WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic electric company

  1. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  2. 77 FR 60482 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Yankee Rowe Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Staff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company; Yankee Rowe Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Staff... for the storage of spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) to persons... part 72 general license for storage of spent fuel and greater than Class C waste at the Yankee......

  3. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  4. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  5. Memorial 1997 - ENDESA (Chilean Electricity Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comprehensive survey, in depth assessment of the activities overview of ENDESA, Chilean Electricity Company, highlighting economical information and including historical and technical aspects. Economics is its focal point, but other relevant data are shown, like technical data on hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants. Main activities developed by ENDESA are described, such in Chile as in the foreign. Data on power generation, transmission and transport are also presented and an economical balance of each colligated company are done and analysed

  6. Rydberg atoms in magnetic and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines highly excited atoms in the presence of a uniform field, magnetic or electric. It discusses Rydberg atoms in magnetic fields; Rydberg atoms in electric fields; and Rydberg atoms in crossed fields. It reviews present knowledge of this subject which is of great theoretical interest and which has recently benefited from laser spectroscopy

  7. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  8. 76 FR 24465 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 2310-193. c. Date Filed: April 12, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of... Contact: Steve Peirano, Relicensing Project Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, P.O. Box...

  9. 77 FR 26321 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Director's Decision; issuance. SUMMARY: The... Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or the licensee). The petition requested that the NRC: (1) Take escalated... be formally communicated to Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) in a written...

  10. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  11. 78 FR 38195 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...; AD 2013-10-52] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1...

  12. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... and 2, to a prolonged station blackout. (11) The current emergency evacuation plans for North Anna 1... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO...

  13. 78 FR 44899 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent... Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and -115B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  14. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  15. 77 FR 4650 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...-16783 (76 FR 52213, August 22, 2011), and adding the following new AD: 2012-02-07 General Electric...-16783 (76 FR 52213, August 22, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to General Electric Company (GE... certain publication listed in this AD as of February 22, 2011 (76 FR 6323, February 4, 2011)....

  16. 78 FR 47235 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... ] Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... Electric Company (GE) model GEnx-2B67 and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  17. Evaluation of efficiency in Japan electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achieving energy efficiency also must consider supply efficiency, how much energy it takes to generate electricity and transmit it to the end user. system efficiency reflects the loss of energy during the processes of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Of the millions of tons of coal that are burned to produce heat in generation of electricity every year, only one third is converted into electricity.The electric power plant immediately uses 5 to 10 percent of that energy for use in the plant. Around another 10 percent of this energy is consumed in the transmission and distribution of electric energy to end users. Overall,more that 70 percent of the energy used to produce and deliver electricity never gets to the end user. The costs of this wasted energy are reflected in the customer's electricity bill. Furthermore, once delivered, users of electricity are subjected to more hiddencosts the demand charge which reflects the rate at which consumers draw energy from the power plant during a particular time of day, are also affected by the time of year. This additional charge c n be dramatic. For example, the cost for using electric air conditioning at the wrongtime of the day , are also affected by the time of year. This additional charge can be dramatic. For example, the cost for using electric air conditioning at the wrong time of the day could be as much as 25 to 40 percent higher than what a facility normally pays for electricity during off-peak times. Minimizing the costs of operations, therefor, is a must for all electric companies. In the other hand utility rates, such as the cost of electricity, are a necessary element of operating in all enterprises.In some industries the payment over electricity make a large percentage of their total expenses, but that doesn't mean that every effort should not be made to reduce their impact on the bottom line, it should be considered that a very small change in operating procedure can change efficiencies

  18. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project

  19. Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric quadrupole transition probabilities for atomic lithium have been calculated using the weakest bound electron potential model theory (WBEPMT). We have employed numerical non-relativistic Hartree–Fock wavefunctions for expectation values of radii and the necessary energy values have been taken from the compilation at NIST. The results obtained with the present method agree very well with the Coulomb approximation results given by Caves (1975). Moreover, electric quadrupole transition probability values not existing in the literature for some highly excited levels have been obtained using the WBEPMT

  20. Atomic emission spectroscopy in high electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Pulsed-power driven ion diodes generating quasi-static, {approximately}10 MV/cm, 1-cm scale-length electric fields are used to accelerate lithium ion beams for inertial confinement fusion applications. Atomic emission spectroscopy measurements contribute to understanding the acceleration gap physics, in particular by combining time- and space-resolved measurements of the electric field with the Poisson equation to determine the charged particle distributions. This unique high-field configuration also offers the possibility to advance basic atomic physics, for example by testing calculations of the Stark-shifted emission pattern, by measuring field ionization rates for tightly-bound low-principal-quantum-number levels, and by measuring transition-probability quenching.

  1. Atomic emission spectroscopy in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed-power driven ion diodes generating quasi-static, ∼10 MV/cm, 1-cm scale-length electric fields are used to accelerate lithium ion beams for inertial confinement fusion applications. Atomic emission spectroscopy measurements contribute to understanding the acceleration gap physics, in particular by combining time- and space-resolved measurements of the electric field with the Poisson equation to determine the charged particle distributions. This unique high-field configuration also offers the possibility to advance basic atomic physics, for example by testing calculations of the Stark-shifted emission pattern, by measuring field ionization rates for tightly-bound low-principal-quantum-number levels, and by measuring transition-probability quenching

  2. Microwave electric field sensing with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Daniel T.; Kunz, Paul D.; Meyer, David H.; Solmeyer, Neal

    2016-05-01

    Atoms form the basis of precise measurement for many quantities (time, acceleration, rotation, magnetic field, etc.). Measurements of microwave frequency electric fields by traditional methods (i.e. engineered antennas) have limited sensitivity and can be difficult to calibrate properly. Highly-excited (Rydberg) neutral atoms have very large electric-dipole moments and many dipole allowed transitions in the range of 1 - 500 GHz. It is possible to sensitively probe the electric field in this range using the combination of two quantum interference phenomena: electromagnetically induced transparency and the Autler-Townes effect. This technique allows for very sensitive field amplitude, polarization, and sub-wavelength imaging measurements. These quantities can be extracted by measuring properties of a probe laser beam as it passes through a warm rubidium vapor cell. Thus far, Rydberg microwave electrometry has relied upon the absorption of the probe laser. We report on our use of polarization rotation, which corresponds to the real part of the susceptibility, for measuring the properties of microwave frequency electric fields. Our simulations show that when a magnetic field is present and directed along the optical propagation direction a polarization rotation signal exists and can be used for microwave electrometry. One central advantage in using the polarization rotation signal rather than the absorption signal is that common mode laser noise is naturally eliminated leading to a potentially dramatic increase in signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. 77 FR 76977 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... (65 FR 10698, February 29, 2000). (c) Applicability This AD applies to all General Electric Company... published in the Federal Register on August 13, 2012 (77 FR 48110). That NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2000-04-14, Amendment 39-11597 (65 FR 10698, February 29, 2000) which had required replacement of...

  4. 76 FR 67594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... (IBR) under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51 of the following service information on the date..., approved for IBR as of November 17, 2011. (2) General Electric Company Alert Service Bulletin No....

  5. 78 FR 76045 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not... Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric...

  6. 76 FR 61687 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Availability of...

  7. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  8. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  9. Smart Grid Innovation Management for SME Electricity Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    innovation process lies ahead for utility companies in screening, testing, maturing, implementing and operating smart grids. This process is expected to follow the political targets for CO2 reduction stretching forward until 2050. As no proven concepts exists, and as the process is expected to progress many...... years ahead, smart grid represents an excellent case of continuous innovation. The current study use a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid related technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight critical issues in this innovation process. Major findings are that the...... companies have limited innovation capabilities, they are presented with plenty of technological offerings that eventually have to be rejected, and they suffer from absence of clear objectives....

  10. The end of regulated sales tariff of electricity for companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of electricity market opening, regulated sales tariffs of electricity for companies are to be suppressed in January 2016. This note first indicates the three main types of clients who are concerned by these tariffs, indicates the objective of the suppression of the so-called green and yellow tariffs. It gives an overview of the presently existing offers in France, and notices the very slow transition of clients towards new offers. It describes what medium and high consuming sites must do to change their contract

  11. 78 FR 19628 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain General Electric Company (GE) GE90-76B, -85B, -90B, -94B, - 110B1, and -115B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by multiple reports of failure of certain stage 1 high-pressure turbine (HPT) stator shrouds due to accelerated corrosion and oxidation. This proposed AD would require initial and repetitive on-wing......

  12. The development of multimedia communication system for electric power company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    It is a final report of the research project that is a development of PC-LAN based multimedia desktop conference system, which is research on the essential technologies and application and development of multimedia communication services for electric power company. This report is consisted of -Survey and study of the multimedia related technologies, -Multimedia communication protocols and network configurations, and -Design, developments of pilot model, evaluation, and applications of multimedia conference system. (author). 112 refs., 250 figs.

  13. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  14. 75 FR 36449 - Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance of... impact. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Goshen, Project Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and... an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) associated with the decommissioned...

  15. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  16. Fuel cells and electricity companies - new risk management opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Deregulation, distributed generation, combined heat and power, renewables, fuel cells, hydrogen. Power companies are facing a rapidly evolving environment that is testing their ability to effectively deploy capital and earn profits. While recent deregulation trends have shifted the structure of power markets into separating generators from distributors, the improving economic value proposition offered by smaller scale distributed generation technologies - such as fuel cells - would seem to be a conflicting development. In this complex and changing environment, decisions based on the economic reality of the capital markets are likely to prevail. By examining the opportunity to enhance risk management offered by stationary fuel cells, particularly in CHP applications, we provide a context for the issues being discussed in today's sessions focusing on power companies and electric utilities. Our risk management perspective suggests a pathway for implementing fuel cells in combined heat and power applications that large power generators can introduce in increasingly smaller sizes. With capital costs of fuel cells high and risk tolerance of power companies low, the challenge for smaller technology developers will be to reduce the apparently long time horizon that persists for substantial deployment. (author)

  17. Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, J D; Martin, J D D

    2012-01-01

    The electric fields near the heterogeneous metal/dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 10^8 times more polarizable than the ground state. We attribute the measured fields to charging of the insulators between the atom chip wires. Surprisingly, it is observed that these fields may be dramatically lowered with appropriate voltage biasing, suggesting configurations for the future development of hybrid quantum systems.

  18. Electric Service Areas, Area showing what electric company serves a particular area, Published in 2004, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Service Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'Area showing what electric company serves a...

  19. 77 FR 58471 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company GEnx-1B54, GEnx-1B58, GEnx-1B64, GEnx-1B67, GEnx-1B70, GEnx-1B54/P1, GEnx-1B58/P1, GEnx-1B64/P1, GEnx-1B67/P1, GEnx-1B70/P1, GEnx-1B70/72/P1, GEnx-1B70/75/P1, GEnx-1B74/75/P1, GEnx-1B75/P1, GEnx- 2B67, and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines. This AD requires initial and repetitive ultrasonic inspections (UI) of certain......

  20. Pricing Decision Support System for Generation Companies in Electricity Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangDebin; WangXianjia

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of separating power plants from power network and that of the competition based power transaction in power market, the pricing decision support system for generation companies (GCPDSS) is built in electricity market. This paper introduces the conception of intelligent decision support system (IDSS) and puts emphasis on the systematical structural framework,work process, design principal, and fundamental function of GCPDSS. The system has the module to analyze the cost, to forecast the demand of power, to construct the pricing strategies, to manage the pricing risk, and to dispatch giving the pricing strategies.The case study illustrates that the friendly window-based user interface of the system enables the user to take full advantage of the capabilities of the system in order to make effective real-time decisions.

  1. Lost in transition? Comparing strategies of electricity companies in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the notion of energy transition when implemented by private utilities. In 2000, the Delhi government privatized electricity distribution to three private distribution companies. Most research was concerned with the impact of privatization on energy reliability, tariff settings and regulation issues. This paper looks at two under-researched themes: the expansion of services to poorer neighborhoods and the rollout of clean energy policies. This focus allows to unpack the materiality of socio-technical systems, to analyze how energy infrastructures are being technically deployed on the ground and to identify which social approach is used. To detail the specific practices of each company provides a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the reform. In-depth analysis of the three private utilities show that they interpret the reform mandate differently: they use a varied range of technical tools; they respond differently to social concerns in poorer neighborhoods; and they have distinctive internal management choices and corporate cultures. All these four factors can strengthen or undermine the transition towards increased access and clean energy. - Highlights: • Energy transition in an emerging cities aims at balancing environmental and social concerns. • Utilities have distinct transition paths despite similar privatization and regulation framework. • Utilities paths depend on spatial, social, managerial and corporate considerations. • Utilities' strategies are shaped by urban challenges rather than by energy policies

  2. Tool for the control management of electric and magnetic fields of electrical companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electricity involves a wide range of activities that, because of its diversity, characteristics and relative importance causes different environmental impacts during the extraction, processing, transport and consuming activities. It is the role of the government to elaborate the rules for the incorporation of environmental aspects in the different segments of the market for different electrical energy sources and in all the stages of the process, from the initial evaluation to the construction and exploitation phases. Among the environmental key aspects to considerate, are the electric and magnetic fields, in which society has taken special interest as they are believed to be involved in health hazard. The faculties of the regulatory authority are dictate regulations and technique procedures to be fulfilled by the agents, and check their compliance. In the course of time since the mentioned obligations, the authority has gathered information regarding electric and magnetic fields that includes those planned in the Companies Environmental Planning and those obtained ad-hoc in the role of controller. In order to systematize this information, a data base has been designed considering different types of electric installations, the company which they belong to, equipment used in the measurements, representative layouts with measure points and profiles of the electric and magnetic fields that were obtained. (author)

  3. Comment on "Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of an Rb Atom"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振和

    2003-01-01

    It is stated that the conjecture that the hydrogen-like atoms may have large permanent electric dipole moments is doubtable. Two kinds of experiments are suggested to check the reliability of the conjecture further.

  4. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to Z

  5. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  6. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  7. Effect of atomic electric quadrupole moment on positron binding

    OpenAIRE

    Harabati, C.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of the electric quadrupole moment, $Q$, is studied for positron-atom bound systems. It is demonstrated that for $Q >50$ a.u. the electric quadrupole potential is sufficiently strong to bind positron (or electron) even in the absence of the dipole polarization potential. Such large values of $Q$ are not known for atomic ground states, however, they exist in molecules and excited atoms. In the state $2s2p~^3P^o_2$ of beryllium, the quadrupole contribution makes difference between stable ...

  8. 77 FR 73634 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... river housing two turbine/ generator units connected to the project's existing substation by an... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing... Electric Power Company. e. Name of Project: Twin Falls Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project...

  9. 77 FR 7211 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and... Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) for the Diablo Canyon (DC) Independent Spent Fuel...

  10. 75 FR 12315 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation..., Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Mail... Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) for the Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

  11. 77 FR 50681 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Receipt of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Receipt of Application Take....: 2130-066. c. Date Filed: July 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). e. Name... sub-plan under condition No. 29 (Recreation Facilities and Administration) to manage the...

  12. 77 FR 45599 - Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 19, 2012, Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Oncor Tex... with any FERC Online service, please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676...

  13. 77 FR 37034 - Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Oncor Electric Delivery Company LLC submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Oncor TFO... FERC Online service, please email FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov , or call (866) 208-3676 (toll free)....

  14. 75 FR 10838 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... environment (75 FR 8152; dated February 23, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-80...

  15. 75 FR 9619 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station; Environmental Assessment..., issued to South Carolina Electric & Gas Company (SCE&G, the licensee), for operation of the Virgil C... radiological hazard beyond those previously analyzed in the Final Environmental Statement for the Virgil...

  16. 78 FR 11633 - Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to... transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico as a power marketer for a five-year term...

  17. 76 FR 69713 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e... Order No. EA-314, which authorized BP Energy to transmit electric energy from the United States...

  18. 75 FR 78979 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery.... (Twin Rivers) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada... authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada over the existing...

  19. 76 FR 69712 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202(e... (DOE) issued Order No. EA-315, which authorized BP Energy to transmit electric energy from the...

  20. General Atomic Company fusion experimental power reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a two-year, conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) are presented. For this study, the primary objectives of the EPR are to obtain plasma ignition conditions and produce net electrical power. The design features a Doublet plasma configuration with a major radius of 4.5 meters. The average plasma beta is 10 percent which yields a thermonuclear power level of 410 MW during a 105 second burn period. With a duty factor of 0.84, the gross electrical output is 124 MW(e) while the net output is 37 MW(e). The design features a 25 cm thick, helium cooled, modular, stainless steel blanket with a 1 cm thick, thermal radiation-cooled silicon carbide first wall. Sufficient shielding is provided to permit contact maintenance outside the shield envelop within 24 hours after shutdown. An overall facility concept was developed, including a superheated steam cycle power conversion system. Preliminary cost estimates and construction schedules were also developed

  1. A Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies from 1999 to 2011, using a Bayesian stochastic frontier model. The results reveal that efficiency varies among the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies that were analysed. We also focus on the factors of size, location, government ownership and mixed sources of electricity generation for the fossil-fuel electricity generation companies, and also examine their effects on the efficiency of these companies. Policy implications are derived. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of 27 quoted Chinese fossil-fuel electricity generation companies during 1999–2011. • We adopt a Bayesian stochastic frontier model taking into consideration the identified heterogeneity. • With reform background in Chinese energy industry, we propose four hypotheses and check their influence on efficiency. • Big size, coastal location, government control and hydro energy sources all have increased costs

  2. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  3. 77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI... also holds a 10 CFR part 72 general license for storage of spent fuel and greater than Class C......

  4. 75 FR 33853 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance of... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, ] Office of Nuclear Material Safety and..., to store spent nuclear fuel under a general license in an independent spent fuel storage...

  5. 77 FR 33005 - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI... also holds a 10 CFR part 72 general license which allows storage of spent fuel and greater......

  6. Atom-Pair Kinetics with Strong Electric-Dipole Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaicharoen, N.; Gonçalves, L. F.; Raithel, G.

    2016-05-01

    Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly to a strongly interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately nonpolar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair-correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar C3 coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems.

  7. Atom-pair kinetics with strong electric-dipole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Thaicharoen, N; Raithel, G

    2016-01-01

    Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly- into a strongly-interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately non-polar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar $C_3$ coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems.

  8. Shutdown risk management applied at Philadelphia Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and implementation of an effective risk management program requires basic risk or safety knowledge and the conversion of such information into effective management tools. ERIN Engineering and Research, Inc., under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has developed an effective program. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM), to provide plant and management personnel with understandable results of shutdown risk studies. With this tool, the impact of plans and decision options can be readily determined and displayed for the decision maker. This paper describes these methods and their application to the Limerick Nuclear Station of Philadelphia Electric Company. It also sets forth a broader application of these methods to include support of management decisions at-power and following forced outages. The result is an integrated risk management framework which can allow management and technical personnel to utilize readily available and understandable risk insights to optimize each activity. This paper addresses the resolution of several key issues in detail: How was the ORAM risk management method employed to represent the existing plant shutdown procedures and policies? How did the ORAM risk management method enhance the decision-making ability of the outage management staff? How was the ORAM software efficiently integrated with the outage scheduling software? How is quantitative risk information generated and used for outage planning and control? The ORAM risk management philosophy utilizes a series of colors to depict various risk configurations. Each such configuration has associated with it clear guidance. By modifying the conditions existing in the plant it is possible to impact the type of risk being encountered as well as the guidance which is appropriate for that period. In addition, the duration of a particular configuration can be effectively managed to reduce the overall risk impact. These are achieved with minimal

  9. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  10. ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS IN THE MARKET VALUE OF COMPANIES THE ELECTRIC ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo José Soares Miranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of financial, economic and legal variables on the market value of companies operating in the electricity sector of the brazilian economy. To perform this study, we used the methodology Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The Electricity Sector Index (ESI was used as a proxy to evaluate the performance of these companies that make up the sector. The results pointed that the market value of these companies is influenced by the rates charged for the services, by the consumption of electricity in the country and also by the interest rate. In addition, it is verified also that institutional and regulatory changes are important determinants of the market value of these companies. Keywords: Electricity Sector. Electricity Sector Index (ESI. Brazil.

  11. 77 FR 40608 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...) Wisconsin Electric's proposed accounting treatment of a coal contract buydown; and (2) waiver of the Commission's fuel clause regulation to allow Wisconsin Electric to recoup the cost of the coal contract... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory...

  12. Time reversal violating nuclear polarizability and atomic electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We propose a nuclear mechanism which can induce an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM). The interaction of external electric E and magnetic H fields with nuclear electric and magnetic dipole moments, d and ,u, gives rise to an energy shift, U= -βik Ei Hk, where βik is the nuclear polarizability. Parity and time invariance violating (P,T-odd) nuclear forces generate a mixed P,T-odd nuclear polarizability, whereψ0 and ψn are P,T-odd perturbed ground and excited nuclear states, respectively. In the case of a heavy spherical nucleus with a single unpaired nucleon, the perturbed wavefunctions are U = -βikEiHk, where ξis a constant proportional to the strength of the nuclear P,T-odd interaction, σ is the nuclear spin operator, and ψn is an unperturbed wavefunction. There are both scalar and tensor contributions to the nuclear P,T-odd polarizability. An atomic EDM is induced by the interaction of the fields of an unpaired electron in an atom with the P,T-odd perturbed atomic nucleus. An estimate for the value of this EDM has been made. The measurements of atomic EDMs can provide information about P,T-odd nuclear forces and test models of CP-violation

  13. Quantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Woolley, M J; Milburn, G J; Taylor, J M

    2011-01-01

    We show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards.

  14. Air quality effects of South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed Cope power plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review of preliminary determination prepared by the South Carolina bureau of air quality control for the South Carolina electric and gas company's proposed cope...

  15. 78 FR 56944 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY... Company (PG&E), on September 8, 2010, as supplemented, for the Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage... HBPP Unit 3 spent fuel pool, in that the process waste container would need to be placed in the...

  16. Evaluation of efficiency of electricity distribution company. Using modified DEA approach in Fuzzy environment Case study: Electricity Distribution Company of Fars Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hossein Gharib; Kamran Ghorban Nejad

    2015-01-01

    In present research, a modified DEA model has been used to evaluate the efficiency of different regions of Fars electricity distribution company in a Fuzzy environment. This model eliminates the weak points of basic models of data envelopment analysis in calculation of a different collection of selected weights for different units. First, the efficiency of electricity distribution units was measured using classical model of data envelopment analysis, and then this action was performed using m...

  17. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and, along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small r...

  18. Permanent Electric Dipole Moment of an Rb Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄湘友; 游佩林

    2002-01-01

    We experimentally determine the conjecture that hydrogen-like atoms such as Rb and Cs may have large permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). The saturated Rb vapour fills a cylindrical capacitor in the experiment.The influence of the vapour dielectric medium on capacitance is measured with a digital capacitance meter. Supposing that the measurement influence comes from the permanent EDMs of Rb atoms, from the experimental result we find that the EDM is large, i.e. dRb ≥ 8.6e × 10-9 cm.

  19. Ionization of atoms by lasers and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ring dye laser was monitored 5890 A line by a sodium fluorescence cell. The laser was orthogonally directed to interact with a sodium effusive atomic beam. Light radiation from a lamp shifted the excited sodium to near continuum level. The highly excited states are more susceptible to an external field, thus shifting the highly external atoms to the continuum level. The interaction of the electric field causes an increase of two orders of magnitude as compared to two photonionization only. The high signal recorded was due to the probability of the ionization cross section approaching the excited cross section which is several orders of magnitude higher

  20. Preparing for Carbon Pricing : Case Studies from Company Experience--Royal Dutch Shell, Rio Tinto, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    OpenAIRE

    Partnership for Market Readiness

    2015-01-01

    This report covers case studies with three companies: Royal Dutch Shell, Rio Tinto, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), capturing their experiences and lessons learn preparing for and operating under policies that price carbon emissions. It is relevant for private companies and countries interested in seeing how companies are putting a price on carbon.

  1. Effort to grapple with improvement of security and reliability of nuclear power plant. Actions of the Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, Tokai No.2 reactor was shut down automatically. Three of emergency diesel generators worked automatically at loss-of-offsite-power and began to work the cooling system of reactor. The reactor could be kept stable and safe in cold state by management of power from the gas turbine electric generator and power source car. Actions of Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) for cold shutdown and Tsunami were stated. Inspection results after the earthquake and testimony of staff was described. Countermeasure of improvement of safety of nuclear power station is explained by ensuring of power source and water supply, crisis management system, countermeasure of accident, ensuring, and training of workers, and action for better understanding of reliance. (S.Y.)

  2. Annual statistical report 2003 of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the statistical annual report of COPEL - Electrical Company of Parana State, Brazil, during the calendar year of 2003, on electricity market covering the distribution to end users, residential consumption, industrial consumption, commercial consumption, number of consumers and corporate information

  3. 76 FR 12102 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions to Intervene, and Competing Applications On January 31, 2011, Pacific Gas and Electric... and generator constructed on the right (west) abutment at the downstream side of the existing...

  4. Adsorbate Electric Fields on a Cryogenic Atom Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K S; Hufnagel, C; Dumke, R

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of electric fields originating from adsorbates deposited on a cryogenic atom chip as it is cooled from room temperature to cryogenic temperature. Using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency we measure the field strength versus distance from a 1 mm square of YBCO patterned onto a YSZ chip substrate. We find a localized and stable dipole field at room temperature and attribute it to a saturated layer of chemically adsorbed rubidium atoms on the YBCO. As the chip is cooled towards 83 K we observe a change in sign of the electric field as well as a transition from a localized to a delocalized dipole density. We relate these changes to the onset of physisorption on the chip surface when the van der Waals attraction overcomes the thermal desorption mechanisms. Our findings suggest that, through careful selection of substrate materials, it may be possible to reduce the electric fields caused by atomic adsorption on chips, opening up experiments to controlled Rydberg-surface co...

