuals can also pass on traits acquired during their lifetime. Here we show that the minimum-energy configurations of a binary A1-xBx alloy in the full 0≤x≤1 concentration range can be found much faster if the conventional Darwinian genetic progression—mating configurations and letting the lowest-energy (fittest) offspring survive—is allowed to experience Lamarckian-style fitness improvements during its lifetime. Such improvements consist of A↔B transmutations of some atomic sites (not just atomic relaxations) guided by “virtual-atom” energy gradients. This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated here by finding the ground states of face-centered-cubic Au1-xPdx using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total energies. The statistical rate of success of the search strategies and their practical applicability are rigorously documented in terms of average number of evaluations required to find the solution out of 400 independent evolutionary runs with different random seeds. We show that all exact ground states of a 12-atom supercell ( 212 configurations) can be found within 330 total-energy evaluations, whereas a 36-atom supercell ( 236 configurations) requires on average 39000 evaluations. Thus, this problem cannot be currently addressed with confidence using costly energy functionals [e.g., density-functional theory (DFT) based] unless it is limited to ≤20 atoms. The computational cost can be reduced at the

  4. A simple image based method for obtaining electron density and atomic number in dual energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Qi, Zhihua; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The extraction of electron density and atomic number information in computed tomography is possible when image values can be sampled using two different effective energies. The foundation for this extraction lies in the ability to express the linear attenuation coefficient using two basis functions that are dependent on electron density and atomic number over the diagnostic energy range used in CT. Material basis functions separate images into clinically familiar quantities such as 'bone' images and 'soft tissue' images. Physically, all basis function choices represent the expression of the linear attenuation coefficient in terms of a photoelectric and a Compton scattering term. The purpose of this work is to develop a simple dual energy decomposition method that requires no a priori knowledge about the energy characteristics of the imaging system. It is shown that the weighted sum of two basis images yields an electron density image where the weights for each basis image are the electron density of that basis image's basis material. Using the electron density image, effective atomic number information can also be obtained. These methods are performed solely in the image domain and require no spectrum or detector energy response information as required by some other dual energy decomposition methods.

  5. Discrete Energies of a Weakly Outcoupled Atom Laser Beam Outside the Bose–Einstein Condensate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budi Prayitno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a discrete set of energies of a weakly outcoupled atom laser beam to the homogeneous Schrödinger equation with anisotropic harmonic trap in Cartesian coordinates outside the Bose–Einstein condensate region. This treatment is used because working in the cylindrical coordinates is not really possible, even though we implement the cigar-shaped trap case. The Schrödinger equation appears to replace a set of two-coupled Gross– Pitaevskii equations by enabling the weak-coupling assumption. This atom laser can be produced in a simple way that only involves extracting the atoms in a condensate from by using the radio frequency field. We initially present the relation between condensates as sources and atom laser as an output by exploring the previous work of Riou et al. in the case of theoretical work for the propagation of atom laser beams. We also show that even though the discrete energies are obtained by means of an approaching harmonic oscillator, degeneracy is only available in two states because of the anisotropic external potential

  6. Dynamical theory of low-energy ionization of inert-gas atoms at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Y.; Newns, D. M.

    1988-04-01

    A quasi-ab-initio calculation of the ionization probability of a low-energy He atom at the surface of a linear chain of n atoms (modeling Si) has been made using the technique of numerical solution of the equations of motion for scrNij(t)≡Vak(z) between the orbitals centered on the He atom and the target atom must go through zero at distances z~=RC (the distance of closest approach). (2) The diabatic level centered on the projectile must shift up to near ɛF there. Fortunately, the first condition will be rather generally encountered, because of the oscillations in the target valence orbitals at small radius. On the other hand, feature (2) is more specific to the projectile-target material combination and leads to some target material dependencies. At energies higher than 2 keV, the ionization probabilities with and without the level shift Δ become identical, and only condition (1) is necessary. Thus, in this energy region the surface ionization effect will be more generally expected for such systems as, e.g., the He-->Cu surface, which has a noncrossing energy-level diagram or Δ=0, in good agreement with experiment. For energies greater than 50 or 100 keV, neither condition is necessary, and Pion oscillates as a function of E0, representing the quasiresonant ionization process. It is also found that the ionization probability Pion in surface scattering (n>=30) is nearly 1 order of magnitude greater than that in a binary collision (n=1), at an energy of 1 keV. The effect of the energy-band occupation has also been shown to be of essential importance.

  7. Study of the K shell photoelectric parameters of Dy, Yb and W atoms using low energy Bremsstrahlung radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosur, S.B.; Naika, L.R.; Badiger, N.M. [Department of Studies in PhysicsKarnatak University, Dharwad - 580003 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Low energy external Bremsstrahlung (EB) photons were used to estimate the K shell photoelectric parameters; the K shell photoelectric cross section at the K edge, the K shell binding energy, the K shell jump ratio, the K shell jump factors, the Davisson-Kirchner ratio and the K shell oscillator strength for dysprosium (Dy), ytterbium (Yb) and tungsten (W) atoms. The EB photons are produced in the nickel (Ni) target by using the beta particles from a weak beta source of {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y. These photons are made to fall on these elemental targets of our interest and the transmitted spectrum is measured using GMX 10P HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyzer. The sharp decrease at the K edge in the measured spectrum is used to determine the K shell photoelectric parameters of these elements. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical values. (authors)

  8. Circular dichroism in free-free transitions of high energy electron-atom scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Cionga, Aurelia; Zloh, Gabriela; 10.1103/PhysRevA.62.063406

    2013-01-01

    We consider high energy electron scattering by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a laser field of moderate power and higher frequencies. If the field is a superposition of a linearly and a circularly polarized laser beam in a particular configuration, then we can show that circular dichroism in two photon transitions can be observed not only for the differential but also for the integrated cross sections, provided the laser-dressing of the atomic target is treated in second order perturbation theory and the coupling between hydrogenic bound and continuum states is involved.

  9. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  10. Japan Returns to Atom. Current Status and Prospects of the Japanese Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tolak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a year and a half after the events of March 2011, Japan excluded all their nuclear reactors, returning to fossil fuels as a basis in the energy field. The shock associated with nuclear disaster seemed to indicate an ultimate end of Japanese adventure with the atom. The situation has, however, significantly changed during the last several months, and the first nuclear reactor connected again to the electric network, is a proof of the change of the energy policy. The article aims to identify the current state of knowledge on the future of nuclear energy in the Japanese energy sector and adjustments proposed in the future energy mix. At the same time, it is an attempt to analyze the reasons that led the current Government of Prime Minister Abe to take very unpopular decisions to return to nuclear energy.

  11. Trajectory-dependent energy loss for swift He atoms axially scattered off a silver surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos Rubiano, C.A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G.A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Ató mica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Gravielle, M.S., E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    Angle- and energy-loss-resolved distributions of helium atoms grazingly scattered from a Ag(110) surface along low indexed crystallographic directions are investigated considering impact energies in the few keV range. Final projectile distributions are evaluated within a semi-classical formalism that includes dissipative effects due to electron–hole excitations through a friction force. For mono-energetic beams impinging along the [11{sup ¯}0],[11{sup ¯}2] and [001] directions, the model predicts the presence of multiple peak structures in energy-loss spectra. Such structures provide detailed information about the trajectory-dependent energy loss. However, when the experimental dispersion of the incident beam is taken into account, these energy-loss peaks are completely washed out, giving rise to a smooth energy-loss distribution, in fairly good agreement with available experimental data.

  12. Conceptual DFT analysis of the fragility spectra of atoms along the minimum energy reaction coordinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordon, Piotr; Komorowski, Ludwik; Jedrzejewski, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    Theoretical justification has been provided to the method for monitoring the sequence of chemical bonds' rearrangement along a reaction path, by tracing the evolution of the diagonal elements of the Hessian matrix. Relations between the divergences of Hellman-Feynman forces and the energy and electron density derivatives have been demonstrated. By the proof presented on the grounds of the conceptual density functional theory formalism, the spectral amplitude observed on the atomic fragility spectra [L. Komorowski et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18, 32658 (2016)] reflects selectively the electron density modifications in bonds of an atom. In fact the spectral peaks for an atom reveal changes of the electron density occurring with bonds creation, breaking, or varying with the reaction progress.

  13. On Atoms-in-Molecules Energies from Kohn-Sham Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent

    2017-10-06

    Herein, we discuss three methods to partition the total molecular energy into additive atomic contributions within the framework of Bader's atoms-in-molecules theory and in the particular context of Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The first method is derived from the virial theorem, whereas the two other schemes, termed "standard" and "model", are based on Pendás' interacting-quantum-atoms decomposition. The methods are then compared for a dataset of molecules of interest for direct application in organic chemistry and biochemistry. Finally, the relevance of the three methods for the prediction of intrinsic reactivity properties (e.g., electrophilicity) or for unravelling the nature of chemical bonding (e.g., in halogen bonds, beyond the pure electrostatic point of view), is examined and paves the way for their more systematic use for the in silico design of new reactants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Advances in the production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, P.A.; De Villiers, W.Y.Z.; Jarvis, N.V. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) owns and operates the 20 MW research reactor, SAFARI-1. Utilisation of the reactor has in recent years changed from research and materials testing to the production of isotopes. The most important breakthrough achieved in recent years is the production of high quality fission 99Mo. This has been produced routinely since April 1993 and supplied to clients across the world. A capability for the reliable production of 1000 Ci of 99Mo per week (calibrated for six days after production) has been proven. The AEC has also established facilities to produce its own 99mTc generators together with a most of radiopharmaceutical kits for diagnostic nuclear medicine purposes. The production of {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I (tellurium oxide route) has been operational for many years. Applications include therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP for bone cancer pain palliation, {sup 13`}I-Lipiodol for liver cancer and {sup 131}I capsules for thyroid treatment. Facilities for the production of other isotopes such as {sup 131}I (from fission), {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S are in various stages of completion. Extensive analytical methods and equipment have been developed and are routinely used to certify the quality of exported isotopes. Irradiation and encapsulation of {sup 192}Ir is also performed routinely at the AEC. Modern facilities allow for the production of isotopes such as {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La on an ad hoc basis. Quality assurance procedures based on ISO9000 were developed for all aspects of the production of the various isotopes. Documentation, such as Drug Master Files, required by authorities in various countries has also been submitted and accepted 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. An EU law perspective on the role of legal authorities in the field of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas; Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This chapter maps and analyses the specific position of regional authorities in view of EU climate and energy law. It specifically focuses on the role taken by such authorities in the light of the transition towards a society increasingly employing renewable energy. Section 2 discusses the potential

  16. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    OpenAIRE

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-01-01

    In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS) Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of at...

  17. A design for a subminiature, low energy scanning electron microscope with atomic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, D. A.; Edmondson, P.; Greene, S.; Donnelly, S.; Olsson, E.; Svensson, K.; Bleloch, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a type of scanning electron microscope that works by directly imaging the electron field-emission sites on a nanotip. Electrons are extracted from the nanotip through a nanoscale aperture, accelerated in a high electric field, and focused to a spot using a microscale Einzel lens. If the whole microscope (accelerating section and lens) and the focal length are both restricted in size to below 10 μm, then computer simulations show that the effects of aberration are extremely small and it is possible to have a system with approximately unit magnification at electron energies as low as 300 eV. Thus a typical emission site of 1 nm diameter will produce an image of the same size, and an atomic emission site will give a resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm (1-2 Å). Also, because the beam is not allowed to expand beyond 100 nm in diameter, the depth of field is large and the contribution to the beam spot size from chromatic aberrations is less than 0.02 nm (0.2 Å) for 500 eV electrons. Since it is now entirely possible to make stable atomic sized emitters (nanopyramids), it is expected that this instrument will have atomic resolution. Furthermore the brightness of the beam is determined only by the field emission and can be up to 1×106 times larger than in a typical (high energy) electron microscope. The advantages of this low energy, bright-beam electron microscope with atomic resolution are described and include the possibility of it being used to rapidly sequence the human genome from a single strand of DNA as well as being able to identify atomic species directly from the elastic scattering of electrons.

  18. A neural network potential-energy surface for the water dimer based on environment-dependent atomic energies and charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawietz, Tobias; Sharma, Vikas; Behler, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the unique properties of water still represents a significant challenge for theory and experiment. Computer simulations by molecular dynamics require a reliable description of the atomic interactions, and in recent decades countless water potentials have been reported in the literature. Still, most of these potentials contain significant approximations, for instance a frozen internal structure of the individual water monomers. Artificial neural networks (NNs) offer a promising way for the construction of very accurate potential-energy surfaces taking all degrees of freedom explicitly into account. These potentials are based on electronic structure calculations for representative configurations, which are then interpolated to a continuous energy surface that can be evaluated many orders of magnitude faster. We present a full-dimensional NN potential for the water dimer as a first step towards the construction of a NN potential for liquid water. This many-body potential is based on environment-dependent atomic energy contributions, and long-range electrostatic interactions are incorporated employing environment-dependent atomic charges. We show that the potential and derived properties like vibrational frequencies are in excellent agreement with the underlying reference density-functional theory calculations.

  19. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    2004-01-12

    This report contains two companion papers about radiological and environmental research that developed out of efforts of the Atomic Energy Commission in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Both papers were written for the Joint U.S.-Russian International Symposium entitled ''History of Atomic Energy Projects in the 1950s--Sociopolitical, Environmental, and Engineering Lessons Learned,'' which was hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxemberg, Austria, in October 1999. Because the proceedings of this symposium were not published, these valuable historic reviews and their references are being documented as a single ORNL report. The first paper, ''U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s,'' written by David Reichle and Stanley Auerbach, deals with the formation of the early radioecological research programs at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear production facilities at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington; and at the Savannah River Plant in Georgia. These early radioecology programs were outgrowths of the environmental monitoring programs at each site and eventually developed into the world renowned National Laboratory environmental program sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy. The original version of the first paper was presented by David Reichle at the symposium. The second paper, ''U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s,'' summarizes all the environmental research programs supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and discusses their present-day legacies. This paper is a modified, expanded version of a paper that was published in September 1997 in a volume commemorating the 50th anniversary symposium of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of

  20. A simple nonbinary scattering model applicable to atomic collisions is crystals at 1ow energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, Peter

    1966-01-01

    the projectile and each ring atom is described by a Born-Mayer potential, and the scattering is assumed to be elastic and governed by the classical equations of motion. Because of symmetry, the problem can be reduced to plane motion of a particle in a potential of elliptic symmetry. The elliptic force field...... the elliptic to the spherical potential are investigated. Special attention is paid to proper definitions of collision time and collision length which are important in collisions in crystals. Limitations to classical scattering arising from the uncertainty principle prove to be more serious than assumed...... previously. Inelastic contributions to the energy loss can easily be included. The oscillator forces binding lattice atoms turn out to influence the scattering process only at very small energies. The validity of the so-called momentum approximation and a related perturbation method are also investigated....

  1. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James R.

    1971-01-31

    The document represents the 1971 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with ''An Introduction to the Atomic Energy Programs during 1971'' followed by 3 Parts, each with various chapters, plus a final index. Parts and Chapters are as follows. Part One, Regulatory Activities, has Chapters (1) Licensing and Regulation; (2) Reactor Licensing; and (3) Materials Control. Part Two, Environmental Safety, has Chapters (4) Environmental Considerations; (5) Radioactive Wastes; and (6), Operational Safety. Part Three, Operating and Developmental Functions, has Chapters (7) National Defense; (8) Reactor Technology; (9) Nuclear Materials; (10) Applications Research; (11) Basic Research; (12) International Affairs; and, (13) Educational and Administrative.

  2. Molecular Energy Decompositions in the Hilbert-Space of Atomic Orbitals at Correlated Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Bochicchio, Roberto C.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia

    This work describes a new model to partition the molecular energy into one- and two-center contributions in the Hilbert-space of atomic orbitals at correlated level. Our proposal makes explicit use of the pairing nature of chemical bonding phenomena to accommodate appropriately the correlation effects within these contributions. The model is based on the treatment of the kinetic energy as contributing to both one- and two-atom terms, according to the pairing or unpairing character of the electron cloud, and on the appropriate assignment of the density cumulant dependent contributions. Numerical results for selected systems are reported and compared with those arising from other models, showing the reliability of our predictions.

  3. Local enhancement of radiation dose by using high atomic number materials with high energy photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad Khaled

    The goal of treatment planning in radiation therapy is to maximize the absorbed dose in abnormal cells and minimize the dose in normal cells. It is long established that the probability of pair production interactions (converting photon to electron and positron see chapter II) increases with the increase of the photon energy above a 1.02 MV threshold and with the square of the atomic number of the medium. In this work I tried to locally enhance the absorbed dose by using both a high energy photon beam and high Z material (Gold foils), to observe the effect of the secondary electrons that are produced in the high z material (gold) with high energy photons (end point energy 25MV). To observe the range of these secondary electrons, I changed the gap between two gold foils. I studied also the effect of varying the thickness of both gold foils. To verify the dependence of the atomic number (Z) I repeated the measurements with two Aluminum foils, and to observe the effect of The Higher photon energy I used a range of photon beams with end point energies 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV. I used Monte Carlo code to confirm the result. The calculated dose enhancements from the simulation were in general 5% higher the measured values.

  4. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  5. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exotic atoms where one atomic 1s electron is replaced by a K−, the strong interaction between the K− and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z = 1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the 1s state of K− p and the 2p state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  6. 13. Amendment of the Atomic Energy Act and fundamental rights; 13. Atomgesetznovelle und Grundrechte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2011-11-15

    The contribution discusses whether the faster nuclear phaseout according to the 13th amendment of 2011 of the German Atomic Energy Act is in compliance with the fundamental rights as specified in the German constitution (Art. 14, 12, 3 GG). The focus is on the limited residual operating periods specified for each nuclear power plant and the annulment of the additional electricity capacities granted in 2010.

  7. Protein structure prediction by all-atom free-energy refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Abhinav; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background The reliable prediction of protein tertiary structure from the amino acid sequence remains challenging even for small proteins. We have developed an all-atom free-energy protein forcefield (PFF01) that we could use to fold several small proteins from completely extended conformations. Because the computational cost of de-novo folding studies rises steeply with system size, this approach is unsuitable for structure prediction purposes. We therefore investigate here a low-cost free-energy relaxation protocol for protein structure prediction that combines heuristic methods for model generation with all-atom free-energy relaxation in PFF01. Results We use PFF01 to rank and cluster the conformations for 32 proteins generated by ROSETTA. For 22/10 high-quality/low quality decoy sets we select near-native conformations with an average Cα root mean square deviation of 3.03 Å/6.04 Å. The protocol incorporates an inherent reliability indicator that succeeds for 78% of the decoy sets. In over 90% of these cases near-native conformations are selected from the decoy set. This success rate is rationalized by the quality of the decoys and the selectivity of the PFF01 forcefield, which ranks near-native conformations an average 3.06 standard deviations below that of the relaxed decoys (Z-score). Conclusion All-atom free-energy relaxation with PFF01 emerges as a powerful low-cost approach toward generic de-novo protein structure prediction. The approach can be applied to large all-atom decoy sets of any origin and requires no preexisting structural information to identify the native conformation. The study provides evidence that a large class of proteins may be foldable by PFF01. PMID:17371594

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Diplomacy of Sustainable International Nuclear Security

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Uadiale

    2011-01-01

    The increasing threat and proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and materials across national and international boundaries have combined to pose severe threat to the stability of the international system. In this respect, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has through its robust activities helped to enthrone the virtues of sustainable Nuclear security in our fast, but ever-changing world. This study concluded the IAEA, regardless of its numerous short comings, have proved to be an all i...

  9. Treatment of non-nuclear attractors within the theory of atoms in molecules II: Energy decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Bochicchio, Roberto C.

    2006-08-01

    This work describes the partitioning of the electronic energy in systems in which the atoms in molecules theory predicts the existence of non-nuclear attractors. The procedure is based on our previous proposals within studies of topological population analysis [D.R. Alcoba, L. Lain, A. Torre, R.C. Bochicchio, Chem. Phys. Lett. 407 (2005) 379]. Numerical determinations in the acetylene and dilithium molecules are reported and compared with those arising from other approaches.

  10. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  11. The search for minimum-energy atomic configurations on a lattice: Lamarckian twist on Darwinian Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avezac, Mayeul; Zunger, Alex

    2008-03-01

    We examine how two different mechanisms proposed historically for biological evolution compare for the determination of crystal structures from random initial lattice-configurations. The Darwinian theory of evolution contends that the genetic makeup inherited at birth is the one passed on to offsprings. Lamarck surmised additionally that offspring can inherit acquired traits. In the case of lattice-configurations, such improvements consist in AB transmutations of atomic sites as guided by ``Virtual Atom'' energy-gradients(M. d'Avezac and Alex Zunger, J. Phys.: Cond. Matt. 19, 402201 (2007)). This hybrid evolution is shown to provide an efficient solution to a generalized Ising Hamiltonian, illustrated by finding the ground-states of face-centered cubic Au1-xPdx using a cluster-expansion functional fitted to first-principles total-energies. For example, finding all minimum-energy structures of a 32-atom supercell with 95,% confidence requires evaluating 750, 000 configurations using local improvements only, 150, 000 using a reciprocal-space genetic algorithm only, and 14,000 using the hybrid approach. We consider applying the lamarckian search to further functionals.

  12. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New Strategies for Atomic Scale Measurements at Interfaces using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, David A.

    1997-03-01

    The local electronic structure of a material can be measured directly from the energy loss spectrum of a swift electron scattered through it. When the electron beam is focussed down to the width of an atomic column, the electronic density of states at an interface, grain boundary or impurity site can be decomposed by site, chemical species and angular momentum. Here, we discuss the use of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) fine structure to provide insight into the origin of grain boundary and interfacial properties. EELS can reveal the physics underlying why a particular local bonding arrangement develops. Even a qualitative understanding of local bonding can help indentify possible sites for chemical reactions and potentially weak points at a grain boundary. More can be done however: an EELS sum rule allows quantitative estimates of grain boundary energies. This is particularly useful at general, large angle grain boundaries where no other atomic scale information can be obtained. As an example, we show how atomic-scale EELS measurements of grain boundaries in Ni_3Al (D.A. Muller, S. Subramanian, P.E. Batson, S.L. Sass, J. Silcox, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75 4744 (1995). lead not only to rules-of-thumb for segregation and bond strength, but also to quantitative estimates of the boundary cohesion. Application to magnetic multilayers and Al:Cu interconnects will also be touched on. (Work at Cornell supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER45322 and NSF grant DMR-9121654.)

  14. Probing resonant energy transfer in collisions of ammonia with Rydberg helium atoms by microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of experiments demonstrating the spectroscopic detection of Förster resonance energy transfer from NH3 in the X1A1 ground electronic state to helium atoms in 1sns 3S1 Rydberg levels, where n = 37 and n = 40. For these values of n, the 1sns 3S1 → 1snp 3PJ transitions in helium lie close to resonance with the ground-state inversion transitions in NH3 and can be tuned through resonance using electric fields of less than 10 V/cm. In the experiments, energy transfer was detected by direct state-selective electric field ionization of the 3S1 and 3PJ Rydberg levels and by monitoring the population of the 3DJ levels following pulsed microwave transfer from the 3PJ levels. Detection by microwave spectroscopic methods represents a highly state selective, low-background approach to probing the collisional energy transfer process and the environment in which the atom-molecule interactions occur. The experimentally observed electric-field dependence of the resonant energy transfer process, probed both by direct electric field ionization and by microwave transfer, agrees well with the results of calculations performed using a simple theoretical model of the energy transfer process. For measurements performed in zero electric field with atoms prepared in the 1s40s 3S1 level, the transition from a regime in which a single energy transfer channel can be isolated for detection to one in which multiple collision channels begin to play a role has been identified as the NH3 density was increased.

  15. Scattering of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms at low collision energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J; van der Avoird, A

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm(-1). We focus on collisions in which NH3 is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH3 and ND3 as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH3 in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH3-He and NH3-Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  16. Using uncertainty principle to find the ground-state energy of the helium and a helium-like Hookean atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbola, Varun, E-mail: varunh@iitk.ac.in [Kendriya Vidyalaya (Central School) Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur-208 016 (India)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron cloud. Our calculation also shows how the Coulomb interaction between electrons affects their distribution. This leads to a physical picture of how electrons are located with respect to each other in these atoms. Finally, we also obtain through our calculations a general formula for the estimate of ground-state energy and radius of two electron atoms and ions with atomic number Z.