  5. The financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the regional electricity companies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews some of the financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the electricity distribution and supply sector in England and Wales, specifically the transformation of the Electricity Area Boards into the 12 Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). It considers the factors influencing the setting of post-privatization price control factors; the capital restructuring of the RECs; the valuation placed by the Secretary of State for Energy on each company at flotation, and market reaction to this as shown in subsequent changes in share price; and changes in the information provided in the RECs' accounts over the privatization period. (Author)

  6. The financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the regional electricity companies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, L. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Accountancy)

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the financial and accounting implications of the privatization of the electricity distribution and supply sector in England and Wales, specifically the transformation of the Electricity Area Boards into the 12 Regional Electricity Companies (RECs). It considers the factors influencing the setting of post-privatization price control factors; the capital restructuring of the RECs; the valuation placed by the Secretary of State for Energy on each company at flotation, and market reaction to this as shown in subsequent changes in share price; and changes in the information provided in the RECs' accounts over the privatization period. (Author)

  7. Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions to the electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2016-01-01

    Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions may significantly increase probabilities of otherwise very weak electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions (e.g. transitions between $s$ and $f$ electron orbitals). These transitions can be used for exceptionally accurate atomic clocks, quantum information processing and search for dark matter. They are very sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model, such as temporal variation of the fine structure constant, the Lorentz invariance and Einstein equivalence principle violation. We formulate conditions under which the hyperfine-induced electric dipole contribution dominates. Due to the hyperfine quenching the electric octupole clock transition in $^{173}$Yb$^+$ is two orders of magnitude stronger than that in currently used $^{171}$Yb$^+$. Some enhancement is found in $^{143}$Nd$^{13+}$, $^{149}$Pm$^{14+}$, $^{147}$Sm$^{14+}$, and $^{147}$Sm$^{15+}$ ions.

  8. Electron electric-dipole-moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proof-of-principle electron electric-dipole-moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric-field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal |mF| and, along with the low (≅3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitions between states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detection in regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. This experiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDM limit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitive e-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system

  9. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Jason M; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal mF and, along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitions between states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detection in regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. This experiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDM limit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitive e-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

  10. Transfer of electricity quotas under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 27, 2002, the 'Act of the Planned Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation - Atomic Energy Act' entered into force. It was preceded, among other things, by the 'Agreement between the Federal Government and the Power Utilities of June 14, 2000' in which the Red-Gree federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants had agreed on a timetable of termination and on the conditions of nuclear power plant operation for the residual plant operating life. One major part of that Agreement, which later was incorporated also in the Atomic Energy Act, are provisions about flexibiling the residual periods of operation of existing nuclear power plants. The arguments underlying the act on opting out of the use of nuclear power cite, as a key reason for the possibility to transfer electricity quotas, the constitutional principle of protection of bona fide acts. The transfer possibility opened up in the law is to 'allow the best possible residual periods of operation in the light of both plant operation and the national economy' to be agreed upon for each individual nuclear power plant. In principle, the Atomic Energy Act provides for any transfer of electricity quotas from one German nuclear power plant to another. An approval procedure is required for transfer from younger to older plants. Transfers from older to younger plants can be arranged without any approval. The article covers the basic legal principles and consequences, the details of the approval procedure, and the transfer of the electricity quotas attributed to the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  11. Creating a business environment in inventory management - The Philadelphia Electric Company experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Nuclear Engineering and Services Department was asked to develop a (non-fuel) inventory management philosophy that will optimize inventory dollars at Peach Bottom atomic power station and Limerick generating station. The ultimate goal of the project is to maximize the potential for the correct parts being available at the lowest possible level of investment. There are many factors that make the management of maintenance, repair, and operating (MRO) supply inventories more complicated than managing finished goods, work-in-progress, or raw materials. Determining correct inventory levels for nuclear power plants is complicated by the irregular demand for spare parts and the cyclic nature of demand caused by refueling outages. Based on the information collected, it was determined that PECo's nuclear group needed to develop policies and strategies to address the following issues: (1) inventory classification based on part criticality, usage, and demand forecast; (2) item level ordering policies based on classification system; (3) inventory performance management; and (4) management of obsolete/surplus parts. Currently, policies are being developed to manage surplus and obsolete materials. Opportunities are being explored regarding the potential capitalization of critical components and parts. The policies established for classification, ordering policies, and performance management are being translated into work processes via common procedures and guidelines

  12. 77 FR 74125 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact General Electric, One Neumann Way... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Frost, Aerospace Engineer, Engine & Propeller Directorate, FAA, 12...

  13. 78 FR 21578 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General...

  14. Operation and maintenance experience at the General Atomic Company's TRIGA reactor facility at San Diego, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the startup of the original 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor in 1958, General Atomic Company has accumulated nearly 24 years of operation and maintenance experience with this type of reactor. In addition to the nearly 24 years of experience gained on the Mark I, GA has operated the 1.5 MW Advanced Prototype Test Reactor (Mark F) for 22 years and operated a 2 MW below-ground TRIGA Mark III for five years. Information obtained from normal and abnormal operation are presented. (author)

  15. Impact of electrical energy efficiency programs, case study: food processing companies in cuenca, ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Rojas, Galo Jose; Andrade-Rodas, Juan; Barragán-Escandón, Antonio; Astudillo-Alemán, Ana

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study illustrates the effects of the application of electrical energy efficiency programs in 7 food processing companies in Cuenca, Ecuador. The research encompassed phases of diagnosis, intervention and evaluation. A comparative analysis between the companies was conducted: energy consumption versus product volume, energy-quality analysis, relation between compliance/specific energy consumption, and the impact on CO2 emissions. Results revealed that the acceptance to the rec...

  16. Environmental Disclosure of Electric Power Companies Listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Clésia Ana Gubiani; Vanderlei dos Santos; Ilse Maria Beuren

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to verify the level of disclosure of environmental information in the administration reports of the energy companies listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI). A descriptive and quantitative research was done, using the content analysis technique on the administration reports from 2006 to 2008. The sample consisted of 11 electric power companies listed in the CSI. For quantitative analysis of the disclosure index, the data collection instrument was based on the study ...

  17. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Pacific Gas & Electric Company continues to expand an EV program that addresses the following: vehicle development and demonstration; vehicle technology assessment; infrastructure evaluation; participation in EV organizations; and meetings and events. This report highlights PG & E`s activities in each of these areas.

  18. Competition and monopolies, exclusive rights for electricity companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Community has decided to liberalize the electric power industry within the community abolishing state monopolies, and allowing third party access. This policy was based on until then untested free-market theories. The advantage of state monopoly was that it could guarantee security of supply - vital with a non-storable commodity such as electricity. The advantages of TPA were said to be that it would lower prices, and that the market would ensure security of supply. The United Kingdom experimented in deregulation and end-user choice. In this experiment long-term planning has suffered, all new power stations are gas-fired because of low capital cost, and the effects on the British coal industry have been catastrophic. Thus, the effect of TPA seems to be a switch to natural gas, and an increase in prices to domestic consumers. Further research is needed, rather than a switch to TPA based on ideology alone

  19. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  20. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption 1... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56, which authorizes operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power... hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two boiling-water reactors located partly in Peach...

  1. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  2. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  3. Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S; Surzhykov, A

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali atoms, Rb and Cs, for the $nS$, $nP_{1/2, 3/2}$, and $nD_{3/2, 5/2}$ states with large principal quantum numbers up to $n = 50$. The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semi-empirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semi-empirical approach and with available experimental data.

  4. The atomic electric dipole moment induced by the nuclear electric dipole moment; the magnetic moment effect

    CERN Document Server

    Porsev, S G; Flambaum, V V

    2010-01-01

    We have considered a mechanism for inducing a time-reversal violating electric dipole moment (EDM) in atoms through the interaction of a nuclear EDM (d_N) with the hyperfine interaction, the "magnetic moment effect". We have derived the operator for this interaction and presented analytical formulas for the matrix elements between atomic states. Induced EDMs in the diamagnetic atoms 129Xe, 171Yb, 199Hg, 211Rn, and 225Ra have been calculated numerically. From the experimental limits on the atomic EDMs of 129Xe and 199Hg, we have placed the following constraints on the nuclear EDMs, |d_N(129Xe)|< 1.1 * 10^{-21} |e|cm and |d_N(199Hg)|< 2.8 * 10^{-24} |e|cm.

  5. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  6. Slowing and cooling molecules and neutral atoms by time-varying electric field gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Maddi, Jason A.; Dinneen, Timothy P.; Gould, Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A method of slowing, accelerating, cooling, and bunching molecules and neutral atoms using time-varying electric field gradients is demonstrated with cesium atoms in a fountain. The effects are measured and found to be in agreement with calculation. Time-varying electric field gradient slowing and cooling is applicable to atoms that have large dipole polarizabilities, including atoms that are not amenable to laser slowing and cooling, to Rydberg atoms, and to molecules, especially polar molec...

  7. Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

  8. Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions to the electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperfine-induced electric dipole contributions may significantly increase probabilities of otherwise very weak electric octupole and magnetic quadrupole atomic clock transitions (e.g., transitions between s and f electron orbitals). These transitions can be used for exceptionally accurate atomic clocks, quantum information processing, and the search for dark matter. They are very sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model, such as temporal variation of the fine-structure constant, the Lorentz invariance, and Einstein equivalence principle violation. We formulate conditions under which the hyperfine-induced electric dipole contribution dominates and perform calculations of the hyperfine structure and E3, M2 and the hyperfine-induced E1 transition rates for a large number of atoms and ions of experimental interest. Due to the hyperfine quenching the electric octupole clock transition in +173Yb is 2 orders of magnitude stronger than that in currently used +171Yb. Some enhancement is found in 13+143Nd, 14+149Pm, 14+147Sm, and 15+147Sm ions.

  9. 76 FR 64291 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation...-09-AD RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines AGENCY... marked on the engine data plate as CF6-80C2B7F1. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a...

  10. Training Needs Assessment of Technical Skills in Managers of Tehran Electricity Distribution Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi, Amir Hasan; Ghandali, Fatemeh; Dehghan, Hasan; Ghandali, Najme

    2016-01-01

    Current dissertation has been conducted in order to investigate and detect training needs of the mangers (top and middle) in Tehran Electricity Distribution Company. Research method is applied kind based on its purpose. Due to data collection method, this query is descriptive-survey type. Statistical population in this study is all of managers in…

  11. 77 FR 20438 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... COMMISSION Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and...-011-C in their current condition at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)...

  12. 76 FR 30980 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation... INFORMATION CONTACT: William Allen, Project Manager, Licensing Branch, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and... a modification to License No. SNM-2514 at its Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel...

  13. 78 FR 59073 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...) independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2011-0115 when... storage of spent fuel and associated radioactive materials at the HB ISFSI. Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  14. 77 FR 18874 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Receipt of Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Virginia Electric and Power Company's (the licensee's) North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna... North Anna 1 and 2. (13) Concerns exist about the response of North Anna 1 and 2, to a prolonged station blackout. (14) The current emergency evacuation plans for North Anna 1 and 2, need to be revised to...

  15. 77 FR 65910 - Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC., Hematite Decommissioning Project, Festus, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR..., Deputy Director, Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management... COMMISSION Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC., Hematite Decommissioning Project, Festus, Missouri...

  16. The Electric Company; Television and Reading, 1971-1980: A Mid-Experiment Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Joan Ganz

    "The Electric Company" was created by the Children's Television Workshop as an experiment to teach reading to 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade children having difficulty learning to read. Solidly based on research in the teaching of reading, the curriculum emphasizes decoding skills. The production process included several phases: (1) assembling the…

  17. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive... Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of rulemaking for the amendment to the...

  18. Barriers to Classroom Use of THE ELECTRIC COMPANY: A Formative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.

    Barriers to the use of The Electric Company (TEC) instructional television (ITV) series in primary education classrooms are examined. Findings from interviews with teachers in classrooms where ITV facilities are available and professional ITV spokespersons are summarized. Based upon the findings from these interviews and past ITV research, the…

  19. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment..., Section III.O, ``Oil collection system for reactor coolant pump,'' for Facility Operating License No. NPF... Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS Unit 1), located in Louisa County, Virginia. Therefore, as required by...

  20. 78 FR 45194 - General Electric Company; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... that your comment does not include any sensitive personal information, like anyone's Social Security... difficulties with its component supplier. Avio has the sole design responsibility for the AGB on the... General Electric Company; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public...

  1. 76 FR 53672 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., 2011. d. Applicant: South Carolina Electric & Gas Company. e. Name of Project: Saluda Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The project is located on the Saluda River in Lexington, Newberry, Richland, and Saluda counties, South Carolina. The proposed action would occur on Lake Murray in Lexington...

  2. 75 FR 16097 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, South Carolina; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed South Carolina Electric and Gas Company's application for license for the Saluda Hydroelectric Project (FERC Project No. 516), located on Saluda River in Richland, Lexington, Saluda, and...

  3. The level of diversity in European electricity companies based on selected economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ulatowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to show variations in the electricity sector in the context of macro and micro-economic conditions with the use of discriminatory analysis. Using the STATISTICA programe to carry out the analysis of discrimination macroeconomic data has been used on the economies of the countries in which the parent companies of the energy companiesare established and the financial and economic results of individual concerns. Power companies: power plants, distribution companies and vendors of energy in Poland have been included as a single entity. An attempt to determine the factors of macro and micro-economic and financial data, which significantly affected the distinctionbetween the concerns was investigated. The results of the discriminatory analysis allowed for the submission of the following conclusions: selected on the basis of the following micro-economic factors distinguished the companies that had the largest share of variables: revenue per employee and long-term assets to long-term capital, and clearly distinguished EdF and electricity companies in Poland. This means that the dominant European companies show a similarity in implementation adopted by the owners of the economic-financial conditions for development. According to factors and the economic contribution to the largest macroeconomic identifying similar groups had the same variables: consumption of electricity in TWh and public debt in% of GDP, which correctly classified all concerns at 100%. It follows from this that the greatest contributions in distinguishing concerns have external factors and more specifically, the national macro-economic indicators in the countries in which the handquestors of the parent companies are found.

  4. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a... Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint against Massachusetts Electric Company (National...

  5. 75 FR 6193 - Union Electric Company dba Ameren/UE; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Union Electric Company dba Ameren/UE; Notice of Application for Amendment of... Filed: November 6, 2009. Supplemented on January 13, 2010. d. Applicant: Union Electric Company dba... manage and maintain the lease area for public access, and would rehabilitate an existing building for...

  6. Installation modification of the reactor in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The head of Japan Atomic Energy Commission submitted on September 29, 1978, to the Prime Minister the report that the modification of the reactor installation in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station which is constructed by the Tohoku Electric Power Company, Inc., is in conformity with the relevant laws, annexing the evaluating report that had been deliberated by the Nuclear Reactor Safety Evaluation Committee. The modification is related to the fuel assemblies, the minimum critical power ratio (MCPR), the falling speed of control rods, the maximum reactivity worth of control rods, the independent back-up reactor shut down system, the concentration control system for burnable gas, the iodine removal efficiency of emergency gas process system and the discharge position of condenser-cooling water. The evaluated results of these modifications are explained one by one. By the adoption of 8 x 8 fuel pin array, the maximum linear output density of a fuel pin is decreased, and it was confirmed that the MCPR would be kept always more than the minimum critical value of 1.06. Also, it was evaluated that the channel hydraulics, the core and the plant are stable, and the xenon spatial oscillation can be sufficiently controlled. The limit of the free falling speed of control rods is modified to 0.95 m/s from 1.5 m/s, and the scram time for 90% stroke is revised to less than 3.5 s from about 5.0 s. The maximum reactivity worth of control rods is corrected to less than 0.015 Δk from 0.025 Δk. Considering LOCA, the concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen gases are kept less than 4% and 5%, respectively, utilizing the recombining system in the containment vessel. The discharge point of condenser cooling water is relocated to the offshore about 260 m from the coast. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. The diverse strategies of american electricity companies in the face of de-monopolization of the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity boards in the United States of America have adopted new strategies clearly influenced by anterior regulations and by de-monopolization. Numerous mergers are only the most spectacular of these strategies, enabling the start-up handicap of size in face of new competition to be surmounted, and offering the advantage of bringing together the supply of gas and electricity. Two principal means of adaptation for the gas and electricity boards are their development in non-regulated production (equipment sharing, setting up of merchant plants), and their involvement in bulk trade and competitive retail sales; moreover some choose to specialize in electronuclear production on transport. Lastly, internationalization and diversification towards telecommunications are more frequent there than elsewhere. The purpose of this article is to characterize these strategies in comparison with those of the European electricity companies

  8. Transverse electric surface mode in atomically thin Boron-Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The spatial confinement and the propagation length of surface waves in a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are analyzed in terms of its surface susceptibility and its surface conductivity. Based on the values of these macroscopic parameters, extracted from experimental observations, it is confirmed that graphene supports a transverse magnetic nonradiating surface mode in the ultraviolet spectral region while a single-layer hexagonal Boron-Nitride is predicted to support a transverse electric nonradiating surface mode in the visible spectrum. This last mode, at a vacuum wavelength of 633 nm, has a spatial confinement of 15 μm and an intensity-propagation distance greater than 2 cm. PMID:27244441

  9. Transverse electric surface mode in atomically thin Boron–Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-06-01

    The spatial confinement and the propagation length of surface waves in a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are analysed in term of its surface susceptibility and its surface conductivity. Based on the values of these macroscopic parameters, extracted from experimental observations, it is confirmed that graphene supports a transverse magnetic non-radiating surface mode in the ultraviolet spectral region while a single-layer hexagonal Boron-Nitride is predicted to support a transverse electric non-radiating surface mode in the visible spectrum. This last mode, at a vacuum wavelength of 633 nm, has a spatial confinement of 15 microns and an intensity-propagation distance greater than 2 cm.

  10. Transverse electric surface mode in atomically thin Boron-Nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The spatial confinement and the propagation length of surface waves in a single-layer two-dimensional atomic crystal are analysed in term of its surface susceptibility and its surface conductivity. Based on the values of these macroscopic parameters, extracted from experimental observations, it is confirmed that graphene supports a transverse magnetic non-radiating surface mode in the ultraviolet spectral region while a single-layer hexagonal Boron-Nitride is predicted to support a transverse electric non-radiating surface mode in the visible spectrum. This last mode, at a vacuum wavelength of 633 nm, has a spatial confinement of 15 microns and an intensity-propagation distance greater than 2 cm.

  11. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  12. Electricity company managers' views of environmental issues: Implications for environmental groups and government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity industry's environmental impacts are a matter of acute interest to many outsiders, including government and environmental groups-and they have sought to affect those impacts through regulations, public pressure, and technical assistance. These approaches reflect outsiders' intuitive theories regarding the industry's goals, practices, and capabilities. The research reported here provides a systematic insiders' view on these processes, based on in-depth interviews with 70 middle managers in two electricity companies heavily reliant on coal. It finds managers sincerely committed to environmental action, but often frustrated by confusing regulatory requirements, perceived costs, and other challenges. It identifies ways of enabling middle managers to act on their commitment, with lessons relevant for outside groups and those within companies seeking to effect change

  13. Assessment and Improving Methods of Reliability Indices in Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrezaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of a system is the ability of a system to do prospected duties in future and the probability of desirable operation for doing predetermined duties. Power system elements failures data are the main data of reliability assessment in the network. Determining antiseptic parameters is the goal of reliability assessment by using system history data. These parameters help to recognize week points of the system. In other words, the goal of reliability assessment is operation improving and decreasing of the failures and power outages. This paper is developed to assess reliability indices of Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company up to 1393 and the improving methods and their effects on the reliability indices in this network. DIgSILENT Power Factory software is employed for simulation. Simulation results show the positive effect of improving methods in reliability indices of Bakhtar Regional Electricity Company.

  14. 76 FR 52357 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit...

  15. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chavez; Alberto Cortés Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which a...

  16. Implementation of condition-based maintenance at the Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) techniques have been successfully used in on a variety of equipments in US nuclear power plants for the past twenty years. These techniques have had the benefit of improving overall plant reliability and availability while at the same time reducing maintenance costs by as much as fifty percent. The typical pay-back period for the implementation of CBM is less than one year. Emergency diesel engines are one specific piece of equipment for which CBM has been particularly successful in US nuclear power plants. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement CBM for rotating components three years ago and, also has recently begun to apply DG diagnostic techniques at three nuclear power plants with the technical support by MPR associates, Inc. The application of CBM to Japanese nuclear power plants is similar to US nuclear power plants but differences in the regulatory structure and current maintenance practices in Japan results in some unique challenges. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the experience with these methods at US nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Aharonov-Bohm scattering of neutral atoms with induced electric dipole moments

    OpenAIRE

    Audretsch, Juergen; Skarzhinsky, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the scattering of neutral polarizable atoms from an electrically charged wire placed in a homogeneous magnetic field. The atoms carry an induced electric dipole. The reflecting wire is discussed. We calculate the scattering amplitude and cross section the practically more important case that atoms are totally absorbed at the surface of the wire. If the magnetic field is present, there is a dominating Aharonov-Bohm peak in the forward direction followed by decreasing oscillation...

  18. The effect of electric transmission constraints on how power generation companies bid in the Colombian electrical power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gallego Vega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the effect of transmission constraints on both expected electrical energy to be dispatched and power generation companies’ bidding strategies in the Colombian electrical power market. The proposed model simulates the national transmission grid and economic dispatch by means of optimal power flows. The proposed methodology allows structural problems in the power market to be analyzed due to the exclusive effect of trans- mission constraints and the mixed effect of bidding strategies and transmission networks. A new set of variables is proposed for quantifying the impact of each generation company on system operating costs and the change in expected dispatched energy. A correlation analysis of these new variables is presented, revealing some interesting linearities in some generation companies’ bidding patterns.

  19. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  20. Environmental Disclosure of Electric Power Companies Listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clésia Ana Gubiani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the level of disclosure of environmental information in the administration reports of the energy companies listed in the Corporate Sustainability Index (CSI. A descriptive and quantitative research was done, using the content analysis technique on the administration reports from 2006 to 2008. The sample consisted of 11 electric power companies listed in the CSI. For quantitative analysis of the disclosure index, the data collection instrument was based on the study of Rover, Murcia and Borba (2008, which proposes eight environmental categories and 36 subcategories. For the whole analysis of the data were elaborated networks of the items disclosed in each company, using the software UNICET ®. The survey results showed that there is satisfactory disclosure in the categories of environmental policies and education, training and research environment. However, it was found that there is need for greater disclosure of categories of products impacts and processes in the environment, power polices and financial environmental information. It was concluded that the information disclosed in the administration reports of the companies surveyed about the environmental information do not respect the principle of full disclosure.

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY'S PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMERS' SATISFACTION AS WELL AS THEIR PERCEIVED JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Molaie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates different dimensions of perceived justice and its relationship with customer satisfaction in Electricity Distribution Company in Ardabil, Iran. Since the electricity distribution company rarely has a face-to-face contact with customers, it is difficult to examine customers' satisfaction through the conventional techniques. Therefore, based on the literature, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among 2395 individuals of diverse groups. By exploratory factor...

  2. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development

  3. Did a local distribution company procure prudently during the California electricity crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To manage cost risk, prudent procurement of electric power requires that some portion of a buyer's energy demand be met through long-term contracting. Under cost-of-service regulation or performance-based regulation, a local distribution company (LDC) should be allowed to fully recover all prudently incurred power procurement costs. However, the regulatory test of prudence is an ex post review with the threat of disallowance. This paper presents an economic analysis of procurement prudence involving a small LDC, Bear Valley Electric Service (BVES), which serves a resort area in Southern California. The key findings are: (a) high and volatile prices and rolling blackouts characterized the market environment faced by the owner of BVES, Southern California Water Company (SCWC), at its signing of a 5-year fixed price contract; (b) SCWC was a price-taker with no incentive to act imprudently; (c) the contract was obtained via a competitive bidding process; (d) the contract price was comparable to the benchmark price of contemporaneous contracts; (e) the fixed price contract was economic when compared to available alternatives; and (f) despite (a)-(e), a negotiated settlement with the state regulator and a large user resulted in substantial disallowance. The policy implication is that a regulator should approve a prudent procurement plan proposed by an LDC to remove the unreasonable risk of an ex post review. If the LDC strictly adheres to the plan, the resulting electricity purchases are per se prudent and should entitle the LDC to full cost recovery

  4. How the largest electric and gas utility companies administer public relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogart, J.D.

    1979-04-12

    This article describes the findings of a survey conducted by the author in the second half of 1978 to determine the sizes of the public relations staffs of the nation's largest operating electric and gas utilities, their budgets, organizational differences, and specific functions. Common public relations issues and major public relations problems of the utilities are identified, as well as recent trends or changes in budgeting and organization. Some functional variations of public relations departments among utility companies were detected and described.

  5. The adaptation of the electric power companies to the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the challenges met by the Norwegian electric power companies in adapting to a more market oriented business and their possibilities and strategies when facing the uncertainties on the market side. The main principles of adaptation to the market are described and various strategies are illustrated by means of simple calculations and figures. The theoretical basis for analyses of adaptation to the market and for pricing period contracts and options are discussed. The report concludes with a discussion of the de-regulation of the North American gas market and draws parallels to the Norwegian power market. 17 figs

  6. Managing electricity procurement cost and risk by a local distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local electricity distribution company (LDC) can satisfy some of its future electricity requirements through self-generation and volatile spot markets, and the remainder through fixed-price forward contracts that will reduce its exposure to the inherent risk of spot-price volatility. A theoretical framework is developed for determining the forward-contract purchase that minimizes the LDCs expected procurement cost, subject to a cost-exposure constraint. The answers to the questions of ''What to buy?'' and ''How to buy?'' are illustrated using an example of a hypothetical LDC that is based on a municipal utility in Florida. It is shown that the LDCs procurement decision is consistent with least-cost procurement subject to a cost-exposure constraint, and that an internet-based multi-round auction can produce competitive price quotes for its desired forward purchase. (author)

  7. Development of management systems for nuclear power plant of Hokuriku Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokuriku Electric Power Company has been operating the Shika Nuclear Power Station that it constructed in Shika city, Ishikawa prefecture, for over 15 years since bringing Unit 1 of this plant online in July 1993. In addition to electricity generation, maintenance and inspection tasks constitute a big part of operating a large-scale nuclear power plant, and in recent years, problems at power stations in the nuclear power industry have led to several revisions of nationally regulated maintenance and inspection systems. This paper describes the background, objectives, development method, and features of the Maintenance Management System and Maintenance History Management System that make effective use of information technology to promote safer and more efficient maintenance work at large-scale nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. Managing electricity procurement cost and risk by a local distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A local electricity distribution company (LDC) can satisfy some of its future electricity requirements through self-generation and volatile spot markets, and the remainder through fixed-price forward contracts that will reduce its exposure to the inherent risk of spot-price volatility. A theoretical framework is developed for determining the forward-contract purchase that minimizes the LDCs expected procurement cost, subject to a cost-exposure constraint. The answers to the questions of 'What to buy?' and 'How to buy?' are illustrated using an example of a hypothetical LDC that is based on a municipal utility in Florida. It is shown that the LDCs procurement decision is consistent with least-cost procurement subject to a cost-exposure constraint, and that an internet-based multi-round auction can produce competitive price quotes for its desired forward purchase

  9. Operating experience gained with nuclear desalination plants by Japanese electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of March 1997, 51 nuclear power plants are being operated by ten electric power companies in Japan. All are located at the sea because they need sea water as the ultimate heat sink. Some are equipped with sea water desalination plants to secure the fresh water required for boiler feedwater and for on-site household water. The first nuclear power plant (gas cooled reactor) came into operation in 1966. The first nuclear sea water desalination plant in Japan, using the multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation process with a capacity of 1300 m3/d, started operation in 1974 at the Ohi nuclear power station (PWR, 1175 MW(e)), Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. Today, nine nuclear sea water desalination plants have been installed by the Tokyo, Shikoku and Kyushu Electric Power Companies, in addition to Kansai, eight of which are currently in operation. The capacity of the desalination facilities ranges between 1000 and 2600 m3/d. The average salinity of the intake sea water is 35,000 mg/L, and the average temperature is 17 deg. C. Three types of desalination process, reverse osmosis (RO), multi-effect distillation (MED) and MSF, have been chosen. Initially, the MSF process (unit capacity of 1300 m3/d) was selected, but the MED and/or RO processes were later chosen because of their higher efficiency (unit capacity ranging between 1000 and 1300 m3/d) and because of the direct application of electricity (for RO). Among the eight operating nuclear desalination plants, two MSF (1300-2000 m3/d), dime MFD (1000-2600 m3/d) and three MED (1000-2600 m3/d and three RO (1000-2600 m3/d) processes are in use. To date, no serious anomalies have been experienced at these operating nuclear sea water desalination plants, and no leakage of radioactive substances into the product water has taken place. (author)

  10. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework

  11. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  12. Electrical Characterization of Biological Elements by Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Casuso Páramo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    [eng]The assessment of the electrical properties of biomolecules at the nanoscale becomes necessary for gathering previous basic knowledge and for the control of the biosensor fabrication. I developed instrumentation, protocols, and theoretical frameworks for the nanoscale electrical characterization of biomolecules by AFM. Two novel types of AFM electrical characterizations were developed: electron transport through the biomolecules and dielectric polarization of the biomolecules (each one r...

  13. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  14. First Measurement of the Atomic Electric Dipole Moment of $^{225}$Ra

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R H; Kalita, M R; Lemke, N D; Bailey, K G; Bishof, M N; Greene, J P; Holt, R J; Korsch, W; Lu, Z -T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Singh, J T

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive radium-225 ($^{225}$Ra) atom is a favorable case to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). Due to its strong nuclear octupole deformation and large atomic mass, $^{225}$Ra is particularly sensitive to interactions in the nuclear medium that violate both time-reversal symmetry and parity. We have developed a cold-atom technique to study the spin precession of $^{225}$Ra atoms held in an optical dipole trap, and demonstrated the principle of this method by completing the first measurement of its atomic EDM, reaching an upper limit of $|$$d$($^{225}$Ra)$|$ $<$ $5.0\\!\\times\\!10^{-22}$ $e \\cdot$cm (95$\\%$ confidence).

  15. Semiclassical calculation of ionisation rate for Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The ionisation of Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field above the classical ionisation threshold has been examined using the semiclassical method, with particular emphasis on discussing the influence of the core scattering on the escape dynamics of electrons. The results show that the Rydberg helium atoms ionise by emitting a train of electron pulses. Unlike the case of the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields,where the pulses of the electron are caused by the external magnetic field, the pulse trains for Rydberg helium atoms are created through core scattering. Each peak in the ionisation rate corresponds to the contribution of one core-scattered combination trajectory. This fact further illustrates that the ionic core scattering leads to the chaotic property of the Rydberg helium atom in external fields. Our studies provide a simple explanation for the escape dynamics in the ionisation of nonhydrogenic atoms in external fields.

  16. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashree Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime.

  17. Influence of electric field annealing on atom diffusion in Cu/Ta/Si stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter, we present a quantitative analysis of the influences caused by an electric field annealing on interface atom diffusion in a Cu/Ta/Si stack at a range of temperatures 450∝650 C. The results indicate that the external electric field has a remarkably accelerated effect on Cu atom diffusion in the Ta layer and the failure of Ta as the diffusion barrier. The preexponent D0 and the activation energy Q for Cu atom diffusion in the Ta layer were both decreased with the application of an external electric field. The activation energy for electric field annealed stacks is 1.22 eV, which is lower than that for annealed stacks (1.58 eV). The accelerating effect is mainly attributed to the perturbation of the electric state of the defects in the interface and grain interior. (orig.)

  18. Do distribution companies loose money with an electricity flexible tariff?: A review of the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can get an (energy efficiency) EE improvement if we produce a flatter daily load curve, leading to a higher efficiency of the power system, making better use of the generation and transport electricity chain, thus avoiding over-investment in equipment used just few hours a year. Tariff flexibility of the (Time of Use) TOU type is one of these measures. Generally, TOU systems are designed to minimize total system cost, which may cause losses in distribution companies (DISCOs), generating opposition. On the contrary, the present paper proposes a TOU system for electricity consumption in Chile where optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of DISCOs. In this manner, the proposed TOU system is, by definition, beneficial for DISCOs and it may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. In particular, we show that such a system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of 811.7 millions of dollars for the 3-year study period (2005–2007), considering initiatives that promote a 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours, obtained by the spread or difference between the proposed and the current systems. - Highlights: • We propose a TOU (Time of Use) system for electricity consumption in Chile. • In this system the optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of (distribution companies) DISCOs. • The proposed TOU system may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. • This system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of M$811.7. • Benefit obtained for 3-year study period with initiatives that promote 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours

  19. Electric dipole polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies for the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and inert gas atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Derevianko, Andrei; Babb, James F

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole polarizabilities evaluated at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline earth atoms, and the inert gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities, the atom-surface interaction constants, and the dispersion (or van der Waals) constants for the homonuclear and the heteronuclear diatomic combinations of the atoms.

  20. DISEMBEDDING THE COMPANY FROM KINSHIP: UNETHICAL FAMILIES AND ATOMIZED LABOR IN AN ESTONIAN MINE

    OpenAIRE

    Keskula, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the dynamics of the relationship between the company and the family in an Estonian mining town. In the Soviet period, the "double movement" of the second wave of marketization ensured that the family continued to be embedded in the workplace. The mining company served as a total social institution for miners and their families, a center of their economic and emotional life. The current third wave of marketization, together with a particular corporate ethic, is creating a...

  1. Clear evidence of charge conjugation and parity violation in K atoms from atomic permanent electric dipole moment experiments

    CERN Document Server

    You, Pei-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanics thinks that atoms do not have permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) because of their spherical symmetry. Therefore, there is no polar atom in nature except for polar molecules. The electric susceptibility Xe caused by the orientation of polar substances is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature T while the induced susceptibility of atoms is temperature independent. This difference in temperature dependence offers a means of separating the polar and non-polar substances experimentally. Using special capacitor our experiments discovered that the relationship between Xe of Potassium atom and T is just Xe=B/T, where the slope B is approximately 283(K) as polar molecules, but appears to be disordered using the traditional capacitor. Its capacitance C at different voltage V was measured. The C-V curve shows that the saturation polarization of K vapor has be observed when E more than 105V/m and nearly all K atoms (over 98.9 per cent) are lined up with the field! The ground state neutra...

  2. POSSIBILITIES OF APPLYING THE DEA METHOD IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY: REVIEW OF WIND ENERGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maradin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental tasks of modern power system is finding ways to produce stable and continuous electricity from scarce energy resources. One of the possible solutions is introduction, implementation and improvement of alternative forms of energy such as renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy as an increasingly important energy source which is expected to further increase its share in total electricity production. Numerous methods can be used in assessing the efficiency of wind energy companies, and in the focus of this research is the Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA, a widely accepted methodology given its interdisciplinary approach and flexibility. This method represents a step forward in the field of renewable energy management, because it provides the possibility to compare the selected companies with the best in the industry (the most efficient and the possibility of determining sources of inefficiency and, consequently, the possibilities of their elimination.

  3. Atoms confined in a penetrable potential: effect of the atom position on the electric and magnetic responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Coden, Diego S; Gomez, Sergio S; Romero, Rodolfo H, E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar [Instituto de Modelado e Innovacion Tecnologica, CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400) Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-02-14

    We report results of the calculation of polarizability and the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors of two-electron atoms confined within an attractive Gaussian potential well. The electric and magnetic responses are obtained within the random phase approximation (RPA) of the polarization propagator. The influence of the depth and range of the potential on the electronic structure is also studied. The dependence of the parallel (along the displacement) and perpendicular components of the polarizability and shielding tensors on the distance of the atom to the centre of the well is calculated and rationalized as a dissociation-type process of the artificial diatomic molecule formed between the Coulomb and the well potentials.

  4. Effect of static electric field on cross sections in antiproton impact ionization of atomic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the effect of static electric fields in different geometrical features on the collisional ionization of helium atoms by antiproton. The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method with a model interaction potential has been used to simulate the differential and total ionization cross sections in antiproton–helium atom collisions in the energy range of 10–500 keV with and without electric fields. The calculated ionization cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the recently reported experimental and theoretical results. The effects of the external electric fields are seen to be quite prominent.

  5. Efficiency and productivity (TFP) of the Turkish electricity distribution companies: An application of two-stage (DEA and Tobit) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we analyze the efficiency performances of 21 Turkish electricity distribution companies during the period of 2002–2009. For this aim, we employ a two-stage analysis in order to take into account the business environment variables which are beyond the control of distribution companies. We determine the efficiency performances of the electricity distribution companies by help of DEA in the first stage. Then, in the second stage, using these calculated efficiency scores as dependent variable, we utilize Tobit model to determine the business environment variables which may explain the efficiency scores. According to the results, customer density of the region and the private ownership affect the efficiencies positively. Thus, the best strategy to improve efficiency in the market is privatizing the public distribution companies. - Highlights: • We analyze the efficiencies of 21 Turkish electricity distribution companies. • A two-stage analysis is employed to take into account environmental variables. • We firstly calculate efficiencies of companies with DEA, then Tobit model is used to determine the effects of the variables. • Customer density and ownership type affect the efficiencies positively. • Privatization is a good strategy to improve efficiencies

  6. Demonstration of a Cold Atom Fountain Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2006-01-01

    A Cs fountain electron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment using electric-field quantization is demonstrated. With magnetic fields reduced to 200 pT or less, the electric field lifts the degeneracy between hyperfine levels of different|mF| and, along with the slow beam and fountain geometry, suppresses systematics from motional magnetic fields. Transitions are induced and the atoms polarized and analyzed in field-free regions. The feasibility of reaching a sensitivity to an electron EDM o...

  7. Vacuum education courses at the General Electric Company's Neutron Devices Department, St. Petersburg, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum Technology has, from the beginning, played a key role in the production of the Department's products at the General Electric Company's Neutron Devices Department (GEND). Early recognition was given to the need for vacuum education and training for producing and maintaining vacuums to meet departmental objectives. The vacuum courses taught at GEND are described. These include basic Vacuum Technology, Advanced Vacuum Technology, and specialized vacuum related courses. Course offering rationale, outlines of subject matter covered and criteria for measuring effectiveness will be presented for each course. Such vacuum technology related courses have resulted in improved GEND product quality and in reducing losses and production cost. At the same time, these courses have given participating employees career motivation for fulfilling more challenging vacuum technology job related positions and have enabled them to achieve upward mobility in the Department's work force

  8. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  9. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which are difficult to replicate in other developing countries in the South. It is specifically argued that, since its foundation in 1949, ICE has become one of the cornerstones of a peculiar kind of welfare state and of a solidarity model for development which is listed among the most advanced in the world in terms of social progress.

  10. Evaluation of electric field intensity on atom diffusion of Cu/Ta/Si stacks during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang (China); Nanjing University, Stomatology Department, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Medical School, Nanjing (China); Jin, L. [Nanjing University, Stomatology Department, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Medical School, Nanjing (China); Yu, L.H.; Dong, S.T.; Chen, J.; Xu, J.H. [Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu Province, Zhenjiang (China)

    2016-01-15

    Cu/Ta/Si stacks were prepared and, subsequently, annealed at 650 C with different electric field intensity (0-4.0 kV/cm). The effect of electric field intensity on atomic diffusion was determined from cross-sectional TEM micrographs of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. The atomic diffusion as well as the growth of amorphous layer at Ta/Si interface tended to enhance with the increased electric field intensity at 650 C. The growth of amorphous layer obeyed a logarithmic law. The reduction in diffusion activation energy Q by increased electric field intensity will accelerate the atom diffusion, leading to significant barrier failure of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of electric field intensity on atom diffusion of Cu/Ta/Si stacks during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu/Ta/Si stacks were prepared and, subsequently, annealed at 650 C with different electric field intensity (0-4.0 kV/cm). The effect of electric field intensity on atomic diffusion was determined from cross-sectional TEM micrographs of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. The atomic diffusion as well as the growth of amorphous layer at Ta/Si interface tended to enhance with the increased electric field intensity at 650 C. The growth of amorphous layer obeyed a logarithmic law. The reduction in diffusion activation energy Q by increased electric field intensity will accelerate the atom diffusion, leading to significant barrier failure of Cu/Ta/Si stacks. (orig.)

  12. Wetlands mitigation: Partnership between an electric power company and a federal wildlife refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.; Sibrel, Cynthia B.; Gough, Gregory A.

    1996-11-01

    Nine hectares (23 acres) of a degraded section of Patuxent Research Refuge in Laurel, Maryland, USA, were converted to wetland habitat by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company in 1994. The wetlands were created as mitigation for 5.7 ha (14 acres) of wetlands that were impacted as part of the construction of an 8.5-km (5.3-mile) 500-kV overhead transmission line on the refuge. The area consists of a created forested wetland of 5.5 ha (13.5 acres), a seasonally inundated green-tree reservoir of 7.6 ha (6.5 acres), and an impounded pond wetland of 1.2 ha (3 acres). Construction included the planting of 6131 trees, 4276 shrubs, and 15,102 emergent plants. Part of the site has been studied intensively since completion and survival of trees and shrubs after two years was 88%. Measurements of these transplants have shown growth greater than on other created sites in Maryland. Grasses and other herbaceous vegetation were dominant plants in the meter-square plots in the first two years of sampling of the created forested wetland. Wildlife surveys for birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles have revealed diverse communities. Although these communities represent species consistent with open habitat, more typical forest species should colonize the area as it undergoes succession into a more mature forested wetland. The creation, management, and research of this mitigation site represents an excellent example of a partnership between a private electric power company and a federal wildlife refuge. This partnership has increased local biodiversity and improved regional water quality of the Patuxent River and the Chesapeake Bay.

  13. Development of francium atomic beam for the search of the electron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Tomoya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using Fr atoms, a Fr ion-atom conversion is one of the most critical process. An ion-atom converter based on the “orthotropic” type of Fr source has been developed. This converter is able to convert a few keV Fr ion beam to a thermal atomic beam using a cycle of the surface ionization and neutralization. In this article, the development of the converter is reported.

  14. Proposed search for an electric-dipole moment using laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2005-01-01

    We propose an experiment to search for a permanent atomic electric-dipole moment (EDM) using laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb atoms launched in an atomic fountain. A uniform B field sets the quantization axis, and the Ramsey separated-oscillatory-fields method is used to measure the Zeeman precession frequency of the atoms. Laser beams of appropriate polarization are used for preparation and detection in a given magnetic sublevel. The signature of an EDM is a shift in the Ramsey resonance correlated w...

  15. Statistics of electric-quadrupole lines in atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Gilleron, Franck; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In hot plasmas, a temperature of a few tens of eV is sufficient for producing highly stripped ions where multipole transitions become important. At low density, the transitions from tightly bound inner shells lead to electric-quadrupole (E2) lines which are comparable in strength with electric-dipole ones. In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of the number of E2 lines in a transition array. Such expressions rely on statistical descriptions of electron states and J-l...

  16. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, α = (24.33 ± 0.16)*10-30 m3, improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  17. Cost structure analysis of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on corporate financial statements of electric utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze past and current cost structure of commercial nuclear power plants in Japan based on annual corporate financial statements published by the Japanese electric utility companies, instead of employing the conventional methodology of evaluating the generation cost for a newly constructed model plant. The result of our study on existing commercial nuclear plants reveals the increasing significance of O and M and fuel cycle costs in total generation cost. Thus, it is suggested that electric power companies should take more efforts to reduce these costs in order to maintain the competitiveness of nuclear power in Japan. (author)

  18. Demonstration of an Electron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Using Electric-Field Quantization in a Cesium Cold Atom Fountain

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, J M; Amini, Jason M.; Gould, Harvey; Jr., Charles T. Munger

    2006-01-01

    A Cs fountain electron electric dipole moment (EDM) experiment using electric-field quantization is demonstrated. With magnetic fields reduced to 200 pT or less, the electric field lifts the degeneracy between hyperfine levels of different|mF| and, along with the slow beam and fountain geometry, suppresses systematics from motional magnetic fields. Transitions are induced and the atoms polarized and analyzed in field-free regions. The feasibility of reaching a sensitivity to an electron EDM of 2 x 10 exp(-50) C-m [1.3 x 10 exp(-29) e-cm] in a cesium fountain experiment is discussed.

  19. Statistics of electric-quadrupole lines in atomic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Jean-Christophe; Bauche, Jacques; Bauche-Arnoult, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In hot plasmas, a temperature of a few tens of eV is sufficient for producing highly stripped ions where multipole transitions become important. At low density, the transitions from tightly bound inner shells lead to electric-quadrupole (E2) lines which are comparable in strength with electric-dipole ones. In this work, we propose analytical formulas for the estimation of the number of E2 lines in a transition array. Such expressions rely on statistical descriptions of electron states and J-levels. A generalized 'J-file' sum rule for E2 lines and the strength-weighted shift and variance of the line energies of a transition array nl^N+1 \\rightarrow nl^Nn'l' of inter-configuration E2 lines are also presented.

  20. Atoms in hydrogen plasma in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-particle states of a hydrogen plasma under the influence of a homogeneous strong electric field and of the density are investigated. The complex rotated Stark-Coulomb-Schroedinger equation was solved analytically using complex power series expansions. In this technique one works with square integrable eigenfunctions. Density effects were taken into account as a second-order perturbation of those polynoms. Real and imaginary parts of the energies are determined which give information about location and width of the states

  1. State-mixing of nS Rydberg atoms in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-mixing effect of ultracold nS cesium Rydberg atoms in an external electric field is investigated in a magneto-optical trap. Populated high-l Rydberg atoms due to the state-mixing through avoided crossings are measured with a state-selective field ionization technique. The measured transfer rates of high-l states increase with the electric field and get to the maximum at the field of about 3.0 V/cm for 49S1/2 Rydberg state, and show decrease behavior when the electric field increases further. The decrease behavior of the transfer rate is explained with the slower m-mixing effect caused by decreasing dipole–dipole interactions between high-l Rydberg atoms. During the m-mixing process the ultracold plasma is formed by the Penning ionization. (author)

  2. Electric field measurements in glow discharges using optogalvanic detection of Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially resolved electric field measurements in the cathode fall region are performed using linear Stark effects in Rydberg atoms. The large linear Stark effects of Rydberg atoms are straightforward to calculate. A wide range of electric fields can be observed by proper choice of principle quantum number. The Rydberg atoms are produced by laser excitation from metastable levels. The fragile Rydberg atoms are rapidly collisionally ionized, and are detected using optogalvanic effects. Single step excitation using a frequency doubled dye laser is used in He. Two step excitation using intersecting dye laser beams is used in Ne. The two step method provides pinpoint measurements of discharge fields. The pinpoint field measurements are integrated along a well defined path from anode to cathode and found to agree with the discharge voltage to /sup m9/ 1%. The field measurements provide a map of the cathode fall region

  3. Institutional Governance Framework for Determining Carbon-related Accounting Practices: An Exploratory Study of Electricity Generating Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazi, B.; Mat Husin, N.

    2016-03-01

    Electricity industry is the major contributor of the global carbon emissions which has been scientifically identified as the main cause of climate change. With the various initiatives being implemented at the international, national, and industry levels, companies in the electricity industry are currently facing immense pressure from various stakeholders to demonstrate their policies, initiatives, targets, and performance on climate change. Against this background, accounting system is argued to be able to be play important roles in combating climate change. Using institutional governance as the underlying framework, we have identified several governance mechanisms as the determining factors for companies to have a systematic accounting system related to carbon emissions. The factors include environmental management system certification, environmental organization, publication of stand-alone sustainability reports, the use of GRI guidelines, environmental strategic planning, governance quality, and participation in CDP surveys and emissions trading scheme. We explored this issue in the context of major electricity generating companies in Malaysia and found that except for certified environmental management system, the other governance mechanisms are still lacking. The findings suggest that companies in Malaysia, in particular, from the electricity industry are not well prepared in facing risks related to climate change.

  4. Implications of the el-metallurgic companies on electricity sector in Republic of Macedonia and possibilities of their adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is presented analysis of implications of the el-metallurgic companies on electricity sector in Republic of Macedonia. For this analysis have been using data of realized production and consumption. As a results of this analysis are presented possibilities of adjustment of their own consumption with the aim of positive financing effects. (Author)

  5. 78 FR 48203 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, Notice of Public Meeting on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, Notice of Public Meeting on... the NRC staff will conduct a meeting to discuss and accept public comments on the Humboldt Bay Power... with the spent fuel now stored in the onsite Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. Unit...

  6. 75 FR 12312 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9619). This exemption is effective upon issuance... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Operating License No. NPF-12 which authorizes operation of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit...

  7. 75 FR 8756 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... revisions to 10 CFR part 73, as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee currently maintains a security system... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company, Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1;...

  8. 77 FR 21815 - South Carolina Electric And Gas Company (Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station Units 2 and 3); Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Assessment Rule, 10 CFR 50.150, 74 FR 28112 (June 12, 2009), the Commission's decision to administratively... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... Carolina Electric And Gas Company (Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station Units 2 and 3); Order...

  9. 75 FR 10839 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... environment 75 FR 8756; dated February 25, 2010. This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-12, which authorizes operation of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit 1...

  10. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition

  11. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  12. Effect of electron exchange on atomic ionization in a strong electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Amusia, M. Ya.

    2009-01-01

    Hartree-Fock atom in a strong electric static field is considered. It is demonstrated that exchange between outer and inner electrons, taken into account by the so-called Fock term affects strongly the long-range behavior of the inner electron wave function. As a result, it dramatically increases its probability to be ionized. A simple model is analyzed demonstrating that the decay probability, compared to the case of a local (Hartree) atomic potential, increases by many orders of magnitude. ...

  13. Computation for High Excited Stark Levels of hydrogen Atoms in Uniform Electric Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田人和

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method for the numerical calculation of exact complex eigenvalues of Schrodinger equations for a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field. This method allows a direct calculation for complex eigenvalues without using any auxiliary treatment, such as the Breit-Wigner parametrization and the complex scale transformation,etc. The characteristics of high excited atoms in electric field have attracted extensive interest in experimental aspect, however, the existing theoretical calculation is only up to n = 40. Here we present the computation results ranging from n = 1 to 100. The data for n(<,_ ) 40 are in agreement with the results of other researchers.

  14. Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Li Rydberg Atom in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua; DING Shi-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the closed-orbit theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases; others persist till much higher f . As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.

  15. Semiclassical Calculation of Recurrence Spectra of Li Rydberg Atom in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDe-Hua; DINGShi-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Closed-orbit theory is a semiclassical technique for explaining the spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields. Using the dosed-orblt theory and classical perturbation theory, we calculate the scaled recurrence spectra of Lithium atom in magnetic field plus a weak perpendicular electric field. The results show when the crossed electric field is added, the recurrence spectra are weakened greatly. As the scaled electric field f increases, the peaks of the recurrence spectra lose strength. Some recurrences are very sensitive and fall off rapidly as f increases, others persist till much higher f. As the electric field is stronger, some of the peaks revive. This phenomenon, caused by the interference among the electron waves that return to the nucleus, can be computed from the azimuthal dependence of the classical closed orbits.