  17. The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.

  18. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Annual Report to Congress of the Atomic Energy Commission for 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1966-01-31

    The document represents the 1965 Annual Report of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) to Congress. The report opens with a Foreword - a letter from President Lyndon B. Johnson. The main portion is divided into 3 major sections for 1965, plus 10 appendices and the index. Section names and chapters are as follows. Part One reports on Developmental and Promotional Activities with the following chapters: (1) The Atomic Energy Program - 1965; (2) The Industrial Base ; (3) Industrial Relations; (4) Operational Safety; (5) Source and Special Nuclear Materials Production; (6) The Nuclear Defense Effort; (7) Civilian Nuclear Power; (8) Nuclear Space Applications; (9) Auxiliary Electrical Power for Land and Sea; (10) Military Reactors; (11) Advanced Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety Research; (12) The Plowshare Program; (13) Isotopes and Radiation Development; (14) Facilities and Projects for Basic Research; (15) International Cooperation; and, (16) Nuclear Education and Information. Part Two reports on Regulatory Activities with the following chapters: (1) Licensing and Regulating the Atom; (2) Reactors and other Nuclear Facilities; and, (3) Control of Radioactive Materials. Part Three reports on Adjudicatory Activities.

  20. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  1. Construction of an upconversion nanoprobe with few-atom silver nanoclusters as the energy acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Zeng, Lingyu; Xia, Tian; Wu, Zhengjun; Liu, Zhihong

    2015-04-27

    Herein we report that few-atom silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) can be effective energy acceptors for upconversion phosphors (UCPs). A luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) probe for biothiols was constructed by decorating UCPs with dithiol-stabilized Ag NCs. Owing to the unique properties of ultrasmall NCs, properties which bridge the gap between those of small molecules and those of nanoparticles, the use of approximately 1.9 nm Ag NCs as energy acceptors endows the probe with high energy-transfer efficiency, good biocompatibility, and flexibility. The UCP-Ag NC nanoprobe enables rapid and robust target assay in solutions. It was also uploaded into living cells and used to detect intracellular biothiol levels with high discrimination. Moreover, the probe shows transportability in vivo and can be used for tissue imaging. The facile growth of few-atom metal NCs on diverse templates may enable the development of various nanoprobes combining UCPs and metal NCs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Incorporating nuclear vibrational energies into the "atom in molecules" analysis: An analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh; Shahbazian, Shant

    2017-04-21

    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and solely working with the electronic wavefunctions, so does not include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e., those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction, the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as quantum oscillators and both isotropic harmonic and anisotropic anharmonic oscillator models are used to compute the zero-point nuclear vibrational energy contribution to the basin energies explicitly. Inspired by the results gained within the context of the MC-QTAIM analysis, a heuristic approach is proposed within the context of the QTAIM to include nuclear vibrational energy in the basin energy from the vibrational wavefunction derived adiabatically. The explicit calculation of the basin contribution of the zero-point vibrational energy using the uncoupled harmonic oscillator model leads to results consistent with those derived from the MC-QTAIM.

  3. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Photo 01: Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing. Looking on are Christoph Eck (far left), resource manager of the LCG Project and Les Robertson, LCG Project Leader. Photo 02: (left to right) Christoph Eck, resource manager of the LCG Project; G. Govindrajan, Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation G...

  4. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing.

  5. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  6. Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Philadelphia Housing Authority Energy-Efficiency Turnover Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-24

    The Philadelphia Housing Authority worked with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program to integrate energy-efficiency measures into the refurbishment process that each unit normally goes through between occupancies.

  7. Elf measurements in Greece conducted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabetsos, E.; Filippopoulos, G.; Koutounidis, D.; Govari, Ch.; Skamnakis, N. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Non Ionizing Radiation Office, (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (E.E.A.E.) is the competent national authority for the protection of the general public and the environment from artificially produced non-ionizing radiation. To this end, E.E.A.E. carries out measurements in the vicinity of all kinds of facilities emitting E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields (e.g. power lines, high voltage substations) and RF electromagnetic fields (e.g. audio, radio and television antennas, mobile phone base stations, radar and satellite earth stations and other microwave communication systems), in order to monitor whether the general public exposure limits are being adhered to. Regarding the electromagnetic fields emitted by antenna stations, the safety limits in Greek legislation were recently set to 70% of the I.C.N.I.R.P. values and to 60% of them if the antenna station is closer than 300 m from the perimeter of day nurseries, schools, hospitals or elder-care facilities, while in the case of extremely low frequency fields, the limit values are set exactly the same as the reference levels in I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines. Regarding the levels of E.L.F. electric and magnetic fields in Greece E.E.A.E. has conducted many measurements around the elements of the electric grid where the main interest of the public is focused. Theoretical estimations and typical values based on actual measurements of the fields in the vicinity of the power lines used in Greece are presented. Measurement results in the vicinity of substations are also presented. In general, the levels of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the power grid elements are well below the established safety limits; whereas the levels of the electric field may reach values comparable to the safety limits very close to extremely high voltage lines. However, there is no case where the measured values of elf electric or magnetic fields were higher than the safety limits. There are a few exceptional cases where measurements of RF fields conducted by E.E.A.E. in the

  8. The role of coherent excitation and collisional energy transfer in atomic vapor filters and photon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Tiffany Lee

    Many optical techniques, including laser Doppler velocimetry, free space optical communications, and chemical imaging, require-or can be enhanced by-high spectral resolution photon detection. Such detection is characterized by spectral discrimination on the order of GHz or MHz i.e., approximately 10-4 nm in the near-infrared region. This spectral resolution has recently been achieved by exploiting the narrow absorption features of gas phase atoms. Absorption of light by alkali vapors is intrinsically selective and can be monitored by detecting the fluorescence resulting from laser excitation coupled to selectively excited atomic states. Imaging can be accomplished by spatially expanding the excitation lasers into two dimensions. Fluorescence photons are only created and detected when the interrogated object is forced to scatter radiation of an energy precisely matching one of the transitions of a pre-determined optimal excitation/fluorescence scheme. Devices based on resonance fluorescence photon detection have recently been described using cesium atoms. In this work, the sensitivity and spectral resolution of cesium-based photon detectors were evaluated and improved. To this end, initial experiments focused on laser induced fluorescence in room temperature cesium vapor. The fluorescence response of the detector was augmented by the use of cesium-induced collisional excitation energy transfer between states involved in the chosen excitation scheme. Additional studies focused on helium and argon-induced collisions in the vapor to increase the signal output while maintaining adequate spatial resolution in imaging mode. The probability or cross section of helium-cesium collisions at the operating temperature of the detector was determined by use of a simplified rate equation model. The spectral response of the detector was improved by the use of coherent optical effects resulting from the interaction of a multi-level atomic system with narrowband radiation. Superior

  9. Strategy for designing stable and powerful nitrogen-rich high-energy materials by introducing boron atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Chi, Wei-Jie; Li, Quan-Song; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    One of the most important aims in the development of high-energy materials is to improve their stability and thus ensure that they are safe to manufacture and transport. In this work, we theoretically investigated open-chain N 4 B 2 isomers using density functional theory in order to find the best way of stabilizing nitrogen-rich molecules. The results show that the boron atoms in these isomers are aligned linearly with their neighboring atoms, which facilitates close packing in the crystals of these materials. Upon comparing the energies of nine N 4 B 2 isomers, we found that the structure with alternating N and B atoms had the lowest energy. Structures with more than one nitrogen atom between two boron atoms had higher energies. The energy of N 4 B 2 increases by about 50 kcal/mol each time it is rearranged to include an extra nitrogen atom between the two boron atoms. More importantly, our results also show that boron atoms stabilize nitrogen-rich molecules more efficiently than carbon atoms do. Also, the combustion of any isomer of N 4 B 2 releases more heat than the corresponding isomer of N 4 C 2 does under well-oxygenated conditions. Our study suggests that the three most stable N 4 B 2 isomers (BN13, BN24, and BN34) are good candidates for high-energy molecules, and it outlines a new strategy for designing stable boron-containing high-energy materials. Graphical abstract The structural characteristics, thermodynamic stabilities, and exothermic properties of nitrogen-rich N 4 B 2 isomers were investigated by means of density functional theory.

  10. Twenty-third Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1958. Progress in peaceful uses of atomic energy July - December 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1958-01-31

    The document represents the twenty-third semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1957. A special part one of this semiannual report is titled ''Progress in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy - A 3-year Summary.

  11. A model for energy transfer in collisions of atoms with highly excited molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul L; Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-05-21

    A model for energy transfer in the collision between an atom and a highly excited target molecule has been developed on the basis of classical mechanics and turning point analysis. The predictions of the model have been tested against the results of trajectory calculations for collisions of five different target molecules with argon or helium under a variety of temperatures, collision energies, and initial rotational levels. The model predicts selected moments of the joint probability distribution, P(Jf,ΔE) with an R(2) ≈ 0.90. The calculation is efficient, in most cases taking less than one CPU-hour. The model provides several insights into the energy transfer process. The joint probability distribution is strongly dependent on rotational energy transfer and conservation laws and less dependent on vibrational energy transfer. There are two mechanisms for rotational excitation, one due to motion normal to the intermolecular potential and one due to motion tangential to it and perpendicular to the line of centers. Energy transfer is found to depend strongly on the intermolecular potential and only weakly on the intramolecular potential. Highly efficient collisions are a natural consequence of the energy transfer and arise due to collisions at "sweet spots" in the space of impact parameter and molecular orientation.

  12. Electron-induced desorption of europium atoms from oxidized tungsten surface: concentration dependence of low-energy peak

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    One discusses nature of electron induced desorption of Eu sup 0 europium atoms under E sub e irradiating electron low-energies (approx 30 eV) and peculiarities of yield dependence of Eu sup 0 atoms on their concentration at oxidized tungsten surface. Primary act of vacancy origination in europium adatom inner 5p-shell turned to be the determining stage. Evaluations have shown that just the first of two possible scenarios of ionization (electron intra-atomic to Eu adatom external quasi-level or realise of knocked out electron into vacuum) leads to Eu sup 0 desorption. One determined concentration threshold for yield of Eu sup 0 atoms

  13. Effects of the atomic environment on the electron binding energies in samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoyatov, A.Kh., E-mail: inoyatov@jinr.ru [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, National University, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbekistan); Kovalík, A. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Filosofov, D.V. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ryšavý, M.; Vénos, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Yushkevich, Yu.V.; Perevoshchikov, L.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Zhdanov, V.S. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Eight different matrices (evaporated and implanted at 30 keV) used. • The greatest average difference in the binding energies amounted to 3.1 ± 0.1 eV. • The presence of trivalent and divalent Sm ions found in some implanted samples. • No significant differences in Sm natural atomic level widths were observed. - Abstract: Effects of the atomic environment on the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, M{sub 1}, M{sub 2}, M{sub 3}, and N{sub 1} electron binding energies in samarium generated in the electron capture decay of radioactive {sup 149}Eu were investigated by means of the internal conversion electron spectroscopy using the conversion electron spectrum of the 22.5 keV M1 + E2 nuclear transition in the daughter {sup 149}Sm. In this investigation, four pairs of {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by vacuum evaporation deposition and by ion implantation at 30 keV with the use of four different source backing materials, namely polycrystalline carbon, aluminium, gadolinium and platinum foils, were employed. The greatest average difference of (3.1 ± 0.1) eV in the L{sub 1}, L{sub 2}, L{sub 3}, and M{sub 1} subshell electron binding energies was observed between the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and platinum substrates. On the other hand, minimal differences in the electron binding energies were generally found between samarium generated in the evaporated layer and in the bulk for the individual investigated source backings with the exception of the gadolinium foil. A doublet structure of all investigated conversion electron lines with the average values of 8.1 ± 0.2 eV and 1.5 ± 0.1 for the separation energy and the intensity ratio of the low-energy to high-energy components, respectively, was observed for the {sup 149}Eu sources prepared by ion implantation into the aluminium and carbon foils. This structure was presumably caused by the presence of both the trivalent and divalent Sm ions in the sources. No

  14. Real-time study of the adiabatic energy loss in an atomic collision with a metal cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Roi; Siam, Nidal

    2004-10-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen atoms are accelerated towards metallic surfaces in their vicinity. As it approaches the surface, the velocity of an atom increases and this motion excites the metallic electrons, causing energy loss to the atom. This dissipative dynamics is frequently described as atomic motion under friction, where the friction coefficient is obtained from ab initio calculations assuming a weak interaction and slow atom. This paper tests the aforementioned approach by comparing to a real-time Ehrenfest molecular dynamics simulation of such a process. The electrons are treated realistically using standard approximations to time-dependent density functional theory. We find indeed that the electronic excitations produce a friction-like force on the atom. However, the friction coefficient strongly depends on the direction of the motion of the atom: it is large when the atom is moving towards the cluster and much smaller when the atom is moving away. It is concluded that a revision of the model for energy dissipation at metallic surfaces, at least for clusters, may be necessary. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  15. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  16. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  17. The University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project quarterly report, April 1, 1950--June 30, 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, H.A.

    1950-12-31

    This quarterly progress report gives an overview of the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project for April 1, 1950 thru June 30, 1950. Sections included are entitled (1) Biological Effects of External Radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), (2) Biological Effects of External Radiation (Infra-red and ultraviolet), (3) Biological effects of radioactive materials (polonium, radon, thoron, and miscellaneous project materials), (4) Uranium, (5) Beryllium, (7) thorium, (8) fluoride, (9) zirconium, (10) special materials, (11) Isotopes, (12) Outside services, (12) Project health, (13) Health physics, (14) Special Clinical Service, and (15) Instrumentation (Spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray and nuclear radiation detectors, x-ray diffraction, and electronics).

  18. Laser sustained discharge nozzle apparatus for the production of an intense beam of high kinetic energy atomic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jon B.; Cremers, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser sustained discharge apparatus for the production of intense beams of high kinetic energy atomic species. A portion of the plasma resulting from a laser sustained continuous optical discharge which generates energetic atomic species from a gaseous source thereof is expanded through a nozzle into a region of low pressure. The expanded plasma contains a significant concentration of the high kinetic energy atomic species which may be used to investigate the interaction of surfaces therewith. In particular, O-atoms having velocities in excess of 3.5 km/s can be generated for the purpose of studying their interaction with materials in order to develop protective materials for spacecraft which are exposed to such energetic O-atoms during operation in low earth orbit.

  19. Charge transfer and association of Na+ with 87Rb atoms from extremely low to intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L. L.; Liu, L.; Wu, Y.; Qu, Y. Z.; Wang, J. G.; Buenker, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    The nonradiative charge-transfer processes in Na++87Rb(5s) collisions have been investigated by using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method and the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling method for the energy range of 10-4-5 and 0.3-100 keV/u, respectively. The radiative charge-transfer, radiative-decay, and radiative-association processes have been investigated by using the fully quantum, optical-potential, and semiclassical methods for the energy range of 10-18-0.2 eV/u. The nonradiative charge-transfer processes dominate the collisions for energies above 0.2 eV/u and radiative-decay processes dominate in the lower-energy region. At the very low collision energies of 10-18-10-3 eV/u, the radiative-association process is more important than the radiative charge-transfer process. Most importantly, it is found that the radiative cross sections exhibit Langevin behavior as E-1/2 for energies less than 10-2 eV/u.

  20. Enhanced creation of dispersive monolayer phonons in Xe/Pt(111) by inelastic helium atom scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter

    2007-01-01

    Conditions likely to lead to enhanced inelastic atomic scattering that creates shear horizontal (SH) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) monolayer phonons are identified, specifically examining the inelastic scattering of He-4 atoms by a monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) at incident energies of 2-25 me...... an absorbing potential at large distance. The times now extend to beyond 100 ps and enable a clarification of processes involving transient trapping of the He atoms. The wave packet is made more monochromatic by significantly increasing the spatial width of the initial Gaussian shape. The narrower energy...

  1. A Terrestrial Search for Dark Contents of the Vacuum, Such as Dark Energy, Using Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Ronald J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /San Francisco State U.; Muller, Holger; /UC, Berkeley; Perl, Martin L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    We describe the theory and first experimental work on our concept for searching on earth for the presence of dark contents of the vacuum (DCV) using atom interferometry. Specifically, we have in mind any DCV that has not yet been detected on a laboratory scale, but which might manifest itself as dark energy on the cosmological scale. The experimental method uses two atom interferometers to cancel the effect of earth's gravity and diverse noise sources. It depends upon two assumptions: first, that the DCV possesses some space inhomogeneity in density, and second that it exerts a sufficiently strong nongravitational force on matter. The motion of the apparatus through the DCV should then lead to an irregular variation in the detected matter-wave phase shift. We discuss the nature of this signal and note the problem of distinguishing it from instrumental noise. We also discuss the relation of our experiment to what might be learned by studying the noise in gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO. The paper concludes with a projection that a future search of this nature might be carried out using an atom interferometer in an orbiting satellite. The laboratory apparatus is now being constructed.

  2. Recent Advances in Atomic Metal Doping of Carbon-based Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatsarmadi, Bita; Zheng, Yao; Vasileff, Anthony; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured metal-contained catalysts are one of the most widely used types of catalysts applied to facilitate some of sluggish electrochemical reactions. However, the high activity of these catalysts cannot be sustained over a variety of pH ranges. In an effort to develop highly active and stable metal-contained catalysts, various approaches have been pursued with an emphasis on metal particle size reduction and doping on carbon-based supports. These techniques enhances the metal-support interactions, originating from the chemical bonding effect between the metal dopants and carbon support and the associated interface, as well as the charge transfer between the atomic metal species and carbon framework. This provides an opportunity to tune the well-defined metal active centers and optimize their activity, selectivity and stability of this type of (electro)catalyst. Herein, recent advances in synthesis strategies, characterization and catalytic performance of single atom metal dopants on carbon-based nanomaterials are highlighted with attempts to understand the electronic structure and spatial arrangement of individual atoms as well as their interaction with the supports. Applications of these new materials in a wide range of potential electrocatalytic processes in renewable energy conversion systems are also discussed with emphasis on future directions in this active field of research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Collisions at thermal energy between metastable hydrogen atoms and hydrogen molecules: Total and differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, G.; Perales, F.; Miniatura, C.; Robert, J.; Reinhardt, J.; Vecchiocattivi, F.; Baudon, J. (Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Villetaneuse (France). Lab. de Physique des Lasers)

    1990-10-01

    A metastable hydrogen (deuterium) atom source in which groundstate atoms produced by a RF discharge dissociator are bombarded by electrons, provides a relatively large amount of slow metastable atoms (velocity 3-5 km/s). Total integral cross sections for H{sup *}(D{sup *})(2s)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, {nu}=0) collisions have been measured in a wide range of relative velocity (2,5-30 km/s), by using the attenuation method. A significant improvement of accuracy is obtained, with respect to previous measurements, at low relative velocities. Total cross sections for H{sup *} and D{sup *}, as functions of the relative velocity, are different, especially in the low velocity range. H{sup *}+H{sub 2} total differential cross sections have also been measured, with an angular spread of 3.6deg, for two different collision energy distributions, centered respectively at 100 meV and 390 meV. A first attempt of theoretical analysis of the cross sections, by means of an optical potential, is presented. (orig.).

  4. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, Anne, E-mail: annebonnin@free.fr [ESRF, 6 Jules Horowitz, F-38073 Grenoble Cedex (France); LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Duvauchelle, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Kaftandjian, Valérie [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ponard, Pascal [Thales Electron Devices SAS, 2 Rue Marcel Dassault, BP23 78141 Vélizy, Villacoublay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage.

  5. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  6. Assessment and Validation of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Molecular Atomization Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Katja; Montavon, Grégoire; Biegler, Franziska; Fazli, Siamac; Rupp, Matthias; Scheffler, Matthias; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-08-13

    The accurate and reliable prediction of properties of molecules typically requires computationally intensive quantum-chemical calculations. Recently, machine learning techniques applied to ab initio calculations have been proposed as an efficient approach for describing the energies of molecules in their given ground-state structure throughout chemical compound space (Rupp et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 108, 058301). In this paper we outline a number of established machine learning techniques and investigate the influence of the molecular representation on the methods performance. The best methods achieve prediction errors of 3 kcal/mol for the atomization energies of a wide variety of molecules. Rationales for this performance improvement are given together with pitfalls and challenges when applying machine learning approaches to the prediction of quantum-mechanical observables.

  7. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  8. Kinetic-Energy Distribution of D(2p) Atoms from Analysis of the D Lyman-Alpha Line Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, M.; Ajello, Joseph M.; Liu, Xianming; Maki, Justin

    1997-01-01

    The kinetic-energy distribution of D(2p) atoms resulting from electron-impact dissociation of D2 has been measured. A high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer was employed for the first measurement of the D Lyman-alpha (D L(alpha)) emission line profiles at 20- and 100-eV excitation energies. Analysis of the deconvoluted line profile of D L(alpha) at 100 eV reveals the existence of a narrow line central peak of 29+/-2 mA full width at half maximum and a broad pedestal wing structure about 190 mA wide. The wings of the line can be used to determine the fast atom distribution. The wings of D L(alpha) arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited states that cross the Franck-Condon region between 23 and 40 eV. The fast atom distribution at 100-eV electron impact energy spans the energy range from 1 to 10 eV with a peak value near 6 eV. Slow D(2p) atoms characterized by a distribution function with peak energy near 100 meV produce the central peak profile, which is nearly independent of the impact energy. The deconvoluted line profiles of the central peak at 20 eV for dissociative excitation of D2 and H2 are fitted with an analytical function for use in calibration of space flight instrumentation equipped with a D/H absorption cell. The kinetic-energy and line profile results are compared to similar measurements for H2. The absolute cross sections for the line center (slow atoms) and wings (fast atoms) and total emission line profile were measured from threshold to 400 eV. Analytical model coefficients are given for the energy dependence of the measured slow atom cross section.

  9. Atomic energy and how it was transformed into a political issue. Die Politisierung des Themas Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overhoff, K.

    1984-01-01

    The mass media are the most important source of information and opinion moulding for politically interested citizens. The way in which facts and events relating to the benefits and disadvantages of certain matters are presented exercises an influence on their acceptance or rejection, especially if - as in the case of atomic energy - new unstructured problem complexes turn up on which the public has not yet formed a firm opinion or on which no other sources of information and experience are available. This work therefore aims to answer the following questions: What are the principles according to which the mass media present the atomic energy question to the public. How do the mass media influence the public opinion process during the controversy. It is assumed that the mass media have played an important part in opinion moulding and therefore have influenced the course of the entire controversy. By putting a topic on the agenda they either permit the coordination of divergent opinions or produce a one-sided opinion climate. As broadcasting and television documents were not accessible, this work is restricted to the evaluation of press organs.

  10. Hope over fear. The establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1995-12-01

    President Eisenhower`s ``Atoms for Peace`` speech in 1953 started a process that led to the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This study analyses the negotiations of the Statute of the Agency. It focuses on how the Agency`s scope of action regarding safeguards was negotiated. The Statute is seen as a reflection of the dual purpose of the new Agency to promote peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to control that peaceful nuclear activities receiving IAEA assistance are not diverted to military purposes. On one hand, the countries receiving assistance from the Agency accepted a degree of international control that represented a breakthrough in international relations. On the other hand, many countries strongly resented controls. Consequently, compromises had to be made in the course of the negotiations in order to reach a consensus. Thus, although the IAEA was established as a competent and technical body, the underlying compromises meant that its scope of actions was restricted. 6 refs.

  11. Studies on mass energy-absorption coefficients and effective atomic energy-absorption cross sections for carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhaf, Bibifatima M.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2015-04-01

    We measured here the mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of carbohydrates, Esculine (C15H16O9), Sucrose (C12H22O11), Sorbitol (C6H14O6), D-Galactose (C6H12O6), Inositol (C6H12O6), D-Xylose (C5H10O5) covering the energy range from 122 keV up to 1330 keV photon energies by using gamma ray transmission method in a narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI(Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 8.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the total attenuation cross-section (σtot), molar extinction coefficients (ε), mass-energy absorption coefficients (μen/ρ) and effective (average) atomic energy-absorption cross section (σa,en) of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  12. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  13. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer High Energy (IBEX-Hi) Neutral Atom Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Allegrini, F.; Bochsler, P.; Dunn, G.; Ellis, S.; Everett, D.; Fagan, M. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Granoff, M.; Gruntman, M.; Guthrie, A. A.; Hanley, J.; Harper, R. W.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kihara, K. H.; King, B.; Kucharek, H.; Manzo, M. P.; Maple, M.; Mashburn, K.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Nolin, J.; Piazza, D.; Pope, S.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Rodriguez, B.; Roelof, E. C.; Saul, L.; Turco, S.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wurz, P.; Zaffke, S.