  16. The Use of Intermediate Management Balances as a Performance Management Tool in Electricity Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela DUMITRU; Marian TAICU; Gheorghe SAVOIU

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that the company is a place where material chances take place, and inputs thus become outputs, in the countries that use the continental accounting system, comparisons in time and space concerning the company results are made based on intermediate balances of administration. The analysis of the company performance based on intermediate balances of administration makes it possible to highlight the manner in which value is created and transferred within the company....

  17. Preparation of ZnO films with variable electric field-assisted atomic layer deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZnO films have been prepared by a variable electric field-assisted atomic layer deposition method (ALD). By applying electric fields during the precursor pulses, we can modulate both the crystal orientation and structure of the obtained ZnO films. The ZnO films with c-axis preferred orientation and the least oxygen vacancy defect were obtained when the holder electric polarities were positive and negative during the DEZn and H2O pulse, respectively. It is supported that when electric field was applied in the chamber, the torque may lead to the precursor molecular alignments along the electric field direction, which could affect the film growth process and then influence their structures and properties. This variable electric field-assisted ALD approach would provide an efficient protocol for the growth of semiconductor films with designed properties.

  18. Electrical control of a single Mn atom in a quantum dot

    OpenAIRE

    Léger, Yoan; Besombes, Lucien; Fernández Rossier, Joaquín; Maingault, Laurent; Mariette, Henri

    2006-01-01

    We report on the reversible electrical control of the magnetic properties of a single Mn atom in an individual quantum dot. Our device permits us to prepare the dot in states with three different electric charges, 0, +1e, and -1e which result in dramatically different spin properties, as revealed by photoluminescence. Whereas in the neutral configuration the quantum dot is paramagnetic, the electron-doped dot spin states are spin rotationally invariant and the hole-doped dot spins states are ...

  19. Large Effects of Electric Fields on Atom-Molecule Collisions at Millikelvin Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Parazzoli, L. P.; Fitch, N J; Zuchowski, P.S.; Hutson, J. M.; Lewandowsk, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling interactions between cold molecules using external fields can elucidate the role of quantum mechanics in molecular collisions. We create a new experimental platform in which ultracold rubidium atoms and cold ammonia molecules are separately trapped by magnetic and electric fields and then combined to study collisions. We observe inelastic processes that are faster than expected from earlier field-free calculations. We use quantum scattering calculations to show that electric field...

  20. NRC Information No. 87-30: Cracking of surge ring brackets in large General Electric Company electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1985 outage at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3, broken surge ring brackets were discovered in a 2,000-horsepower (hp) RHR pump motor and a 600-hp core spray pump motor. Attempts to repair the brackets by welding were unsuccessful, and they were removed from the motors at GE's suggestion. The licensee for Peach Bottom is reevaluating the motor design and the need to replace the brackets. During the week of November 10, 1986, the licensee for Cooper Nuclear Station inspected its 1,000-hp RHR pump motors and discovered that three of four motors had broken lower surge ring brackets and cracked upper and lower end-turn felt blocks. In the B motor, five of six lower brackets were fractured. Repairs were made and periodic visual inspections are being conducted. GE informed the NRC on March 24, 1987 that the equipment affected in BWR plants includes the RHR, core spray, and high-pressure core spray system electric motors. GE recommended that annual inspections be performed until operating experience indicates that this is no longer necessary. At plants where the support brackets have been removed, GE stated that restoration actions should be taken as soon as possible

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-Chemical Company Annual review of operations, 1980-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Record production of heavy water was achieved: the plants at Glace Bay and Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia, produced a total of 560 megagrams. A shipment of 500 Mg was delivered on time to the Wolsung CANDU reactor in Korea. Energy conservation and waste heat utilization programs included the construction of a greenhouse at the Glace Bay site. Long-term protection of the La Prade site is essentially complete. The company has reorganized its marketing and engineering division and assumed a greater international role

  2. How efficient are African electricity companies? Evidence from the Southern African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a first attempt at documenting efficiency levels in Africa's electricity firms, their evolution and the sources of this evolution. The analysis is based on a sample of 12 operators providing services in the 12 country members of the Southern Africa Power Pool. We focus on the changes in total factor productivity (TFP) of the largest operators in each country between 1998 and 2005. We then rely on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) decomposition to identify the sources of the changes in TFP. The results suggest fairly comparable levels of efficiency in the region and performance levels and evolution quite independent of the degree of vertical integration, the presence of a private actor or the main sources of energy supply. The analysis suggest that although the companies have not made significant improvements during the period of analysis in using their capital and human assets, they have done much better in adopting better technologies and better commercial practices. No clear correlation could be associated with the adoption of reforms during the last decade and data limitations impede a more refined assessment of the impact of reforms on efficiency at this stage

  3. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] staff evaluation of the General Electric Company Nuclear Reactor Study (''Reed Report'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1975, the General Electric Company (GE) published a Nuclear Reactor Study, also referred to as ''the Reed Report,'' an internal product-improvement study. GE considered the document ''proprietary'' and thus, under the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), exempt from mandatory public disclosure. Nonetheless, members of the NRC staff reviewed the document in 1976 and determined that it did not raise any significant new safety issues. The staff also reached the same conclusion in subsequent reviews. However, in response to recent inquiries about the report, the staff reevaluated the Reed Report from a 1987 perspective. This re-evaluation, documented in this staff report, concluded that: (1) there are no issues raised in the Reed Report that support a need to curtail the operation of any GE boiling water reactor (BWR); (2) there are no new safety issues raised in the Reed Report of which the staff was unaware; and (3) although certain issues addressed by the Reed Report are still being studied by the NRC and the industry, there is no basis for suspending licensing and operation of GE BWR plants while these issues are being resolved

  4. Electric Substations, This is a ESRI feature class of American Transmission Company's Rock County electrical sub station sites, Published in 2006, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Substations dataset as of 2006. It is described as 'This is a ESRI feature class of American Transmission Company's Rock County electrical sub station...

  5. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  6. Carbon nanotubes with atomic impurities on boron nitride sheets under applied electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Kim, Gunn; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the structural and electronic properties of metal-doped (10, 0) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a single hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) sheet in the presence of an external electric field. We consider K, Cl and Ni atoms as dopants to study the dependence of the electronic properties of the CNT on doping polarity and concentration. The electric field strength is varied from -0.2 V/\\AA to +0.2 V/\\AA to explore the effects of an external electric...

  7. Solving problems on hydrogen atom in electric field by means of REDUCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of solving perturbation theory problems of quantum mechanics in the language of the dynamic symmetry group by means of REDUCE computer algebra system is discussed. The program for analytical calculation of energy and wave functions of hydrogen atom in an electric field in arbitrary order of the perturbation theory is presented

  8. Hydrogen atom ionization by fast electrons in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen atom ionization by fast electrons in an external electric field is considered. The oscillative character of ionization is referred to interference effects, occuring under electron transition to states of continuous energy spectrum. These states are described by wave functions in the form of standing waves

  9. The hydrogen atom in an electric field: closed-orbit theory with bifurcating orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closed-orbit theory provides a general approach to the semiclassical description of photo-absorption spectra of arbitrary atoms in external fields, the simplest of which is the hydrogen atom in an electric field. Yet, despite its apparent simplicity, a semiclassical quantization of this system by means of closed-orbit theory has not been achieved so far. It is the aim of this paper to close that gap. We first present a detailed analytic study of the closed classical orbits and their bifurcations. We then derive a simple form of the uniform semiclassical approximation for the bifurcations that is suitable for an inclusion into a closed-orbit summation. By means of a generalized version of the semiclassical quantization by harmonic inversion, we succeed in calculating high-quality semiclassical spectra for the hydrogen atom in an electric field

  10. Integrated plant safety assessment: systematic evaluation program. Haddam Neck Plant, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. Docket No. 50-213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Haddam Neck Plant, operated by Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. The Haddam Neck Plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  11. Advances in electric field and atomic surface derived properties from experimental electron densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmaida, Nouzha; Ghermani, Nour Eddine

    2008-07-14

    The present study is devoted to a general use of the Gauss law. This is applied to the atomic surfaces derived from the topological analysis of the electron density. The method proposed here is entirely numerical, robust and does not necessitate any specific parametrization of the atomic surfaces. We focus on two fundamental properties: the atomic charges and the electrostatic forces acting on atoms in molecules. Application is made on experimental electron densities modelized by the Hansen-Coppens model from which the electric field is derived for a heterogenic set of compounds: water molecule, NO(3) anion, bis-triazine molecule and MgO cluster. Charges and electrostatic forces are estimated by the atomic surface flux of the electric field and the Maxwell stress tensor, respectively. The charges obtained from the present method are in good agreement with those issued from the conventional volume integration. Both Feynman and Ehrenfest forces as well as the electrostatic potential at the nuclei (EPN) are here estimated from the experimental electron densities. The values found for the molecular compounds are presented and discussed in the scope of the mechanics of atomic interactions. PMID:18688393

  12. Study and analysis of an electric Z-shaped meta-atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Dhouibi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A printed Z-shaped electric meta-atom is presented as an alternative design to the conventional electric-LC (ELC resonator. We propose to redesign the ELC resonator pattern to get a compact and a low cost electric resonator exhibiting a strong electric response. Our approach consists in redressing the resonator shape to accommodate higher inductance and therefore leading to a lower resonance frequency without being limited by fabrication tolerances. Simulation and measurement results show that the Z metaatom exhibits an electric response to normally incident radiation and can be used very effectively in producing materials with negative permittivity.

  13. Revenue cap regulation in a deregulated electricity market : effects on a grid company

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Mette; Jörnsten, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 an incentive-based regulation was introduced for Norwegian transmission and distribution companies. Under the following revenue regulation regime, the permissible revenue of a grid company is adjusted annually, and during the first regulation period, the new revenue cap was determined on the basis of last year’s revenue cap, adjusting for inflation, productivity improvement, and load growth. The idea behind the load growth compensation factor was that the grid companies should be comp...

  14. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  15. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabona, Narcis; Pages, Adela [Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  16. First Atomic Electric Dipole Moment Limit Derived from an Octupole-Deformed Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Bishof, Michael; Kalita, Mukut; Lemke, Nathan; Dietrich, Matt; Bailey, Kevin; Greene, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, T. P.; Singh, Jaideep

    2015-05-01

    Ra-225 (half-life = 15 d, nuclear spin = 1/2) is a promising isotope for a measurement of the EDM of a diamagnetic atom. Due to its large nuclear octupole deformation and high atomic mass, the EDM sensitivity of Ra-225 is expected to be 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of Hg-199. We demonstrate an efficient multiple-stage apparatus in which radium atoms are first loaded into a MOT, then transferred into a movable optical-dipole trap (ODT) that carries the atoms over 1 m to a magnetically-shielded science chamber, loaded into a standing-wave ODT, polarized, and then allowed to precess in magnetic and electric fields. We will discuss our first measurement of the EDM of Ra-225, as well as plans for future improvements. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics (DE-AC02-06CH11357).

  17. Search for Electric dipole moment (EDM) in laser cooled and trapped 225Ra atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Mukut; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew; Green, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Lemke, Nathan; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Tom; Parker, Richard; Singh, Jaideep; Trimble, Will; Argonne National Laboratory Collaboration; University Of Chicago Collabration; University Of Kentucky Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We are searching for an EDM of the diamagnetic 225Ra atom. 225Ra has nuclear spin I =1/2. Experimental sensitivity to its EDM is enhanced due to its heavy mass and the increased Schiff moment of its octupole deformed nucleus. Our experiment involves collecting laser cooled Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT), transporting them 1 meter with a far off-resonant optical dipole trap (ODT) and then transferring the atoms to a second standing-wave ODT in our experimental chamber. We will report our recent experiences in polarizing and observing Larmor precession of 225Ra atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields in a magnetically shielded region and progress towards a first measurement of the EDM of 225Ra. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and contract No. DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  18. de Haas-van Alphen oscillations for neutral atoms in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, B.; Furtado, C.

    2016-07-01

    The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect is well known as an oscillatory variation of the magnetization of conductors as a function of the inverse magnetic field and the frequency is proportional to the area of the Fermi surface. Here, we show that an analogous effect can occur for neutral atoms with a nonvanishing magnetic moment interacting with an electric field. Under an appropriate field-dipole configuration, the neutral atoms subject to a synthetic magnetic field arrange themselves in Landau levels. Using the Landau-Aharonov-Casher (LAC) theory, we obtain the energy eigenfunctions and eigenvalues as well as the degeneracy of the system. In a strong effective magnetic field regime we present the quantum oscillations in the energy and effective magnetization of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic gas. From the dHvA period we determine the area of the Fermi circle of the atomic cloud.

  19. Final report on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (hereafter, 'Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS') and Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station (hereafter, 'Fukushima Dai-ni NPS') of Tokyo Electric Power Company (hereafter, 'TEPCO') were damaged in the Tohoku District - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the ensuing tsunami. In particular, an extremely severe accident measuring Level 7 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. The Investigation Committee was established on May 24, 2011 by a Cabinet decision. Its mission is to make policy recommendations, by investigating and verifying the causes of the accident and ensuing damage, on measures to prevent the further spread of damage caused by the accident and a recurrence of similar accidents in the future. The Investigation Committee inspected the accident sites including the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS and the Fukushima Dai-ni NPS, and interviewed individuals concerned, including the mayors and residents of relevant municipalities. The number of interviewees reached 772 in total. The Investigation Committee published its Interim Report on December 26, 2011 and its Final Report on July 23, 2012. The Final Report, with the Interim Report as its complementary piece, describes mainly the results of investigations after the Interim Report. This Executive Summary is a condensed version of the Final Report, mainly Chapter VI of the main text which analyzes the problems and provides recommendations. The contents of the parenthesis [ ] that follow the title indicate the relevant corresponding locations in the Final Report (Main text). Recommendations are indicated in bold. (author)

  20. Interim report on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (the Investigation Committee) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was established by the Cabinet decision on May 24, 2011. Its objectives are: to conduct investigation for finding out the causes of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS) and Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ni NPS) of TEPCO as well as the causes of accident damage; and to make policy recommendations for limiting the expansion of damage and preventing reoccurrence of similar accidents. The Investigation Committee has conducted its investigation and evaluation since its first meeting on June 7, 2011. Its activities included: site visits to the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni NPSs, as well as to other facilities; hearing of heads of local governments around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS; and hearing of people concerned through interviews mainly arranged by the Secretariat. As of December 16, 2011, the number of interviewees reached 456. The investigation and evaluation by the Investigation Committee are still ongoing and the Interim Report does not cover every item that the Committee aims at investigating and evaluating. Fact-finding of even some of those items discussed in the Interim Report are not yet completed. The Investigation Committee continues to conduct its investigation and evaluation and will issue its Final Report in the summer of 2012. This brief executive summary covers mainly considerations and evaluation of the issues in Chapter VII of the Interim Report, with brief reference to Chapters I to VI. The Investigation Committee recommendations are printed in bold. (author)

  1. Service hall in Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are six BWR type nuclear power plants in the Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. The service hall of the station is located near the entrance of the station. In the center of this service hall, there is the model of a nuclear reactor of full scale. This mock-up shows the core region in the reactor pressure vessel for the number one plant. The diameter and the thickness of the pressure vessel are about 5 m and 16 cm, respectively. The fuel assemblies and control rods are set just like the actual reactor, and the start-up operation of the reactor is shown colorfully and dynamically by pushing a button. When the control rods are pulled out, the boiling of water is demonstrated. The 1/50 scale model of the sixth plant with the power generating capacity of 1100 MWe is set, and this model is linked to the mock-up of reactor written above. The operations of a recirculating loop, a turbine and a condenser are shown by switching on and off lamps. The other exhibitions are shielding concrete wall, ECCS model, and many kinds of panels and models. This service hall is incorporated in the course of study and observation of civics. The good environmental effects to fishes and shells are explained in this service hall. Official buildings and schools are built near the service hall utilizing the tax and grant concerning power generation. This service hall contributes to give much freedom from anxiety to the public by the tour. (Nakai, Y.)

  2. Resolution 147/012. It authorize the Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the Sistema inerconectado Nacional connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to install an electrical plant in Maldonado town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  3. 76 FR 14796 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires replacing certain forward and aft centerbodies of the long fixed core exhaust nozzle (LFCEN) assembly. This AD adds certain new forward and aft centerbody part numbers (P/Ns) to the list requiring replacement. This AD was prompted......

  4. 76 FR 6323 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines with certain low-pressure turbine (LPT) rotor stage 3 disks installed. That AD currently requires initial and repetitive borescope inspections of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) rotor stage 1 and stage 2 blades for wear and damage, including excessive airfoil......

  5. Barriers to electricity load shift in companies: A survey-based exploration of the end-user perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As countries move toward larger shares of renewable electricity, the slow diffusion of active electricity load management should concern energy policy makers and users alike. Active load management can increase capacity factors and thereby reduce the need for new capacity, improve reliability, and lower electricity prices. This paper conceptually and empirically explores barriers to load shift in industry from an end-user perspective. An online survey, based on a taxonomy of barriers developed in the realm of energy efficiency, was carried out among manufacturing sites in mostly Southern Germany. Findings suggest that the most important barriers are risk of disruption of operations, impact on product quality, and uncertainty about cost savings. Of little concern are access to capital, lack of employee skills, and data security. Statistical tests suggest that companies for which electricity has higher strategic value rate financial and regulatory risk higher than smaller ones. Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores than companies using batch or just-in-time production. A principal component analysis clusters the barriers and multivariate analysis with the factor scores confirms the prominence of technical risk as a barrier to load shift. The results provide guidance for policy making and future empirical studies. - Highlights: • We quantitatively assess barriers to load shift adoption among manufacturing firms. • Conceptually, we build on the literature on barriers to energy efficiency. • The most important barriers are interference with production and with product quality. • Companies with a continuous production process report lower barrier scores. • The barriers to load shift may be organized in distinct clusters via principal component analysis

  6. Inquiry relating to modifications of reactor installation in Ikata No. 1 and 2 nuclear power plants of Shikoku Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application was made to the Minister of International Trade and Industry for the license relating to the modifications of reactor installation in the Ikata No. 1 and 2 nuclear power plants of the Shikoku Electric Power Company, Inc., on February 13, 1979, from the president of the company. After the safety evaluation was finished by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, inquiry was conducted to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on June 15, 1979, from the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The investigation and discussion were commenced by the AESC on June 19, 1979. The modifications of the reactor installation are the increase of new fuel storage capacity from about 1/3 to about 2/3 of in-core fuel for No. 1 plant and the modification of driving mechanism from the roller nut type to the magnetic jack type for the control rod cluster for adjusting power distribution in the No. 2 plant. The contents of the safety examination for each item written above are presented. The prevention of criticality is carefully practiced for the new fuel storage by putting fuel assemblies in stainless steel can type racks and locating the fuel assemblies at the proper distance. Relating to the driving mechanism for the control rod cluster adjusting power distribution, the driving speed is not modified and the reliability is kept by carrying out the continuous operation test and the electric power black out test as the demonstration test. The magnetic jack type mechanism has the locking device to prevent reactor tripping at the time of electric power black out, and the cluster is held at the location where the cluster existed at the time of black out. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Energy R and D in private and state-owned utilities: An analysis of the major world electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have witnessed a staggering decline of R and D investment in the fields of energy and electricity. This paper contends that this widespread phenomenon is mainly ascribable to the processes of liberalization and privatization of electricity markets, which have induced electric utilities to dramatically reduce R and D expenditures. A closer inspection to recent data concerned with ten major electric companies of the world shows that the drop of research expenditures was particularly strong among the private or newly-privatized companies. Instead, those that remained under public control did not reduce remarkably their R and D efforts. According to the widely recognized need of a surge of energy R and D, the policy implications of the above findings are discussed. - Highlights: ► The last two decades have witnessed a staggering reduction of energy R and D. ► This was due to the liberalization of electricity markets. ► The R and D cuts have been particularly intense in private utilities. ► Instead, state-owned utilities have maintained an adequate research capacity. ► The above market failure is calling for urgent policy measures.

  8. Bulk metallic glassy surface native oxide: Its atomic structure, growth rate and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of a native oxide layer on the surface of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) influences significantly the nanoscale tribological properties and mechanical behavior of the BMGs used in nanodevices. However, our knowledge of the native oxidation process on the BMG surface and structure of the corresponding oxides remains limited because the oxide layer is very thin. Here we conducted a combined state-of-the-art experimental technique study of the atomic structure, oxidations states and electrical conductivity of the native surface oxides on a Cu−Zr−Al BMG formed at ambient conditions by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM). This allowed shedding light on the atomic structure, metal oxidation state, growth behavior and nanoscale electrical properties of the surface oxide. The conductive AFM measurements reveal that the electrical conductivity of the native oxide layer transits from the initially metallic to a nonlinear one after some air exposure, and finally changes to insulative state. These findings represent a significant step forward in the knowledge of surface oxides and open up the possibility of fabricating nanoscale electrical devices based on BMGs with controllable conductivity

  9. Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa Y.; Chikamori M.; Ohtomo Y.; Hikota E.; Sakamoto Y.; Suzuki T; Bidinosti C.P.; Inoue T; Furukawa T; Yoshimi A.; Suzuki K.; Nanao T.; Miyatake H.; Tsuchiya M.; Yoshida N

    2014-01-01

    An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM m...

  10. Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Y.; Chikamori, M.; Ohtomo, Y.; Hikota, E.; Sakamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Bidinosti, C. P.; Inoue, T.; Furukawa, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nanao, T.; Miyatake, H.; Tsuchiya, M.; Yoshida, N.; Shirai, H.; Ino, T.; Ueno, H.; Matsuo, Y.; Fukuyama, T.; Asahi, K.

    2014-03-01

    An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.

  11. Resonance and interference phenomena in the photoionisation of a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoionisation cross section for a hydrogen atom placed in a uniform electric field is investigated as a function of the light frequency. Analytical formulae are obtained describing the cross section structure in various regions of photon energy and field strength. The Fano parametrisation of resonance peak is generalised for the overlapping resonance case. When the photon energy is close to the ionisation potential the resonance peaks are strongly asymmetrical. A comparison is made with experiments where the structure is observed in the photoionisation of sodium and rubidium atoms. (author)

  12. Search for electric dipole moment in 129Xe atom using active nuclear spin maser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa Y.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental search for an electric dipole moment in the diamagnetic atom 129Xe is in progress through the precision measurement of spin precession frequency using an active nuclear spin maser. A 3He comagnetometer has been incorporated into the active spin maser system in order to cancel out the long-term drifts in the external magnetic field. Also, a double-cell geometry has been adopted in order to suppress the frequency shifts due to interaction with polarized Rb atoms. The first EDM measurement with the 129Xe active spin maser and the 3He comagnetometer has been conducted.

  13. 78 FR 45984 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... (55 FR 29185), the Commission responded to comments related to emergency preparedness for spent fuel... public health and safety from design basis accidents or credible beyond design basis accidents since... and will be taken in the event of a radiological emergency at the YR ISFSI for the same reasons...

  14. Operating Experience at the Yankee Atomic Electric Company Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of the Yankee plant began in November 1960 and since that time the station has generated over 2 x 109 kWh gross. The overall use factor from first generation of power in 1960 is just over 67%. The economic picture has also been very encouraging. The Yankee plant is not only continuing to demonstrate its ability to supply base-load power for the New England area but is also providing new information of benefit to the economics of all closed-cycle reactors. Problems have been encountered, some of a fairly significant nature, but every indication to date is that these are correctable and that plant operation will become even more dependable with continually improving economics as time goes on. (author)

  15. Static electric and magnetic multipole susceptibilities for Dirac one-electron atoms in the ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmytkowski, Radosław; Łukasik, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    We present tabulated data for several families of static electric and magnetic multipole susceptibilities for hydrogenic atoms with nuclear charge numbers from the range 1 ⩽ Z ⩽ 137. Atomic nuclei are assumed to be point-like and spinless. The susceptibilities considered include the multipole electric polarizabilities α E L → E L and magnetizabilities (magnetic susceptibilities) χ M L → M L with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4 (i.e., the dipole, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole ones), the electric-to-magnetic cross-susceptibilities α E L → M(L - 1) with 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 5 and α E L → M(L + 1) with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4, the magnetic-to-electric cross-susceptibilities χ M L → E(L - 1) with 2 ⩽ L ⩽ 5 and χ M L → E(L + 1) with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4 (it holds that χ M L → E(L ∓ 1) =α E(L ∓ 1) → M L), and the electric-to-toroidal-magnetic cross-susceptibilities α E L → T L with 1 ⩽ L ⩽ 4. Numerical values are computed from general exact analytical formulas, derived by us elsewhere within the framework of the Dirac relativistic quantum mechanics, and involving generalized hypergeometric functions 3F2 of the unit argument.

  16. Photoionization microscopy of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a non-uniform electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-Hao, Cheng; De-Hua, Wang; Zhao-Hang, Chen; Qiang, Chen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg hydrogen atom in a gradient electric field for the first time. The observed oscillatory patterns in the photoionization microscopy are explained within the framework of the semiclassical theory, which can be considered as a manifestation of interference between various electron trajectories arriving at a given point on the detector plane. In contrast with the photoionization microscopy in the uniform electric field, the trajectories of the ionized electron in the gradient electric field will become chaotic. An infinite set of different electron trajectories can arrive at a given point on the detector plane, which makes the interference pattern of the electron probability density distribution extremely complicated. Our calculation results suggest that the oscillatory pattern in the electron probability density distribution depends sensitively on the electric field gradient, the scaled energy and the position of the detector plane. Through our research, we predict that the interference pattern in the electron probability density distribution can be observed in an actual photoionization microscopy experiment once the external electric field strength and the position of the electron detector plane are reasonable. This study provides some references for the future experimental research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the non-uniform external fields. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374133) and the Project of Shandong Provincial Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J13LJ04).

  17. Measurement of Ionization Threshold of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms in Static Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhi-Gang; ZHANG Lin-Jie; ZHAO Jian-Ming; LI Chang-Yong; LI An-Ling; JIA Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the field ionization spectra of ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms in dc electric field. The ionization thresholds of different electric fields are measured and shift of the ionization threshold relative to field-free ionization threshold is accurately described by (6.06±0.14) F1/2, which is in good agreement with the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. We obtain the field-free ionization threshold of cesium (6P,3/2) as 19674.89士2.99cm-1 by fitting experimental data.

  18. Rydberg atoms with a reduced sensitivity to dc and low-frequency electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, L A; Martin, J D D

    2013-01-01

    A non-resonant microwave dressing field at 38.465 GHz was used to eliminate the static electric dipole moment difference between the $49s_{1/2}$ and $48s_{1/2}$ Rydberg states of $^{87}$Rb in dc fields of approximately 1 V/cm. The reduced susceptibility to electric field fluctuations was measured using 2-photon microwave spectroscopy. An anomalous spectral doublet is attributed to polarization ellipticity in the dressing field. The demonstrated ability to inhibit static dipole moment differences --- while retaining sensitivity to high frequency fields --- is applicable to sensors and/or quantum devices using Rydberg atoms.

  19. Semiclassical Calculations of Recurrence Spectra for Lithium Atoms in Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林圣路; 张秋菊; 赵珂; 宋晓红; 张延惠

    2002-01-01

    By using the region-splitting consistent and iterative method, we calculate the recurrence spectra of lithium atoms in parallel strong external electric and magnetic fields, and obtain the novel resonance structure in the photoabsorption spectrum above the ionization threshold with a constant scaled electric field at F = 0.036, and a scaled energy at e = 0.58 and e = 0.006, respectively. The results are compared with those of hydrogen obtained by using standard closed orbit theory. It is demonstrated that the core-scattered effects exhibited in combination recurrence play a great role.

  20. Suitability of using atomic energy at existing thermal electrical power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosach, V.G.; Rogovoi, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    A thermal concept is described for the simultaneous use of atomic and organic fuels at existing electrical thermal power plants. Equations are presented for the mass and heat balances, from which a preliminary calculation of this thermal concept was carried out. The results indicate that it is efficient to use a nuclear reactor at thermal electrical power plants, as a result of which up to 50% of the total heat is produced by nuclear fuel, while the consumption of organic is decreased by almost a factor of two in this case. 4 figures, 3 references.

  1. Total angular momentum representation for atom-molecule collisions in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tscherbul, T V

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the atom-molecule collision problem in the presence of an external electric field can be solved using the total angular momentum representation in the body-fixed coordinated frame, leading to a computationally efficient method for ab initio modeling of low-temperature scattering phenomena. Our calculations demonstrate rapid convergence of the cross sections for vibrational and Stark relaxation in He-CaD collisions with the number of total angular momentum states in the basis set, leading to a 5-100 fold increase in computational efficiency over the previously used methods based on the fully uncoupled space-fixed representation. These results open up the possibility of carrying out numerically converged quantum scattering calculations on a wide array of atom-molecule collisions and chemical reactions in the presence of electric fields.

  2. High-Fidelity Simulations of Electrically-Charged Atomizing Diesel-Type Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Benoit; Owkes, Mark; van Poppel, Bret

    2015-11-01

    Combustion of liquid fuels accounts for over a third of the energy usage today. Improving efficiency of combustion systems is critical to meet the energy needs while limiting environmental impacts. Additionally, a shift away from traditional fossil fuels to bio-derived alternatives requires fuel injection systems that can atomize fuels with a wide range of properties. In this work, the potential benefits of electrically-charged atomization is investigated using numerical simulations. Particularly, the electrostatic forces on the hydrodynamic jet are quantified and the impact of the forces is analyzed by comparing simulations of Diesel-type jets at realistic flow conditions. The simulations are performed using a state-of-the-art numerical framework that globally conserves mass, momentum, and the electric charge density even at the gas-liquid interface where discontinuities exist.

  3. Reactor coolant pump type RUV for Westinghouse Electric Company LLC reactor AP1000 TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RUV is a reactor coolant pump, specially designed for the Westinghouse Electric Company LLC AP1000 TM reactor. It is a hermetically sealed, wet winding motor pump. The RUV is a very compact, vertical pump/motor unit, designed to fit into the compartment next to the reactor pressure vessel. Each of the two steam generators has two pump casings welded to the channel head by the suction nozzle. The pump/motor unit consists of a pump part, where a semi-axial impeller/diffuser combination is mounted in a one-piece pump casing. Computational Fluid Dynamics methods combined with various hydraulic tests in a 1:2 scale hydraulic test assure full compliance with the specific customer requirements. A short and rigid shaft, supported by a radial bearing, connects the impeller with the high inertia flywheel. This flywheel consists of a one-piece forged stainless steel cylinder, with an option for several smaller heavy metal cylinders inside. The flywheel is located inside the thermal barrier, which forms part of the pressure boundary. A specific arrangement of cooling water circuits guarantees a homogeneous temperature distribution in and around the flywheel, minimizes the friction losses of the flywheel and protects the motor from hot coolant. The driving torque is transmitted by the motor shaft, which itself is supported by two radial bearings. A three-phase, high-voltage squirrel-cage induction motor generates the driving torque. Due to the wet winding concept it is possible to achieve positive effects regarding motor lifetime. The cooling water is forced through the stator windings and the gap between rotor and stator by an auxiliary impeller. Furthermore, this wet winding motor concept has higher efficiency as compared to a canned motor since there are no eddy current losses. As part of the design process and in addition to the hydraulic scale model, a complete half scale model pump was built. It was used to verify the calculations performed like coast

  4. Transformation of the spectrum of atomic hydrogen in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of highly excited atomic hydrogen in weak mutually orthogonal electric and magnetic fields is investigated. An analytical description is given for the splitting of levels remaining degenerate in the first order of perturbation theory. Approximate expressions are obtained for the energy eigenvalues and for the exponentially small tunnelling splitting of doublet states. It is shown that the spectrum is radically transformed when the relative strength of the two fields is changed. (author)

  5. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Asahi, K.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Sato, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshimi, A.; Sakemi, Y.

    2015-04-01

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  6. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented

  7. Differential cross section for photoionization of a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential cross section for the photoionisation of an atom in a uniform electric field can be observed if the photocurrent is registered on a plane screen perpendicular to the uniform field axis. It manifests a complicated structure due to both resonance and interference effects which are interpreted in terms of the classical electron trajectories. In certain experimental conditions, the pattern can achieve a macroscopic size. Tentative suggestions for the applications of the differential cross section observation are discussed. (Author)

  8. Ericson fluctuations in the chaotic ionization of the hydrogen atom in crossed magnetic and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report exact quantum calculations for the hydrogen atom in crossed magnetic and electric fields. Employing the complex-coordinate-rotation method we are able to extend the calculations of eigenstates far into the continuum region. Calculated photoionization cross sections are found to exhibit strong Ericson fluctuations, a characteristic feature of chaotic scattering. This interpretation is supported by classical trajectory calculations which reveal a fractal dependence of the classical ionization time on the initial conditions

  9. Threshold ionization dynamics of the hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In crossed electric and magnetic fields the hydrogen atom undergoes a transition to chaotic scattering associated with a critical point in the Hamiltonian flow. The stability of the critical point is determined and leads to an accurate prediction of the transition to scattering that is independent of the magnetic-field strength. Nevertheless, observed variations in the apparent ionization threshold with magnetic-field strength are explained

  10. A realistic example of chaotic tunneling: The hydrogen atom inparallel static electric and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2003-01-01

    Statistics of tunneling rates in the presence of chaotic classical dynamics is discussed on a realistic example: a hydrogen atom placed in parallel uniform static electric and magnetic fields, where tunneling is followed by ionization along the fields direction. Depending on the magnetic quantum number, one may observe either a standard Porter-Thomas distribution of tunneling rates or, for strong scarring by a periodic orbit parallel to the external fields, strong deviations from it. For the ...

  11. Experimental search for the electron electric dipole moment with laser cooled francium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: inoue-t@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Frontier Research Institute of Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kawamura, H.; Uchiyama, A. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan); Aoki, T. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Hatanaka, K. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Murakami, T. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nataraj, H. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); and others

    2015-04-15

    A laser cooled heavy atom is one of the candidates to search for the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron due to the enhancement mechanism and its long coherence time. The laser cooled francium (Fr) factory has been constructed to perform the electron EDM search at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The present status of Fr production and the EDM measurement system is presented.

  12. Motion of Rydberg atoms with strong permanent-electric-dipole interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luís Felipe; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Using classical trajectories simulations, we investigate the dynamics of a cold sample of Rydberg atoms with high permanent electric dipole moments. The dipolar state can be created using an adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing between an S-like state and a linear Stark state. The simulations yield the pair-correlation functions (PCF) of the atom samples, which allow us to extract the motion of Rydberg-atom pairs in the many-body system. The results reveal the strength and the anisotropic character of the underlying interaction. The simulation is employed to test the suitability of experimental methods designed to derive interaction parameters from PCF. Insight is obtained about the stability of the method against variation of experimentally relevant parameters. Transient correlations due to interaction-induced heating are observed.

  13. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  14. Devolution of HRM Practices: Perspectives of Two Major Japanese Electrical and Electronics Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abang Ekhsan Abang Othman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the devolution of HRM functions, the rationale and problems of such devolution to line management in the context of applications and processes in two major Japanese multinational companies in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach? - The research used mixed methodology via case studies and questionnaire surveys. Overall 29 questionnaires from two companies were analyzed, a response rate of 58 percent. In addition, the views of the Executive Director, Head of HR, an...

  15. Modulation of electrical potential and conductivity in an atomic-layer semiconductor heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yu; Yoshida, Shoji; Sakurada, Ryuji; Takashima, Kengo; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Saito, Tetsuki; Konabe, Satoru; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Maniwa, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor heterojunction interfaces have been an important topic, both in modern solid state physics and in electronics and optoelectronics applications. Recently, the heterojunctions of atomically-thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are expected to realize one-dimensional (1D) electronic systems at their heterointerfaces due to their tunable electronic properties. Herein, we report unique conductivity enhancement and electrical potential modulation of heterojunction interfaces based on TMDC bilayers consisted of MoS2 and WS2. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy analyses showed the formation of 1D confining potential (potential barrier) in the valence (conduction) band, as well as bandgap narrowing around the heterointerface. The modulation of electronic properties were also probed as the increase of current in conducting atomic force microscopy. Notably, the observed band bending can be explained by the presence of 1D fixed charges around the heterointerface. The present findings indicate that the atomic layer heterojunctions provide a novel approach to realizing tunable 1D electrical potential for embedded quantum wires and ultrashort barriers of electrical transport. PMID:27515115

  16. Modulation of electrical potential and conductivity in an atomic-layer semiconductor heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yu; Yoshida, Shoji; Sakurada, Ryuji; Takashima, Kengo; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Saito, Tetsuki; Konabe, Satoru; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Maniwa, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor heterojunction interfaces have been an important topic, both in modern solid state physics and in electronics and optoelectronics applications. Recently, the heterojunctions of atomically-thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are expected to realize one-dimensional (1D) electronic systems at their heterointerfaces due to their tunable electronic properties. Herein, we report unique conductivity enhancement and electrical potential modulation of heterojunction interfaces based on TMDC bilayers consisted of MoS2 and WS2. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy analyses showed the formation of 1D confining potential (potential barrier) in the valence (conduction) band, as well as bandgap narrowing around the heterointerface. The modulation of electronic properties were also probed as the increase of current in conducting atomic force microscopy. Notably, the observed band bending can be explained by the presence of 1D fixed charges around the heterointerface. The present findings indicate that the atomic layer heterojunctions provide a novel approach to realizing tunable 1D electrical potential for embedded quantum wires and ultrashort barriers of electrical transport. PMID:27515115

  17. Imaging electric fields in the vicinity of cryogenic surfaces using Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, T; Stammeier, M; Agner, J -A; Schmutz, H; Merkt, F; Wallraff, A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize static and time-dependent electric fields in situ is an important prerequisite for quantum-optics experiments with atoms close to surfaces. Especially in experiments which aim at coupling Rydberg atoms to the near field of superconducting circuits, the identification and subsequent elimination of sources of stray fields is crucial. We present a technique that allows the determination of stray-electric-field distributions $(F^\\text{str}_\\text{x}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{y}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{z}(\\vec{r}))$ at distances of less than $2~\\text{mm}$ from (cryogenic) surfaces using coherent Rydberg-Stark spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic beam of metastable $1\\text{s}^12\\text{s}^1~{}^{1}S_{0}$ helium atoms. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by characterizing the electric stray field emanating from a structured superconducting surface. Exploiting coherent population transfer with microwave radiation from a coplanar waveguide, the same technique allows the chara...

  18. Challenges and opportunities in the search for electric dipole moment (EDM) in 225Ra atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Mukut; Bailey, Kevin; Dietrich, Matthew; Greene, John; Holt, Roy; Korsch, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas; Parker, Richard; Sulai, Ibrahim; Singh, Jaideep

    2011-10-01

    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) in a non-degenerate system would indicate violation of time reversal symmetry. 225Ra atom is a particularly attractive candidate for this search since it has a nuclear spin I = 1/2 and has a significant nuclear octupole deformation. This property increases the Schiff moment of the nucleus and therefore enhances the atomic EDM. The half life (t1/2 = 14.9 days) of 225Ra is sufficiently long to perform EDM searches. Our group has already demonstrated the trapping of laser cooled Ra atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and transferring them to a far off resonant optical dipole trap (ODT). We will discuss our recent progress on manipulation of ultra cold Ra atoms in the ODT, efforts in improving our laser systems and generation of electric and magnetic fields required for the measurement. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and contract No. DE-FG02-99ER41101.

  19. Setting up charging electric stations within residential communities in current China: Gaming of government agencies and property management companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difficulty of charging electric vehicles (EVs) is now hindering their further development. Governments generally choose to build stations for home charging (including piles) within residential communities. Given the conflict of interest between various government agencies and property management companies, constructing a charging station within residential communities would result in welfare loss for the property management companies and therefore lead to the principal–agent problem. This paper constructs a two-period imperfect information game theory model to study the moral hazard involved in this issue and government agencies' optimal choice. In the analytic solution of the model, we find that the optimal choice for a farsighted government agency is to constantly improve the incentive mechanism and introduce charging stations only when the conflict of interest is eliminated. Any benefits derived from government regulations by force would prove short-lived. The government should focus on long-term returns in the development of EVs, and its optimal mechanism should be designed to mitigate the principal–agent problem of property management companies, thereby accelerate the progress of EV charging infrastructure and improve overall social welfare. - Highlights: • The charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is hindering their use. • A game theory model is used for analysis of EV charging station construction. • Charging stations are in residential communities in China. • Government agencies are constantly improving incentive mechanisms

  20. A Project Strategic Index proposal for portfolio selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Perera, Aida [Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas, Departamento de Gestion Tecnologica, Caracas 1071, Edo Miranda (Venezuela); Garcia-Melon, Monica; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan-Pascual [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Camino de vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The paper introduces a rigorous method with acceptable complexity which seeks to assist managers of a big Electrical Company of Venezuela to distribute the annual budget among the possible improvement actions to be conducted on the electrical network of Caracas. A total of 15 network improvement actions grouped into three clusters according to the strategic objectives of the company have been analyzed using the Project Strategic Index (PSI) proposed. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method with the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The ANP method allows the aggregation of the experts' judgments on each of the indicators used into one Project Strategic Index. In addition, ANP is based on utility ratio functions which are the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts' estimations. Finally, unlike the other multicriteria techniques, ANP allows the decision problem to be modelled using the relationships among dependent criteria. The participating experts coincided in the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional budget distribution techniques. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods. (author)

  1. A Project Strategic Index proposal for portfolio selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The paper introduces a rigorous method with acceptable complexity which seeks to assist managers of a big Electrical Company of Venezuela to distribute the annual budget among the possible improvement actions to be conducted on the electrical network of Caracas. A total of 15 network improvement actions grouped into three clusters according to the strategic objectives of the company have been analyzed using the Project Strategic Index (PSI) proposed. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method with the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The ANP method allows the aggregation of the experts' judgments on each of the indicators used into one Project Strategic Index. In addition, ANP is based on utility ratio functions which are the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts' estimations. Finally, unlike the other multicriteria techniques, ANP allows the decision problem to be modelled using the relationships among dependent criteria. The participating experts coincided in the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional budget distribution techniques. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods. (author)

  2. Charge transfer and ionization in proton-alkali atoms collisions with and without electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation has been used to investigate the collisions of protons with alkali metal atoms in their ground state. Model interaction potential has been used to describe the electron-ionic core interaction. The cross sections for the capture and ionization in the energy range 1-100 keV/amu have been calculated and compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. The effects of the presence of a strong static electric field in different geometrical features on the capture and ionization cross sections have also been investigated. It has been found that the electric field causes the cross section for the capture to decrease while for the ionization enhance dramatically. Many of the null field features are retained. The analyses of the final state n, l-distribution in the electron capture process reveals H(2p) to be the most populated level in both the cases, with and without electric field. (author)

  3. Proposed search for an electric-dipole moment using laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, V

    2005-01-01

    We propose an experiment to search for a permanent atomic electric-dipole moment (EDM) using laser-cooled $^{171}$Yb atoms launched in an atomic fountain. A uniform B field sets the quantization axis, and the Ramsey separated-oscillatory-fields method is used to measure the Zeeman precession frequency of the atoms. Laser beams of appropriate polarization are used for preparation and detection in a given magnetic sublevel. The signature of an EDM is a shift in the Ramsey resonance correlated with application of a large E field. The precision is expected to be at least 20 times better than current limits because the use of a cold atomic beam allows application of E field 10 times larger than in a vapor cell, and the interaction time with the E field is 200 times larger compared to a thermal beam. The leading source of systematic error in beam experiments, the (E x v/c) motional magnetic field, is reduced considerably because of the near-perfect reversal of velocity between up and down trajectories through the E...

  4. Proposed search for an electric-dipole moment using laser-cooled 171Yb atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of a permanent electric-dipole moment (EDM) in a particle implies that both parity (P) and time-reversal symmetry (T) are violated. We propose an experiment to search for a permanent atomic EDM using laser-cooled 171Yb atoms launched in an atomic fountain. A uniform B field sets the quantization axis, and the Ramsey separated-oscillatory-fields method is used to measure the Zeeman precession frequency of the atoms. Laser beams of appropriate polarization are used for preparation and detection in a given magnetic sub-level. The signature of an EDM is a shift in the Ramsey resonance correlated with application of a large E field. The precision is expected to be at least 20 times better than current limits because the use of a cold atomic beam allows application of E field 10 times larger than in a vapor cell, and the interaction time with the E field is 200 times larger compared to a thermal beam. The leading source of systematic error in beam experiments, the motional magnetic field, is reduced considerably because of the near-perfect reversal of velocity between up and down trajectories through the E-field region. (authors)

  5. Measurement of a false electric dipole moment signal from $^{199}$Hg atoms exposed to an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Afach, S.; Baker, C.A.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; K. Bodek; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Geltenbort, P.(Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38042, France); Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Grujic, Z.; Harris, P.G.; Heil, W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for $^{199}{\\rm Hg}$ atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving....

  6. Bose-Einstein condensation in a vapor of sodium atoms in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Pei-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at normal temperature (T=343K) has been observed because an electric field was first applied. There are two ways to achieve phase transition: lower the temperature of Bose gas or increase its density. This article provides more appropriate method: increase the voltage. In theory, 3s and 3p states of sodium are not degenerate, but Na may be polar atom doesnot conflict with quantum mechanics because it is hydrogen-like atom. Our innovation lies in we applied an electric field used for the orientation polarization. Na vapor was filled in a cylindrical capacitor. In order to determine the polarity of sodium, we measured the capacitance at different temperatures. If Na is non-polar atom, its capacitance should be independent of temperature because the nucleus of atom is located at the center of the electron cloud. But our experiment shows that its capacitance is related to temperature, so Na is polar atom. In order to achieve Na vapor phase transition, we measured the capacitance at different voltages. From the entropy of Na vapor S=0, the critical voltage Vc=68volts. When V0; when V>Vc, the atoms become aligned with the field Svapor entered quasi-vacuum state. We create a BEC with 2.506×1017 atoms, condensate fraction reached 98.9%. This is BEC in momentum space. Our experiment shows that if a Bose gas enters quasi-vacuum state, this also means that it underwent phase transition and generates BEC. Therefore, quasi-vacuum state of alkali gas is essentially large-scale BEC. This is an unexpected discovery. BEC and vacuum theory are two unrelated research areas, but now they are closely linked together. The maximum induced dipole moment dind≤7.8×10-15 e cm can be neglected. Ultra-low temperature is in order to make Bose gas phase transition, we achieve the phase transition by the critical voltage, so the ultra-low temperature is not necessary. According to the standard proposed by Ketterle, although we didn't use laser cooling atoms

  7. Market (in)efficiency in valuing electric utilities-The case of Norwegian generating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After deregulation of the energy market in Norway, a number of mergers and acquisitions of hydropower generating companies have taken place. However, valuation of these companies has proved controversial. From an ex-post perspective, there is support for the criticism that generation assets have been sold too cheaply. This article presents a simple valuation model providing evidence of how value has evolved. On the basis of these results, we discuss the valuation from an ex ante perspective and in the light of the market efficiency hypothesis of (Fama, 1970) and (Fama, 1991).

  8. Market (in)efficiency in valuing electric utilities. The case of Norwegian generating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After deregulation of the energy market in Norway, a number of mergers and acquisitions of hydropower generating companies have taken place. However, valuation of these companies has proved controversial. From an ex-post perspective, there is support for the criticism that generation assets have been sold too cheaply. This article presents a simple valuation model providing evidence of how value has evolved. On the basis of these results, we discuss the valuation from an ex ante perspective and in the light of the market efficiency hypothesis of. (author)

  9. The adaptation of the major network companies to the liberalization of the electricity in Europe: comparison between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalization of network activities is a factor which is now topical within France, Europe and the rest of the world. The main economic thinking at the dawn of the 21. century is full of praise for the emergence of heightened competition, which ensures optimal allocation of investments within the electricity industry, brings down prices for the benefit of both minor and major consumers alike, and finally stimulates innovation and creativeness on the part of companies. Curiously, it seems to overlook the fact that the staged introduction of monopolies and the establishment of exclusive rights in favour of certain operators several decades ago offered all of the same economic advantages. In addition to this, it rarely mentions the political and social effects of such changes, as if the latter are the subject of some major consensus within the public opinion. Whatever the circumstances, as a result of globalization, the major electricity network companies have decided either by themselves or following recommendations by the legislators to internationalize and to carry out acquisitions, enhancing market forces which up to the present remained latent. In Europe, this adaptation is not uniform in nature however. It needs to take full account of national and international characteristics regarding the economic and social organisation of the Member States of the European Union, and should certainly not be allowed to sidestep certain democratic requirements and the observance of basic rights other than those related to the freedom to do business. These include respect for the environment, consultation with the social partners within the company and outside, respect for the rights of consumers' and in particular those without any power in the marketplace, not to mention respect for the dignity of those involved in social life. The necessity of reconciling the new opportunities for open competition created through liberalization and respect for basic rights does not seem

  10. New example of CP violation from search for the permanent electric dipole moment of Cs atoms

    CERN Document Server

    You, Pei-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Using special capacitors three experiments to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of Cesium atom were completed. The electric susceptibility xe of Cs vapor varies in direct proportion to the density N, where xe =70 when N=7.37*1022 m-3! The relationship between xe of Cs vapor and the absolute temperatures T is xe =B/T, where the slope B=320(k) as polar molecules H2O(B=1.50(k)). Its capacitance C at different voltage V was measured. The C-V curve shows that the saturation polarization of Cs vapor has be observed when the field E=7.4*104V/m. Our measurements give the EDM of an Cs atom : dCs=2.97*10-29 C.m=1.86*10-8 e.cm. New example of CP (charge conjugation and parity) violation occurred in Cs atoms. Our results are easy to be repeated because the details of the experiment are described in the article.

  11. Effect of electron exchange on atomic ionization in a strong electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya

    2009-01-01

    Hartree-Fock atom in a strong electric static field is considered. It is demonstrated that exchange between outer and inner electrons, taken into account by the so-called Fock term affects strongly the long-range behavior of the inner electron wave function. As a result, it dramatically increases its probability to be ionized. A simple model is analyzed demonstrating that the decay probability, compared to the case of a local (Hartree) atomic potential, increases by many orders of magnitude. As a result of such increase, the ratio of inner to outer electrons ionization probability became not too small. It is essential that the effect of exchange upon probability of inner electron ionization by strong electric field is proportional to the square of the number of outer electrons. It signals that in clusters the inner electron ionization by strong field, the very fact of which is manifested by e.g. high energy quanta emission, has to be essentially increased as compared to this process in gaseous atomic objects.