    2009-08-01

    The IBEX-Hi Neutral Atom Imager of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is designed to measure energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating from the interaction region between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). These ENAs are plasma ions that have been heated in the interaction region and neutralized by charge exchange with the cold neutral atoms of the LISM that freely flow through the interaction region. IBEX-Hi is a single pixel ENA imager that covers the ENA spectral range from 0.38 to 6 keV and shares significant energy overlap and overall design philosophy with the IBEX-Lo sensor. Because of the anticipated low flux of these ENAs at 1 AU, the sensor has a large geometric factor and incorporates numerous techniques to minimize noise and backgrounds. The IBEX-Hi sensor has a field-of-view (FOV) of 6.5°×6.5° FWHM, and a 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is imaged over each spacecraft spin. IBEX-Hi utilizes an ultrathin carbon foil to ionize ENAs in order to measure their energy by subsequent electrostatic analysis. A multiple coincidence detection scheme using channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors enables reliable detection of ENAs in the presence of substantial noise. During normal operation, the sensor steps through six energy steps every 12 spacecraft spins. Over a single IBEX orbit of about 8 days, a single 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is viewed, and re-pointing of the spin axis toward the Sun near perigee of each IBEX orbit moves the ecliptic longitude by about 8° every orbit such that a full sky map is acquired every six months. These global maps, covering the spectral range of IBEX-Hi and coupled to the IBEX-Lo maps at lower and overlapping energies, will answer fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the interaction region between the heliosphere and the LISM.

  14. Characteristics of The Narrow Spectrum Beams Used in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N; El Balaa, H; Younes, G; Al Kattar, Z

    2017-06-15

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission has different calibration methods for various types of dosimeters used in industrial, military and medical fields. The calibration is performed using different beams of X-rays (low and medium energy) and Gamma radiation delivered by a Cesium 137 source. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry laboratory in charge of calibration services uses different protocols for the determination of high and low air kerma rate and for narrow and wide series. In order to perform this calibration work, it is very important to identify all the beam characteristics for the different types of sources and qualities of radiation. The following work describes the methods used for the determination of different beam characteristics and calibration coefficients with their uncertainties in order to enhance the radiation protection of workers and patient applications in the fields of medical diagnosis and industrial X-ray. All the characteristics of the X-ray beams are determined for the narrow spectrum series in the 40 and 200 keV range where the inherent filtration, the current intensity, the high voltage, the beam profile and the total uncertainty are the specific characteristics of these X-ray beams. An X-ray software was developed in order to visualize the reference values according to the characteristics of each beam. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  16. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-bipolar world nuclear power has become one of the areas of competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West. The comprehensive analysis of theoretical publications allows us to consider international competition as an abstract, depoliticized contest of states and other international actors (including companies for some limited (mainly economic benefits. International rivalry is more a political process, necessarily involving some rival pairs of states (or groups of states that compete with each other not only to get some benefits, but to expand their territory or power. The competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West in the sphere of nuclear power are especially apparent in the Eastern European region where the American, European and Japanese corporations, with the support of the Western foreign ministries and EU institutions, try to achieve two main goals. The first goal is to win the contracts to build new power units, especially in tenders where Rosatom participates. The second goal is to become suppliers of nuclear fuel for multiple Russian- or Soviet-made VVER-type reactors, which are functioning or will be run in a number of countries in the region (Slovakia,CzechRepublic,Hungary,Bulgaria, andUkraine. Such activities can involve high risks. The West’s efforts to curb the dominant position of "Rosatom" inEastern Europeare formally associated with the need to create a "competitive market" of nuclear services in the region and to ensure the European energy security. It is also noteworthy that the expansion of Rosatom (and its predecessors to foreign markets, including Eastern Europe, is actively supported by the Russian state which in the second half of the 1990s – after a failed attempt of following in the footsteps of the West – joined in the rivalry, mostly imposed by the U.S. and their allies. As shown by the analysis,Russiaand the West, primarily theUnited States, are involved in the nuclear power sector to

  17. 77 FR 12087 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel; Strata Energy, Inc.; Memorandum and Order (Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel; Strata Energy, Inc.; Memorandum and Order (Notice of..., Dr. Kenneth L. Mossman. This proceeding concerns the January 4, 2011 application of Strata Energy...

  18. 78 FR 56944 - Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing... (Board) in the above-captioned Strata Energy, Inc. case is hereby reconstituted by appointing...

  19. 75 FR 24755 - DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste Shipment Tracking Requirements In 10 CFR Part 20 Appendix G 1.0 Background DTE Energy (DTE) is the licensee.... DTE is in the process of decommissioning Fermi-1 and radioactive waste shipments from the site are...

  20. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Collisions of low-energy antiprotons and protons with atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luehr, Armin

    2010-02-18

    Antiproton (anti p) collisions have evolved to a powerful tool for the testing of dynamic electron correlations in atoms and molecules. While advances in the understanding of anti p collisions with the simplest one- and two-electron atoms, H and He, have been achieved experiment and theory did not agree for low-energy anti p+He collisions (<40 keV), stimulating a vivid theoretical activity. On the other hand, only very few theoretical anti p studies can be found considering molecular as well as other atomic targets, in contrast to proton (p) collisions. This is in particular true for anti p impacts on H{sub 2} despite its fundamental role in representing the simplest two-electron molecule. The obtained results may be useful for the anti p experiments at CERN (e.g., antihydrogen production) and in particular for the facility design of low-energy anti p storage rings (e.g., at FLAIR) where a precise knowledge of the anti p interaction with the dominant residual-gas molecule H{sub 2} is needed. In this work a nonperturbative, time-dependent numerical approach is developed which describes ionization and excitation of atoms or molecules by either anti p or p impact based on the impact-parameter method. A spectral close-coupling method is employed for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in which the scattering wave function is expanded in (effective) one- or two-electron eigenstates of the target. This includes for the first time a full two-electron, two-center description of the H{sub 2} molecule in anti p collisions. The radial part of the one-electron eigenstates is expanded in B splines while the two-electron basis is obtained with a configurationinteraction approach. Calculations are performed for anti p collisions with H, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 2} as well as with He and alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, K, and Rb. Additionally, data are obtained for p collisions with H{sub 2}, Li, Na, and K. The developed method is tested and validated by detailed

  2. Effective atomic number estimation using kV-MV dual-energy source in LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Dousatsu; Haga, Akihiro; Kida, Satoshi; Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2017-07-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging can measure the effective atomic number (EAN) as well as the electron density, and thus its adoption may improve dose calculations in brachytherapy and external photon/particle therapy. An expanded energy gap in dual-energy sources is expected to yield more accurate EAN estimations than conventional DECT systems, which typically span less than 100kV. The aim of this paper is to assess a larger energy gap DECT by using a linear accelerator (LINAC) radiotherapy system with a kV X-ray imaging device, which are combined to provide X-rays in both the kV- and MV-energy ranges. Traditionally, the EAN is determined by parameterising the Hounsfield Unit; however, this is difficult in a kV-MV DECT due to different uncertainties in the reconstructed attenuation coefficient at each end of the energy spectrum. To overcome this problem, we included a new calibration step to produce the most likely linear attenuation coefficients, based upon the X-ray spectrum. To determine the X-ray spectrum, Monte Carlo calculations using GEANT4 were performed. Then the images were calibrated using information from eight inserts of known materials in a CIRS phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA). Agreement between the estimated and empirical EANs in these inserts was within 11%. Validation was subsequently performed with the CatPhan500 phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem). The estimated EAN for seven inserts agreed with the empirical values to within 3%. Accordingly, it can be concluded that, given properly reconstructed images based upon a well-determined X-ray spectrum, kV-MV DECT provides an excellent prediction for the EAN. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-Altitude Emission of Energetic Neutral Atoms: Multiple Interactions and Energy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    LLera, K.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-10-01

    Low-altitude emissions (LAEs) are the energetic neutral atom (ENA) signature of ring current ions precipitating along the magnetic field to an altitude of 200-800 km. This altitude region is considered to be "optically thick" because ring current ions undergo multiple charge changing interactions (MCCIs) with Earth's dense oxygen exosphere. While each interaction involves an energy loss of 36 eV, no prior study has determined the accumulated energy lost by 1-100 keV H+ emerging as LAEs. We have developed a 2-D model with a geomagnetic dipole that captures the net effects in energy loss and pitch angle evolution as a result of MCCIs without the computational requirements of a full Monte Carlo simulation. Dependent on the amount of latitudinal migration, the energy loss is greater than 20% for ions below 60 keV for equatorward moving particles (30 keV for poleward). Since the ENA travels ballistically across a geomagnetic dipole, upon reionization, ion velocity along the local field increases (antiparallel in the northern hemisphere). Redirecting the particle upward through MCCIs is most effective during poleward ENA motion. The net effect is to redirect precipitating ions (below 2,500 km) to eventually emerge from the optically thick region either as an ion or ENA. Precipitation is a joint ion-neutral process, affecting both the energy and pitch angle distribution through the transverse motion of ENA segments in a converging field. For particles that enter the MCCI regime, the energy loss and evolution of the pitch angle distribution must be considered within a realistic magnetic field.

  4. Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Law; Sect. 4 of AtVfV; Sect. 46 of VwVfG NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The preclusion provided in Section 7b of the Atomic Energy Law precludes the advancing of concrete situations but not the advancing of a theoretical course of events, independent of the prompting incident (only guiding principle). Any substantial modification of a nuclear power plant is subject to authorization under the Atomic Energy Law. It makes no difference whether the modification has a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The involvement of the public in licensing procedures as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law is the result of an effective protection of basic rights provided in Article 2 (2) of the Basic Law. A party affected has the right to claim the annulment of a licence that was granted with an offence being committed against these rights to be involved. The issue of material licensing capacity does not matter in this respect (following the decision on Muelheim-Kaerlich taken by the Federal Constitutional Court on December 20, 1979). A party affected may only reprove successfully the omitted involvement of the public if the essential modification might affect its rights negatively. Arnsberg Administrative Court, Decision of Jan. 27, 1981 - 7 K 74/79 - (not final).

  5. Effective atomic numbers of polypyrrole via transmission method in the energy range 15.74-40.93 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icelli, Orhan [Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Erzincan, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey)], E-mail: orhanicelli@gmail.com; Erzeneoglu, Salih; Saglam, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    Effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of polypyrrole have been determined for total photon interactions in the energy range 15.74-40.93 keV from the accurately measured total attenuation coefficients, for characteristic K and K X-rays of Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr. The results were compared with the theoretical atomic numbers obtained using the XCOM.

  6. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part VIII: Hyperfine structure HPC calculations for terbium atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Sikorski, Andrzej; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2017-11-01

    A parametric analysis of the hyperfine structure (hfs) for the even parity configurations of atomic terbium (Tb I) is presented in this work. We introduce the complete set of 4fN-core states in our high-performance computing (HPC) calculations. For calculations of the huge hyperfine structure matrix, requiring approximately 5000 hours when run on a single CPU, we propose the methods utilizing a personal computer cluster or, alternatively a cluster of Microsoft Azure virtual machines (VM). These methods give a factor 12 performance boost, enabling the calculations to complete in an acceptable time.

  7. Atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals: electronic structure regulation and energy device construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongfu; Gao, Shan; Xie, Yi

    2014-01-21

    Atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals can provide promising opportunities to satisfy people's requirement of next-generation flexible and transparent nanodevices. However, the characterization of these low-dimensional structures and the understanding of their clear structure-property relationship encounter many great difficulties, owing to the lack of long-range order in the third dimensionality. In this review, we survey the recent progress in fine structure characterization by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and also overview electronic structure modulation by density-functional calculations in the ultrathin two-dimensional crystals. In addition, we highlight their structure-property relationship, transparent and flexible device construction as well as wide applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting, photodetectors, thermoelectric conversion, touchless moisture sensing, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. Finally, we outline the major challenges and opportunities that face the atomically-thick two-dimensional crystals. It is anticipated that the present review will deepen people's understanding of this field and hence contribute to guide the future design of high-efficiency energy-related devices.

  8. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  9. Atomic configuration of hydrogenated and clean tantalum(111) surfaces: Bond relaxation, energy entrapment and electron polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Maolin; Li, Lei; Guo, Yongling; Yao, Chuang; Peng, Cheng; Sun, Chang Q.

    2018-01-01

    By studying the tantalum (Ta)(111) surface with X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, we determined binding energy values for the clean Ta(111) (+3.068 eV) and hydrogenated Ta(111) (+3.421 eV) surfaces with an isolated atom level of 18.977 eV. Using the bond-band barrier and zone-selective electron spectroscopy correlation, we investigated the mechanism of hydrogenation adsorption on the Ta(111) surface. We found the local densities of states of the first layer of Ta atoms in the reconstructed structure, which formed on the adsorbent hydrogen of the surface chemical bond contracts and dipole polarization. Moreover, we showed that on the Ta(111) surface, the hydrogen-induced surface core level shifts are dominated by quantum entrapment and are proportional to the calculated hybridized orbitals of the valence band. The latter is therefore correlated to the local surface chemical reactivity and is useful for other adsorbate systems on transition metals.

  10. Energy Landscape of Alginate-Epimerase Interactions Assessed by Optical Tweezers and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håti, Armend Gazmeno; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Stokke, Bjørn Torger; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Sletmoen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Mannuronan C-5 epimerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze epimerization of alginates at the polymer level. This group of enzymes thus enables the tailor-making of various alginate residue sequences to attain various functional properties, e.g. viscosity, gelation and ion binding. Here, the interactions between epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 and alginate substrates as well as epimerization products were determined. The interactions of the various epimerase–polysaccharide pairs were determined over an extended range of force loading rates by the combined use of optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. When studying systems that in nature are not subjected to external forces the access to observations obtained at low loading rates, as provided by optical tweezers, is a great advantage since the low loading rate region for these systems reflect the properties of the rate limiting energy barrier. The AlgE epimerases have a modular structure comprising both A and R modules, and the role of each of these modules in the epimerization process were examined through studies of the A- module of AlgE6, AlgE6A. Dynamic strength spectra obtained through combination of atomic force microscopy and the optical tweezers revealed the existence of two energy barriers in the alginate-epimerase complexes, of which one was not revealed in previous AFM based studies of these complexes. Furthermore, based on these spectra estimates of the locations of energy transition states (xβ), lifetimes in the absence of external perturbation (τ0) and free energies (ΔG#) were determined for the different epimerase–alginate complexes. This is the first determination of ΔG# for these complexes. The values determined were up to 8 kBT for the outer barrier, and smaller values for the inner barriers. The size of the free energies determined are consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme and substrate are thus not tightly locked at all times but are able to relocate. Together with the

  11. Energy Landscape of Alginate-Epimerase Interactions Assessed by Optical Tweezers and Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armend Gazmeno Håti

    Full Text Available Mannuronan C-5 epimerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze epimerization of alginates at the polymer level. This group of enzymes thus enables the tailor-making of various alginate residue sequences to attain various functional properties, e.g. viscosity, gelation and ion binding. Here, the interactions between epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 and alginate substrates as well as epimerization products were determined. The interactions of the various epimerase-polysaccharide pairs were determined over an extended range of force loading rates by the combined use of optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. When studying systems that in nature are not subjected to external forces the access to observations obtained at low loading rates, as provided by optical tweezers, is a great advantage since the low loading rate region for these systems reflect the properties of the rate limiting energy barrier. The AlgE epimerases have a modular structure comprising both A and R modules, and the role of each of these modules in the epimerization process were examined through studies of the A- module of AlgE6, AlgE6A. Dynamic strength spectra obtained through combination of atomic force microscopy and the optical tweezers revealed the existence of two energy barriers in the alginate-epimerase complexes, of which one was not revealed in previous AFM based studies of these complexes. Furthermore, based on these spectra estimates of the locations of energy transition states (xβ, lifetimes in the absence of external perturbation (τ0 and free energies (ΔG# were determined for the different epimerase-alginate complexes. This is the first determination of ΔG# for these complexes. The values determined were up to 8 kBT for the outer barrier, and smaller values for the inner barriers. The size of the free energies determined are consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme and substrate are thus not tightly locked at all times but are able to relocate

  12. Charge Versus Energy Transfer in Atomically Thin Graphene-Transition Metal Dichalcogenide van der Waals Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlicher, Guillaume; Lorchat, Etienne; Berciaud, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    Made from stacks of two-dimensional materials, van der Waals heterostructures exhibit unique light-matter interactions and are promising for novel optoelectronic devices. The performance of such devices is governed by near-field coupling through, e.g., interlayer charge and/or energy transfer. New concepts and experimental methodologies are needed to properly describe two-dimensional heterointerfaces. Here, we report an original study of interlayer charge and energy transfer in atomically thin metal-semiconductor [i.e., graphene-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD, here molybdenum diselenide, MoSe2 )] heterostructures using a combination of microphotoluminescence and Raman scattering spectroscopies. The photoluminescence intensity in graphene /MoSe2 is quenched by more than 2 orders of magnitude and rises linearly with the incident photon flux, demonstrating a drastically shortened (about 1 ps) room-temperature MoSe2 exciton lifetime. Key complementary insights are provided from a comprehensive analysis of the graphene and MoSe2 Raman modes, which reveals net photoinduced electron transfer from MoSe2 to graphene and hole accumulation in MoSe2 . Remarkably, the steady-state Fermi energy of graphene saturates at 290 ±15 meV above the Dirac point. This reproducible behavior is observed both in ambient air and in vacuum and is discussed in terms of intrinsic factors (i.e., band offsets) and environmental effects. In this saturation regime, balanced photoinduced flows of electrons and holes may transfer to graphene, a mechanism that effectively leads to energy transfer. Using a broad range of incident photon fluxes and diverse environmental conditions, we find that the presence of net photoinduced charge transfer has no measurable impact on the near-unity photoluminescence quenching efficiency in graphene /MoSe2 . This absence of correlation strongly suggests that energy transfer to graphene (either in the form of electron exchange or dipole-dipole interaction) is the

  13. Charge Versus Energy Transfer in Atomically Thin Graphene-Transition Metal Dichalcogenide van der Waals Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Froehlicher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Made from stacks of two-dimensional materials, van der Waals heterostructures exhibit unique light-matter interactions and are promising for novel optoelectronic devices. The performance of such devices is governed by near-field coupling through, e.g., interlayer charge and/or energy transfer. New concepts and experimental methodologies are needed to properly describe two-dimensional heterointerfaces. Here, we report an original study of interlayer charge and energy transfer in atomically thin metal-semiconductor [i.e., graphene-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD, here molybdenum diselenide, MoSe_{2}] heterostructures using a combination of microphotoluminescence and Raman scattering spectroscopies. The photoluminescence intensity in graphene/MoSe_{2} is quenched by more than 2 orders of magnitude and rises linearly with the incident photon flux, demonstrating a drastically shortened (about 1 ps room-temperature MoSe_{2} exciton lifetime. Key complementary insights are provided from a comprehensive analysis of the graphene and MoSe_{2} Raman modes, which reveals net photoinduced electron transfer from MoSe_{2} to graphene and hole accumulation in MoSe_{2}. Remarkably, the steady-state Fermi energy of graphene saturates at 290±15  meV above the Dirac point. This reproducible behavior is observed both in ambient air and in vacuum and is discussed in terms of intrinsic factors (i.e., band offsets and environmental effects. In this saturation regime, balanced photoinduced flows of electrons and holes may transfer to graphene, a mechanism that effectively leads to energy transfer. Using a broad range of incident photon fluxes and diverse environmental conditions, we find that the presence of net photoinduced charge transfer has no measurable impact on the near-unity photoluminescence quenching efficiency in graphene/MoSe_{2}. This absence of correlation strongly suggests that energy transfer to graphene (either in the form of electron

  14. Improving the physical realism and structural accuracy of protein models by a two-step atomic-level energy minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yang

    2011-11-16

    Most protein structural prediction algorithms assemble structures as reduced models that represent amino acids by a reduced number of atoms to speed up the conformational search. Building accurate full-atom models from these reduced models is a necessary step toward a detailed function analysis. However, it is difficult to ensure that the atomic models retain the desired global topology while maintaining a sound local atomic geometry because the reduced models often have unphysical local distortions. To address this issue, we developed a new program, called ModRefiner, to construct and refine protein structures from Cα traces based on a two-step, atomic-level energy minimization. The main-chain structures are first constructed from initial Cα traces and the side-chain rotamers are then refined together with the backbone atoms with the use of a composite physics- and knowledge-based force field. We tested the method by performing an atomic structure refinement of 261 proteins with the initial models constructed from both ab initio and template-based structure assemblies. Compared with other state-of-art programs, ModRefiner shows improvements in both global and local structures, which have more accurate side-chain positions, better hydrogen-bonding networks, and fewer atomic overlaps. ModRefiner is freely available at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/ModRefiner. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy of the Isolated Metastable Iron-Nickel FCC Nanocluster with a Carbon Atom in the Tetragonal Interstice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Natalya V; Nedolya, Anatoliy V

    2017-12-01

    The energy of the isolated iron-nickel nanocluster was calculated by molecular mechanics method using Lennard-Jones potential. The cluster included a carbon atom that drifted from an inside octahedral interstice to a tetrahedral interstice in [Formula: see text] direction and after that in direction to the surface. In addition, one of 14 iron atoms was replaced by a nickel atom, the position of which was changing during simulation.The energy of the nanocluster was estimated at the different interatomic distances. As a result of simulation, the optimal interatomic distances of Fe-Ni-C nanocluster was chosen for the simulation, in which height of the potential barrier was maximal and face-centered cubic (FCC) nanocluster was the most stable.It is shown that there were three main positions of a nickel atom that significantly affected nanocluster's energy.The calculation results indicated that position of the carbon atom in the octahedral interstice was more energetically favorable than tetrahedral interstice in the case of FCC nanocluster. On the other side, the potential barrier was smaller in the direction [Formula: see text] than in the direction .This indicates that there are two ways for carbon atom to drift to the surface of the nanocluster.

  16. The State and atomic energy. From progress to inhumanity. Der Atomstaat. Vom Fortschritt in die Unmenschlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungk, R.

    1991-01-01

    Illustrous, eloquent, and yet easy to read for the interested layman, the book begins with alleged deplorable conditions at the reprocessing centra La Hague, portrays, amongst other things, the spying on and supervision of persons in the nuclear field and in research, the misuse of fissile material, and threats and blackmail as a consequence thereof, human error as a cause of accidents, and it concludes with a nonviolent new International against the state and atomic energy, against technological tyranny. Titles of chapters: The hard road; radiation feed; the gamblers; homo atomicus; the intimidated; the ''proliferators''; nuclear terrorists; those supervised; the smooth road. It remains an open question whether the book contributes to defusing the nuclear controversy - in the book almost an ideology - and to bringing the two sides closer together. (HP).

  17. Negotiating supranational rules - The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, Astrid

    1998-12-31

    The object of this thesis is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid 1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The evolution is traced not through the practical implementation of the safeguards system, but through the various multilateral negotiations through which it was created. The focus is on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective is to single out the factors determining the result. The discussion is organised into the following chapters: (1) The statute of the IAEA, (2) The IAEA 1961 safeguard document (INFCIRC/26), (3) The IAEA 1965 safeguards document (INFCIRC/66), (4) The non-proliferation treaty, (5) NPT safeguards. 92 refs.

  18. Lifetime Measurements of $ \\pi ^+ \\pi ^- $ and $\\pi^{+-} K^{-+}$ Atoms to Test Low-Energy QCD Predictions

    CERN Multimedia

    Iliescu, M A; Ponta, T C; Dumitriu, D E; Afanasyev, L; Zhabitskiy, M; Rykalin, V; Hons, Z; Schacher, J; Yazkov, V; Gerndt, J; Detraz, C C; Guaraldo, C; Dreossi, D; Smolik, J; Gorchakov, O; Nikitin, M; Dudarev, A; Kluson, J; Hansroul, M; Okada, K; Constantinescu, S; Kruglov, V; Komarov, V; Takeutchi, F; Tarta, P D; Kuptsov, A; Nemenov, L; Karpukhin, V; Shliapnikov, P; Brekhovskikh, V; Saborido silva, J J; Drijard, D; Rappazzo, G F; Pentia, M C; Gugiu, M M; Kruglova, L; Pustylnik, Z; Trojek, T; Vrba, T; Duma, M; Ciocarlan, C; Kulikov, A; Ol'shevskiy, V; Ryazantsev, A; Chiba, M; Anania, A; Tarasov, A; Gritsay, K; Lapchine, V; Cechak, T; Lopez aguera, A

    2002-01-01

    %PS212 \\\\ \\\\ The proposed experiment aims to measure the lifetime of $ \\pi ^+ \\pi ^- $ atoms in the ground state with 10\\% precision, using the 24~GeV/c proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. As the value of the above lifetime of order 10$ ^- ^{1} ^{5} $s is dictated by a strong interaction at low energy, the precise measurement of this quantity enables to determine a combination of S-wave pion scattering lengths to 5\\%. Pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory and values predicted at the same level of accuracy have, up to now, never been confronted with accurate experimental data. Such a measurement would submit the understanding of chiral symmetry breaking of QCD to a crucial test.

  19. Safeguarding of installations, industrial safety regulations, and labour-management relations in Atomic Energy Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, E.; Wollenschlaeger, M.