  12. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and GEC ALSTHOM have signed the agreement for Chinese Laibin B electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF and GEC ALSTHOM together with the government of Chinese Province Guangxi have organized in Pekin on 3 september 1997 a ceremony for signing a BOOT (Build, Own, Operate, Transfer) contract for the Coal Power Plant (2 x 360 MW) at Laibin B. This is the first Chinese BOOT contract in the power domain entirely financed by foreign capital. The two western companies which were retained for this project, following an international call for offers, invest USD 150 million of its own founds in this USD 600 million project. They will hold 60% and 40% of the capital of the company created for this project, respectively. The construction power plant is planned to be completed at the end of 1999 - beginning of 2000. After 15 years of industrial operation the power plant will be transferred to the autonomous government of the Province Guangxi. The communique contains the following 8 files: 1. The Laibin B power plant; 2. Build, Own, Operate, Transfer; 3. The autonomous Guangxi Province; 4. An outline of EDF in China; 5. Profile/activities of GEC ALSTHOM in China; 6. The 'Credit Agricole Indosuez' in China; 7. BZW Barclays PLC; 8. HSBC Investment Banking in China

  13. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  14. Analysis of the differential cross section for the hydrogen atom ionization by fast electrons in an uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative analysis of the differential cross section for a hydrogen atom ionization by fast electrons in the Born nonrelativistic approximation in the external homogeneous electric field, is carried out. It is shown that the cross section obtained may essentially differ from the similar cross section of an isolated atom ionization by angular distribution of the secondary pulses, oscillation components and magnitude

  15. Approach to a permanent electron electric dipole moment search using cold atoms in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Teng; Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    We present our progress towards measuring the electron EDM using laser-cooled cesium and rubidium atoms trapped in a one dimensional optical lattice. To date, we have collected Cs atoms in two parallel 1D optical lattices that thread three glass electric field plates in a region of well-shielded magnetic fields. As a precursor to the EDM measurement, we have performed a variant of a Hanle effect measurement and used it to study the vector light shifts due to the cavity-built up lattice beams. This gives us a very high sensitivity to the absolute linear polarization of the light, which we have demonstrated to be as good as ~10-8 in fractional power. NSF PHY-13-07096.

  16. Ionization of atoms in electric and magnetic fields and method of imaginary time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper develops a quasi-classical theory of ionization of atom and of negative ions under the effect of constant and homogeneous electrical and magnetic fields with regard to Coulomb interaction between electron and atomic frame at channeling. A case of crossed fields (Lorentz ionization), as well as, the limit of a strong magnetic field are studied particularly. The obtained analytical formulae hold true for E and H arbitrary fields which are small ones in contrast to the specific interatomic fields. The basic results of the study were obtained using the imaginary time method (ITM) where classical equations of motion but with purely imaginary time were used to describe channeling. Paper points out the possibility to generalize ITM for relativistic case and for the state with above or under zero angular momentum

  17. Resonance and interference phenomena in the photoionisation of a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoionisation cross section for a hydrogen atom placed in a uniform electric field is calculated using separation of the variables in parabolic coordinates and the semiclassical approximation with account for the tunnelling and reflection above the top of the potential barrier. The equations defining the resonance positions and widths are obtained and analysed for energies below and above the potential barrier. The analytical expressions for the parameters of resonances lying above the barrier are obtained for the first time. It is shown that in the vicinity of the resonance the cross section can be well parametrised by Fano's formula. The approximate expressions for the profile index are deduced. The analytical results are compared with numerical calculation data. The recent experiments on the photoionisation of rubidium and sodium atoms are discussed. (author)

  18. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Basin Electric Project at Northern Border Pipeline Company's Compressor Station #7, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweetzer, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.; Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute

    2008-02-01

    A field research test and verification project was conducted at the recovered energy generation plant at Northern Border Pipeline Company Compressor Station #7 (CS#7) near St. Anthony. Recovered energy generation plant equipment was supplied and installed by ORMAT Technologies, Inc. Basin Electric is purchasing the electricity under a purchase power agreement with an ORMAT subsidiary, which owns and operates the plant.

  19. Restructuring of Lithuania's Electricity sector: With Assistance from Danish Powerman AB Lietuvos Energija is to Become a Power Company of Western Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competition can effectively replace regulation by the state and thus to ensure efficiency of electricity economy. Statistical data on electricity generation in Lithuania in 1992-1999 are presented. Description of steps for restructuring of special purpose joint-stock company Lietuvos Energija is given

  20. Probing CP violation with the electric dipole moment of atomic mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Latha, K V P; Das, B P; Mukherjee, D

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of atomic $^{199}$Hg induced by the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus interactions has been calculated. For this, we have developed and employed a novel method based on the relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The results of our theoretical calculations combined with the latest experimental result of $^{199}$Hg electric dipole moment, provide new bounds on the T reversal or CP violation parameters $\\theta_{\\rm QCD}$, the tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant $C_T$ and $(\\widetilde{d}_u - \\widetilde{d}_d)$. This is the most accurate calculation of these parameters to date. We highlight the the crucial role of electron correlation effects in their interplay with the P,T violating interactions. Our results demonstrate substantial changes in the results of earlier calculations of these parameters which can be attributed to the more accurate inclusion of important correlation effects in the present work.

  1. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxynitrides films: A comparative spectroscopic and electrical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process parameters' impact of the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) method on the oxygen to nitrogen (O/N) ratio in titanium oxynitride (TiOxNy) films was studied. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide in combination with NH3 plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium by applying N2 plasma processes were investigated. Samples were characterized by the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical characterization (current–voltage: I-V and capacitance–voltage: C-V) methods. The O/N ratio in the TiOxNy films is found to be very sensitive for their electric properties such as conductivity, dielectric breakdown, and permittivity. Our results indicate that these PE-ALD film properties can be tuned, via the O/N ratio, by the selection of the process parameters and precursor/coreactant combination

  2. 76 FR 44323 - National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric Company; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Grid Transmission Services Corporation; Bangor Hydro Electric... of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, National Grid...

  3. Devolution of HRM Practices: Perspectives of Two Major Japanese Electrical and Electronics Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Ekhsan Abang Othman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the devolution of HRM functions, the rationale and problemsof such devolution to line management in the context of applications and processes in two major Japanesemultinational companies in Malaysia.Design/methodology/approach– - The research used mixed methodology via case studies and questionnairesurveys. Overall 29 questionnaires from two companies were analyzed, a response rate of 58 percent.In addition, the views of the Executive Director, Head of HR, and line managers were sought regardingtheir role, involvement and problems of devolvement to line managers.Findings -– Analysis of questionnaire responses and interviews shows that devolution of HRM functionsto the line managers was adopted by both organizations, though their approaches varied in terms ofprocess. The study revealed a high degree of devolution of responsibility to line managers for recruitmentand selection and training and development. The devolution of training and development functions specificallyto a separate department resulted in their increased effectiveness. Extensive participation and a closeworking relationship on HR-related issues between HR managers and line managers jointly contributed tothe effectiveness of the companies’ devolution of HRM functions.Practical implications - Devolution of HRM functions to line management is a growing trend internationally.However, despite the positive outcomes of devolution, the process is never unproblematic.Originality/value –- This study thus builds on the existing literature and also contributes to overcomingthe dearth of empirical research on devolution which has been predominantly Western in context.Furthermore, no study examining devolution of the HRM functions in Malaysia.

  4. Proposed search for an electric-dipole moment using laser-cooled $^1^7^1Yb$ atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2005-01-01

    We propose an experiment to search for a permanent atomic electric-dipole moment (EDM) using laser-cooled $^1^7^1Yb$ atoms launched in an atomic fountain. A uniform B field sets the quantization axis, and the Ramsey separated-oscillatory-fields method is used to measure the Zeeman precession frequency of the atoms. Laser beams of appropriate polarization are used for preparation and detection in a given magnetic sublevel. The signature of an EDM is a shift in the Ramsey resonance correlated w...

  5. Electrical characterization of grain boundaries of CZTS thin films using conductive atomic force microscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhunthan, N.; Singh, Om Pal [Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, New Delhi 110012 (India); Toutam, Vijaykumar, E-mail: toutamvk@nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, V.N., E-mail: singhvn@nplindia.org [Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Experimental setup for conducting AFM (C-AFM). - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin film was grown by reactive co-sputtering. • The electronic properties were probed using conducting atomic force microscope, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy. • C-AFM current flow mainly through grain boundaries rather than grain interiors. • SKPM indicated higher potential along the GBs compared to grain interiors. • The SCM explains that charge separation takes place at the interface of grain and grain boundary. - Abstract: Electrical characterization of grain boundaries (GB) of Cu-deficient CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide) thin films was done using atomic force microscopic (AFM) techniques like Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM), Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). Absorbance spectroscopy was done for optical band gap calculations and Raman, XRD and EDS for structural and compositional characterization. Hall measurements were done for estimation of carrier mobility. CAFM and KPFM measurements showed that the currents flow mainly through grain boundaries (GB) rather than grain interiors. SCM results showed that charge separation mainly occurs at the interface of grain and grain boundaries and not all along the grain boundaries.

  6. Electrical DNA sequencing by graphene edges functionalized with H or N atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Scheicheir, Ralph H.

    2014-03-01

    The current technology of DNA sequencing needs to be revolutionized in order to be sufficiently cost-efficient for widespread application in healthcare and genomic research. One of the most promising proposals is to use a solid-state nanodevice based on graphene due to its atomically thin edges which would readily enable single-nucleobase resolution in transverse conductance measurements. We used ab initio calculations based on Density Functional Theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method to study how the capability of a graphene nanogap to electrically sense the four nucleobases (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine) is affected by different passivation (H or N) of the graphene edges. We will show how, for the same nucleobase, the zero bias conductance can be increased by five orders of magnitude when N atoms are chosen for functionalization over H atoms. Other aspects investigated by us concern the translational process of nucleobases through the nanogap and the corresponding spatial resolution due to diminishing transmittance as the nucleobase moves out of the gap.

  7. 76 FR 68634 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-14650 (71 FR 34807, June 16, 2006). Applicability (c) This AD applies to General Electric (GE) CF6-45A...) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2006-12-24, amendment 39-14650 (71 FR 34807, June 16, 2006..., 2010 (75 FR 77570). That NPRM proposed to continue to require inspecting, stripping, and reapplying...

  8. 75 FR 16871 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 8753, February 25, 2010). This exemption is... License Nos. DPR-71 and DPR-62, which authorize operation of the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant (BSEP... requirements that BSEP now seeks an exemption from the March 31, 2010, implementation date. All other...

  9. 75 FR 8753 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no... Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)). The licensee currently maintains a security system... Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2 (BSEP), located in Brunswick County, North Carolina. In accordance with...

  10. Electric and magnetic dipole allowed transitions of atoms for three-dimensionally isotropic left handedness in a mixed atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2014-03-01

    Since previous negative-index atomic media based on quantum optical approaches are highly lossy, a proposal for realizing a three-dimensionally isotropic left-handed atomic vapor medium is suggested based on a mechanism of incoherent gain assisted atomic transitions. Two three-level atomic systems are utilized for producing simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability, respectively, in the same frequency band. We suggest that fine and hyperfine level transitions of atoms (e.g., a hyperfine level transition in a hydrogen atomic system and a fine level transition in an alkali-metal atomic system) would be applicable to realization of such a negatively refracting atomic vapor. The attractive features of the present scenario include: i) three-dimensionally isotropic negative indices; ii) incoherent gain wave amplification in the negative-index atomic vapor; iii) tunable negative indices depending upon external fields. Such a left-handed quantum optical medium can serve as a supporting substrate for lossy negative-index materials for loss compensation. It can also be used in designing new quantum optical and photonic devices (e.g., a subwavelength focusing system and a negative-index superlens for perfect imaging) because of its attractive properties of three-dimensional isotropy and high-gain wave amplification.

  11. New example of charge conjugation and parity violation from search for a permanent electric dipole moment of Rubidium atom

    CERN Document Server

    You, Pei-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanics thinks that all atoms do not have permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) because of their spherical symmetry. Therefore, there is no polar atom in nature except for polar molecules. The electric susceptibility Xe caused by the orientation of polar substances is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature T while the induced susceptibility of atoms is temperature independent. Using special capacitors our experiments discovered that directional motion of Rb atoms in a non-uniform electric field and ground state Rb atom is polar atom with a large EDM: d(Rb) =2.72*10-29C.m = 1.70*10-8e.cm. The experiment showed that the relationship between Xe of Rb vapor and T is just Xe =B/T, where the slope B =380(k) as polar molecules. Its capacitance C at different voltage V was measured. The C-V curve shows that the saturation polarization of Rb vapor has be observed when E more than 8.5*104V/m. New example of CP (charge conjugation and parity) violation occurred in Rb atoms (see arXiv 0809.4767). I...

  12. Developing a Model to Assess the Readiness of Implementing Knowledge Management: Evidence from Yazd Regional Electric Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Taghavi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is now considered as a strategic property and ability of an organization classified as an intangible resource to gain competitive advantage. To prioritize the knowledge management (KM and identify the current situation of an organization, it seems essential to determine the factors influencing the successful implementation of KM. This study intends to identify the factors affecting the successful implementation of KM and develop a growth model based on the priorities of these factors. It also seeks to evaluate the performance of the organization in terms of KM. Investigation, validation and prioritization of the factors are carried out by the experts and the collected data is analyzed by statistical methods. Using a questionnaire to develop a KM growth model, the current situation of Yazd Regional Electric Company has been then evaluated. Additionally, the weakness and strength points of the organization in relation to the desirable state are identified and finally some suggestions are provided to resolve the weakness points.

  13. Quantification of optimal electricity cost risk reduction for a South African gold mining company

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Zee, L.F.; Pelzer, R.; Bolt, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electricity cost risks such as carbon tax, ECS and unavoidable tariff increases threaten the financial wellbeing of South African gold mines. Some of these proposed cost risks are however not enforced as yet. However, once approved, they could result in thousands of jobs being lost. The Eskom Integrated Demand Management (IDM) funding program for industrial projects has also been put on hold. With more than 97 large (367 MW total) projects already implemented on South African gold mines, thes...

  14. 75 FR 77570 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...The FAA proposes to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric (GE) CF6-45/-50 series and CF6-80A series turbofan engines with certain part number (P/N) side links of the five-link forward mount assembly installed. That AD currently requires an initial and repetitive visual inspection of the side links for cracks, and stripping and reapplying the Sermetel W coating......

  15. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of atomic electric dipole moments of 225^Ra, 199^Hg, and 171^Yb

    CERN Document Server

    Radziute, Laima; Jonsson, Per; Biero, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method has been employed to calculate atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) of 225^Ra, 199^Hg, and 171^Yb. For the calculations of the matrix elements we extended the relativistic atomic structure package GRASP2K. The extension includes programs to evaluate matrix elements of (P, T)-odd e-N tensor-pseudotensor and pseudoscalar-scalar interactions, the atomic electric dipole interaction, the nuclear Schiff moment, and the interaction of the electron electric dipole moment with nuclear magnetic moments. The interelectronic interactions were accounted for through valence and core-valence electron correlation effects. The electron shell relaxation was included with separately optimised wave functions of opposite parities.

  16. Oligopoly market models applied to electric utilities: How will generating companies behave in a deregulated industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lance Brian

    An oligopoly market is analyzed which compares the oligopoly uniform market price to a fully competitive market price. The oligopoly consists of three electric utilities that behave as Cournot and Stackelberg leader---followers. A market simulation of the ERCOT market is also presented which includes the impact on market price when there are new market entrants into the oligopoly. The two case studies analyze the market with and without transmission constraints and identify how various transmission limitations can support strategic behavior by the utilities and ultimately impact the market price.

  17. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB)

  18. Hooke's Atom in an Arbitrary External Electric Field: Analytical Solutions of Two-Electron Problem by Path Integral Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Liang; ZHANG Ping; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2011-01-01

    By using the path integral approach, we investigate the problem of Hooke's atom (two electrons interacting with Coulomb potential in an external harmonic-oscillator potential) in an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. For a certain infinite set of discrete oscillator frequencies, we obtain the analytical solutions. The ground state polarization of the atom is then calculated. The same result is also obtained through linear response theory.

  19. Dynamic polarizability and electric multipolar transitions in two electron atoms under exponential cosine screened coulomb potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Supriya K.; Modesto-Costa, Lucas; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed investigations on the frequency dependent polarizabilities, transition energies, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities of two electron systems He, B e2 +, C4 + , and O6 + under electric dipolar (E1) and quadrupolar (E2) excitations have been performed using exponential cosine screened coulomb potential with a view to understand the structural behaviour of such systems due to external confinement produced by plasma environment. Time dependent coupled Hartree-Fock theory within a variational framework has been adopted for studying the first three low lying excited states 1 s2:1Se→1 s n p :1Po (n = 2, 3, 4) and 1 s n d :1De (n = 3, 4, 5) under such excitations. Quantitatively, the effect of confinement produced by the external plasma has been taken care of by considering the change in atomic potential through plasma screening, directly related to the coupling strength of the plasma with the atomic charge cloud. With increased plasma screening, a gradual destabilisation of the energy levels with subsequent reduction of the ionization potential and number of excited states has been observed. Behavioral pattern of the frequency dependent polarizabilities, excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities under systematic increase of the screening has been investigated. Results have been compared thoroughly with those available for free systems and under confinement by exponential cosine screened and screened Coulomb potential.

  20. Power distribution automating system of Okinawa Electric Power Company; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) haiden jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Aiming at earlier restoration of failures and further improvement of efficiency in control of power distribution system operation, Okinawa Electric Power and Fuji Electric have been proceeding with review of the specifications and functions of a power distribution automating system. Its partial operation has now begun by using a remote control system consisting mainly of remotely controlled operation of switches. The major features of the system may be summarized as follows: (1) it has two-console configuration capable of simultaneous parallel operation and continuation of operation even at server shutdown by using a man-machine workstation; (2) a simplified mapping system is adopted for indication of a distribution system chart, incorporating features of both of the mapping system and the skeleton system; (3) a simplified system operating function is employed, in which procedures of load switching and returning operations are prepared and executed automatically without a need of registering an event name; and (4) a system to memorize operation procedures for facility data maintenance is used to respond flexibly to sequence exchange of construction names and postponement of a construction. (NEDO)

  1. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1 s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (∼10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800 °C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  2. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxynitrides films: A comparative spectroscopic and electrical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowińska, Małgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.sowinska@b-tu.de; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeißer, Dieter [Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, Applied Physics and Sensors, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 17, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Kärkkänen, Irina; Schneidewind, Jessica; Naumann, Franziska; Gruska, Bernd; Gargouri, Hassan [SENTECH Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstraße 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The process parameters' impact of the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) method on the oxygen to nitrogen (O/N) ratio in titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films was studied. Titanium(IV)isopropoxide in combination with NH{sub 3} plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium by applying N{sub 2} plasma processes were investigated. Samples were characterized by the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical characterization (current–voltage: I-V and capacitance–voltage: C-V) methods. The O/N ratio in the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is found to be very sensitive for their electric properties such as conductivity, dielectric breakdown, and permittivity. Our results indicate that these PE-ALD film properties can be tuned, via the O/N ratio, by the selection of the process parameters and precursor/coreactant combination.

  3. Troubleshooting the General Electric Company Neutron Devices Department's deionized water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1982, the General Electric Neutron Devices Department's deionized (DI) water system was found to be highly contaminated with fresh water roundworms which caused severe filter plugging problems. Subsequently, a DI water improvement program was developed by GEND's Process Technology, Contamination Control, and Facilities Engineering groups. This program included removal of dead ends in the distribution system, a consultant's review, significant modification of the DI water system, modification of system operation, design of a quality plan, and changes in the types of water analysis. During implementation of the improvement program, a severe bacteria contamination problem occurred due to a contractor accident. Correction of this problem required sterilization of portions of the DI water system and significant modification of the water filtration system. The system modifications and sterilization procedures have significantly reduced bacteria and total solids contamination while resistivity is generally increasing

  4. Electric dipole polarizability of alkaline-Earth-metal atoms from perturbed relativistic coupled-cluster theory with triples

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Angom, D

    2014-01-01

    The perturbed relativistic coupled-cluster (PRCC) theory is applied to calculate the electric dipole polarizabilities of alkaline Earth metal atoms. The Dirac-Coulomb-Breit atomic Hamiltonian is used and we include the triple excitations in the relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) theory. The theoretical issues related to the triple excitation cluster operators are described in detail and we also provide details on the computational implementation. The PRCC theory results are in good agreement with the experimental and previous theoretical results. We, then, highlight the importance of considering the Breit interaction for alkaline Earth metal atoms.

  5. Setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste produced in Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES investigated the appropriateness of a view of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. on cesium residual content and the radioactivity measurement precision regarding the molten solidified (with lowered inorganic salt used) radioactive wastes which were produced from Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No. 2 Power Stations. Based on the written performance report from the request and past disposal confirmation experience, a view of the JNFC is confirmed as appropriate that setting of 15% cesium residual ratio for molten solidified with volume ratio larger than 4% and less than 10% cases. (S. Ohno)

  6. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Generation Companies in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market with Risk Management Taken into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a competitive electricity market with limited number of producers, Generation Companies (Gencos is facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition. Under oligopoly market environment, each Genco may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. The objective of a Genco is to maximize its profit and minimize the associated risk. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary and important for the Genco to make optimal bidding strategies with risk management before bidding into spot market to get an expected high profit, since spot prices are substantially volatile. This study propose a method to build optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market with incomplete information and considering both risk management and unit commitment. Approach: The proposed methodology employs the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling a risk management and a strategic behavior of rival. A probability density function (pdf, Value at Risk (VaR and Monte Carlo simulation used to build optimal bidding strategies for a Genco. Results: The result of the proposed method shows that a Genco can build optimal bidding strategies to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management. The Genco controls the risk by setting the confidence level. If the Genco increase the confidence level, the expected total VaR of profit decrease. Conclusions/Recommendations: The proposed method for building optimal bidding strategies in a day-ahead electricity market to maximize expected total profit considering unit commitment and risk management is helpful for a Genco to make a decision to submit bidding to the Independent System Operator (ISO.

  7. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  8. Optimization of portfolio of contracts for companies of electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portfolio optimization is a technique widely used to select investments in economic and financial zones. In the Brazilian Electric Market the portfolio models must consider not only different types of contracts used in the free market, but also different types of markets: the free market, the captive market and the spot market. Normally, the question is knowing which proportion of energy should be sold in each market, in order to maximize the return and minimize the risk. This article deals with a problem from the point of view of a power generator, where their objective is to maximize its profit, to serve their obligations regarding the delivery of energy and minimizing the risk associated with the occurrence of Spot Price - minimum (Spot Price). It is considered that the generator has flexible contracts and inflexible contracts to sell the energy. Inflexible contracts have delivery obligations of fixed energy and flexible contracts allow, the holder of the flexibility, to deliver or to receive an amount of variable energy. In this case, the holder of flexibility may be the purchaser or the generator. (author)

  9. Modeling of Wolf Creek Generating Station Kansas Gas and Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to: assess the potential for using MMS as a tool for future engineering applications; develop a working model, BOP in particular, that could be used for future analytical work on the system modeled; and to build an in-house modeling capability for analyzing and understanding the thermal-hydraulic behavior and systems performance of the plant. The Wolf Creek Generating Station, SNUPPS Unit 1, has a nominal rating of 1150 MWe. The unit includes a General Electric, 1800 rpm, tandem-compound, six-flow turbine generator supplied with steam from a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor rated at 3425 MWt. The ultimate goal of the MMS modeling effort is to develop a working model for the entire secondary plant of Wolf Creek Generating Station. To accomplish this, the secondary plant has been divided into the following modular subsystems: high pressure feedwater heater train, low pressure feedwater heater train, power conversion system, and U-tube steam generators. The MMS model for each subsystem will be generated, debugged and executed independently before they are merged together to form the entire secondary plant. The results of the modeling effort on the models of high pressure feedwater heater train and steam generator level control system are presented

  10. The relation between the production efficiency of nitrogen atoms and the electrical characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, F. J. J.; Yang, R.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2015-08-01

    In a nitrogen plasma jet, atomic nitrogen is the longest lived radical species and, through recombination, gives rise to highly reactive excited nitrogen species. In this paper, the atomic nitrogen concentration in the effluent of a nitrogen-fed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is determined by using direct 2D imaging of the visible FPS emission. The relationship between radical production and the electrical characteristics of the discharge is assessed by making use of an electrical model which assumes only a part of the electrode area is discharged every half-cycle. For the pure nitrogen jet used here, the specific energy input per nitrogen atom is found to be 320  ±  20 eV atom-1, comparable to the specific energy for other atomic nitrogen sources in the literature. It is shown that the production efficiency of atomic nitrogen does not depend on the amplitude of the applied voltage of the DBD and any increase in radical production is due to an increase of the electrode area covered by the discharge, i.e. an increase in the number of microdischarges.

  11. Potential Use of Communications and Project Management Systems in Remote Construction Projects: The Case of Saudi Electric Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhzad Sidawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote projects have their unique problems that are caused mainly by the remoteness of the project itself thus the loose control over management. This is due to a number of reasons such as lack of human resources and infrastructure. Research studies that were undertaken worldwide - regarding this issue- has highlighted few unique management problems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how far the IT tools would help in managing remote construction projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Due to the lack of previous research regarding remote projects within the Gulf region and the KSA, a pilot study was conducted in 2009 to define and test the wording of questions that are part of the main survey. The main survey was undertaken on Saudi Electric Company (SEC. The study found that IT systems and tools have the potential but this potential is hindered by a number of technical, managerial, staff factors. Therefore, successful application of IT systems would require changes to the present management settings at various levels. This would ensure that the SEC is capable of achieving the full benefit from using these advanced systems.

  12. Security-constrained self-scheduling of generation companies in day-ahead electricity markets considering financial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A security-constrained self-scheduling is presented. ► The proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices. ► We model the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. ► Unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in an MIP model. ► Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a new security-constrained self-scheduling framework incorporating the transmission flow limits in both steady state conditions and post-contingent states is presented to produce efficient bidding strategy for generation companies (GENCOs) in day-ahead electricity markets. Moreover, the proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices and models the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. Furthermore, unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in the suggested model converting it to a mixed-integer programming (MIP) optimization problem. Sensitivity of the proposed framework with respect to both the level of the market prices and adopted risk level is also evaluated in the paper. Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems illustrating the performance of the proposed self-scheduling model.