    1982-10-01

    The contribution first deals with the legal provisions governing physical protection against sabotage and other unauthorized activities, as required by the Atomic Energy Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to obtain a more precise explanation of the concept of ''physical protection'', catalogues of recommended physical protection measures and strategies, issued by the Conference of the Home Secretaries of the Laender or by the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit, (GRS), are referred to. Also, the recommendations published by the IAEA in INFCIRC 225 are mentioned. In the second part, the legal provisions governing occupational safety in the FRG are reviewed, especially regulations concerning the prevention of accidents and protection from the hazards of ionizing radiation. Examples are given to explain situations in practice where the interests of occupational safety (radiation protection) and physical protection may not be easy to reconcile.

  20. Heavy atom vibrational modes and low-energy vibrational autodetachment in nitromethane anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Michael C.; Weber, J. Mathias, E-mail: weberjm@jila.colorado.edu [JILA, University of Colorado at Boulder, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Baraban, Joshua H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado at Boulder, 215UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Matthews, Devin A. [Institute for Computational Engineering and Science, University of Texas at Austin, 201 E. 24th St., Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Stanton, John F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station A5300, Austin, Texas 78712-0165 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    We report infrared spectra of nitromethane anion, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup −}, in the region 700–2150 cm{sup −1}, obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy and electron detachment spectroscopy. The data are interpreted in the framework of second-order vibrational perturbation theory based on coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The modes in the spectroscopic region studied here are mainly based on vibrations involving the heavier atoms; this work complements earlier studies on nitromethane anion that focused on the CH stretching region of the spectrum. Electron detachment begins at photon energies far below the adiabatic electron affinity due to thermal population of excited vibrational states.

  1. Analysis of atomic distribution in as-fabricated Zircaloy-2 claddings by atom probe tomography under high-energy pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawabe, T., E-mail: sawabe@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Iwado Kita 2-11-1, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Kitajima, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Iwado Kita 2-11-1, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kameyama, T. [Tokai University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kitakaname 4-1-1, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The properties of second-phase particles (SPPs) in Zircaloy-2 claddings are key factors influencing the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The chemical compositions of Zr (Fe, Cr){sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs were investigated by means of pulsed laser atom probe tomography. In order to prevent specimen fracture and to analyse wide regions of the specimen, the pulsed laser energy was increased to 2.0 nJ. This gave a high yield of average of 3 × 10{sup 7} ions per specimen. The Zr (Fe, Cr){sub 2} SPPs contained small amounts of Ni and Si atoms, while in Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs almost all the Si was concentrated and the ratio of Zr: (Fe + Ni + Si) was 2:1. Atomic concentrations of the Zr-matrix and the SPPs were identified by two approaches: the first by using all the visible peaks of the mass spectrum and the second using the representative peaks with the natural abundance of the corresponding atoms. It was found that the change in the concentration between the Zr-matrix and the SPPs can be estimated more accurately by the second method, although Sn concentration in the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs is slightly overestimated.

  2. The international atomic energy agency's programme on utilization of accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, Nikolai [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Mank, Guenter [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: g.mank@iaea.org; Rosengard, Ulf [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Bamford, Samuel [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Markowicz, Andrzej [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wegrzynek, Dariusz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Str. 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-06-23

    Low-energy accelerators have in the past produced a major part of our current knowledge of nuclear physics. Today they are mainly used for applied research and industrial applications. In view of this, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has during recent years initiated several Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) concerning Ion Beam Analysis of Materials, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Microprobe Techniques. The CRPs involve laboratories from developing as well as developed Member States, networking on a common topic coordinated by the IAEA. In order to facilitate networking, the IAEA has recently published the 'World Survey of Accelerator Based Analytical Techniques' available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM. The IAEA maintains also a beamline at a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Small and medium power accelerator driven spallation neutron sources will become more important as many small neutron producing research reactors are approaching the end of their useful working life. The IAEA has, within its Department for Nuclear Sciences and Applications, a programme on the Effective Utilization of Accelerators. This programme helps Member States, in particular developing Member States, in finding new areas of applications for their low and medium energy accelerators through increased participation in activities such as Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings and Conferences. This paper describes the IAEA's current programme on accelerator utilization and proposed future activities.

  3. Phase imaging and nanoscale energy dissipation of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, Borislav; Matković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Radoš

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the phase imaging of supported graphene using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM), the so-called tapping mode. The phase contrast between graphene and the neighboring substrate grows in hard tapping conditions and the contrast is enhanced compared to the topographic one. Therefore, phase measurements could enable the high-contrast imaging of graphene and related two-dimensional materials and heterostructures, which is not achievable with conventional AFM based topographic measurements. Obtained phase maps are then transformed into energy dissipation maps, which are important for graphene applications in various nano-mechanical systems. From a fundamental point of view, energy dissipation gives further insight into mechanical properties. Reliable measurements, obtained in the repulsive regime, show that the energy dissipation on a graphene-covered substrate is lower than that on a bare one, so graphene provides certain shielding in tip–substrate interaction. Based on the obtained phase curves and their derivatives, as well as on correlation measurements based on AFM nanoindentation and force modulation microscopy, we conclude that the main dissipation channels in graphene–substrate systems are short-range hysteresis and long-range interfacial forces.

  4. Universal scaling relations for the energies of many-electron Hooke atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odriazola, A.; Solanpää, J.; Kylänpää, I.; González, A.; Räsänen, E.

    2017-04-01

    A three-dimensional harmonic oscillator consisting of N ≥2 Coulomb-interacting charged particles, often called a (many-electron) Hooke atom, is a popular model in computational physics for, e.g., semiconductor quantum dots and ultracold ions. Starting from Thomas-Fermi theory, we show that the ground-state energy of such a system satisfies a nontrivial relation: Eg s=ω N4 /3fg s(β N1 /2) , where ω is the oscillator strength, β is the ratio between Coulomb and oscillator characteristic energies, and fg s is a universal function. We perform extensive numerical calculations to verify the applicability of the relation. In addition, we show that the chemical potentials and addition energies also satisfy approximate scaling relations. In all cases, analytic expressions for the universal functions are provided. The results have predictive power in estimating the key ground-state properties of the system in the large-N limit, and can be used in the development of approximative methods in electronic structure theory.

  5. Atomically dispersed metal sites in MOF-based materials for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zibin; Qu, Chong; Xia, Dingguo; Zou, Ruqiang; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-19

    Metal sites play an essential role for both electrocatalytic and photocatalytic energy conversion applications. The highly ordered arrangements of the organic linkers and metal nodes and the well-defined pore structures of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them ideal substrates to support atomically dispersed metal sites (ADMSs) located in their metal nodes, linkers, and pores. Besides, porous carbon materials doped with ADMSs can be derived from these ADMS-incorporated MOF precursors through controlled treatments. These ADMSs incorporated in pristine MOFs and MOF-derived carbon materials possess unique merits over the molecular or the bulk metal-based catalysts, bridging the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for energy conversion applications. In this review, recent progress and perspective of design and incorporation of ADMSs in pristine MOFs and MOF-derived materials for energy conversion applications are highlighted, which will hopefully promote further developments of advanced MOF-based catalysts in foreseeable future. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Elemental mapping in achromatic atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, B.D. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Houben, L. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mayer, J. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    We present atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images obtained with the chromatic-aberration-corrected FEI Titan PICO at the Ernst-Ruska Centre, Jülich, Germany. We find qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation for the background-subtracted EFTEM images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges for a specimen of SrTiO{sub 3} oriented down the [110] zone axis. The simulations utilize the transition potential formulation for inelastic scattering, which permits a detailed investigation of contributions to the EFTEM image. We find that energy-filtered images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges are lattice images and that the background-subtracted core-loss maps may not be directly interpretable as elemental maps. Simulations show that this is a result of preservation of elastic contrast, whereby the qualitative details of the image are determined primarily by elastic, coherent scattering. We show that this effect places a constraint on the range of specimen thicknesses which could theoretically yield directly useful elemental maps. In general, interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations. - Highlights: • Achromatic atomic-resolution EFTEM images were obtained for STO 〈110〉. • Simulations were in qualitative agreement with Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edge maps. • The experimental EFTEM maps are not directly interpretable as elemental maps. • Image intensities are strongly determined by preservation of elastic contrast. • Interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations.

  7. Implementation of dose management system at radiation protection board of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, F; Amoako, J K; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Sosu, E K; Otoo, F; Asiedu, G O

    2012-01-01

    The dose management system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency for managing data on occupational exposure to radiation sources and intake of radionuclides. It is an integrated system for the user-friendly storage, processing and control of all existing internal and external dosimetry data. The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has installed, customised, tested and using the DMS as a comprehensive DMS to improve personnel and area monitoring in the country. Personnel dose records from the RPBs database from 2000 to 2009 are grouped into medical, industrial and education/research sectors. The medical sector dominated the list of monitored institutions in the country over the 10-y period representing ∼87 %, while the industrial and education/research sectors represent ∼9 and ∼4 %, respectively. The number of monitored personnel in the same period follows a similar trend with medical, industrial and education/research sectors representing ∼74, ∼17 and ∼9 %, respectively. Analysis of dose data for 2009 showed that there was no instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, however, 2.7 % of the exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. The highest recorded individual annual dose and total collective dose in all sectors were 4.73 mSv and 159.84 man Sv, respectively. Workers in the medical sector received higher individual doses than in the other two sectors, and average dose per exposed worker in all sectors is 0.25 mSv.

  8. On the performance of two-component energy-consistent pseudopotentials in atomic Fock-space coupled cluster calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgen, Detlev; Wedig, Anja; Stoll, Hermann; Dolg, Michael; Eliav, Ephraim; Kaldor, Uzi

    2008-01-14

    The four-component atomic intermediate-Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled cluster (IHFSCC) code of Landau et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6862 (2001)] has been adapted to two-component calculations with relativistic pseudopotentials of the energy-consistent variety. Recently adjusted energy-consistent pseudopotentials for group 11 and 12 transition elements as well as group 13 and 14 post-d main group elements, which were fitted to atomic valence spectra from four-component multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations, are tested in IHFSCC calculations for ionization potentials, electron affinities, and excitation energies of a variety of atoms and ions. Where comparison is possible, the deviations from experimental data are in good agreement with those found in previously published IHFSCC all-electron calculations: experimental data are usually reproduced within a few hundred wavenumbers.

  9. Users manual on database of the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) conducted Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purposes of those tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. After that piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic method followed until 1992. This report describes the users manual on databases about the test results using the large experimental facilities. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location. The research activities using large scale piping test facilities are described. The present report does the database about the test results pairing the former report. With these two reports, all the feature of Piping Reliability Proving Tests is made clear. Briefings of the tests are described also written in Japanese or English. (author)

  10. Elemental mapping in achromatic atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B D; Houben, L; Mayer, J; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Allen, L J

    2014-12-01

    We present atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images obtained with the chromatic-aberration-corrected FEI Titan PICO at the Ernst-Ruska Centre, Jülich, Germany. We find qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation for the background-subtracted EFTEM images of the Ti-L2,3 and O-K edges for a specimen of SrTiO3 oriented down the [110] zone axis. The simulations utilize the transition potential formulation for inelastic scattering, which permits a detailed investigation of contributions to the EFTEM image. We find that energy-filtered images of the Ti-L2,3 and O-K edges are lattice images and that the background-subtracted core-loss maps may not be directly interpretable as elemental maps. Simulations show that this is a result of preservation of elastic contrast, whereby the qualitative details of the image are determined primarily by elastic, coherent scattering. We show that this effect places a constraint on the range of specimen thicknesses which could theoretically yield directly useful elemental maps. In general, interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms I. Package outline and high energy code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    Being motivated by the applied researchers' persisting need for accurate scattering data for the collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms, we developed a computer package-Hex-that is designed to provide trustworthy results for all basic discrete and continuous processes within non-relativistic framework. The package consists of several computational modules that implement different methods, valid for specific energy regimes. Results of the modules are kept in a common database in the unified form of low-level scattering data (partial-wave T-matrices) and accessed by an interface program which is able to produce various derived quantities like e.g. differential and integral cross sections. This article is the first one of a series of articles that are concerned with the implementation and testing of the modules. Here we give an overview of their structure and present (a) the command-line interface program hex-db that can be also easily compiled into a derived code or used as a backend for a web-page form and (b) simple illustrative module specialized for high energies, hex-dwba, that implements distorted and plane wave Born approximation.

  12. New development on electrochemical etching processes at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    Some highlights of new developments made in our laboratory at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran on chemical and electrochemical etching (ECE) of polymer track detectors like polycarbonate (PC) are presented. They include introduction of new ECE chamber systems and methods for production of ECE signs and symbols, and a new versatile ECE chamber (VECE) system for multi-purpose, multi-size, and/or multi-shape detector processing; determination of photoneutron doses in and around high-energy X-ray beams of a 20 MV medical accelerator; verification of the Smythe and Mason equations for ECE of tracks in polymers; ECE of alpha and recoil tracks in PC using PMW, PEW and PEMW etchants; introduction of a novel method using ethylene diamine for treatment of PC detectors with its applications, for example in precision removal of surface layers of PC (e.g. bulk removal rates of about 0.04, 0.15, 0.36, 0.66, and 1.33 mm min sup - sup 1 for 60%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 80% ethylene diamine solution (v/v) in water respectivel...

  13. Potential Energy Curves and Transport Properties for the Interaction of He with Other Ground-state Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Harry; Stallcop, James R.; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interactions of a He atom with a heavier atom are examined for 26 different elements, which are consecutive members selected from three rows (Li - Ne, Na - Ar, and K,Ca, Ga - Kr) and column 12 (Zn,Cd) of the periodic table. Interaction energies are determined wing high-quality ab initio calculations for the states of the molecule that would be formed from each pair of atoms in their ground states. Potential energies are tabulated for a broad range of Interatomic separation distances. The results show, for example, that the energy of an alkali interaction at small separations is nearly the same as that of a rare-gas interaction with the same electron configuration for the dosed shells. Furthermore, the repulsive-range parameter for this region is very short compared to its length for the repulsion dominated by the alkali-valence electron at large separations (beyond about 3-4 a(sub 0)). The potential energies in the region of the van der Waals minimum agree well with the most accurate results available. The ab initio energies are applied to calculate scattering cross sections and obtain the collision integrals that are needed to determine transport properties to second order. The theoretical values of Li-He total scattering cross sections and the rare-gas atom-He transport properties agree well (to within about 1%) with the corresponding measured data. Effective potential energies are constructed from the ab initio energies; the results have been shown to reproduce known transport data and can be readily applied to predict unknown transport properties for like-atom interactions.

  14. 77 FR 26537 - City of Alexandria, LA, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, Lafayette Utilities System v. Cleco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Alexandria, LA, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, Lafayette Utilities System v. Cleco Power, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on April 25, 2012, pursuant to..., City of Alexandria, Louisiana, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, and Lafayette Utilities System...

  15. The bungling giant: Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980--1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ian James

    From 1980--1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be "passively" or "inherently" safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, "piecemeal social engineering." Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  16. Sixth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress: Atomic Energy and the Life Sciences, July 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, David E.; Bacher, Robert F.; Pike, Sumner T.; Strauss, Lewis L.

    1949-07-01

    The document represents the sixth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up briefly the major developments in the national atomic energy program and further gives a comprehensive review of one of its major phases -- the biological and medical activities. It outlines the AEC program in all phases of medicine and biology, reviews research results and projects under way, reports what is known of the effects of radiation on man and other living things, and surveys the benefits which may be derived from the use of radiation for diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the study of plants and animals. Since radiation from atomic sources also is potentially harmful to all living things, the Commission has set up safeguards for all who might, without such protection, be exposed to harmful radiation.

  17. Liquid Metals as Plasma-facing Materials for Fusion Energy Systems: From Atoms to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Koel, Bruce E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bernasek, Steven L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Carter, Emily A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Debenedetti, Pablo G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2017-06-23

    The objective of our studies was to advance our fundamental understanding of liquid metals as plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems, with a broad scope: from atoms to tokamaks. The flow of liquid metals offers solutions to significant problems of the plasma-facing materials for fusion energy systems. Candidate metals include lithium, tin, gallium, and their eutectic combinations. However, such liquid metal solutions can only be designed efficiently if a range of scientific and engineering issues are resolved that require advances in fundamental fluid dynamics, materials science and surface science. In our research we investigated a range of significant and timely problems relevant to current and proposed engineering designs for fusion reactors, including high-heat flux configurations that are being considered by leading fusion energy groups world-wide. Using experimental and theoretical tools spanning atomistic to continuum descriptions of liquid metals, and bridging surface chemistry, wetting/dewetting and flow, our research has advanced the science and engineering of fusion energy materials and systems. Specifically, we developed a combined experimental and theoretical program to investigate flows of liquid metals in fusion-relevant geometries, including equilibrium and stability of thin-film flows, e.g. wetting and dewetting, effects of electromagnetic and thermocapillary fields on liquid metal thin-film flows, and how chemical interactions and the properties of the surface are influenced by impurities and in turn affect the surface wetting characteristics, the surface tension, and its gradients. Because high-heat flux configurations produce evaporation and sputtering, which forces rearrangement of the liquid, and any dewetting exposes the substrate to damage from the plasma, our studies addressed such evaporatively driven liquid flows and measured and simulated properties of the different bulk phases and material interfaces. The range of our studies

  18. A bound on Planck-scale modifications of the energy-momentum composition rule from atomic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzano, M.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Walkus, A.

    2010-01-01

    High-sensitivity measurements in atomic spectroscopy were recently used by Amelino- Camelia et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 103 (2009) 171302) to constraint the form of possible modifications of the energy-momentum dispersion relation resulting from Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). In this letter we

  19. 10 CFR 8.2 - Interpretation of Price-Anderson Act, section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretation of Price-Anderson Act, section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. (a) It is my opinion that an... incident occurs.” (c) In the case of damage outside of the United States caused by a nuclear facility based... (1959). (f) The point in question received scant consideration during the hearings preceding adoption of...

  20. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  1. 75 FR 6070 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Meeting on the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards Version 3.0, Draft Safety Requirements DS379 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Public... open forum with the public and other stakeholders on a revision to the International Basic Safety...

  2. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0905-0925. Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  3. 77 FR 34935 - Foreign-Trade Zone 161; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; Siemens Energy, Inc., (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Energy, Inc., (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Hubs); Notice of Approval On April 2, 2012, the Executive...) authority, on behalf of Siemens Energy, Inc., to manufacture wind turbine nacelles and hubs under FTZ...

  4. Atomic data on inelastic processes in low-energy manganese-hydrogen collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Andrey K.; Voronov, Yaroslav V.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients for inelastic processes in low-energy Mn + H and Mn+ + H- collisions, especially, for processes with high and moderate rate coefficients. These processes are required for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) modeling of manganese spectra in cool stellar atmospheres, and in particular, for metal-poor stars. Methods: The calculations of the cross sections and the rate coefficients were performed by means of the quantum model approach within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer formalism, that is, the asymptotic semi-empirical method for the electronic MnH molecular structure calculation followed by the nonadiabatic nuclear dynamical calculation by means of the multichannel analytic formulas. Results: The cross sections and the rate coefficients for low-energy inelastic processes in manganese-hydrogen collisions are calculated for all transitions between 21 low-lying covalent states and one ionic state. We show that the highest values of the cross sections and the rate coefficients correspond to the mutual neutralization processes into the final atomic states Mn(3d54s(7S)5s e 6S), Mn(3d54s(7S)5p y 8P°), Mn(3d54s(7S)5s e 8S), Mn(3d54s(7S)4d e 8D) [the first group], the processes with the rate coefficients (at temperature T = 6000 K) of the values 4.38 × 10-8, 2.72 × 10-8, 1.98 × 10-8, and 1.59 × 10-8 cm3/ s, respectively, that is, with the rate coefficients exceeding 10-8 cm3/ s. The processes with moderate rate coefficients, that is, with values between 10-10 and 10-8 cm3/ s include many excitation, de-excitation, mutual neutralization and ion-pair formation processes. In addition to other processes involving the atomic states from the first group, the processes from the second group include those involving the following atomic states: Mn(3d5(6S)4s4p (1P°) y 6P°), Mn(3d54s(7S)4d e 6D), Mn(3d54s(7S)5p w 6P°), Mn(3d5(4P)4s4p (3P°) y 6D°), Mn(3d5(4G)4s4p (3P°) y 6F

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, W. L. [ATI Consulting, Pinehurst, NC; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  6. Towards Establishing Capacity for Biological Dosimetry at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achel, Daniel Gyingiri; Achoribo, Elom; Agbenyegah, Sandra; Adaboro, Rudolph M; Donkor, Shadrack; Adu-Bobi, Nana A K; Agyekum, Akwasi A; Akuamoa, Felicia; Tagoe, Samuel N; Kyei, Kofi A; Yarney, Joel; Serafin, Antonio; Akudugu, John M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0-6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48-50 h. Processed cells were analyzed for the frequencies of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes. Radiation dose delivered to the experimental model was verified using GafChromic® EBT films in parallel experiments. Basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry in the GAEC have been realized and expertise in the dicentric chromosome assay consolidated. We successfully obtained preliminary cytogenetic data for a dose-response relationship of the irradiated blood lymphocytes. The data strongly indicate the existence of significant linear (α) and quadratic (β) components and are consistent with those published for the production of chromosome aberrations in comparable absorbed dose ranges.

  7. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  8. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1997-12-31

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs.

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  10. Justification of diagnostic medical exposures: some practical issues. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J; Guleria, R; Craven, C; Horton, P; Järvinen, H; Mayo, J; O’reilly, G; Picano, E; Remedios, D; Le Heron, J; Rehani, M; Holmberg, O; Czarwinski, R

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Radiation Protection of Patients Unit of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerned about the effectiveness of justification of diagnostic medical exposures. Recent published work and the report of an initial IAEA consultation in the area gave grounds for such concerns. There is a significant level of inappropriate usage, and, in some cases, a poor level of awareness of dose and risk among some key groups involved. This article aims to address this. Methods The IAEA convened a second group of experts in November 2008 to review practical and achievable actions that might lead to more effective justification. Results This report summarises the matters that this group considered and the outcome of their deliberations. There is a need for improved communication, both within professions and between professionals on one hand, and between professionals and the patients/public on the other. Coupled with this, the issue of consent to imaging procedures was revisited. The need for good evidence-based referral guidelines or criteria of acceptability was emphasised, as was the need for their global adaptation and dissemination. Conclusion Clinical audit was regarded as a key tool in ensuring that justification becomes an effective, transparent and accountable part of normal radiological practice. In summary, justification would be facilitated by the “3 As”: awareness, appropriateness and audit. PMID:21343316

  11. Cooperation between the US and the USSR in the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-10-01

    The decade of the 1960's saw a marked expansion of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union for the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In my opinion, this development constituted one of the most encouraging elements in the international scene. Until 1955 contacts between American and Soviet nuclear scientists were virtually nonexistent, as indeed (after World War II) were US-USSR contacts in other fields except as required in formal intergovernmental relations. Then, in July 1955, the discussions of the Heads of Government meeting in Geneva led to the declaration of a policy with the following aims: to lower the barriers which now impede the interchange of information and ideas between our peoples; to lower the barriers which now impede the opportunities of people to travel anywhere in the world for peaceful, friendly purposes, so that all will have a chance to know each other face to face; and to create conditions which will encourage nations to increase the exchange of peaceful goods throughout the world. 8 figs.

  12. Report of workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Because of the nonlinearity of the equation that governs flow, sometimes vibration occurs in an unexpected system, and it causes trouble. This 7th workshop on vibration related to fluid in atomic energy field was held at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo on August 25 and 26, 1997. Two themes were ``Vibration of liquid surface by flow`` and ``Numerical analysis of coupled vibration of fluid-structures``. The former is related to the problem in the development of a demonstration FBR, and the latter is related to the numerical analysis technology such as the handling of boundary conditions and the method of taking position, moving velocity and acceleration into account. This workshop aims at thoroughly discussing a small number of themes, and deepening the understanding. In this report, the summaries of 17 papers are collected, of which the titles are as follows. Liquid surface self-exciting vibration by flow, vibration of upper plenum liquid surface of fast reactor, stability analysis of multiple liquid surfaces, flow instability phenomena of multi-loop system, sloshing in a vessel in which fluid flows, the mechanism of occurrence of self-exciting sloshing in a vessel elucidated by numerical analysis, numerical analysis of manometer vibration excited by flow, numerical analysis of flutter phenomena of aircraft, numerical analysis of aerodynamic elastic problem, mechanism of in-line excitation, numerical analysis of hydrodynamic elastic vibration of tube nest and so on. (K.I.)

  13. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, Christine [Building American Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  14. Advanced Materials Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    In order to meet the ever increasing energy needs of society and realize the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s target for energy storage, acquiring a fundamental understanding of the chemical mechanisms in batteries for direct guidance and searching novel advanced materials with high energy density are critical. To realize rechargeable batteries with superior energy density, great cathodes and excellent anodes are required. LiMn2O4 (LMO) has been considered as a simpler surrogate for high energy cathode materials like NMC. Previous studies demonstrated that Al2O3 coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) improved the capacity of LMO cathodes. This improvement was attributed to a reduction in surface area and diminished Mn dissolution. However, here we propose a different mechanism for ALD Al 2O3 on LMO based on in-situ and ex-situ investigations coupled with density functional theory calculations. We discovered that Al2O 3 not only coats the LMO, but also dopes the LMO surface with Al leading to changes in the Mn oxidation state. Different thicknesses of Al2O 3 were deposited on nonstoichiometric LiMn2O4 for electrochemical measurements. The LMO treated with one cycle of ALD Al2O3 (1xAl 2O3 LMO) to produce a sub-monolayer coating yielded a remarkable initial capacity, 16.4% higher than its uncoated LMO counterpart in full cells. The stability of 1xAl2O3 LMO is also much better as a result of stabilized defects with Al species. Furthermore, 4xAl 2O3 LMO demonstrates remarkable capacity retention. Stoichiometric LiMn2O4 was also evaluated with similar improved performance achieved. All superior results, accomplished by great stability and reduced Mn dissolution, is thanks to the synergetic effects of Al-doping and ALD Al2O 3 coating. Turning our attention to the anode, we again utilized aluminum oxide ALD to form conformal films on lithium. We elaborately designed and studied, for the first time, the growth mechanism during Al2O3 ALD on lithium metal in

  15. Authorities work on energy efficiency - Compilation and Analysis 2012; Myndigheters arbete med energieffektivisering - Sammanstaellning och analys 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Since the year 2010, the Energy Authority has the responsibility for the administration and coordination of work with Regulation (2009:893) on energy efficiency measures for government agencies. Under the regulation, the authorities choose to work with at least two of six actions. The authorities concerned by the Regulation shall annually report its energy use to the Energy Authority. Reporting must also show the results of the measures they have chosen to work with. This report shows the results of the authorities' reporting in February 2012, which covers the 2011 energy use. In addition, a deep analysis is made of 20 agencies to compare the results of their energy use 2010 and 2011. This has been to highlight if state governments can be seen as a pioneer in energy efficiency and if the authorities comply with the requirements of the Regulation. The results of the report show that the government's total energy consumption in 2011 amounts to 2 TWh. Many authorities have a functioning environmental management that energy work is a part of. The authorities also states that reporting contains flaws but that follow-up procedures evolve and improve. Shortcomings are due in part to data from many landlords based on certain assumptions.

  16. On the atomic-number similarity of the binding energies of electrons in filled shells of elements of the periodic table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, V. Ya. [Bruk Institute of Electronic Control Machines (Russian Federation); Shpatakovskaya, G. V., E-mail: shpagalya@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An expression for the binding energies of electrons in the ground state of an atom is derived on the basis of the Bohr–Sommerfeld quantization rule within the Thomas–Fermi model. The validity of this relation for all elements from neon to uranium is tested within a more perfect quantum-mechanical model with and without the inclusion of relativistic effects, as well as with experimental binding energies. As a result, the ordering of electronic levels in filled atomic shells is established, manifested in an approximate atomic-number similarity. It is proposed to use this scaling property to analytically estimate the binding energies of electrons in an arbitrary atom.

  17. Near-coincident K-line and K-edge energies as ionization diagnostics for some high atomic number plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse, Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Weber, B. V.; Phipps, D. G.; Schumer, J. W. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Seely, J. F. [Artep, Inc., 2922 Excelsior Springs Court, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Carroll, J. J. [Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20873 (United States); Vanhoy, J. R. [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States); Slabkowska, K.; Polasik, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    For some high atomic number atoms, the energy of the K-edge is tens of eVs higher than the K-line energy of another atom, so that a few eV increase in the line's energy results in a decreasing transmission of the x-ray through a filter of the matching material. The transmission of cold iridium's Asymptotically-Equal-To 63.287 keV K{alpha}{sub 2} line through a lutetium filter is 7% lower when emitted by ionized iridium, consistent with an energy increase of {Delta}{epsilon} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{+-}1 eV associated with the ionization. Likewise, the transmission of the K{beta}{sub 1} line of ytterbium through a near-coincident K-edge filter changes depending on plasma parameters that should affect the ionization. Systematic exploration of filter-line pairs like these could become a unique tool for diagnostics of suitable high energy density plasmas.

  18. Interplay between relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of Xe atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Koudai; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we theoretically study x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics of heavy atoms taking into account relativistic and resonance effects. When an atom is exposed to an intense x-ray pulse generated by an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), it is ionized to a highly charged ion via a sequence of single-photon ionization and accompanying relaxation processes, and its final charge state is limited by the last ionic state that can be ionized by a single-photon ionization. If x-ray multiphoton ionization involves deep inner-shell electrons in heavy atoms, energy shifts by relativistic effects play an important role in ionization dynamics, as pointed out in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173005 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173005. On the other hand, if the x-ray beam has a broad energy bandwidth, the high-intensity x-ray pulse can drive resonant photoexcitations for a broad range of ionic states and ionize even beyond the direct one-photon ionization limit, as first proposed in Nat. Photon. 6, 858 (2012), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.261. To investigate both relativistic and resonance effects, we extend the xatom toolkit to incorporate relativistic energy corrections and resonant excitations in x-ray multiphoton ionization dynamics calculations. Charge-state distributions are calculated for Xe atoms interacting with intense XFEL pulses at a photon energy of 1.5 keV and 5.5 keV, respectively. For both photon energies, we demonstrate that the role of resonant excitations in ionization dynamics is altered due to significant shifts of orbital energy levels by relativistic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account both effects to accurately simulate multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity.

  19. Spectroscopic determination of electron energies in a discharge of atomic H produced by a monoenergetic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, J; Fitzgerald, M; Khachan, J [Applied and Plasma Physics Group, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2007-09-07

    We construct a collisional-radiative model for atomic H produced in H{sub 2} gas at units and tens of mTorr pressures by a monoenergetic electron beam at units of keV energies. Unlike similar work in regimes of higher pressure and lower electron energies, we calculate the electron energy dependence of the two strongest Balmer lines (H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub {beta}}). A key result is that the intensity ratios do not uniquely specify the electron energy, and so we propose a new method for measurement of the spatial energy profile using the absolute and relative intensities in tandem. The model shows qualitative agreement with semi-empirical distributions of absolute and relative intensities versus electron energy for beams emerging from a biconical hollow cathode.

  20. Morris County Improvement Authority, Morris County, New Jersey Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, John [Chair, Morris County Improvement Authority

    2013-05-01

    The Morris County Improvement Authority (Authority), a public body corporate and politic of the State of New Jersey and created and controlled by the County, at the direction of the County and through the Program guaranteed by the County, financed 3.2 MW of solar projects (Solar Projects) at fifteen (15) sites for seven (7) local government units (Local Units) in and including the County. The Program uses a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) structure, where the Solar Developer constructs, operates and maintains all of the Solar Projects, for the benefit of the Local Units and the Authority, for the maximum State law allowable PPA period of fifteen (15) years. Although all fifteen (15) sites were funded by the Authority, only the Mennen Arena site was considered for the purposes of the required local match funding for this grant. Specifically at the Mennen Arena site, the Authority financed 1.6 MW of solar panels. On October 18, 2013, the DOE Grant was drawn down following completion of the necessary application documents and final execution of an agreement memorializing the contemplated transaction by the Local Units, the County, The Authority and the solar developer. The proceeds of the DOE Grant were then applied to reduce the PPA price to all Local Units across the program and increase the savings from approximately 1/3 to almost half off the existing and forecasted utility pricing over the fifteen (15) year term, without adversely affecting all of the other benefits. With the application of the rate buy down, the price of electricity purchased under the PPA dropped from 10.9 to 7.7 cents/kWh. This made acquisition of renewable energy much more affordable for the Local Units, and it enhanced the success of the program, which will encourage other counties and local units to develop similar programs.

  1. Formation of very low energy states crossing the ionization threshold of argon atoms in strong mid-infrared fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Benjamin; Baudisch, Matthias; Pullen, Michael G; Tong, Xiao-Min; Hemmer, Michaël; Senftleben, Arne; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Biegert, Jens; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Atomic ionization by intense mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulses produces low electron energy features that the strong-field approximation, which is expected to be valid in the tunneling ionization regime characterized by small Keldysh parameters ($\\gamma \\ll 1$), cannot describe. These features include the low-energy structure (LES), the very-low-energy structure (VLES), and the more recently found zero-energy structure (ZES). They result from the interplay between the laser electric field and the atomic Coulomb field which controls the low-energy spectrum also for small $\\gamma$. In the present joint experimental and theoretical study we investigate the vectorial momentum spectrum at very low energies. Using a reaction microscope optimized for the detection of very low energy electrons, we have performed a thorough study of the three-dimensional momentum spectrum well below 1 eV. Our measurements are complemented by quantum and classical simulations, which allow for an interpretation of the LES, VLES and of the ne...

  2. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Conclusions Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear

  3. US scientific contributions to the water resources program of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Schneider, V. R.

    2007-12-01

    It is well recognized that a better understanding of the water cycle and increased availability of hydrological information for surface and groundwater resources are key factors in the ability to sustainably manage water resources. Since its inception in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has played a critical role in developing isotope applications for hydrology and building scientific capacity in developing countries. Through an active technical cooperation program with a funding of nearly $8M per biennium, the IAEA assists developing countries in using isotope techniques for the assessment and monitoring of water resources, in particular, groundwater resources. In addition, substantial human resources and institutional capacity are built through the provision of training and appropriate equipment for monitoring. The water resources program of the IAEA is implemented with the support of a number of experts and the United States contributes extensively to this program. Although spanning the entire 50 year history of the IAEA, the contribution of US scientists, and particularly those from the US Geological Survey, has been substantial over the past 10 years. These contributions have included assistance in technical cooperation projects in Africa, Latin America and Asia, as well as internationally coordinated research projects in vadose zone hydrology, surface water - groundwater interactions, and regional aquifer studies. In Ethiopia, a national groundwater assessment program was formulated and a computer database was provided to manage hydrological information. A robust program of capacity building in cooperation with the USGS and Argonne National Laboratory has provided training to a number of IAEA-sponsored candidates from Africa and Latin America. This paper will describe the objectives and results of some of these cooperative efforts.

  4. Medical physics in Europe following recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Lopes, Maria do Carmo; Drljević, Advan; Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla

    2016-03-01

    Medical physics is a health profession where principles of applied physics are mostly directed towards the application of ionizing radiation in medicine. The key role of the medical physics expert in safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine was widely recognized in recent European reference documents like the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (2014), and European Commission Radiation Protection No. 174, European Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert (2014). Also the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been outspoken in supporting and fostering the status of medical physics in radiation medicine through multiple initiatives as technical and cooperation projects and important documents like IAEA Human Health Series No. 25, Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (2013) and the International Basic Safety Standards, General Safety Requirements Part 3 (2014). The significance of these documents and the recognition of the present insufficient fulfilment of the requirements and recommendations in many European countries have led the IAEA to organize in 2015 the Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe, where major issues in medical physics in Europe were discussed. Most important outcomes of the meeting were the recommendations addressed to European member states and the survey on medical physics status in Europe conducted by the IAEA and European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. Published recommendations of IAEA Regional Meeting on Medical Physics in Europe shall be followed and enforced in all European states. Appropriate qualification framework including education, clinical specialization, certification and registration of medical physicists shall be established and international recommendation regarding staffing levels in the field of medical physics shall be fulfilled in particular. European states have clear legal and moral

  5. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. An evaluation of exchange-correlation functionals for the calculations of the ionization energies for atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segala, Maximiliano [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Oscar Matzembacher 475, 96760-000, Tapes, RS (Brazil); Chong, Delano P. [Department of Chemistry, 2036 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: chong@chem.ubc.ca

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, ionization energies of gas-phase atoms and molecules are calculated by energy-difference method and by approximate transition-state models with density functional theory (DFT). To determine the best functionals for ionization energies, we first study the H to Ar atoms. An approximation is used in which the electron density is first obtained from Kohn-Sham computations with an exchange-correlation potential V{sub xc} known as statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP), after which the energy is computed from that density with 59 different exchange-correlation energy functionals E{sub xc}. For the 18 atoms, the best E{sub xc} functional providing an average absolute deviation (AAD) of only 0.110 eV is one known as the Krieger-Chen-Iafrate-Savin functional modified by Krieger, Chen, Iafrate, and Kurth, if one uses the spin-polarized spherical atom description. On the other hand, if one imposes the condition of integer-electrons, the best functional is the Becke 1997 functional modified by Wilson, Bradley, and Tozer, with an AAD of 0.107 eV, while several other functionals perform almost as well. For molecules, we can achieve an accuracy of AAD = 0.21 eV for valence VIPs of nonperhalo molecules with {delta}E(V{sub xc} = SAOP;PBE0) using integer-electron description. For perhalo molecules our best approach is {delta}E(V{sub xc} from either E{sub xc} or SAOP;mPW1PW) with full symmetry to obtain an AAD = 0.24 eV.

  7. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Zych, M.; Brukner, Č.; Tino, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  8. Quantum test of the equivalence principle for atoms in coherent superposition of internal energy states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G; D'Amico, G; Cacciapuoti, L; Sorrentino, F; Prevedelli, M; Zych, M; Brukner, Č; Tino, G M

    2017-06-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) has a central role in the understanding of gravity and space-time. In its weak form, or weak equivalence principle (WEP), it directly implies equivalence between inertial and gravitational mass. Verifying this principle in a regime where the relevant properties of the test body must be described by quantum theory has profound implications. Here we report on a novel WEP test for atoms: a Bragg atom interferometer in a gravity gradiometer configuration compares the free fall of rubidium atoms prepared in two hyperfine states and in their coherent superposition. The use of the superposition state allows testing genuine quantum aspects of EEP with no classical analogue, which have remained completely unexplored so far. In addition, we measure the Eötvös ratio of atoms in two hyperfine levels with relative uncertainty in the low 10-9, improving previous results by almost two orders of magnitude.

  9. Building America Case Study: Philadelphia Housing Authority Energy-Efficiency Turnover Protocols, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with four PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing, and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in 18 housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16 percent and duct leakage reductions averaged 23 percent. Total source energy consumption savings due to implemented measures was estimated at 3-10 percent based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.6 to 2.5 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  10. Stereodynamical Origin of Anti-Arrhenius Kinetics: Negative Activation Energy and Roaming for a Four-Atom Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Nayara D; Silva, Valter H C; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Camargo, Ademir J; Mundim, Kleber C; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-05-07

    The OH + HBr → H2O + Br reaction, prototypical of halogen-atom liberating processes relevant to mechanisms for atmospheric ozone destruction, attracted frequent attention of experimental chemical kinetics: the nature of the unusual reactivity drop from low to high temperatures eluded a variety of theoretical efforts, ranking this one among the most studied four-atom reactions. Here, inspired by oriented molecular-beams experiments, we develop a first-principles stereodynamical approach. Thermalized sets of trajectories, evolving on a multidimensional potential energy surface quantum mechanically generated on-the-fly, provide a map of most visited regions at each temperature. Visualizations of rearrangements of bonds along trajectories and of the role of specific angles of reactants' mutual approach elucidate the mechanistic change from the low kinetic energy regime (where incident reactants reorient to find the propitious alignment leading to reaction) to high temperature (where speed hinders adjustment of directionality and roaming delays reactivity).

  11. Tumor radiosensitizers - current status of development of various approaches: Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Bohm, Lothar; Margison, Geoffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare...... and contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials...... and for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries.PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those...

  12. Back-Influence of Molecular Motion on Energy Transfer in the Landau-Teller Model of Atom Molecule Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-07-21

    This year we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the Landau-Teller model for energy exchange in a collinear collision of an atom with a harmonic diatomic molecule. Even after 80 years though, the analytic theory to date has not included in it the back-influence of the oscillator's motion on the energy transfer between the approaching particle and the molecule. This is the topic of the present paper. The back-influence can be obtained by employing classical second-order perturbation theory. The second-order theory is used in both a classical and semiclassical context. Classically, analytic expressions are derived for the final phase and action of the diatom, after the collision. The energy loss of the atom is shown to decrease linearly with the increasing energy of the oscillator. The magnitude of this decrease is a direct consequence of the back-reaction of the oscillator on the translational motion. The qualitative result is universal, in the sense that it is not dependent on the details of the interaction of the atom with the oscillator. A numerical application to a model collision of an Ar atom with a Br2 diatom demonstrates the importance and accuracy of the second-order perturbation theory. The same results are then used to derive a second-order perturbation theory semiclassical expression for the quantum transition probability from initial vibrational state ni to final vibrational state nf of the oscillator. A comparison of the theory with exact quantum data is presented for a model collision of Br2 with a hydrogen molecule, where the hydrogen molecule is considered as a single approaching particle.

  13. Control the fear atomic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Gwan [I and Book, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-15

    This book has a lot of explanation of nuclear energy with articles. Their titles are the bad man likes atomic, the secret of atom, nuclear explosion, NPT?, the secret of uranium fuel rod, nuclear power plant vs nuclear bomb, I hate atomic, keep plutonium in control, atomic in peace and find out alternative energy.

  14. Atomic resolution elemental mapping using energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy with chromatic aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, F F; Rosenauer, A; Barthel, J; Mayer, J; Urban, K; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Brown, H G; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses a novel approach to atomic resolution elemental mapping, demonstrating a method that produces elemental maps with a similar resolution to the established method of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Dubbed energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM) this mode of imaging is, by the quantum mechanical principle of reciprocity, equivalent to tilting the probe in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) through a cone and incoherently averaging the results. In this paper we present a proof-of-principle EFISTEM experimental study on strontium titanate. The present approach, made possible by chromatic aberration correction, has the advantage that it provides elemental maps which are immune to spatial incoherence in the electron source, coherent aberrations in the probe-forming lens and probe jitter. The veracity of the experiment is supported by quantum mechanical image simulations, which provide an insight into the image-forming process. Elemental maps obtained in EFTEM suffer from the effect known as preservation of elastic contrast, which, for example, can lead to a given atomic species appearing to be in atomic columns where it is not to be found. EFISTEM very substantially reduces the preservation of elastic contrast and yields images which show stability of contrast with changing thickness. The experimental application is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study on strontium titanate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential energy curves for the interaction of Ag(5s) and Ag(5p) with noble gas atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Dalgarno, A

    2013-02-28

    We investigate the interaction of ground and excited states of a silver atom with noble gases (NG), including helium. Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curves are calculated with quantum chemistry methods and spin-orbit effects in the excited states are included by assuming a spin-orbit splitting independent of the internuclear distance. We compare our results with experimentally available spectroscopic data, as well as with previous calculations. Because of strong spin-orbit interactions, excited Ag-NG potential energy curves cannot be fitted to Morse-like potentials. We find that the labeling of the observed vibrational levels has to be shifted by one unit.

  16. Studies on effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and electron density of some narcotic drugs in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounhalli, Shivraj G.; Shantappa, Anil; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption ZPEA,eff, photon interaction ZPI,eff and for electron density Nel, have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for narcotic drugs, such as Heroin (H), Cocaine (CO), Caffeine (CA), Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBD), Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). The ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel values have been found to change with energy and composition of the narcotic drugs. The energy dependence ZPEA,eff, ZPI,eff and Nel is shown graphically. The maximum difference between the values of ZPEA,eff, and ZPI,eff occurs at 30 keV and the significant difference of 2 to 33% for the energy region 5-100 keV for all drugs. The reason for these differences is discussed.

  17. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain

  18. Calculations of Energy Losses due to Atomic Processes in Tokamaks with Applications to the ITER Divertor

    CERN Document Server

    Post, D; Clark, R E H; Putvinskaya, N

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of the peak heat loads on the plasma facing components is essential for the success of the next generation of high fusion power tokamaks such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 1 . Many present concepts for accomplishing this involve the use of atomic processes to transfer the heat from the plasma to the main chamber and divertor chamber walls and much of the experimental and theoretical physics research in the fusion program is directed toward this issue. The results of these experiments and calculations are the result of a complex interplay of many processes. In order to identify the key features of these experiments and calculations and the relative role of the primary atomic processes, simple quasi-analytic models and the latest atomic physics rate coefficients and cross sections have been used to assess the relative roles of central radiation losses through bremsstrahlung, impurity radiation losses from the plasma edge, charge exchange and hydrogen radiation losses f...

  19. 3D Atomic Arrangement at Functional Interfaces Inside Nanoparticles by Resonant High-Energy X-ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Shastri, Sarvjit; Chen, Tsan-Yao

    2015-10-21

    With current science and technology moving rapidly into smaller scales, nanometer-sized materials, often referred to as NPs, are produced in increasing numbers and explored for numerous useful applications. Evidence is mounting, however, that useful properties of NPs can be improved further and even new NP functionality achieved by not only controlling the NP size and shape but also interfacing chemically or structurally distinct entities into single, so-called "composite" NPs. A typical example is core-shell NPs wherein the synergy of distinct atoms at the core\\shell interface endows the NPs with otherwise unachievable functionality. However, though advantageous, the concept of functional interfaces inside NPs is still pursued largely by trial-and-error. That is because it is difficut to assess the interfaces precisely at the atomic level using traditional experimental techniques and, hence, difficult to take control of. Using the core\\shell interface in less than 10 nm in size Ru core-Pt shells NPs as an example, we demonstrate that precise knowledge of the 3D atomic arrangement at functional interfaces inside NPs can be obtained by resonant high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to element-specific atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. On the basis of the unique structure knowledge obtained, we scrutinize the still-debatable influence of core\\shell interface on the catalytic functionality of Ru core-Pt shell NPs, thus evidencing the usefulness of this nontraditional technique for practical applications.

  20. Atomic-scale Chemical Imaging and Quantification of Metallic Alloy Structures by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, M. J.; Smith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Determination of atomic-scale crystal structure for nanostructured intermetallic alloys, such as magnetic alloys containing Al, Ni, Co (alnico) and Fe, is crucial for understanding physical properties such as magnetism, but technically challenging due to the small interatomic distances and the similar atomic numbers. By applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping to the study of two intermetallic phases of an alnico alloy resulting from spinodal decomposition, we have determined atomic-scale chemical composition at individual lattice sites for the two phases: one is the B2 phase with Fe0.76Co0.24 -Fe0.40Co0.60 ordering and the other is the L21 phase with Ni0.48Co0.52 at A-sites, Al at BΙ-sites and Fe0.20Ti0.80 at BΙΙ-sites, respectively. The technique developed through this study represents a powerful real-space approach to investigate structure chemically at the atomic scale for a wide range of materials systems. PMID:24492747

  1. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  2. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  3. Physical and chemical nature of the scaling relations between adsorption energies of atoms on metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, F.; Martínez, J. I.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2012-01-01

    Despite their importance in physics and chemistry, the origin and extent of the scaling relations between the energetics of adsorbed species on surfaces remain elusive. We demonstrate here that scalability is not exclusive to adsorbed atoms and their hydrogenated species but rather a general phen...

  4. Laboratory Measurements of Charge Transfer on Atomic Hydrogen at Thermal Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R.; Krause, H. F.; Stancil, P. C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Savin, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our ongoing program to measure velocity dependent charge transfer (CT) cross sections for selected ions on atomic hydrogen using the ion-aloin merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge Natioiial Laboralory. Our focus is on those ions for which CT plays an important role in determining the ionization structure, line emis sion, and thermal structure of observed cosmic photoionized plasmas.

  5. Energy of van der Waals and dipole-dipole interactions between atoms in Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenski, A. A.; Manakov, N. L.; Mokhnenko, S. N.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The van der Waals coefficient C6(θ ;n l J M ) of two like Rydberg atoms in their identical Rydberg states |n l J M 〉 is resolved into four irreducible components called scalar Rs s, axial (vector) Ra a, scalar-tensor Rs T=RT s , and tensor-tensor RT T parts in analogy with the components of dipole polarizabilities. The irreducible components determine the dependence of C6(θ ;n l J M ) on the angle θ between the interatomic and the quantization axes of atoms. The spectral resolution for the biatomic Green's function with account of the most contributing terms is used for evaluating the components Rα β of atoms in their Rydberg series of doublet states of the low angular momenta (2S , 2P , 2D , 2F ). The polynomial presentations in powers of the Rydberg-state principal quantum number n taking into account the asymptotic dependence C6(θ ;n l J M ) ∝n11 are derived for simplified evaluations of irreducible components. Numerical values of the polynomial coefficients are determined for Rb atoms in their n 2S1 /2 , n 2P1 /2 ,3 /2 , n 2D3 /2 ,5 /2 , and n 2F5 /2 ,7 /2 Rydberg states of arbitrary high n . The transformation of the van der Waals interaction law -C6/R6 into the dipole-dipole law C3/R3 in the case of close dipole-connected two-atomic states (the Förster resonance) is considered and the dependencies on the magnetic quantum numbers M and on the angle θ of the constant C3(θ ;n l J M ) are determined together with the ranges of interatomic distances R , where the transformation appears.