  13. Role Of E-Government In Delivery Of Public Services In Tanzania Electric Supply Company In Ruvuma Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited TANESCO in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty 31 were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7 of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet reliable internet speed well organized organization website power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services it also noted by respondents to faster decision making speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.

  14. Progress of innovation of electrical power technology in FY2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following is the description of technical innovations at 12 companies including Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Electric Power Company, and Japan Atomic Power Company. Tokyo Electric Power Company presented (1) the developments of a wet-type air decontaminating apparatus for inside/outside of power plant, (2) a robot to be used for field investigation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, (3) a visualization technology using laser for detection, and (4) removal of debris at the power plant. Chubu Electric Power Company presented application of a flap gate to the opening on exterior wall of building as a countermeasure against tsunami at the Hamaoka nuclear power plant. Hokuriku Electric Power Company presented a nuclear reactor operation training simulator for full-scope operation training for the Shika nuclear power station. Chugoku Electric Power Company presented their efforts in implementing a predictive monitoring system at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Shikoku Electric Power Company presented the installation of a weir with a flap gate to the interior of seawater pit as a countermeasure against tsunami. Japan Atomic Power Company presented an impact assessment method of fallout during transportation of materials caused by nuclear reactor accident, design and development of a square-type shielding container for radioactive wastes, a strength test on concrete materials for the safety design of Tsuruga Power Station Units 3 and 4, decommissioning of nuclear power plant, and research and development of the fast breeder reactor. (S.Y.)

  15. Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

  16. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  17. Quantum dynamics in atomic-fountain experiments for measuring the electric dipole moment of the electron with improved sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wundt, B J; Jentschura, U D; 10.1103/PhysRevX.2.041009

    2012-01-01

    An improved measurement of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM) appears feasible using ground-state alkali atoms in an atomic fountain in which a strong electric field, which couples to a conceivable electron dipole moment (EDM), is applied perpendicular to the fountain axis. In a practical fountain, the ratio of the atomic tensor Stark shift to the Zeeman shift is a facto mu~100. We expand the complete time evolution operator in inverse powers of this ratio; complete results are presented for atoms of total spin F=3, 4, and 5. For a specific set of entangled hyperfine sublevels (coherent states), potential systematic errors enter only as even powers of 1/mu, making the expansion rapidly convergent. The remaining EDM mimicking effects are further suppressed in a proposed double-differential setup, where the final state is interrogated in a differential laser configuration, and the direction of the strong electric field also is inverted. Estimates of the signal available at existing accelerator facilities...

  18. Development of an electric field application system with transparent electrodes towards the electron EDM measurement with laser-cooled Fr atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Taisuke; Ando, Shun; Aoki, Takahiro; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken-Ichi; Hayamizu, Tomohiro; Inoue, Takeshi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kawamura, Hirokazu; Kato, Ko; Sakamoto, Kosuke; Uchiyama, Aiko; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of elementary particles is a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model. Since the francium (Fr) atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and laser-cooled atoms can have long coherence times, we plan to utilize laser-cooled Fr atoms for the electron EDM search experiment. Besides, a strong electric field is one of key issues for the EDM experiment. Recently, we have embarked on a development of the electric field application system with transparent electrodes coated by tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The ITO electrodes break the difficulty in the coexistence of electrodes with several cooling laser lights. The actual electric field applied to the atom is evaluated by measuring the dc Stark shift for the laser-cooled rubidium atoms. In this presentation, the present status of the electric field application system will be reported. The permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of elementary particles is a good probe for new physics beyond the standard model. Since the francium (Fr) atom has a large enhancement factor of the electron EDM and laser-cooled atoms can have long coherence times, we plan to utilize laser-cooled Fr atoms for the electron EDM search experiment. Besides, a strong electric field is one of key issues for the EDM experiment. Recently, we have embarked on a development of the electric field application system with transparent electrodes coated by tin-doped indium oxide (ITO). The ITO electrodes break the difficulty in the coexistence of electrodes with several cooling laser lights. The actual electric field applied to the atom is evaluated by measuring the dc Stark shift for the laser-cooled rubidium atoms. In this presentation, the present status of the electric field application system will be reported. This work is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 26220705) and Tohoku University's Focused Research Project.

  19. Wave-function Visualization of Core-induced Interaction of Non-hydrogenic Rydberg Atom in Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, W; Cheng, H; Zhang, S S; Liu, H P

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the wave-function feature of Rydberg sodium in a uniform electric field and found that the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field can be directly visualized in the wave-function. As is well known, the hydrogen atom in electric field can be separated in parabolic coordinates (\\eta, \\xi), whose eigen-function can show a clear pattern towards negative and positive directions corresponding to the so-called red and blue states without ambiguity, respectively. It can be served as a complete orthogonal basis set to study the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field. Owing to complete different patterns of the probability distribution for red and blue states, the interaction can be visualized in the wave-function directly via superposition. Moreover, the constructive and destructive interferences between red and blue states are also observed in the wave-function, explicitly explaining the experimental measurement for the spectral oscillator stre...

  20. Dominant shallow donors in zinc oxide layers obtained by low-temperature atomic layer deposition: Electrical and optical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is focused on the electrical and optical analyses used to estimate the activation energy of the dominant shallow donor in thin ZnO films obtained at low temperature by the atomic layer deposition process. These two approaches, based on the temperature-dependent classical Hall effect and photoluminescence investigations, yielded a donor activation energy ED in the range of 30–40 meV, including the estimated error margins. This value, as confirmed by layer composition studies, is attributed to the presence of zinc atoms in the interstitial positions of the ZnO lattice

  1. First-order perturbed wave functions for the hydrogen atom in a harmonic uniform external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the linear response of a nonrelativistic hydrogenlike atom to a harmonic uniform electric field, which is switched on adiabatically. For the electron initially in an arbitrary bound chemical bondnlm> state, the first-order correction to the wave function has been written in terms of a vector function w/sub n//sub l//sub m/. We report an exact closed-form expression of the vector w/sub n//sub l//sub m/ that we have derived using the Coulomb Green's function. Our general analytic results prove to be useful in a systematic study of two-photon processes involving the hydrogen atom

  2. Measurement of a false electric dipole moment signal from $^{199}$Hg atoms exposed to an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Afach, S; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; van der Grinten, M G D; Grujic, Z; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Henneck, R; Horras, M; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kasprzak, M; Kermaïdic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H -C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Prashant, P N; Quéméner, G; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for $^{199}{\\rm Hg}$ atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving. We have used a neutron magnetic resonance EDM spectrometer, featuring a mercury co-magnetometer and an array of external cesium magnetometers, to measure the shift as a function of the applied magnetic field gradient. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  3. Morphology, composition and electrical properties of SnO2:Cl thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine doped SnO2 thin films were prepared using atomic layer deposition at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C using SnCl4 and H2O as the reactants. Composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were examined. Results showed that the as-deposited SnO2 films all exhibited rutile structure with [O]/[Sn] ratios between 1.35 and 1.40. The electrical conductivity was found independent on [O]/[Sn] ratio but dependent on chlorine doping concentration, grain size, and surface morphology. The 300 °C-deposited film performed a higher electrical conductivity of 315 S/cm due to its higher chlorine doping level, larger grain size, and smoother film surface. The existence of Sn2+ oxidation state was demonstrated to minimize the effects of chlorine on raising the electrical conductivity of films

  4. Measurement of a false electric dipole moment signal from 199Hg atoms exposed to an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S.; Baker, C. A.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Geltenbort, P.; Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Grujic, Z.; Harris, P. G.; Heil, W.; Hélaine, V.; Henneck, R.; Horras, M.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kasprzak, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kirch, K.; Knowles, P.; Koch, H.-C.; Komposch, S.; Kozela, A.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Lemière, Y.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Piegsa, F. M.; Pignol, G.; Prashant, P. N.; Quéméner, G.; Rebreyend, D.; Ries, D.; Roccia, S.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Severijns, N.; Weis, A.; Wursten, E.; Wyszynski, G.; Zejma, J.; Zenner, J.; Zsigmond, G.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for 199Hg atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving. We have used a neutron magnetic resonance EDM spectrometer, featuring a mercury co-magnetometer and an array of external cesium magnetometers, to measure the shift as a function of the applied magnetic field gradient. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  5. Organizational Culture and Stages of Internationalization: a Study in FourCompanies in the Brazilian Electrical-Metal-Mechanical Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Maria Heinzmann; Denise Del Prá Netto Machado

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to identify values and cultural dimensions of companies at different stages of internationalization according to the Uppsala model. We developed a construct to identify the values of organizational culture through the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) mapping model. The study is descriptive. To classify the internationalization stage we conducted structured interviews. Referring to the internationalization stages the Alpha company is in Stage 1, the Beta company in Stage 2,...

  6. Computational simulation and lean thinking as tools of process management: an assessment of different alternatives to increase capacity in a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Augusto Amarante de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production chain of a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical conductors is analyzed, in order to select the best strategy for increasing its production capacity. The company´s production systems and flows are highly complex and have high variability in their production flows. A quantitative modeling methodology was proposed to simulate those systems, and to analyze them in a simpler manner. The simulation model considered two different strategies related to production increase: “Lean Thinking” and Machinery/Equipment Purchase. From the current context and the results obtained from the simulation study, it was possible to conclude that the best scenario for increasing production capacity for the company was using the Lean Thinking strategy on the critical processes.The gains in capacity are higher and the implementing costs involved are lower than the ones observed in the other strategy considered.

  7. Overlapping Nuclear Safety Control Provisions of the Atomic Energy Act and Electric Utility Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gun-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Won; Koh, Jae-Dong; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Chang-Bum [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Before May 17, 2005, Korea's nuclear power plant (hereinafter referred to as 'NNP') regulation system was two-pronged. Every NPP system consists of primary or secondary system, and each type was respectively regulated by the Atomic Energy Act(hereinafter referred to as 'AEA') and the Electric Utility Act(hereinafter referred to as 'EUA'). This unusual regulatory regime gave rise to a number of problems with respect to operation and safety. For this reason, the Enforcement Regulation of AEA and applicable Notice were revised on May 17, 2005 to the effect that all regulation on NPPs subject to EUA was brought under the purview of AEA, except regulation on business license for nuclear power generation under Article 7 of EUA and approval of plan of works for setting up electric installations (hereinafter referred to as 'construction plan') (including approval of any changes; the same shall apply hereinafter) under Article 61 thereof. From the point of view of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the regulation of NPPs by a single law has enhanced their safety. However, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy retains regulatory authority regarding NPPs. It reviews and approves construction plans for secondary system pursuant to Article 61 of EUA and Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation thereof. This situation arose because Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA continues to provide for matters related with nuclear power. Therefore, continued control of NPPs under EUA ignores the relationship and respective nature of AEA and EUA. There is also possibility of violation of a superseding law. Even if said provision is not in violation of a superseding law, Article 28 of the Enforcement Regulation of EUA poses the possibility of overlapping regulation, which may violate the principle of prohibiting excessive regulation, one of the principles of the Korean Constitution. Assessment of the dual regulatory system

  8. Electric transport through nanometric CoFe2O4 thin films investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of electric transport through thin (2-8 nm) CoFe2O4 films deposited on epitaxial SrRuO3 bottom electrodes was performed by conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Experimental procedures to investigate transport through thin insulating films by CAFM are critically revised, and the potential of CoFe2O4 films for the use as spin-filtering barriers is assessed. It is concluded that, at room-temperature, a non-tunnel channel significantly contributes to the electric transport, thus limiting the spin-filtering efficiency.

  9. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Haddam Neck Plant, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, Docket No. 50-213. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Progam was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with curent licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Haddam Neck Plant, operated by Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company. The Haddam Neck Plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  10. Linear response of the hydrogen atom in Stark states to a harmonic uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of a weak harmonic uniform electric field, switched on adiabatically, on a nonrelativistic hydrogenlike atom is examined. Each of the phi- and A-gauge first-order corrections to the wave function of a stationary state chemical bondN> is determined by a vector function that we denote v/sub N/ and w/sub N/, respectively. The absolute starting point of our calculations is Schwinger's formula for the Coulomb Green's function in momentum space. In the case of a bound state with definite angular momentum, we report a compact integral representation and also an explicit expression of the phi-gauge vector v/sub n//sub l//sub m/, which are analogous to those of the corresponding A-gauge vector w/sub n//sub l//sub m/ studied previously. We have derived compact analytic expressions of the linear-response vectors v/sub n//sub >//sub ξ/n/sub eta/m$ and w/sub n//sub >//sub ξ/n/sub eta/m$ associated to an arbitrary Stark state. These are written first as contour integrals, and then explicitly in terms of a new generalized hypergeometric function with five variables, 2phi/sub H/, which is a finite sum of Humbert functions phi1. We have calculated the static limit of the regular part of the vector v/sub n//sub >//sub ξ/n/sub eta/m$. Also discussed are the Sturmian-function expansions of the linear-response vectors for angular momentum states

  11. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  12. Hydrogen atom in a quantum plasma environment under the influence of Aharonov-Bohm flux and electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Falaye, Babatunde James; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm-flux (AB-flux), electric and magnetic fields directed along $z$-axis and encircled by quantum plasmas, on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result to a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that, the combined effect of the fields is stronger than solitary effect and consequently, there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, where AB-flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics, it can also be applied in molecular physics.

  13. Hydrogen atom in a quantum plasma environment under the influence of Aharonov-Bohm flux and electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the confinement influences of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux and electric and magnetic fields directed along the z axis and encircled by quantum plasmas on the hydrogen atom. The all-inclusive effects result in a strongly attractive system while the localizations of quantum levels change and the eigenvalues decrease. We find that the combined effect of the fields is stronger than a solitary effect and consequently there is a substantial shift in the bound state energy of the system. We also find that to perpetuate a low-energy medium for the hydrogen atom in quantum plasmas, a strong electric field and weak magnetic field are required, whereas the AB flux field can be used as a regulator. The application of the perturbation technique utilized in this paper is not restricted to plasma physics; it can also be applied in molecular physics.

  14. Shannon entropy as an indicator of atomic avoided crossings for Rydberg potassium atoms interacting with a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong Lin; Chen, Yan; Han, Jiu Ning; Zhu, Zhi Bin; Xiang, Geng Xiang; Liu, Huai Dong; Ma, Bao Hong; He, De Chun

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to calculate the positions of avoided crossings for Rydberg potassium in a static electric field by using Shannon entropy. Our method can be divided into two steps. At first we made a rough estimate of the range of the static electric field strength at which the given avoided crossings occur through strength dependence of the Shannon entropies for all the related states. Next, we obtained the position of the given avoided crossing by calculating the Shannon entropies intersection field strength for the two involved states. The Shannon entropies are calculated by using the one-electron wave functions derived from a well-established diagonalization method which is based on B-spline expansion technique and a parametric one-electron model potential. We have used this method to calculate a number of positions of both s and p states of avoided crossings for Rydberg potassium. The results are in excellent agreement with observed and other calculated results by using the ionization energies. Our study proves that Shannon entropy is an efficient information-theoretic parameter for characterization and prediction of avoided crossings of Rydberg potassium in the l-mixing region.

  15. Environmental assessment for the granting of US Navy easements near Pearl Harbor and Waikele Gulch Oahu, Hawaii to Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luersen, P.; Wiley, M.; Hart, J.; Kanehiro, C.; Soloway, M.

    1994-09-23

    This document was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA: and Navy regulations (OPNAVINST 5090.1B)). The document addresses environmental impacts from the proposed granting of three easements to the Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO) for the use of Navy property near Waikele Gulch, Pearl City and the Waiau Power Plant. HECO`s proposed Waiau-CIP, Part 2, Project requires installation, operation, and maintenance of steel transmission line poles and associated equipment on three Navy parcels crossed by the 7.8 mile project. Health risks from exposure to the electric and magnetic fields of 138-kV transmission lines are discussed.

  16. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Reward Management System on Employee Performance through the Mediating Role of Employee Motivation Case Study: Isfahan Regional Electric Company

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Karami; Hossein Rezaei Dolatabadi; Saeed Rajaeepour

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Analyzing the effectiveness of reward management system on employee performance through the mediating role of employee motivation was the purpose of the present survey.Method and tools: Given that staff department of Isfahan Regional Electric Company was the statistical population under study simple random sampling was used in this survey. Sample size was determined by means of Cochran formula (140 persons). Historical study and field study methods were the most important methods of ...

  17. Joint comments of the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Pacific Gas and Electric Company on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains joint recommendations by the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Pacific Gas and Electric Company concerning the incorporation of planning methods into the National Energy Strategy to ensure that market forces and regulatory processes provide energy services at lowest cost, including recognition of environmental effects. They recommend a combination of efficiency improvements and production investments that would minimize the economic and environmental costs of the energy services needed to sustain a healthy economy

  18. Descriptive Study of Occupational Accidents and their Causes among Electricity Distribution Company Workers at an Eight-year Period in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Khadem, Monireh; Madreseh, Elham; Aghaei, Habib-Allah; Raei, Mehdi; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational accidents are unplanned events that cause damage. The socio-economic impacts and human costs of accidents are tremendous around the world. Many fatalities happen every year in workplaces such as electricity distribution companies. Some electrical injuries are electrocution, electric shock, and burns. This study was conducted in an electricity distribution company (with rotational 12-hour shift work) in Iran during an 8-year period to survey descriptive factors of injuries. Methods Variables collected included accident time, age of injured worker, employment type, work experience, injury cause, educational background, and other information about accidents. Results Results indicated that most of the accidents occurred in summer, and 51.3% were during shift work. Worker negligence (malpractice) was the cause of 75% of deaths. Type of employment had a significant relationship with type of injuries (p < 0.05). Most injuries were electrical burns. Conclusion High rate of accidents in summer may be due to the warm weather or insufficient professional skills in seasonal workers. Shift workers are at risk of sleep complaints leading to a high rate of work injuries. Acquiring knowledge about safety was related to job experiences. Temporary workers have no chance to work all year like permanent workers, therefore impressive experiences may be less in them. Because the lack of protective equipment and negligence are main causes of accidents, periodical inspections in workshops are necessary. PMID:24106647

  19. Apparatus for Measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron using a Cohabiting Atomic-Mercury Magnetometer

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, C A; Chouder, M; Geltenbort, P; Green, K; Harris, P G; Heckel, B R; Iaydjiev, P; Ivanov, S N; Kilvington, I; Lamoreaux, S K; May, D J; Pendlebury, J M; Richardson, J D; Shiers, D B; Smith, K F; van der Grinten, M

    2013-01-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  20. Nanometer-scale electrical characterization of stressed ultrathin SiO2 films using conducting atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conductive atomic force microscope has been used to electrically stress and to investigate the effects of degradation in the conduction properties of ultrathin (2 films on a nanometer scale (areas of ∼100 nm2). Before oxide breakdown, switching between two states of well-defined conductivity and sudden changes of conductivity were observed, which are attributed to the capture/release of single charges in the defects generated during stress. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. Apparatus for measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C. A.; Chibane, Y.; Chouder, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Green, K.; Harris, P. G.; Heckel, B. R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kilvington, I.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; May, D. J.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Richardson, J. D.; Shiers, D. B.; Smith, K. F.; van der Grinten, M.

    2014-02-01

    A description is presented of apparatus used to carry out an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the neutron, at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble. The experiment incorporated a cohabiting atomic-mercury magnetometer in order to reduce spurious signals from magnetic field fluctuations. The result has been published in an earlier letter [1]; here, the methods and equipment used are discussed in detail.

  2. Simultaneous Use of Cs and Rb Rydberg Atoms for Independent RF Electric Field Measurements via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, Matt T; Holloway, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with cesium (Cs) and rubidium (Rb) Rydberg atoms in the same vapor cell with coincident (overlapping) optical fields. Each atomic system can detect radio frequency (RF) electric (E) field strengths through modification of the EIT signal (Autler-Townes (AT) splitting), which leads to a direct SI traceable RF E-field measurement. We show that these two systems can detect the same the RF E-field strength simultaneously, which provides a direct in situ comparison of Rb and Cs RF measurements in Rydberg atoms. In effect, this allows us to perform two independent measurements of the same quantity in the same laboratory, providing two different immediate and independent measurements. This gives two measurements that helps rule out systematic effects and uncertainties in this E-field metrology approach, which are important when establishing an international measurement standard for an E-field strength and is a necessary step for this method to...

  3. Resonance effects in the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom under the combined action of constant and high-frequency harmonic electric field of the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wave functions of the hydrogen atom and shape of the Lα and Lβ spectral lines in an electric field ED(t)=E-vectorconst+E cos(Ωt+φ) are calculated for Ω >> CE (C=3ean/2ℎ is the Stark effect constant, n is the principal quantum number and a the Bohr radius). For CEconst-Ω >> CE sinθ (θ is the angle between E and E-vectorconst) the principal Stark components relating to splitting of the upper energy level by a stationary field E-vectorconst are present in the lines as well as weaker satellites which are separated from the principal components by a frequency which is an integer of Ω. For CEconst → Ω the principal components approach the satellite group. However, for CEconst-Ω < or approx. CE sinθ, θ ≠0, approaching components repel each other and do not intersect with other ones. In this case the sattelite intensities are amplified in a resonant manner and become of the same order of magnitude as the intensities of the principal components. The results obtained may be of interest for atomic physics, plasma physics and atomic spectroscopy

  4. Experimental search for the permanent electric dipole moment of an Na atom using special capacitor in the shape of Dewar flask

    OpenAIRE

    You, Pei-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Since the time of Rutherford it was commonly believed that with no electric field, the nucleus of an atom is at the centre of the electron cloud, so that all kinds of atoms do not have permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). In the fact, the idea is untested hypothesis. Using two special capacitors containing Sodium vapor we find the electric susceptibility Xe of Na atoms is directly proportional to its density N, and inversely to the absolute temperature T, as polar molecules. Xe=A+B/T, wher...

  5. Electric field strength measurements in a megavolt vacuum diode using laser induced fluorescence of an atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined technique of an atomic beam probing and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFABS) is applied for measuring of local electric field in a 1 MV, 100 kJ, 4 μsec electron diode. Laser-produced lithium beam is stepwise excited by two resonant wide-band laser beams. Stark-splitted spontaneous emission from n=4 level is detected with a polychromator. Time dependence of the electric field was inferred from splitting of the 460.3 nm lithium line. The electric field strength F grows during a pulse from 160 to 260 kV/cm in the center of a 6 cm gap. By comparing calculated and experimental F-values, expansion of the emission boundaries of the cathode and anode plasmas was reconstructed

  6. Resolution 148/012. It authorize the 'Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation' company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Lavalleja town 1 AA catastral section and in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the 'Sistema inerconectado Nacional' connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to instal an electrical plant in Lavalleja town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  7. The Volatility of Market Risk In Groups of Viet Nam Listed Computer and Electrical Company Groups during the Financial Crisis 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the financial crisis 2007-2009 with certain impacts on the Viet Nam economy and especially, the stock exchange, there is un-diversifiable risk that influences the whole computer and electrical industries. Hence, the risk re-estimation for the listed firms in these industries becomes necessary. First of all, by using quantitative and analytical methods to estimate asset and equity beta of four (4 groups of listed companies in Viet Nam electrical, software, hardware and telecommunication industries with a proper traditional estimating model, we found out that the beta values, in general, for most companies are acceptable, excluding just a few cases. There are 88% of listed firms with lower risk, among total 64 firms, whose beta values lower than ( 1and have stock returns moving more than the market benchmark. Ultimately, this paper generates some results that could provides both internal and external investors, financial institutions, companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance.

  8. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of a |M|=1 Rydberg barium atom in an electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Quan Wei; Shen Li; Yang Hai-Feng; Shi Ting-Yun; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M|=1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ε= -2.000, ε= -2.500 and ε=-3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.

  9. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of ZnO/Si heterostructures with ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietruszka, R., E-mail: pietruszka@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Luka, G.; Witkowski, B.S.; Kopalko, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Zielony, E.; Bieganski, P.; Placzek-Popko, E. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-31

    We report on the properties of photovoltaic (PV) structures based on thin films of n-type zinc oxide grown by atomic layer deposition method on a cheap silicon substrate. Thin films of ZnO are used as n-type partner to p-type Si (110) and, when doped with Al, as a transparent electrode. PV structures with different thicknesses of ZnO layers (from 600 nm to 1600 nm) were deposited to determine the optimal performance of PV structures. The best response we obtained for the structure with ZnO layer thickness of 800 nm. The so-obtained PV structures show 6% efficiency. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition for solar cells application • Optimization of ZnO properties for an efficient photovoltaic response • Evaluation of electrical and photovoltaic performance of fabricated photovoltaic devices.

  10. Effects of atomic oxygen treatment on structures, morphologies and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) film has a potential application in providing spacecrafts the protection against atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. To advance the understanding of the AO resisting mechanisms and the relationships between the structures, morphologies and conductive properties of ZAO film, direct current magnetron sputtered ZAO films with different thicknesses were treated with AO in a ground-based simulation facility. The microstructure, surface chemical state, morphologies and electrical properties of pristine films and irradiated ones were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Hall measurement. It is found that AO exposure produces novel, oriented recrystallization of the surface particles. It also increases the content of oxygen ions in fully oxidized stoichiometric surroundings on the surface, resulting in the decrease of the conductivity. As the thickness of ZAO film increases, the crystallinity, conductivity and resistance to AO erosion are all improved.