  6. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of AlxGa1-xAs, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion-atom interaction potential effects on the shape of energy spectra of ions backscattered by a thick target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmanov, A.R.; Bazhukov, S.I.; Puzanov, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Based on the general Gaudsmit-Saunderson-Lewis model for multiple scattering in a semi-infinite medium, an expression accounting for the effects of multiple scattering on the shape of the backscattering energy spectrum has been obtained. This expression is represented by a series of ion angular distribution moments. The limits of the applicability of the small-angle approximation to the description of multiple scattering are defined. It is shown that the sensitivity of the angular distribution moments of multiple scattered ions to the type of ion-atom potential increases with an increase in the moment order. The possibility of investigation of the ion-atom interaction potential experimentally over a wide range of impact parameters by the backscattering method is discussed.

  8. Fiscal 1997 report on the development of new hydrogen atomic energy demonstrative technology; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho (shinsuiso energy jissho gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    In this validation study, phenomena of excess heat which are said to be generated by electrolysis of deuterium using palladium metal, etc. as electrode are taken as `new hydrogen atomic energy,` and to clarify a possibility of using them as a future energy source, the abnormal heating phenomenon was validated and the mechanism was elucidated. The study targeted quantitative control of heat emissions. The study was finished in 1997, the fifth year from the start. The excess heat measurement could partially be reproduced; however, when conducting a confirmation experiment on the excess heat by another more reliable method under the same condition, it was found that the value of excess heat was not an absolute value exceeding measuring sensitivity and errors of the system. If the excess heat of 0.1W order is to be emitted in nuclear reaction, any reactive product should be detected in a substantial quantity. However, the product of a large quantity was not found. A possibility was found out of an increase in nuclear reaction ratio inside solid by low energy deuterium irradiation. From the above, it was concluded that the use of new hydrogen atomic energy was negative. 20 refs., 149 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Delegation of Authority to Review Leases of Property at Department of Energy Weapon Production Facilities Under the Department of Energy Organization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this memorandum is to request that the Human Resources Staff for OSWER and OECA start the Green Border review process for the attached draft delegation of authority, which delegates the authority of the Administrator to review leases of property at Department of Energy (DOE) weapon production facilities to the Assistant Administrator for OSWER and Regional Administrators.

  10. Efficient and accurate machine-learning interpolation of atomic energies in compositions with many species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artrith, Nongnuch; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2017-07-01

    Machine-learning potentials (MLPs) for atomistic simulations are a promising alternative to conventional classical potentials. Current approaches rely on descriptors of the local atomic environment with dimensions that increase quadratically with the number of chemical species. In this paper, we demonstrate that such a scaling can be avoided in practice. We show that a mathematically simple and computationally efficient descriptor with constant complexity is sufficient to represent transition-metal oxide compositions and biomolecules containing 11 chemical species with a precision of around 3 meV/atom. This insight removes a perceived bound on the utility of MLPs and paves the way to investigate the physics of previously inaccessible materials with more than ten chemical species.

  11. Low Energy (Anti)atoms for Precision Tests of Basic Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, D M; Pereira, O.; Veloso, M; Cesar, Claudio L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques to manipulate and study, with high precision, atomic hydrogen, from one hand, and successful trapping schemes for positrons and antiprotons, from the other hand, have encouraged the pursuit of experiments to test CPT violation and the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) through the comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. A description of the hydrogen trap and laser system being built in Rio, to trap and perform high resolution spectroscopy on cold hydrogen, is pres...

  12. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    1999-09-22

    In 1946 the United States (U.S.) Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act and with it created the Atomic Energy Commission. For the ensuing half-century the AEC and its successors have pursued biological and environmental research with an unwavering mandate to exploit the use of fissionable and radioactive material for medical purposes and, at the same time, to ensure the health of it's workers, the public, and the environment during energy technology development and use (AEC. 1961; DOE 1983; DOE, 1997). The following pages are testimony to the success of this undeviating vision (Figure 1). From the early days of the AEC, cooperation has also linked researchers from the national laboratories, the academic community, and the private sector. The AEC-sponsored research both at national laboratories and universities, and also supported graduate students to develop a cadre of health physicists, radiation biologists, and nuclear engineers. Coordinating these diverse performers has been crucial to the unique teaming that has made many of the successes possible. The success of the biological and environmental research program has often been shared with other federal agencies. The future will demand even stronger and more substantive intraagency, interagency, and international collaborations.

  13. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  14. Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Furchi, Marco M; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The limitations of the bulk semiconductors currently used in electronic devices-rigidity, heavy weight and high costs--have recently shifted the research efforts to two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene and atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides. These materials have the potential to be produced at low cost and in large areas, while maintaining high material quality. These properties, as well as their flexibility, make two-dimensional atomic crystals attractive for applications such as solar cells or display panels. The basic building blocks of optoelectronic devices are p-n junction diodes, but they have not yet been demonstrated in a two-dimensional material. Here, we report a p-n junction diode based on an electrostatically doped tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayer. We present applications as a photovoltaic solar cell, a photodiode and a light-emitting diode, and obtain light-power conversion and electroluminescence efficiencies of ∼ 0.5% and ∼ 0.1%, respectively. Given recent advances in the large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals, we expect them to profoundly impact future developments in solar, lighting and display technologies.

  15. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Research projects` update project status as of March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report provides an update of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) program. The NYSERDA research and development program has five major areas: industry, buildings, energy resources, transportation, and environment. NYSERDA organizes projects within these five major areas based on energy use and supply, and end-use sectors. Therefore, issues such as waste management, energy products and renewable energy technologies are addressed in several areas of the program. The project descriptions presented are organized within the five program areas. Descriptions of projects completed between the period April 1, 1996, and March 31, 1997, including technology-transfer activities, are at the end of each subprogram section.

  16. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Berry, G.; Rockett, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe{sub 2}, one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies.

  17. Toward a unified single-parameter extrapolation scheme for the correlation energy: Systems formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansini, F. N. N.; Varandas, A. J. C.

    2015-07-01

    A simple scheme is suggested to extrapolate the valence electron correlation to the one-electron complete-basis-set limit in species formed by atoms of hydrogen through neon. The performance of the novel scheme is benchmarked for the correlation energy with a data set of 106 systems and, for the polarizability, with 8 molecules. For the former, the results are excellent, most often better than when extrapolated with the best available two-parameter protocols. For the polarizability, they show an enhancement relative to the raw ab initio values, and good agreement with the experimental ones.

  18. Low energy (anti)atoms for precision tests of basic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, D M; Veloso, M; Cesar, C L

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques to manipulate and study, with high precision, atomic hydrogen, from one hand, and successful trapping schemes for positrons and antiprotons, from the other hand, have encouraged the pursuit of experiments to test CPT violation and the weak equivalence principle (WEP) through the comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. A description of the hydrogen trap and laser system being built in Rio, to trap and perform high resolution spectroscopy on cold hydrogen, is presented along with a discussion on the techniques and experimental system being implemented by the ATHENA collaboration at CERN to produce cold antihydrogen. A new technique to make a cold antihydrogen beam is proposed. (25 refs).

  19. Study of the K shell photoelectric parameters of Dy, Yb and W atoms using low energy bremsstrahlung radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosur, S. B.; Naik, L. R.; Badiger, N. M.

    2011-04-01

    Low energy external bremsstrahlung (EB) photons were used to estimate the K shell photoelectric parameters; the K shell photoelectric cross section at the K edge, the K shell binding energy, the K shell jump ratio, the K shell jump factors, the Davisson-Kirchner ratio and the K shell oscillator strength for dysprosium (Dy), ytterbium (Yb) and tungsten (W) atoms. The EB photons are produced in the nickel (Ni) target by using the beta particles from a weak beta source of 90Sr-90Y. These photons are made to fall on these elemental targets of our interest and the transmitted spectrum is measured using GMX 10P HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyzer. The sharp decrease at the K edge in the measured spectrum is used to determine the K shell photoelectric parameters of these elements. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical values.

  20. Atomic scale study of surface orientations and energies of Ti 2 O 3 crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China; Wang, Zhiguo [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2017-10-30

    For nanostructured particles, the faceting planes and their terminating chemical species are two critical factors that govern the chemical behavior of the particle. The surface atomistic structure and termination of the Ti2O3 crystals were analyzed using atomic-scale aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. STEM imaging reveals that the Ti2O3 crystal are most often faceted along (001), (012), (-114) and (1-20) planes. DFT calculation indicates that the (012) surface with TiO-termination have the lowest cleavage energy and correspondingly the lowest surface energy, indicating that (012) will be the most stable and prevalent surfaces in Ti2O3 nanocrystals. These observations provide insights for exploring the interfacial process involving Ti2O3 nanoparticles.

  1. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms II. Low-energy program using the method of the exterior complex scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    While collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms pose a well studied and in some sense closed problem, there is still no free computer code ready for ;production use;, that would enable applied researchers to generate necessary data for arbitrary impact energies and scattering transitions directly if absent in on-line scattering databases. This is the second article on the Hex program package, which describes a new computer code that is, with a little setup, capable of solving the scattering equations for energies ranging from a fraction of the ionization threshold to approximately 100 eV or more, depending on the available computational resources. The program implements the exterior complex scaling method in the B-spline basis.

  2. Friction-induced energy-loss rainbows in atom surface scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moix, Jeremy M; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-03-19

    The rainbow is due to extrema of the angular deflection function of light impinging on water drops. Generically, extrema of suitably defined deflection functions lead to rainbows. These include angular and rotational rainbows in surface scattering and more. Here we introduce the concept of an "energy-loss deflection function" for scattering of particles from a periodic surface whose extrema lead to a new form-the "energy-loss rainbow" which appears as multiple maxima in the final energy distribution of the scattered particle. Energy-loss rainbows are caused by frictional phonon effects which induce structure in the energy-loss distribution instead of "washing it out." We provide evidence that they have been observed in Ne scattering on self-assembled monolayers.

  3. Report realized on behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission, of Defense and Armed Forces on the law project allowing the additional protocol ratification to the agreement between France, European Community of the atomic energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees sur le projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In a first part the author presents the International Atomic Energy Agency and its missions in the nuclear non proliferation policy especially in the agreements with the states of the TNP (Treaty of Nuclear non Proliferation). the today position of France is then analyzed towards the IAEA and the novations added by the additional protocol. (A.L.B.)

  4. Equation of state and Helmholtz free energy for the atomic system of the repulsive Lennard-Jones particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaeinia, Ali; Feyzi, Farzaneh; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid

    2017-12-01

    Simple and accurate expressions are presented for the equation of state (EOS) and absolute Helmholtz free energy of a system composed of simple atomic particles interacting through the repulsive Lennard-Jones potential model in the fluid and solid phases. The introduced EOS has 17 and 22 coefficients for fluid and solid phases, respectively, which are regressed to the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation data over the reduced temperature range of 0.6 ≤T*≤6.0 and the packing fraction range of 0.1 ≤ η ≤ 0.72. The average absolute relative percent deviation in fitting the EOS parameters to the MC data is 0.06 and 0.14 for the fluid and solid phases, respectively. The thermodynamic integration method is used to calculate the free energy using the MC simulation results. The Helmholtz free energy of the ideal gas is employed as the reference state for the fluid phase. For the solid phase, the values of the free energy at the reduced density equivalent to the close-packed of a hard sphere are used as the reference state. To check the validity of the predicted values of the Helmholtz free energy, the Widom particle insertion method and the Einstein crystal technique of Frenkel and Ladd are employed. The results obtained from the MC simulation approaches are well agreed to the EOS results, which show that the proposed model can reliably be utilized in the framework of thermodynamic theories.

  5. Genetic algorithm approach to global optimization of the full-dimensional potential energy surface for hydrogen atom at fcc-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, Marvin; Janke, Svenja M.; Kandratsenka, Alexander; Wodtke, Alec M.

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a genetic algorithm approach for the parametrization of a multi-dimensional potential energy surface based on the analytical expression for energy derived from Effective Medium Theory by fitting it to DFT data. This approach yields consistent results for the H-atom interaction energy with a number of fcc-metal surfaces (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Rh) and provides reasonable energy values for virtually any system geometry including various facets.

  6. The radiative potential method for calculations of QED radiative corrections to energy levels and electromagnetic amplitudes in many-electron atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2005-01-01

    We derive an approximate expression for a "radiative potential" which can be used to calculate QED strong Coulomb field radiative corrections to energies and electric dipole (E1) transition amplitudes in many-electron atoms with an accuracy of a few percent. The expectation value of the radiative potential gives radiative corrections to the energies. Radiative corrections to E1 amplitudes can be expressed in terms of the radiative potential and its energy derivative (the low-energy theorem): ...

  7. Calculation of alloy solid-liquid interfacial free energies from atomic-scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, M.; Hoyt, J. J.; Karma, A.

    2002-09-01

    Solid-liquid interfacial free energies and associated crystalline anisotropies are calculated for a model Ni-Cu alloy system based upon the analysis of equilibrium capillary fluctuations in molecular-dynamics simulations. Alloying of Ni by Cu leads to a reduction in the magnitude of the calculated interfacial free energy, while having only a minor effect on computed anisotropies. The present study demonstrates the viability of applying the fluctuation method to simulation-based calculations of solid-liquid interfacial free energies in alloys.

  8. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Cross Sections for Atom-Molecule Interactions of Nitrogen and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The potential energy surfaces for H2-N and N2-N interactions are calculated by accurate ab initio methods and applied to determine transport data. The results confirm that an effective potential energy for accurately determining transport properties can be calculated using a single orientation. A simple method is developed to determine the dispersion coefficients of effective potential energies Effective potential energies required for O2-O collisions are determ=ined. The H2-N, N2-N, O2-H, and O2-O collision integrals are calculated and tabulated for a large range of temperatures. The theoretical values of the N2-N and O2-O diffusion coefficients compare well with measured data available at room temperature.

  9. Prediction of Tetraoxygen Reaction Mechanism with Sulfur Atom on the Singlet Potential Energy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Khademzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of S+O4 (D2h reaction has been investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df and CCSD levels on the singlet potential energy surface. One stable complex has been found for the S+O4 (D2h reaction, IN1, on the singlet potential energy surface. For the title reaction, we obtained four kinds of products at the B3LYP level, which have enough thermodynamic stability. The results reveal that the product P3 is spontaneous and exothermic with −188.042 and −179.147 kcal/mol in Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of reaction, respectively. Because P1 adduct is produced after passing two low energy level transition states, kinetically, it is the most favorable adduct in the 1S+1O4 (D2h atmospheric reactions.

  10. I.G. Morosov, USSR Vice-Minister for Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Here the signature of the Protocol which extends the collaboration between CERN and high-energy physics centres in the Soviet Union. Jean-Marie Dufour (right); Eliane de Modzelewska, Nicolas Koulberg (back row)

  11. Atomic Energy Levels. As Derived From the Analyses of Optical Spectra. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1958-05-01

    Coris and I.L Murphy, unpubMs matea (MNarch 195). (M) (CL) 0 0 0 0 0 •• 0 0 Cd u Cd u Author Cooflg. Duals J laval interval Author Config. Deuig. J...analysis, from observa- tic .. made with a condensed hollow-cathode discharge in a neon atmosphere, as the source. They retained two levels rejected by...Oreen, Phys. Rev. 64 151 (1943). (1 5) B. FAUd, Plys. Rev. $16 248 (1944). B. Edl~d, unpublkbed matea •l (November 194I). (T) W. R. Sttn andE. R. P

  12. Residual risks of the 13{sup th} amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Restrisiken der 13. Atomgesetzaenderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-08-15

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology

  13. Atomic packing and low energy vibrations in B2O3 glasses, compacted under GPa pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carini Jr.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of crystals are well described by Debye's theory. This doesn't hold for vitreous systems, where an excess density of low frequency vibrational states, called Boson peak, appears. In this work we study glassy boron trioxide (B2O3, a prototype system widely used as basic element of multi component glasses. Our aim is to get some insight into the dependence of mechanical and vibrational properties on the structure of glasses, i.e., on the atomic packing. For this reason, samples were compacted by using a multi anvil press up to pressures of 10 GPa. A comparative analysis of light Raman scattering and mechanical characteristics have been performed on densified samples. The results show that either Raman spectra and elastic constants are affected by the densification process owing to the hardening of the elastic continuum.

  14. Hexagon's atom. History of the relation between France and the nuclear energy; L'atome hexagonal. Histoire de la relation de la France avec le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leridon, A

    2009-07-01

    As soon as the end of the second World war, France, with the creation of the atomic energy commission (CEA), started a research program for the development of civil applications of nuclear energy, but also for the development of weapons. The come back of C. De Gaulle at the head of the country fostered the research efforts in both domains. Then, the election of G. Pompidou contributed to separate the military and civilian applications and led to the launching of the big French nuclear power program in March 1974. Nuclear contestation has shown a progressive development too, encouraged by the main accidents of Three Mile Island and more recently Tchernobyl. The debate has progressively moved with time from the safety of power plants towards the management of spent fuels. In this book, the author presents some particularities which are characteristic of France: the remnants of some kind of a 'scientism' inherited of the first half of the 20. century, the particular relations between 'scientists' and the republic, the policy of secret, the power of the senior officials corps and technocrats, the French taste for big works, the republican Jacobinism, the liabilities more easily given to State corps than to industrialists, and finally, on the opponents side, the search for the spectacular action to the detriment of efficiency. In this big fight, the know-how of nationalized companies, EdF and CEA, has been undeniable. The political power has very often taken refuge behind their competence but sometimes with a lack of democracy.

  15. Energy resolved actinometry for simultaneous measurement of atomic oxygen densities and local mean electron energies in radio-frequency driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greb, Arthur, E-mail: ag941@york.ac.uk; Niemi, Kari; O' Connell, Deborah; Gans, Timo [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-08

    A diagnostic method for the simultaneous determination of atomic oxygen densities and mean electron energies is demonstrated for an atmospheric pressure radio-frequency plasma jet. The proposed method is based on phase resolved optical emission measurements of the direct and dissociative electron-impact excitation dynamics of three distinct emission lines, namely, Ar 750.4 nm, O 777.4 nm, and O 844.6 nm. The energy dependence of these lines serves as basis for analysis by taking into account two line ratios. In this frame, the method is highly adaptable with regard to pressure and gas composition. Results are benchmarked against independent numerical simulations and two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence experiments.

  16. Simulations of the azimuthal distribution of low-energy H atoms scattered off Ag(1 1 0) at grazing incidence: DFT many-body versus model pair potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Cafarelli, P; Benazeth, C; Nieuwjaer, N; Lorente, N

    2003-01-01

    We compare the azimuthal distribution of H atoms after scattering off Ag(1 1 0) obtained by molecular dynamics with different H-Ag(1 1 0) potential energy surfaces (PES) and experimental results. We use grazing incident H atoms and low energies (up to 4 keV). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed for the static case of an H atom in front of an Ag(1 1 0) surface. The surface is represented by an 8-atom slab, and the H atoms form 1x1 and 2x2 supercells. The generalized gradient approximation is used. Classical trajectories are evaluated on the obtained PES, and the azimuthal distribution of the scattered atoms is calculated. Good agreement with experiment is obtained which gives us some confidence in the correct description of the system at low energies by the static DFT calculations. These results are also compared with pair-potential calculations. The accuracy of trajectories may be important for the correct evaluation of charge transfer, energy loss and straggling during ion-surface coll...

  17. Development of electrostatic supercapacitors by atomic layer deposition on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxides for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eIglesias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials can provide innovative solutions for solving the usual energy harvesting and storage drawbacks that take place in conventional energy storage devices based on batteries or electrolytic capacitors, because they are not fully capable for attending the fast energy demands and high power densities required in many of present applications. Here, we report on the development and characterization of novel electrostatic supercapacitors made by conformal Atomic Layer Deposition on the high open surface of nanoporous anodic alumina membranes employed as templates. The structure of the designed electrostatic supercapacitor prototype consists of successive layers of Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide, as the bottom and top electrodes, together Al2O3 as the intermediate dielectric layer. The conformality of the deposited conductive and dielectric layers, together with their composition and crystalline structure have been checked by XRD and electron microscopy techniques. Impedance measurements performed for the optimized electrostatic supercapacitor device give a high capacitance value of 200 µF/cm2 at the frequency of 40 Hz, which confirms the theoretical estimations for such kind of prototypes, and the leakage current reaches values around of 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1 V. The high capacitance value achieved by the supercapacitor prototype together its small size turns these devices in outstanding candidates for using in energy harvesting and storage applications.

  18. Strain energy and lateral friction force distributions of carbon nanotubes manipulated into shapes by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strus, Mark C; Lahiji, Roya R; Raman, Arvind; Reifenberger, Ron [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ares, Pablo [Nanotec Electronica, Madrid (Spain); Lopez, Vicente, E-mail: mark.strus@nist.go [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-09-23

    The interplay between local mechanical strain energy and lateral frictional forces determines the shape of carbon nanotubes on substrates. In turn, because of its nanometer-size diameter, the shape of a carbon nanotube strongly influences its local electronic, chemical, and mechanical properties. Few, if any, methods exist for resolving the strain energy and static frictional forces along the length of a deformed nanotube supported on a substrate. We present a method using nonlinear elastic rod theory in which we compute the flexural strain energy and static frictional forces along the length of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) manipulated into various shapes on a clean SiO{sub 2} substrate. Using only high resolution atomic force microscopy images of curved single walled nanotubes, we estimate flexural strain energy distributions on the order of attojoules per nanometer and the static frictional forces between a SWCNT and SiO{sub 2} surface to be a minimum of 230 pN nm{sup -1}.

  19. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  20. Post-licensing orders under atomic energy law. With special emphasis on provisions for accident management in nuclear installations; Nachtraegliche Anordnungen im Atomrecht. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Massnahmen des sogenannten anlageninternen Notfallschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmeke, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author discusses the aspects of implementation of backfitting measures by way of a so-called informal order of an administrative authority based on retrofitting agreements between the authority and the facility operator. The author`s review of the legal aspects leads to the conclusion that this procedure is admissible also in the case of facility operators agreeing to implement retrofitting measures beyond the scope prescribed by existing law. It is explained that the legal provisions for the prevention of damage cover not only measures for prevention of defined risk or damage, but also risks or damage caused by probable risks beyond the danger threshold expressly defined, while such orders of the administrative authority are not admissible in the procedure for licensing, or during the operational phase of a given installation (protection of third parties). The author qualifies post-licensing orders as an interference with the property rights of facility owners protected by the constitution, as in his eyes the provisions of the atomic energy law comply with the constitutional requirements of protection of existing rights. The book further discusses the relationship between post-licensing orders and subsequent, amending licences, and presents considerations on the planned revision of the Atomic Energy Act. (HP) [Deutsch] Der Autor widmet sich der Realisierung von Nachruestungsmassnahmen im Wege des wg. informalen Verwaltungshandelns durch Sanierungsabsprachen Behoerde-Betreiber. Diese seien auch dann zulaessig, wenn die Betreiber sich fuer Modernisierungsmassnahmen bereiterklaeren, die ueber das gesetzlich Gebotene hinausgehen. - Die atomrechtliche Schadensvorsorge umfasse neben der eigentlichen Gefahrenabwehr auch die der Gefahrenschwelle vorgelagerte Risikovorsorge, waehrend beim sog. Restrisiko bei der Genehmigungserteilung und waehrend der Betriebsphase einschraenkende behoerdliche Anordnungen nicht zulaessig seien (Drittschutzproblematik). - Der Autor

  1. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  2. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  3. All-Atom Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Theory and Simulation of Self-Assembly, Energy Transfer and Structural Transition in Nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Duran, John Michael

    The study of nanosystems and their emergent properties requires the development of multiscale computational models, theories and methods that preserve atomic and femtosecond resolution, to reveal details that cannot be resolved experimentally today. Considering this, three long time scale phenomena were studied using molecular dynamics and multiscale methods: self-assembly of organic molecules on graphite, energy transfer in nanosystems, and structural transition in vault nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics simulations of the self-assembly of alkoxybenzonitriles with different tail lengths on graphite were performed to learn about intermolecular interactions and phases exhibited by self-organized materials. This is important for the design of ordered self-assembled organic photovoltaic materials with greater efficiency than the disordered blends. Simulations revealed surface dynamical behaviors that cannot be resolved experimentally today due to the lack of spatiotemporal resolution. Atom-resolved structures predicted by simulations agreed with scanning tunneling microscopy images and unit cell measurements. Then, a multiscale theory based on the energy density as a field variable is developed to study energy transfer in nanoscale systems. For applications like photothermal microscopy or cancer phototherapy is required to understand how the energy is transferred to/from nanosystems. This multiscale theory could be applied in this context and here is tested for cubic nanoparticles immersed in water for energy being transferred to/from the nanoparticle. The theory predicts the energy transfer dynamics and reveals phenomena that cannot be described by current phenomenological theories. Finally, temperature-triggered structural transitions were revealed for vault nanoparticles using molecular dynamics and multiscale simulations. Vault is a football-shaped supramolecular assembly very distinct from the commonly observed icosahedral viruses. It has very promising

  4. The history for thirty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-15

    This book gives description of history for thirty years of KAERI. It contains five chapters, which reports the process and development of KAERI, embryonic stage with nuclear energy for peace, the process of establishment of KAERI and building of the KAERI in 1960s, period of growth with change of international situation and measurement of KAERI and launching for KAERI in 1970s, period of technical independence for safe regulation and establishment nuclear safe center in 1980s and prospect on technical development of nuclear energy research like basic R and D.

  5. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  6. On the effective atomic number and electron density: A comprehensive set of formulas for all types of materials and energies above 1 keV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Thind, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive and consistent set of formulas is given for calculating the effective atomic number and electron density for all types of materials and for all photon energies greater than 1 keV. The are derived from first principles using photon interaction cross sections of the constituent atoms....... The theory is illustrated by calculations and experiments for molecules of medical and biological interest, glasses for radiation shielding, alloys, minerals and liquids....

  7. Energy dependence of effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption and photon interaction: Studies of some biological molecules in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    , linolenic, arachidonic, and arachidic acids), nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil, and thymine), and carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch). The Z(PEA, eff) and Z(PI, eff) values have been found to change with energy and composition of the biological molecules. The energy......Effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, Z(PEA,eff), and for photon interaction, Z(PI,eff), have been calculated by a direct method in the photon-energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV for biological molecules, such as fatty acids (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic...... dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient, Z(PEA, eff), and the mass energy-absorption coefficient, Z(PI, eff), is shown graphically and in tabular form. Significant differences of 17%-38% between Z(PI, eff) and Z(PEA, eff) occur in the energy region 5-100 keV. The reasons for these differences...

  8. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... natural gas (non-FTA countries) with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. FME requests... Natural Gas Act (NGA), 15 U.S.C. 717b(c).\\3\\ In the current Application, FME requests both FTA and non...

  9. The options of local authorities for addressing climate change and energy efficiency through environmental regulation of companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    of energy consumption and GHG emissions during inspections. The assessment is based on the triangulation of different data: a) qualitative interviews with environmental officers from seven local authorities taking part in a EU life+ project, Carbon 20; b) a documentary review of political documents...

  10. Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, A; Zrost, K; Schroeter, C D; Jesus, V L B de; Feuerstein, B; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-67119 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-12-28

    We present high-resolution fully differential experimental data on single ionization of He, Ne and Ar by ultra-short (25 fs, 6 fs) 795 nm laser pulses at intensities 0.15-2.0 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. We show that the ATI-like pattern can survive deep in the tunnelling regime and that the atomic structure plays an important role in the formation of the low-energy photoelectron spectra even at high intensities. The absence of ponderomotive shifts, the splitting of the peaks and their degeneration for few-cycle pulses indicate that the observed structures originate from a resonant process. (letter to the editor)

  11. In quest of a new world order: a world organization modeled after the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehring, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of this study was to find or develop an appropriate model for a world order which would maintain a balance between it and the various national governments. Underpinning the problem were the assumptions that the world has, historically, moved in the direction of ever larger units of government and of international cooperation, that nationalism and patriotism have always represented major obstacles to this movement, and that world order is necessary to solve the world's major problems. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) experience, its formal Statute, and its staff were considered as the basis for projecting a model of world order. An autonomous body related to the United Nations, the successes which the IAEA has enjoyed were considered the result of the sound processes and principles on which it is based.

  12. Using research metrics to evaluate the International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines on quality assurance for R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Guidelines on Quality Assurance for R&D is to provide guidance for developing quality assurance (QA) programs for R&D work on items, services, and processes important to safety, and to support the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The standard approach to writing papers describing new quality guidelines documents is to present a descriptive overview of the contents of the document. I will depart from this approach. Instead, I will first discuss a conceptual framework of metrics for evaluating and improving basic and applied experimental science as well as the associated role that quality management should play in understanding and implementing these metrics. I will conclude by evaluating how well the IAEA document addresses the metrics from this conceptual framework and the broader principles of quality management.

  13. Calculations of H2O microwave line broadening in collisions with He atoms - Sensitivity to potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sheldon; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical computations of broadening parameters are reported for three microwave lines of H2O in a bath of He atoms. The potential-energy surfaces employed are corrected for basis-set superposition error, and their reliability is checked by repeating the calculations with a different basis set for orbital expansion. The results are presented in extensive tables and discussed in detail. The corrections applied are shown to have a significant impact on the accuracy of the room-temperature broadenings determined: 8.9 sq A for the 22.2-GHz line, 11.8 sq A for the 183,3-GHz line, and 10.0 sq A for the 380.2-GHz line, in good agreement with published experimental data. The importance of collisional broadening for the atmospheric transmission of radiation and for remote-sensing applications is indicated.

  14. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  15. INDIAN SCHOOL TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVE ON GLOBALISATION OF EDUCATION: A Case Study of Atomic Energy Education Society School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAJESH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has become an enduring reality of our times and more so in the field of education. Teachers are the harbingers of change in the global economy and school teachers have a major role in shaping the attitude of the society towards all social and economic phenomena including that of globalisation. At the Regional Centre of IGNOU situated at Cochin, Kerala an unique training programme was conducted for a year to train school teachers of the Atomic Energy Education Society (AEES one of the elite educational organisations of the country in ICT applications. This opportunity was utilised by the researchers to conduct a study that holds multiple portends for policy makers to channel the direction of the forces affecting the globalisation of education.

  16. Defining and quantifying frustration in the energy landscape: Applications to atomic and molecular clusters, biomolecules, jammed and glassy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, V. K.; Stevenson, J. D.; Niblett, S. P.; Farrell, J. D.; Wales, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of observable properties from the organisation of the underlying potential energy landscape is analysed, spanning a full range of complexity from self-organising to glassy and jammed systems. The examples include atomic and molecular clusters, a β-barrel protein, the GNNQQNY peptide dimer, and models of condensed matter that exhibit structural glass formation and jamming. We have considered measures based on several different properties, namely, the Shannon entropy, an equilibrium thermodynamic measure that uses a sample of local minima, and indices that require additional information about the connections between local minima in the form of transition states. A frustration index is defined that correlates directly with key properties that distinguish relaxation behaviour within this diverse set. The index uses the ratio of the energy barrier to the energy difference with reference to the global minimum. The contributions for each local minimum are weighted by the equilibrium occupation probabilities. Hence we obtain fundamental insight into the connections and distinctions between systems that cover the continuum from efficient structure-seekers to landscapes that exhibit broken ergodicity and rare event dynamics.

  17. Solvation free energies and partition coefficients with the coarse-grained and hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained MARTINI models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genheden, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    We present the estimation of solvation free energies of small solutes in water, n-octanol and hexane using molecular dynamics simulations with two MARTINI models at different resolutions, viz. the coarse-grained (CG) and the hybrid all-atom/coarse-grained (AA/CG) models. From these estimates, we also calculate the water/hexane and water/octanol partition coefficients. More than 150 small, organic molecules were selected from the Minnesota solvation database and parameterized in a semi-automatic fashion. Using either the CG or hybrid AA/CG models, we find considerable deviations between the estimated and experimental solvation free energies in all solvents with mean absolute deviations larger than 10 kJ/mol, although the correlation coefficient is between 0.55 and 0.75 and significant. There is also no difference between the results when using the non-polarizable and polarizable water model, although we identify some improvements when using the polarizable model with the AA/CG solutes. In contrast to the estimated solvation energies, the estimated partition coefficients are generally excellent with both the CG and hybrid AA/CG models, giving mean absolute deviations between 0.67 and 0.90 log units and correlation coefficients larger than 0.85. We analyze the error distribution further and suggest avenues for improvements.

  18. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hao, Haixia [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hui, Longfei [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Fengqi [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hao, E-mail: fenghao98@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Fluorine and Nitrogen Chemicals, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada study says nuclear cheaper power for oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-07-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute, an independent research organization, reports in a study sponsored by AECL, a federal Crown corporation, that nuclear power is cheaper than gas in creating steam if prices for natural gas remain above $US 3.50 per million BTU. Oil sands producers use natural gas to create steam, which is injected into the ground to melt the bitumen; gas is also used in parts of the oilsands upgrading process. According to reliable estimates some $50 billion of future oilsands investment is now on the drawing board; all of that could be jeopardized by high gas prices. AECL, which has sold only three nuclear reactors since 1996, hopes that the prospect of a continuing high price of natural gas will put it in a favorable position to displace natural gas with nuclear energy as the energy source for creating steam. Environmentalists consider AECL's suggestion of building a nuclear reactor for generating steam for oilsands production as unrealistic, and one that is based on 'nothing but a hope and a prayer'.

  20. Prediction of the transition energies of atomic No and Lr by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U. [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, (Israel); Vilkas, M.J.; Ishikawa, Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 23346, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931-3346 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Measurements of the spectroscopic properties of the superheavy elements present a serious challenge to the experimentalist. Their short lifetimes and the low quantities of their production necessitate reliable prediction of transition energies to avoid the need for broad wavelength scans and to assist in identifying the lines. Thus, reliable high-accuracy calculations are necessary prior and parallel to experimental research. Nobelium and Lawrencium are at present the two most likely candidates for spectroscopic measurements, with the first experiments planned at GSI, Darmstadt. The intermediate Hamiltonian (IH) coupled cluster method is applied to the ionization potentials, electron affinities, and excitation energies of atomic nobelium and lawrencium. Large basis sets are used (37s31p26d21f16g11h6i). All levels of a particular atom are obtained simultaneously by diagonalizing the IH matrix. The matrix elements correspond to all excitations from correlated occupied orbitals to virtual orbitals in a large P space, and are 'dressed' by folding in excitations to higher virtual orbitals (Q space) at the coupled cluster singles-and-doubles level. Lamb-shift corrections are included. The same approach was applied to the lighter homologues of Lr and No, lutetium and ytterbium, for which many transition energies are experimentally known, in order to assess the accuracy of the calculation. The average absolute error of 20 excitation energies of Lu is 423 cm{sup -1}, and the error limits for Lr are therefore put at 700 cm{sup -1}. Predicted Lr excitations with large transition moments in the prime range for the planned experiment, 20,000-30,000 cm{sup -1}, are 7p {yields} 8s at 20,100 cm{sup -1} and 7p {yields}p 7d at 28,100 cm{sup -1}. In case of Yb, the calculated ionization potential was within 20 cm{sup -1} of the experiment, and the average error of the 20 lowest calculated excitations was about 300 cm{sup -1}. Hence, the

  1. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  2. Development of the work on fuel cells in the Ministry for Atomic Energy of Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubovin, B.Y.; Novitski, E.Z.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes research on fuel cells in the Russian Federation. The beginning of the practical work on fuel cells in Russia dates back to the 50`s and 60`s when the Ural Electrochemical Plant and the Ural Electromechanical Plant of the Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR, all Russian Research Institute of the power sources and many other institutes of the Ministry of Electrotechnical Industry of the USSR got to the development of the alkaline fuel cells for the spaceships according to the tasks of the SPC `Energy` and for the submarines on the tasks of the Ministry of Defense.

  3. Modeling of Elastic Collisions between High Energy and Slow Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    small-angle or forward scattering when Er is large. In other words, the LJ potential gives too high of potential energy in the short range, leading to...Spin-Orbit Free Interaction Potential,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2013, pp. 470–480. 6Wirz, R. E., Chu, L., Patino, M., Mao ...tests (ie: LEAP -DP program) and scaling analysis, desired catalyst bed for AF-M315E is 1.5-2” long and 0.25” diameter at bed loading of 0.02 lb/in2s

  4. Effects of mass operator energy dependence in atomic nuclei. Quasiparticle lagrangian versus quasiparticle hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodel, V.A.; Saperstein, E.E.; Zverev, M.V.

    1987-04-13

    Different effects of the mass operator energy dependence are discussed. They are calculated within the framework of the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective forces as RPA corrections to the HF ground state. In the quasiparticle Lagrange method (QLM) they arise naturally and are taken into account in the self-consistent procedure itself. Approaches with the quasiparticle lagrangian and quasiparticle hamiltonian are compared. It is shown that the QLM can also be formulated with the help of the hamiltonian, but a simple lagrangian corresponds to a very complicated hamiltonian. Arguments in favour of the simple lagrangian are presented.

  5. Atomic Structure and Energy Distribution of Collapsed Carbon Nanotubes of Different Chiralities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Baimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For carbon nanotubes of sufficiently large diameter at sufficiently low temperature, due to the action of the van der Waals forces, the ground state is a bilayer graphene with closed edges, the so-called collapsed configuration. Molecular dynamics simulation of collapsed carbon nanotubes is performed. The effect of length, diameter, and chirality of the nanotubes on their properties is investigated. It is shown that collapsed nanotubes after relaxation have rippled structure which is strongly dependent on the nanotube chirality. The structural properties are studied by calculating the radial distribution function and energy distribution along various regions in the collapsed carbon nanotubes.

  6. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Changed Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low- Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  7. 1984 Bibliography of atomic and molecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Gilbody, H.B.; Gregory, D.C.; Griffin, P.M.; Havener, C.C.; Howard, A.M.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Meyer, F.W.; Morgan, T.J. (comps.)

    1985-04-01

    This annotated bibliography includes papers on atomic and molecular processes published during 1984. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  8. 1985 bibliography of atomic and molecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Gilbody, H.B.; Gregory, D.C.; Griffin, P.M.; Havener, C.C.; Howald, A.M.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Meyer, F.W.; Morgan, T.J. (comps.)

    1986-06-01

    This annotated bibliography includes papers on atomic and molecular processes published during 1985. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  9. 1982 bibliography of atomic and molecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Gilbody, H.B.; Gregory, D.C.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; McKnight, R.H.; Meyer, F.W.; Morgan, T.J.; Phaneuf, R.A. (comps.)

    1984-05-01

    This annotated bibliography includes papers on atomic and molecular processes published during 1982. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  10. Bibliography of atomic and molecular processes, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Gilbody, H.B.; Gregory, D.C.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; McKnight, R.H.; Meyer, F.W.; Morgan, T.J.; Phaneuf, R.A. (comps.)

    1984-10-01

    This annotated bibliography includes papers on atomic and molecular processes published during 1983. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing, the entries are indexed according to the categories and according to reactants within each subcategory.

  11. Excitation energies, singlet-triplet energy gaps, spin-orbit matrix elements and heavy atom effects in BOIMPYs as possible photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy: a computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Bruna Clara; Mazzone, Gloria; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia; Toscano, Marirosa

    2018-01-24

    Bis(borondifluoride)-8-imidazodipyrromethene (BOIMPY) based molecules show interesting photophysical properties. We have undertaken a computational study at DFT and TDDFT levels of theory with the aim of verifying if the non-fluorescent BOIMPYs meet those properties necessary to be proposed as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In particular, we have computed the absorption wavelengths, the singlet-triplet energy gaps and the spin-orbit matrix elements. The effect of halogen atom substitution (Br, I), in different amounts and positions in the BOIMPY skeleton, on the photophysical properties, has been elucidated. Some possible pathways for the population of the lowest triplet state have been examined and rationalized on the basis of Kasha rules. The results indicate that many of the studied systems can be indicated as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

  12. Role of atomic-level defects and electronic energy loss on amorphization in LiNbO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, N.; Crespillo, M. L.; Xue, H.; Zhang, Y.; Weber, W. J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding complex non-equilibrium defect processes, where multiple irradiation mechanisms may take place simultaneously, is a long standing subject in material science. The separate and combined effects of elastic and inelastic energy loss are a very complicated and challenging topic. In this work, LiNbO3 has been irradiated with 0.9 MeV Si+ and 8 MeV O3+, which are representative of regimes where nuclear (S n) and electronic (S e) energy loss are dominant, respectively. The evolution of damage has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in channeling configuration. Pristine samples were irradiated with 0.9 MeV Si+ ions to create different pre-existing damage states. Below the threshold (S e,th  =  5-6 keV nm-1) for amorphous track formation in this material, irradiation of the pristine samples with a highly ionizing beam of 8 MeV O3+ ions, with nearly constant S e of about 3 keV nm-1, induces a crystalline to amorphous phase transition at high ion fluences. In the pre-damaged samples, the electronic energy loss from the 8 MeV O3+ ions interacts synergistically with the pre-existing damage, resulting in a rapid, non-linear increase in damage production. There is a significant reduction in the incubation fluence for rapid amorphization with the increasing amount of pre-existing damage. These results highlight the important role of atomic-level defects on increasing the sensitivity of some oxides to amorphization induced by electronic energy loss. Controlling the nature and amount of pre-damage may provide a new approach to tuning optical properties for photonic device applications.

  13. Relativistic energy correction of the hydrogen atom with an anomalous magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambogo, David Otieno

    2015-07-15

    The electron is known to possess an anomalous magnetic moment, which interacts with the gradient of the electric field. This makes it necessary to compute its effects on the energy spectrum. Even though the Coulomb Dirac equation can be solved in closed form, this is no longer possible when the anomalous magnetic moment is included. In fact the interaction due to this term is so strong that it changes the domain of the Hamiltonian. From a differential equation point of view, the anomalous magnetic moment term is strongly singular near the origin. As usual, one has to resort to perturbation theory. This, however, only makes sense if the eigenvalues are stable. To prove stability is therefore a challenge one has to face before actually computing the energy shifts. The first stability results in this line were shown by Behncke for angular momenta κ≥3, because the eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian decay fast enough near the origin. He achieved this by decoupling the system and then using the techniques available for second order differential equations. Later, Kalf and Schmidt extended Behncke's results basing their analysis on the Pruefer angle technique and a comparison result for first order differential equations. The Pruefer angle method is particularly useful because it shows a better stability and because it obeys a first order differential equation. Nonetheless, Kalf and Schmidt had to exclude some coupling constants for κ>0. This I believe is an artefact of their method. In this study, I make increasing use of asymptotic integration, a method which is rather well adapted to perturbation theory and is known to give stability results to any level of accuracy. Together with the Pruefer angle technique, this lead to a more general stability result and even allows for an energy shifts estimate. Hamiltonians traditionally treated in physics to describe the spin-orbit effect are not self adjoint i.e. they are not proper observables in quantum

  14. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de transfert d`energie au cours d`une collision entre un ion lourd rapide multi-charge et un atome neutre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, P. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1995-12-31

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature < 1 K). The association of time of flight and localisation techniques allows us, for each ionised target atom, to determine the three recoil velocity components with a very good accuracy (a few tens of meters per second). In chapter three, we describe the data analysis method. And then we present in the last chapter the results we have obtained for the collision systems Xe{sup 44+}(6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe{sup 44} + Ar{sup q+}+qe{sup -} (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe{sup 44+} (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe{sup 44+} He{sup 1+,2+}+1e{sup -},2e{sup -}. We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author) 44 refs.

  15. EVALUATION OF NEUTRON SCATTERING CORRECTION USING THE SEMI-EMPIRICAL METHOD AND THE SHADOW-CONE METHOD FOR THE NEUTRON FIELD OF THE KOREA ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Sang I; Lee, Jungil; Chang, Insu; Kim, Jang-Lyul; Kim, Hyoungtaek; Kim, Min Chae; Kim, Bong-Hwan

    2017-10-19

    When neutron survey metres are calibrated in neutron fields, the results for room- and air-scattered neutrons vary according to the distance from the source and the size, shape and construction of the neutron calibration room. ISO 8529-2 recommends four approaches for correcting these effects: the shadow-cone method, semi-empirical method, generalised fit method and reduced-fitting method. In this study, neutron scattering effects are evaluated and compared using the shadow-cone and semi-empirical methods for the neutron field of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The neutron field is constructed using a 252Cf neutron source positioned in the centre of the neutron calibration room. To compare the neutron scattering effects using the two correction methods, measurements and simulations are performed using respectively KAERI's Bonner sphere spectrometer (BBS) and Monte Carlo N-Particle code at twenty different positions. Neutron spectra are measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide [6LiI(Eu)] scintillator in combination with the BBS. The calibration factors obtained using each methods show good agreement within 1.1%. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Mechanism of cluster DNA damage repair in response to high-atomic number and energy particles radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame, E-mail: Aroumougame.Asaithamy@UTsouthwestern.edu [Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Chen, David J., E-mail: David.Chen@UTsouthwestern.edu [Division of Molecular Radiation Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (i.e., {gamma}- and X-rays) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are rapidly repaired (rejoined). In contrast, DNA damage induced by the dense ionizing track of high-atomic number and energy (HZE) particles is slowly repaired or is irreparable. These unrepaired and/or misrepaired DNA lesions may contribute to the observed higher relative biological effectiveness for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis in HZE particle irradiated cells compared to those treated with low-LET radiation. The types of DNA lesions induced by HZE particles have been characterized in vitro and usually consist of two or more closely spaced strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases on opposing strands. It is unclear why these lesions are difficult to repair. In this review, we highlight the potential of a new technology allowing direct visualization of different types of DNA lesions in human cells and document the emerging significance of live-cell imaging for elucidation of the spatio-temporal characterization of complex DNA damage. We focus on the recent insights into the molecular pathways that participate in the repair of HZE particle-induced DSBs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how different end-processing nucleases aid in repair of DSBs with complicated ends generated by HZE particles. Understanding the mechanism underlying the repair of DNA damage induced by HZE particles will have important implications for estimating the risks to human health associated with HZE particle exposure.

  17. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-03-22

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics.

  18. 2009 National Renewable Energy Labratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  19. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... FWS and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and prepare a biological assessment prior to... construction and operation of a wind energy facility might include reconstruction of an NFS road to accommodate...

  20. 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Boston Redevelopment Authority Topographic LiDAR: Boston, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for the Boston area. Utilizing multi-return systems, Light...

  1. The effect of deposition energy of energetic atoms on the growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films studied by molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N

    2014-05-16

    The growth and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The second-generation reactive-empirical-bond-order potential was used to model atomic interactions. Films with different structures were simulated by varying the deposition energy of carbon atoms in the range of 1-120 eV. Intrinsic film characteristics (e.g. density and internal stress) were determined after the system reached equilibrium. Short- and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering is examined in the context of atomic hybridization and ring connectivity simulation results. It is shown that relatively high deposition energy (i.e., 80 eV) yields a multilayer film structure consisting of an intermixing layer, bulk film and surface layer, consistent with the classical subplantation model. The highest film density (3.3 g cm-3), sp3 fraction (∼43%), and intermediate-range carbon atom ordering correspond to a deposition energy of ∼80 eV, which is in good agreement with experimental findings. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  3. Surface structures from low energy electron diffraction: Atoms, small molecules and an ordered ice film on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materer, Nicholas F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    We investigated the surface bonding of various adsorbates (0, S, C2H3 and NO) along with the resulting relaxation of the Pt(111) surface using low energy electron diffiraction (LEED). LEED experiments have been performed on these ordered overlayers along with theoretical structural analysis using automated tensor LEED (ATLEED). The resulting surface structures of these ordered overlayers exhibit similar adsorbate-induced relaxations. In all cases the adsorbate occupies the fcc hollow site and induces an approximately 0.1 A buckling of the metal surface. The three metal atoms directly bonded to the adsorbate are ``pulled`` out of the surface and the metal atom that is not bound to the adsorbate is `pushed`` inward. In order to understand the reliability of such details, we have carried out a comprehensive study of various non-structural parameters used in a LEED computation. We also studied the adsorption of water on the Pt(lll) surface. We ordered an ultra thin ice film on this surface. The film`s surface is found to be the (0001) face of hexagonal ice. This surface is apparently terminated by a full-bilayer, in which the uppermost water molecules have large vibrational amplitudes even at temperatures as low as 90 K. We examined two other metal surfaces besides Pt(111): Ni(111) and Fe(lll). On Ni(111), we have studied the surface under a high coverage of NO. On both Ni(111) and Pt(111) NO molecules occupy the hollow sites and the N-0 bond distances are practically identical. The challenging sample preparation of an Fe(111) surface has been investigated and a successful procedure has been obtained. The small interlayer spacing found on Fe(111) required special treatment in the LEED calculations. A new ATLEED program has been developed to handle this surface.

  4. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  5. Author Correction: The energy cost of polypeptide knot formation and its folding consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andrés; Sotelo-Campos, Juan; Guerra, Daniel G; Floor, Martin; Wilson, Christian A M; Bustamante, Carlos; Báez, Mauricio

    2017-12-14

    The original version of this article contained an error in the spelling of the author Christian A.M. Wilson, which was incorrectly given as Christian M.A. Wilson. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the article.

  6. Technical Note: exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-01

    For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU-ρe conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρe over a wide ρe range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU-ρe conversion process. The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU-ρe conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1-40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80-140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,[Formula: see text], for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of [Formula: see text]ρe - 1 is assumed to be within ± 2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU-ρe conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU-ρe linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU-ρe conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x-ray energies owing to beam-hardening effects arising from the mismatch between the sizes of the object and the

  7. Nitrogen-atom endohedral fullerene synthesis with high efficiency by controlling plasma-ion irradiation energy and C{sub 60} internal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soon Cheon; Kaneko, Toshiro, E-mail: kaneko@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-03-28

    The nitrogen-atom endohedral fullerene (N@C{sub 60}) has been synthesized by controlling the plasma ion irradiation energy (E{sub i}) and fullerene (C{sub 60}) behavior in the sublimation phase. We examined the relationship between the synthesis purity of N@C{sub 60} [molar concentration ratio of N@C{sub 60} to pristine fullerene (C{sub 60})] and E{sub i}, which was controlled by changing the substrate bias voltages (V{sub sub}) and gas pressure (P{sub N2}) during the plasma irradiation process. High-density nitrogen-molecular ions (N{sub 2}{sup +}) with a suitable E{sub i} near 80 eV are confirmed to be the optimum condition of the nitrogen plasma for the synthesis of high-purity N@C{sub 60}. In addition, high sublimation of C{sub 60} contributes to a higher yield due to the high internal energy of C{sub 60} and the related cage defects that are present under these conditions. As a result, a purity of 0.83% is realized for the first time, which is almost two orders of magnitude higher than that using other methods.

  8. Use and Storage of Test and Operations Data from the High Temperature Test Reactor Acquired by the US Government from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2010-02-01

    This document describes the use and storage of data from the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR) acquired from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) by the U.S. Government for high temperature reactor research under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project.

  9. The Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in Determining the Ionization Energies of the Helium Atom and Helium-Like Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    For helium and helium-like ions, we have examined the differences between the values of the ionization energies as calculated from the Bohr theory and those measured in experiments. We find that these differences vary linearly with the atomic number of the system. Using this result, we show how the Bohr model for single-electron systems may be…

  10. 1: the atom. 2: radioactivity. 3: man and radiations. 4: the energy. 5: nuclear energy: fusion and fission. 6: the operation of a nuclear reactor. 7: the nuclear fuel cycle; 1: l'atome. 2: la radioactivite. 3: l'homme et les rayonnements. 4: l'energie. 5: l'energie nucleaire: fusion et fission. 6: le fonctionnement d'un reacteur nucleaire. 7: le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This series of 7 digest booklets present the bases of the nuclear physics and of the nuclear energy: 1 - the atom (structure of matter, chemical elements and isotopes, the four fundamental interactions, nuclear physics); 2 - radioactivity (definition, origins of radioelements, applications of radioactivity); 3 - man and radiations (radiations diversity, biological effects, radioprotection, examples of radiation applications); 4 - energy (energy states, different forms of energy, characteristics); 5 - nuclear energy: fusion and fission (nuclear energy release, thermonuclear fusion, nuclear fission and chain reaction); 6 - operation of a nuclear reactor (nuclear fission, reactor components, reactor types); 7 - nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear fuel preparation, fuel consumption, reprocessing, wastes management). (J.S.)

  11. Improving the capture of adverse event data in clinical trials: the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Susan E; Trotti, Andy; Ataman, Ozlem U; Seong, Jinsil; Lau, Fen Nee; da Motta, Neiro W; Jeremic, Branislav

    2007-11-15

    To report meetings of the Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), organized to discuss issues surrounding, and develop initiatives to improve, the recording of adverse events (AE) in clinical trials. A first meeting was held in Atlanta, GA (October 2004). A second meeting was held in Denver, CO (October 2005) and focused on AE data capture. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3 (CTCAE) was suggested during the first meeting as the preferred common platform for the collection and reporting of AE data in its clinical trials. The second meeting identified and reviewed the current weaknesses and variations in the capture of AE data, and proposals to improve the quality and consistency of data capture were discussed. There is heterogeneity in the collection of AE data between both institutions and individual clinicians. The use of multiple scoring systems hampers comparisons of treatment outcomes between centers and trials. There is often insufficient detail on normal tissue treatment effects, which leads to an underestimate of toxicity. Implementation of improved data capture was suggested for one of the ongoing IAEA clinical trials. There is a need to compare the quality and completeness of data between institutions and the efficacy of structured/directed vs. traditional passive data collection. Data collection using the CTCAE (with or without a questionnaire) will be investigated in an IAEA multinational trial of radiochemotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer.

  12. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo model calculations for the antiproton-induced ionization of atomic hydrogen at low impact energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkadi, L

    2015-01-01

    The three-body dynamics of the ionization of the atomic hydrogen by 30 keV antiproton impact has been investigated by calculation of fully differential cross sections (FDCS) using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The results of the calculations are compared with the predictions of quantum mechanical descriptions: The semi-classical time-dependent close-coupling theory, the fully quantal, time-independent close-coupling theory, and the continuum-distorted-wave-eikonal-initial-state model. In the analysis particular emphasis was put on the role of the nucleus-nucleus (NN) interaction played in the ionization process. For low-energy electron ejection CTMC predicts a large NN interaction effect on FDCS, in agreement with the quantum mechanical descriptions. By examining individual particle trajectories it was found that the relative motion between the electron and the nuclei is coupled very weakly with that between the nuclei, consequently the two motions can be treated independently. A simple ...

  13. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  14. Mechanism of cluster DNA damage repair in response to high-atomic number and energy particles radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J

    2011-06-03

    Low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (i.e., γ- and X-rays) induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are rapidly repaired (rejoined). In contrast, DNA damage induced by the dense ionizing track of high-atomic number and energy (HZE) particles is slowly repaired or is irreparable. These unrepaired and/or misrepaired DNA lesions may contribute to the observed higher relative biological effectiveness for cell killing, chromosomal aberrations, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis in HZE particle irradiated cells compared to those treated with low-LET radiation. The types of DNA lesions induced by HZE particles have been characterized in vitro and usually consist of two or more closely spaced strand breaks, abasic sites, or oxidized bases on opposing strands. It is unclear why these lesions are difficult to repair. In this review, we highlight the potential of a new technology allowing direct visualization of different types of DNA lesions in human cells and document the emerging significance of live-cell imaging for elucidation of the spatio-temporal characterization of complex DNA damage. We focus on the recent insights into the molecular pathways that participate in the repair of HZE particle-induced DSBs. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of how different end-processing nucleases aid in repair of DSBs with complicated ends generated by HZE particles. Understanding the mechanism underlying the repair of DNA damage induced by HZE particles will have important implications for estimating the risks to human health associated with HZE particle exposure. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of public housing energy efficiency publications for the Atlanta Housing Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) has produced and evaluated the effectiveness of pamphlets prepared to encourage utility cost conservation. The target population for this project is not only public housing residents but also the public housing maintenance staff (who also have a dramatic impact on facility energy costs). Because the majority of the problems associated with excess resident utility costs occur during extreme cold weather of the heating season, heating conservation was the focus of this study.

  16. Mass energy-absorption coefficients and average atomic energy-absorption cross-sections for amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, Chaitali V., E-mail: chaitalimore89@gmail.com; Lokhande, Rajkumar M.; Pawar, Pravina P., E-mail: pravinapawar4@gmail.com [Department of physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids such as n-acetyl-l-tryptophan, n-acetyl-l-tyrosine and d-tryptophan were measured in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV. NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system was used to detect gamma rays with a resolution of 8.2% at 0.662 MeV. The measured attenuation coefficient values were then used to determine the mass energy-absorption coefficients (σ{sub a,en}) and average atomic energy-absorption cross sections (μ{sub en}/ρ) of the amino acids. Theoretical values were calculated based on XCOM data. Theoretical and experimental values are found to be in good agreement.

  17. 1979 bibliography of atomic and molecular processes. [Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 2146 works on atomic and molecular processes reported in publications dated 1979. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors.

  18. 1978 bibliography of atomic and molecular processes. [Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 2557 works on atomic and molecular processes reported in publications dated 1978. Sources include scientific journals, conference proceedings, and books. Each entry is designated by one or more of the 114 categories of atomic and molecular processes used by the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center to classify data. Also indicated is whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, what reactants were investigated, and the country of origin of the first author. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors.

  19. Atomic rivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  20. Energy Efficient Authentication and Authorization for Multinode Cooperative Connectivity and Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.

    2013-01-01

    their effective QoS via cooperation. The performance of wireless networks is greatly affected by some of the channel parameters such as bandwidth and power scarcity, multi-user interference, non-reliability due to signal fading, vulnerability to the attacks, etc. The cooperative diversity mechanism makes use...... cooperation. Cooperative diversity is a strong technique, which can provide the maximum throughput. Opportunistic Large Array (OLA) is nothing but a cluster of network nodes, which use active scattering mechanism in response to the signal of the source called leader. The intermediate nodes opportunistically...... relay the messages from the leader to the sink. Cooperative OLA algorithms can improve the reliability as well as the energy efficiency of the communication. Security of private key cryptosystems depends on the secrecy of the secret key. In case of public key systems, it is infeasible to derive private...

  1. Formation, atomic distribution and mixing energy in two-dimensional Pd(x)Ag(1-x) surface alloys on Pd(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstfeld, A K; Hoster, H E; Behm, R J

    2012-08-14

    The formation and atom distribution in two-dimensional Pd(x)Ag(1-x)/Pd(111) monolayer surface alloys were studied by high resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) with chemical contrast. From short-range order (SRO) parameters, we calculate preferences for like or unlike nearest neighbours to elucidate the mixing behaviour of the two components for various sub monolayer Ag surface contents. In the regime of low Ag surface contents (60% Ag) result in a disperse distribution of the atoms in the surface. Effective pair interactions (EPIs) were derived by comparing the measured distribution with distributions obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. From the EPIs, we derived a function for the mixing energy, which can describe the change from clustering to a disperse distribution. The effects of the resulting surface atom distributions and of the Ag coverage dependent surface mixing/demixing on catalytic reactions are discussed.

  2. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  3. Linear Free Energy Relationships for Metal-Ligand Complexation: Bidentate Binding to Negatively-Charged Oxygen Donor Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Richard F.; Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.

    2011-01-01

    Stability constants for metal complexation to bidentate ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms can be estimated from the following linear free energy relationship (LFER): log KML = χOO(αO log KHL,1 + αO log KHL,2) where KML is the metal-ligand stability constant for a 1:1 complex, KHL,1 and KHL,2 are the proton-ligand stability constants (the ligand pKa values), and αO is the Irving-Rossotti slope. The parameter χOO is metal specific and has slightly different values for 5 and 6 membered chelate rings. LFERs are presented for 21 different metal ions and are accurate to within approximately 0.30 log units in predictions of log KML values. Ligands selected for use in LFER development include dicarboxylic acids, carboxyphenols, and ortho-diphenols. For ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, α-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and α-ketocarboxylic acids, a modification of the LFER where log KHL,2 is set equal to zero is required. The chemical interpretation of χOO is that it accounts for the extra stability afforded to metal complexes by the chelate effect. Cu-NOM binding constants calculated from the bidentate LFERs are similar in magnitude to those used in WHAM 6. This LFER can be used to make log KML predictions for small organic molecules. Since natural organic matter (NOM) contains many of the same functional groups (i.e. carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols), the LFER log KML predictions shed light on the range of appropriate values for use in modeling metal partitioning in natural systems. PMID:21833149

  4. Simulation of a loss of coolant accident: Results of a standard problem exercise of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, S.M.; Hassan, Y. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results generated from the IBM version of RELAP5/MOD2 to the experimental data of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard problem exercise. The standard problem exercise data were that of a 7.4% break loss-of-coolant accident conducted at a test facility in Hungary. The United States did not formally participate in this exercise whose aim was to assess the capabilities of computer codes and modeling techniques and in which a total of 17 organizations from 12 countries participated. The results obtained using the IBM version of RELAP5/MOD2 compared favorably with the experimental data. The experimental facility, PMK-NVH (Paks Model Circuit), is a scaled-down model of a Hungarian reactor, the VVER-440 Paks nuclear power plant. A volume and power scaling ratio of 1:2070 is used. The six loops of the actual reactor are modeled by one active loop called the PMK. The secondary loop in the experimental facility is the NVH loop. The coolant in the facility is water, and the operating conditions are the same as in the actual reactor. The orientation of the steam generator is horizontal, as opposed to the vertical design of once-through and U-tube steam generators. The parameters of the accident are that it starts at full power, a 3-mm cold-side break occurs at the upper head of the downcomer, there is no injection from hydroaccumulators, the high-pressure injection system corresponds to the case in which one-third of the pumps are available, and isolation of the secondary occurs immediately after transient initiation.

  5. Fast Atomic-Scale Elemental Mapping of Crystalline Materials by STEM Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Achieved with Thin Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Yuan, Renliang; Zuo, Jian Min

    2017-02-01

    Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved. This method provides atomic-scale elemental maps averaged over crystal areas of ~few 10 nm2 with the acquisition time of ~2 s or less. Here we report the details of this method, and, in particular, investigate the experimental conditions necessary for achieving it. It shows, that in addition to usual conditions required for atomic-scale imaging, a thin specimen is essential for the technique to be successful. Phenomenological modeling shows that the localization of X-ray signals to atomic columns is a key reason. The effect of specimen thickness on the signal delocalization is studied by multislice image simulations. The results show that the X-ray localization can be achieved by choosing a thin specimen, and the thickness of less than about 22 nm is preferred for SrTiO3 in [001] projection for 200 keV electrons.

  6. Accurate evaluation of pressure effects on the electronic stopping cross section and mean excitation energy of atomic hydrogen beyond the Bethe approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R., E-mail: trujillo@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. Postal 48-3, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62251 (Mexico); Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ap. Postal 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz, S.A., E-mail: cruz@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ap. Postal 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    Atomic hydrogen is used as a fundamental reference target system to explore pressure effects on the electronic stopping cross section, S{sub e}, of swift bare ions such as protons and α-particles. This is achieved by considering the hydrogen atom under pressure as a padded spherically-confined quantum system. Within this scheme, S{sub e} is calculated rigorously in the first Born approximation taking into account the full target excitation spectrum and momentum transfer distribution for different confinement conditions (pressures) and fixed projectile charge states. Pressure effects on the target mean excitation energy, I, are also formally calculated and compared with corresponding accurate calculations based on the Local Plasma Approximation (LPA). Even though atomic hydrogen is the simplest target system, its accurate treatment to account for the role of pressure in the stopping dynamics is found to provide useful means to understand the behavior of more complex systems under similar conditions. It is found that: (i) the region of projectile velocities for which the Bethe approximation remains valid is shifted towards higher values as pressure increases; (ii) shell corrections are enhanced relative to the free-atom case as pressure increases, and (iii) the LPA seems to underestimate I as pressure is increased. The results of this work for atomic hydrogen may serve as accurate benchmark reference values for studies of pressure effects on S{sub e} and I using different methodologies.

  7. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Goncalves Z, E., E-mail: madelon@cdtn.br [Pontifice Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Av. Dom Jose Gaspar 500, Belo Horizonte 30535-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z{sub eff} using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  8. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  9. INVOLVEMENT OF THE FACULTY OF MINING, GEOLOGY & PETROLEUM ENGINEERING IN TECHNICAL COOPERATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA WITH THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the question of energy production from nuclear sources considering the growing demand for energy worldwide, the advantages and disadvantages of using nuclear energy. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (DZNRS monitors the use of ionizing radiation sources in Republic of Croatia. Paper describes the role of the IAEA technical cooperation program involving Croatia (INT9173 "Training in Radioactive Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities - URFs". The importance of the involvement of Croatian scientists and experts, in the said project of technical cooperation in the field of radioactive waste management, is presented through activities conducted during the period since 2009 to date, taking into account Croatia's obligations regarding the disposal of radioactive waste generated by operation of the nuclear power plant Krško (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osaji, EE. Vol 11, No 2 (2007) - Articles Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority Building (GLA Building/City Hall) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hudson, J. Vol 11, No 2 (2007) - Articles Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority Building (GLA Building/City Hall) Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  12. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  13. Theoretical Kinetics Analysis for Ḣ Atom Addition to 1,3-Butadiene and Related Reactions on the Ċ4H7Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Zhou, Chong-Wen; Curran, Henry J

    2017-10-12

    The oxidation chemistry of the simplest conjugated hydrocarbon, 1,3-butadiene, can provide a first step in understanding the role of polyunsaturated hydrocarbons in combustion and, in particular, an understanding of their contribution toward soot formation. On the basis of our previous work on propene and the butene isomers (1-, 2-, and isobutene), it was found that the reaction kinetics of Ḣ-atom addition to the C═C double bond plays a significant role in fuel consumption kinetics and influences the predictions of high-temperature ignition delay times, product species concentrations, and flame speed measurements. In this study, the rate constants and thermodynamic properties for Ḣ-atom addition to 1,3-butadiene and related reactions on the Ċ 4 H 7 potential energy surface have been calculated using two different series of quantum chemical methods and two different kinetic codes. Excellent agreement is obtained between the two different kinetics codes. The calculated results including zero-point energies, single-point energies, rate constants, barrier heights, and thermochemistry are systematically compared among the two quantum chemical methods. 1-Methylallyl (Ċ 4 H 7 1-3) and 3-buten-1-yl (Ċ 4 H 7 1-4) radicals and C 2 H 4 + Ċ 2 H 3 are found to be the most important channels and reactivity-promoting products, respectively. We calculated that terminal addition is dominant (>80%) compared to internal Ḣ-atom addition at all temperatures in the range 298-2000 K. However, this dominance decreases with increasing temperature. The calculated rate constants for the bimolecular reaction C 4 H 6 + Ḣ → products and C 2 H 4 + Ċ 2 H 3 → products are in excellent agreement with both experimental and theoretical results from the literature. For selected C 4 species, the calculated thermochemical values are also in good agreement with literature data. In addition, the rate constants for H atom abstraction by Ḣ atoms have also been calculated, and it is

  14. Ultraviolet photochemistry of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-dienes: laser spectroscopic absolute hydrogen atom quantum yield and translational energy distribution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, A; Volpp, H-R; Sharma, P; Mittal, J P; Vatsa, R K

    2010-07-14

    Using pulsed H-atom Lyman-alpha laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy along with a photolytic calibration approach, absolute H-atom product quantum yields of phi(H-b13d) = (0.32+/-0.04) and phi(H-b12d) = (0.36+/-0.04) were measured under collision-free conditions for the 193 nm gas-phase laser flash photolysis of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene at room temperature, which demonstrate that nascent H-atom formation is of comparable importance for both parent molecules. Comparison of the available energy fraction, f(T-b13d) = (0.22+/-0.03) and f(T-b12d) = (0.13+/-0.01), released as H+C(4)H(5) product translational energy with results of impulsive and statistical energy partitioning modeling calculations indicates that for both, buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene, H-atom formation is preceded by internal conversion to the respective electronic ground state (S(0)) potential energy surfaces. In addition, values of sigma(b-1,3-d-L alpha) = (3.5+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) and sigma(b-1,2-d-L alpha) = (4.4+/-0.2)x10(-17) cm(2) for the previously unknown Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm) radiation photoabsorption cross sections of buta-1,3- and buta-1,2-diene in the gas-phase were determined.

  15. Dalton's Atomic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DOBBIN, LEONARD

    1896-01-01

    WITH reference to the communications from the authors and from the reviewer of the "New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory," published in NATURE for May 14, I beg leave to offer the following remarks...

  16. Neutral escape at Mars induced by the precipitation of high-energy protons and hydrogen atoms of the solar wind origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shematovich, Valery I.

    2017-04-01

    One of the first surprises of the NASA MAVEN mission was the observation by the SWIA instrument of a tenuous population of protons with solar wind energies travelling anti-sunward near periapsis, at altitudes of 150-250 km (Halekas et al., 2015). While the penetration of solar wind protons to low altitude is not completely unexpected given previous Mars Express results, this population maintains exactly the same velocity as the solar wind observed. From previous studies it was known that some fraction of the solar wind can interact with the extended corona of Mars. By charge exchange with the neutral particles in this corona, some fraction of the incoming solar wind protons can gain an electron and become an energetic neutral hydrogen atom. Once neutral, these particles penetrate through the Martian induced magnetosphere with ease, with free access to the collisional atmosphere/ionosphere. The origin, kinetics and transport of the suprathermal O atoms in the transition region (from thermosphere to exosphere) of the Martian upper atmosphere due to the precipitation of the high-energy protons and hydrogen atoms are discussed. Kinetic energy distribution functions of suprathermal and superthermal (ENA) oxygen atoms formed in the Martian upper atmosphere were calculated using the kinetic Monte Carlo model (Shematovich et al., 2011, Shematovich, 2013) of the high-energy proton and hydrogen atom precipitation into the atmosphere. These functions allowed us: (a) to estimate the non-thermal escape rates of neutral oxygen from the Martian upper atmosphere, and (b) to compare with available MAVEN measurements of oxygen corona. Induced by precipitation the escape of hot oxygen atoms may become dominant under conditions of extreme solar events - solar flares and coronal mass ejections, - as it was shown by recent observations of the NASA MAVEN spacecraft (Jakosky et al., 2015). This work is supported by the RFBR project and by the Basic Research Program of the Praesidium of

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geta, Z. Vol 28 (2011) - Articles Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network Abstract PDF · Vol 26 (2009) - Articles Energy aware GPSR routing protocol in a WSN Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0514-6216. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  18. Comparison of Martian meteorites with earth composition: Study of effective atomic numbers in the energy range 1 keV-100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ün, Adem, E-mail: ademun25@yahoo.com; Han, İbrahim, E-mail: ibrahimhan25@hotmail.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 04100 Ağrı (Turkey); Ün, Mümine, E-mail: mun@agri.edu.tr [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Vocational School, Department of Electricity and Energy, 04100 Ağrz (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Effective atomic (Z{sub eff}) and electron numbers (N{sub eff}) for 24 Martian meteorites have been determined in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV and also for sixteen significant energies of commonly used radioactive sources. The values of Z{sub eff} and N{sub eff} for all sample were obtained from the DirectZeff program. The obtained results for Martian meteorites have been compared with the results for Earth composition and similarities or differences also evaluated.

  19. Comprehensive Auditing in Nuclear Medicine Through the International Atomic Energy Agency Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Program. Part 2: Analysis of Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Maurizio; Torres, Leonel; Marengo, Mario; Massardo, Teresa; Mishani, Eyal; Van Zyl Ellmann, Annare; Solanki, Kishor; Bischof Delaloye, Angelika; Lobato, Enrique Estrada; Miller, Rodolfo Nunez; Ordonez, Felix Barajas; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    ; 36%); whereas the remaining 807 (48%) were classified as minor, that is, to be addressed whenever possible. The greatest proportion of recommendations has been found in the category "Managerial, Organization and Documentation" (26%); "Staff Radiation Protection and Safety" (17.3%); "Radiopharmaceuticals Preparation, Dispensing and Handling" (15.8%); and "Quality Assurance/Quality Control" and "Management of Equipment and Software" (11.4%). The lowest level of recommendations belongs to the item "Human Resources" (4%). The QUANUM program proved applicable to a wide variety of institutions, from small practices to larger centers with PET/CT and cyclotrons. Clinical services rendered to patients showed a good compliance with international standards, whereas issues related to radiation protection of both staff and patients will require a higher degree of attention. This is a relevant feedback for the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the effective translation of safety recommendations into routine practice. Training on drafting and application of standard operating procedures should also be considered a priority. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy and density analysis of the H2 molecule from the united atom to dissociation: The 3Σg+ and 3Σu+ states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    2009-11-01

    The first 14 Σ3g+ and the first 15 Σ3u+ states of the H2 molecule are computed with full configuration interaction both from Hartree-Fock molecular orbitals and Heitler-London atomic orbitals within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, following recent studies for the Σ1g+ and Σ1u+ manifolds [Corongiu and Clementi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 034301 (2009) and J. Phys. Chem. (in press)]. The basis sets utilized are extended and optimized Slater-type functions and spherical Gaussian functions. The states considered correspond to the configurations (1s1nl1) with n from 1 to 5; the internuclear separations sample the distances from 0.01 to 10 000 bohrs. For the first three Σ3g+ and Σ3u+ states and for the fourth and fifth Σ3g+ states, our computed energies at the equilibrium internuclear separation, when compared to the accurate values by Staszewska and Wolniewicz and by Kołos and Rychlewski, show deviations of about 0.006 kcal/mol, a test on the quality of our computations. Motivation for this work comes not only from obtaining potential energy curves for the high excited states of H2 but also from characterizing the electronic density evolution from the united atom to dissociation to provide a detailed analysis of the energy contributions from selected basis subsets and to quantitatively decompose the state energies into covalent and ionic components. Furthermore, we discuss the origin of the seemingly irregular patterns in potential energy curves in the two manifolds, between 4 and 6-9 bohrs—there are two systems of states: the first, from the united atom to about 4 bohrs, is represented by functions with principal quantum number higher than the one needed at dissociation; this system interacts at around 4 bohrs with the second system, which is represented by functions with principal quantum number corresponding to one of the dissociation products.