  11. Enhancement of the electrical properties of silver nanowire transparent conductive electrodes by atomic layer deposition coating with zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Quang; Tran, Duc-Huy; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Duong, Thanh-Tung; Nguyen, Duy-Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes are important components and require low sheet resistance and high transmittance. Herein, we report an enhancement of the electrical properties of silver (Ag) nanowire networks by coating with zinc oxide using the atomic layer deposition technique. A strong decrease in the sheet resistance of Ag nanowires, namely from 20–40 Ω/□ to 7–15 Ω/□, was observed after coating with ZnO. Ag nanowire electrodes coated with 200-cycle ZnO by atomic layer deposition show the best quality, with a sheet resistance of 11 Ω/□ and transmittance of 75%.

  12. Short-ranged potential effects on the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wen-Peng; Li Hong-Yun; Wang Shu-Bao; Lin Sheng-Lu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents recurrence spectra of highly excited lithium atoms with M = 1 state in parallel electric and magnetic fields at a fixed scaled energy ε = -0.03. Short-ranged potentials including ionic core potential and centrifugal barrier are taken into account. Their effects on the states and photo-absorption spectrum are analysed in detail. This demonstrates that the geometric features of classical orbits are of special importance for modulations of the spectral pattern. Thus the weak polarization as well as the reduction of correlation of electrons induced by short-ranged potentials give rise to the recurrence spectra of lithium M = 1 atoms more compact than that of the M = 0 one, which is in good agreement with the experimental prediction.

  13. Quantum description of an atom with an induced electric dipole moment under the effects of rotation and a linear potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. B.; Bakke, K.

    2016-08-01

    A quantum description of a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment in a region with an effective magnetic field under the effects of rotation and a linear scalar potential is discussed. It is shown that analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved. Besides, it is shown that the degeneracy of the Landau-type levels is broken and there exists a restriction on the possible values of the cyclotron frequency associated with the Landau-type system.

  14. Limits on the monopole magnetic field from measurements of the electric dipole moments of atoms, molecules and the neutron

    OpenAIRE

    Flambaum, V. V.; Murray, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    A radial magnetic field can induce a time invariance violating electric dipole moment (EDM) in quantum systems. The EDMs of the Tl, Cs, Xe and Hg atoms and the neutron that are produced by such a field are estimated. The contributions of such a field to the constants, $\\chi$ of the T,P-odd interactions $\\chi_e {\\bf N} \\cdot {\\bf s}/s$ and $\\chi_N {\\bf N} \\cdot {\\bf I}/I$ are also estimated for the TlF, HgF and YbF molecules (where ${\\bf s}$ (${\\bf I}$) is the electron (nuclear) spin and ${\\bf...

  15. -Decay and the electric dipole moment: Searches for time-reversal violation in radioactive nuclei and atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H W Wilschut; U Dammalapati; D J Van Der Hoek; K Jungmann; W Kruithof; C J G Onderwater; B Santra; P D Shidling; L Willmann

    2010-07-01

    One of the greatest successes of the Standard Model of particle physics is the explanation of time-reversal violation (TRV) in heavy mesons. It also implies that TRV is immeasurably small in normal nuclear matter. However, unifying models beyond the Standard Model predict TRV to be within reach of measurement in nuclei and atoms, thus opening an important window to search for new physics. We will discuss two complementary experiments sensitive to TRV: Correlations in the -decay of 21Na and the search for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in radium.

  16. New maintenance strategy of Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for effective ageing management and safe long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant is the oldest among three nuclear power plants owned and operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company, which consists of six boiling water reactor units. The commercial operation of Unit 1 was commenced in 1971 (37 years old) and Unit 6 in 1978 (29 years old). Currently ageing degradations of systems, structures and components are managed through maintenance programs, component replacement/refurbishment programs and long-term maintenance plans. The long-term maintenance plans are established through ageing management component replacement/refurbishment programs reviews performed before the 30th year of operation and they are for safe and reliable operation after 30 years (long-term operation). However the past maintenance actions and past component replacement/refurbishment programs were not always proactive and past operational experience and maintenance practices suggest that effective/proactive ageing management programs be introduced in earlier stage of the plant operation. In this circumstance, Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant are setting up a new maintenance strategy that includes 1) improving the normal maintenance programs by using ageing degradation data, 2) effective use of information on internal/external operational experience and maintenance practices related to ageing, and 3) proactive component/equipment refurbishment programs during a refreshment outage for safe and reliable long-term operation. To accomplish the goal of this strategy, strengthening engineering capability of plant staff members is a crucial required for the plant. The objective of this paper is to briefly explain main results ageing management reviews, past and current significant ageing issues and management programs against them, and the new maintenance strategy established by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  17. Electrical characterization of Ge–Sb–Te phase change nano-pillars using conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical characteristic of phase change material was studied in nano-scale using nanoimprint lithography and a conducting atomic force microscopy measurement system. Nanoimprint lithography was used to fabricate the nano-scale phase change material pattern. A Pt-coated AFM tip was used as a top electrode to measure the electrical characteristics of the GST nano-pillar. The GST nano-pillar, which is 200 nm in diameter, was amorphized by 2 V and 5 ns reset pulse and was then brought back to the crystalline phase by applying 1.3 V and 150 ns set pulse. Using this measurement system, the GST nano-pillar was switched between the amorphous and crystalline phases more than five times. The results of the reset and the set current measurement with the GST nano-pillar sizes show that the reset and the set currents also decreased with the decrease of the GST pillar size

  18. Investigating the effect of electric field on ionization cross sections in antiproton–hydrogen/deuterium atoms collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been used to investigate the effects of aligned electric field on the ionization cross sections in antiproton and hydrogen atoms collisions. The cross sections for the ionization of hydrogen/deuterium collision with antiproton in the energy range 10–500 keV/amu have been calculated and compared with the available experiment and theoretical results. The ionization cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the recently reported experimental and theoretical results. Isotope effect in the ionization cross section is reported to be negligible. The effects of the external electric field are seen to be quite prominent. Differential cross sections for ionization at the scattering angle up to 0.1° are also reported in this paper.

  19. An important discovery - with no electric field, the center of the electron cloud of K atom does not coincide with the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    You, Pei-Lin

    2009-01-01

    It is a general point of view that in the absence of an external field, the nucleus of an atom is at the center of the electron cloud, so that all kinds of atoms do not have permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). In the fact, the idea is untested. Using two special capacitors containing Potassium vapor we discovered that the electric susceptibility Xe of K atoms is directly proportional to the density N, and inversely to the temperature T, as polar molecules. The experimental K material with...

  20. Morphology, composition and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:Cl thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsyi-En, E-mail: sean@mail.stust.edu.tw; Wen, Chia-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Ming [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 71005, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    Chlorine doped SnO{sub 2} thin films were prepared using atomic layer deposition at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C using SnCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O as the reactants. Composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were examined. Results showed that the as-deposited SnO{sub 2} films all exhibited rutile structure with [O]/[Sn] ratios between 1.35 and 1.40. The electrical conductivity was found independent on [O]/[Sn] ratio but dependent on chlorine doping concentration, grain size, and surface morphology. The 300 °C-deposited film performed a higher electrical conductivity of 315 S/cm due to its higher chlorine doping level, larger grain size, and smoother film surface. The existence of Sn{sup 2+} oxidation state was demonstrated to minimize the effects of chlorine on raising the electrical conductivity of films.

  1. Electric focusing preconcentration device for element composition monitoring of air aerosols by atomic emission spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekal, Bohumil; Mikuška, Pavel; Šikola, T.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Zlámal, J.

    Hamburg : University of Hamburg, 2006 - (Broekaert, J.). B56 [ISEAC34. International Symposium on Environmental Analytical Chemistry /34./. 04.06.2006-08.06.2006, Hamburg] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310505 Keywords : electrostatic pre-concentration * airborne particles * atomic emission spectrometric detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Electrical and mechanical controlling of the kinetic and magnetic properties of hydrogen atoms on free-standing silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadły-Paszkowska, Agata; Krawiec, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Effects of strain, charge doping and external electric field on kinetic and magnetic properties of hydrogen atoms on a free-standing silicene layer are investigated by first-principles density functional theory. It was found that the charge doping and strain are the most effective ways of changing the hydrogen-silicene binding energy, but they can only raise its value. The perpendicular external electric field can also lower it albeit in a narrower range. The strain has also the strongest impact on diffusion processes, and the diffusion barrier can be modified up to 50% of its unstrained value. The adsorption of hydrogen atoms results in a locally antiferromagnetic ground state with the effective exchange constant of approximately 1 eV. The system can easily be driven into a nonmagnetic phase by the charge doping and strain. The obtained results are very promising in view of the silicene functionalization and potential applications of silicene in fields of modern nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  3. Electrical and mechanical controlling of the kinetic and magnetic properties of hydrogen atoms on free-standing silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadły-Paszkowska, Agata; Krawiec, Mariusz

    2016-07-20

    Effects of strain, charge doping and external electric field on kinetic and magnetic properties of hydrogen atoms on a free-standing silicene layer are investigated by first-principles density functional theory. It was found that the charge doping and strain are the most effective ways of changing the hydrogen-silicene binding energy, but they can only raise its value. The perpendicular external electric field can also lower it albeit in a narrower range. The strain has also the strongest impact on diffusion processes, and the diffusion barrier can be modified up to 50% of its unstrained value. The adsorption of hydrogen atoms results in a locally antiferromagnetic ground state with the effective exchange constant of approximately 1 eV. The system can easily be driven into a nonmagnetic phase by the charge doping and strain. The obtained results are very promising in view of the silicene functionalization and potential applications of silicene in fields of modern nanoelectronics and spintronics. PMID:27228502

  4. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability; Experiences d'interferometrie atomique avec le lithium. Mesure de precision de la polarisabilite electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miffre, A

    2005-06-15

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, {alpha} = (24.33 {+-} 0.16)*10{sup -30} m{sup 3}, improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  5. The ANEEL and the criteria for the resource application in energy efficiency of the electric energy distribution companies; A ANEEL e os criterios para aplicacao de recursos em programas de eficiencia energetica das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletrico e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos (GEE)]. E-mail: jamil@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Each year the ANEEL establishes the criteria for the of the Energy Efficiency Programs of the electric power distribution companies. This subject has an importance nevertheless to be highlighted only when conjunctural circumstances occur such as the 2001/2002 electric energy crisis. Such characteristics increase the ANEEL responsibility, because the regulation must observe the structural character which performs the energy efficiency actions. Recently, the ANEEL altered the criteria for the resource application by the electric power distribution companies. This article describes the importance of the energy efficiency and make comments on these frequent regulatory changes. (author)

  6. 基于EVA电力上市公司的业绩评价%The performance appraisal of the listed electric power companies based on EVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司维; 徐焕章

    2011-01-01

    以股东超额期望收益率为出发点,选取我国沪深两市2006~2009年电力行业上市公司的样本数据资料,采用多元线性回归分析法对EVA在我国电力上市公司经营业绩评价的有效性进行实证检验.对电力上市公司业绩评价提供了可靠的决策依据,同时为电力上市公司的可持续发展提供了有价值的参数.%From the point of shareholders expected rate of return, the sample data of the listed electric power companies in 2006-2009 were selected from Shenzhen and Shanghai stock market. By using multiple linear regression analysis method,the effectiveness of performance evaluation of listed electric power companies in China is tested. It not only provides a reliable basis for companies' decision making,but also provides a valuable reference for companies' sustainable development.

  7. Role of current profiles and atomic force microscope tips on local electric crystallization of amorphous silicon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Rezek, Bohuslav; Šípek, Emil; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 518, č. 21 (2010), s. 5965-5970. ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : amorphous materials * atomic force microscopy (AFM) * conductivity * crystallization * nanostructures * silicon * nickel Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.909, year: 2010

  8. Analysis of atmospheric aerosols by atomic emission spectrometry with electrical discharge sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure is developed for the determination of the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd) in atmospheric air by atomic emission spectrometry with gas-discharge sampling onto the end of a standard carbon electrode. A design of a two-section sampler is proposed; the sampler provides the rapid determination of deposition factors for the deposition of heavy metals contained in aerosol particles onto the end of a carbon electrode. Examples of determining metal concentrations in a model sample of air and in atmospheric air and determination limits of metals deposited onto the end of a carbon electrode are given

  9. Large Area Growth and Electrical Properties of p-Type WSe2 Atomic Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Chen; Shaw, Jonathan C.; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan O; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal dichacogenides represent a unique class of two-dimensional layered materials that can be exfoliated into single or few atomic layers. Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is one typical example with p-type semiconductor characteristics. Bulk WSe2 has an indirect band gap (∼1.2 eV), which transits into a direct band gap (∼1.65 eV) in monolayers. Monolayer WSe2, therefore, is of considerable interest as a new electronic material for functional electronics and optoelectronics. However, th...

  10. Electrical-field-driven metal-insulator transition tuned with self-aligned atomic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrlybekov, Askar; Wu, Han-Chun; Mauit, Ozhet; Wu, Ye-Cun; Maguire, Pierce; Khalid, Abbas; Coileáin, Cormac Ó; Farrell, Leo; Heng, Cheng-Lin; Abid, Mohamed; Liu, Huajun; Yang, Li; Zhang, Hong-Zhou; Shvets, Igor V

    2015-09-01

    Recently, significant attention has been paid to the resistance switching (RS) behaviour in Fe3O4 and it was explained through the analogy of the electrically driven metal-insulator transition based on the quantum tunneling theory. Here, we propose a method to experimentally support this explanation and provide a way to tune the critical switching parameter by introducing self-aligned localized impurities through the growth of Fe3O4 thin films on stepped SrTiO3 substrates. Anisotropic behavior in the RS was observed, where a lower switching voltage in the range of 10(4) V cm(-1) is required to switch Fe3O4 from a high conducting state to a low conducting state when the electrical field is applied along the steps. The anisotropic RS behavior is attributed to a high density array of anti-phase boundaries (APBs) formed at the step edges and thus are aligned along the same direction in the film which act as a train of hotspot forming conduits for resonant tunneling. Our experimental studies open an interesting window to tune the electrical-field-driven metal-insulator transition in strongly correlated systems. PMID:26239065

  11. Scenarios for the popular initiatives 'Strom ohne Atom' (Electricity without nuclear power) and 'Moratorium Plus'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible effects of two Swiss Popular Initiatives which called for the shutdown of nuclear power stations in Switzerland ('Strom ohne Atom'), the restriction of their operating life and the abstention from building new atomic power stations ('Moratorium Plus'). The report examines the energetic and financial consequences of the initiatives. The approaches used for the analysis are described and the energy policy actions required to avoid gaps in the supply of power after the possible closure of the power stations are discussed. Apart from a reference scenario (long-term utilisation of nuclear energy), scenarios for power generation using co-generation are presented. The problems posed by the resulting CO2 and NOx emissions are discussed. Further scenarios review the contribution to be made by renewable sources of energy and increasing energy-conservation efforts. The costs of the shutdown of nuclear power stations are discussed and the results of a sensitivity analysis are presented

  12. Magnetic-field-induced electric quadrupole moments for relativistic hydrogenlike atoms: Application of the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function

    CERN Document Server

    Stefańska, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    We consider a Dirac one-electron atom placed in a weak, static, uniform magnetic field. We show that, to the first order in the strength B of the external field, the only electric multipole moments, which are induced by the perturbation in the atom, are those of an even order. Using the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30, 825 (1997); 30, 2747(E) (1997)], we derive a closed-form expression for the electric quadrupole moment induced in the atom in an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate. The result, which has the form of a double finite sum involving the generalized hypergeometric functions 3F2 of the unit argument, agrees with the earlier relativistic formula for that quantity, obtained by us for the ground state of the atom.

  13. Frequency characteristics of a nuclear spin maser for the search for the electric dipole moment of 129Xe atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T.; Tsuchiya, M.; Furukawa, T.; Hayashi, H.; Nanao, T.; Yoshimi, A.; Uchida, M.; Matsuo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency characteristics of a 129Xe nuclear spin maser was studied, which is under development at Tokyo Institute of Technology for the search for a permanent electric dipole moment in diamagnetic 129Xe atom. Drifts in the solenoid current and cell temperature were found to be the most influential factors on the maser frequency. From correlation coefficient analysis, there seem to exist other origins of frequency fluctuation, such as phase drifts in the maser oscillation. In order to improve the stability of the maser frequency, the intensity of the pumping laser required to fully polarize 129Xe nuclei was evaluated. Construction of a polarization assessment system for 129Xe gas cells and development of a new scheme of current stabilization are also remarked.

  14. Adsorption of Ti atoms on zigzag silicene nanoribbons: influence on electric, magnetic, and thermoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the adsorption effects of Ti atoms on the physical properties of zigzag silicene nanoribbons using the density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green’s function methods. The adsorption geometries, conductance spectra, current voltage curves, spin polarizations, magnetoresistance, and Seebeck coefficients are evaluated in different adsorption samples. Ti adatoms prefer sites inside the nanoribbons instead of on the edges. Two neighboring adatoms are attractively coupled and prefer being adsorbed on the same side. The giant magnetoresistance in nanoribbons of even width is usually greatly reduced, except in symmetric adsorption cases. Strong spin negative differential resistance phenomena can be observed and pure spin current can be produced by temperature gradient in specific cases. (paper)

  15. 76 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...-07, Amendment 39-15085 (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), and adding the following new AD: General Electric... (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), for all GE CF6-80C2B series turbofan engines. That AD requires installing... 2007-12-07 (72 FR 31174, June 6, 2007), we received two reports of ice crystal condition flameouts...

  16. 78 FR 49551 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... 11, 2012 (77 FR 73684). The supplements had no effect on the no significant hazards consideration... the Turbine Building Structures and Layout AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Exemption..., Georgia (the licensee); for construction and operation of the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant...

  17. The Analysis of the Reaction of the Romanian Companies Supplying Electrical Energy to the Modification of the Geopolitical Context and of the Internal Legislative Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Robu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplying services in the electrical energy domain that corresponds qualitatively, at acceptable prices, in the context of the respect of the environment preservation standards and of the security of the supply, in accordance with the demands of the economic growth, represents a main component of the lasting development. In the 9th chapter of the 21st Agenda is stated that “energy is essential to the economic and social development and to a better quality of life”. At global level, given the current technological conditions and the permanent growth of the quantity of resources used, a large part of the energy is produced and consumed in an unsustainable manner. The necessity of controlling the greenhouse gas emissions and of other polluting substances imposes the increase of the efficiency of production, transportation, distribution and consumption of the energy and the growth of the use of renewable energy sources. All energy sources must be used in a manner that permits the respect of the environment on the whole. The operational research executed let us state that the defining elements of the geopolitical context influence the behaviour of the companies supplying electrical energy, which has an effect in any branch of the national economy. Such an approach is useful in the determination of the impact of the increase of electrical energy prices on the vulnerable sectors of the national economy.

  18. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Broadband Rydberg Atom-Based Electric-Field Probe: From Self-Calibrated Measurements to Sub-Wavelength Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Christopher L; Jefferts, Steven; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A; Miller, Stephanie A; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a fundamentally new approach for the measurement of electric (E) fields that will lead to the development of a broadband, direct SI-traceable, compact, self-calibrating E-field probe (sensor). This approach is based on the interaction of radio frequency (RF) fields with alkali atoms excited to Rydberg states. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). In effect, alkali atoms placed in a vapor cell act like an RF-to-optical transducer, converting an RF E-field strength measurement to an optical frequency measurement. We demonstrate the broadband nature of this approach by showing that one small vapor cell can be used to measure E-field strengths over a wide range of frequencies: 1 GHz to 500 GHz. The technique is validated by comparing experimental data to both numerical simulations and far-field calculations for various frequencies. We also discuss various applications, in...

  20. Experimental search for the permanent electric dipole moment of an Na atom using special capacitor in the shape of Dewar flask

    CERN Document Server

    You, Pei-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Since the time of Rutherford it was commonly believed that with no electric field, the nucleus of an atom is at the centre of the electron cloud, so that all kinds of atoms do not have permanent electric dipole moment (EDM). In the fact, the idea is untested hypothesis. Using two special capacitors containing Sodium vapor we find the electric susceptibility Xe of Na atoms is directly proportional to its density N, and inversely to the absolute temperature T, as polar molecules. Xe=A+B/T, where A is approximately to zero, B=126.6 (K) and N=1.49*1020 m-3. A ground state neutral Na atom has a large permanent EDM: d( Na)=1.28*10-8e.cm. The non-zero observation of EDM in any non-degenerate system will be a direct proof of time-reversal violation in nature, and new example of CP violation occurred in Na atoms. We work out the most linear Stark shift of Na atoms is only 0.0033nm, and so its linear Stark effect has not been observed till now! The experimental Na material with purity 0.9995 is supplied by Strem Chemic...

  1. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  2. Electrical and optical properties of Ti doped ZnO films grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ti doped ZnO films were prepared on Corning XG glass substrate by ALD. • The electrical properties and optical properties were systematically investigated. • An optimized Ti doped ZnO films had low resistivity and excellent optical transmittance. - Abstract: Titanium doped zinc oxide (Ti doped ZnO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition methods at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. The Ti content in Ti doped ZnO films was varied from 5.08 at.% to 15.02 at.%. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of the Ti doped ZnO films had degraded with increasing Ti content. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructural evolution of the Ti doped ZnO films, showing that both the grain size and crystallinity reduced with increasing Ti content. The electrical resistivity of the Ti doped ZnO films showed a minimum value of 1.6 × 10−3 Ω cm with the Ti content of 6.20 at.%. Furthermore, the Ti doped ZnO films exhibited excellent transmittance

  3. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics. PMID:27001169

  4. Low Energy Atomic Models Suggesting a Pilus Structure that could Account for Electrical Conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens Pili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Shu, Chuanjun; Martz, Eric; Lovley, Derek R.; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The metallic-like electrical conductivity of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili has been documented with multiple lines of experimental evidence, but there is only a rudimentary understanding of the structural features which contribute to this novel mode of biological electron transport. In order to determine if it was feasible for the pilin monomers of G. sulfurreducens to assemble into a conductive filament, theoretical energy-minimized models of Geobacter pili were constructed with a previously described approach, in which pilin monomers are assembled using randomized structural parameters and distance constraints. The lowest energy models from a specific group of predicted structures lacked a central channel, in contrast to previously existing pili models. In half of the no-channel models the three N-terminal aromatic residues of the pilin monomer are arranged in a potentially electrically conductive geometry, sufficiently close to account for the experimentally observed metallic like conductivity of the pili that has been attributed to overlapping pi-pi orbitals of aromatic amino acids. These atomic resolution models capable of explaining the observed conductive properties of Geobacter pili are a valuable tool to guide further investigation of the metallic-like conductivity of the pili, their role in biogeochemical cycling, and applications in bioenergy and bioelectronics. PMID:27001169

  5. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Reward Management System on Employee Performance through the Mediating Role of Employee Motivation Case Study: Isfahan Regional Electric Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Karami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyzing the effectiveness of reward management system on employee performance through the mediating role of employee motivation was the purpose of the present survey.Method and tools: Given that staff department of Isfahan Regional Electric Company was the statistical population under study simple random sampling was used in this survey. Sample size was determined by means of Cochran formula (140 persons. Historical study and field study methods were the most important methods of data collection and data analysis was performed by means of Amos and Pls software.Findings: Reward management system has a positive and significant effect on employee motivation. Employee motivation does not have a positive and significant effect on employee performance. Reward management system has a positive and significant effect on employee performance (by the presence of motivation as the mediating variable.Conclusion: The findings of this survey in the above company show that there is a positive and significant relation among elements of reward management system and motivation and performance. Such positive and significant relation was found among the elements of reward management system with performance too. This is while there was no positive and significant relation among the elements of reward management system, employee motivation and performance. It is notable that the above relations were presented in the framework of a model using structural equations modeling.

  6. Assessment of the prevalence of occupational accidents and their influential actors in an electricity distribution company during a five-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghain, Marzieh; Farid, Ramin Ataei; Dormohammadi, Ali; Aghaei, Habib Allah; Rahmani, Abdolrasoul; Farhadi, Rozita; Eskandari, Rasoul; Karchani, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Occupational accidents have been considered as one of the most important crippling factors contributing to disabilities and life-threatening situations in many countries. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of occupational accidents and the factors of that lead to injuries in an Electricity Distribution Company during a five-year period. Methods: In this descriptive study, the accident report form included items asking about the season of the year when the accident occurred, the ages and the average age of those injured, the type of employment, work experience, nature of the injuries that occurred, parts of the body affected, treatments that were applied, average number of days lost per accident, the levels of education of those involved, and their marital status. Data was analyzed using SPSS. Results: A total of 66 Electricity Distribution Company workers were determined to be suffering from injuries due to accidents. The accidents mostly occurred in the summer (33%). Most of the injured workers (16.7%) belonged to the age groups of 25 to 29 and 40 to 44; there were no accidents reported for workers who were less than 20. About 48% of the accident victims had to be hospitalized. Furthermore, 35% of the accident victims were treated in outpatient clinics, and 7.4% of the accident victims died. We demonstrated that there were significant relationships between: 1) marital status and accidental injuries (P0.05) or work experience and the distribution of the accidents (P>0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that most of the injuries in these accidents were related to the nature of employment, marital status, and level of education. The results showed the necessity for providing appropriate safety training for the workers. PMID:26120397

  7. Electrical conductivity in Langmuir-Blodgett films of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyls using current sensing atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report our studies on the nanoscale electrical conductivity in monolayers of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyl materials deposited on solid surface. Initially, the 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer films were prepared by the Langmuir technique at air-water interface and characterized by surface manometry and Brewster angle microscopy. The monolayer films were transferred on to solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) technique. The 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer L-B films were deposited on freshly cleaved mica and studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), thereby measuring the film thickness as ∼1.5 nm. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out on 9CB and 10CB monolayer L-B films deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite using current sensing AFM. The nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) measurements show a non-linear variation. The nature of the curve indicates electron tunneling to be the mechanism for electrical conduction. Furthermore, analysis of the I-V curve reveals a transition in the electron conduction mechanism from direct tunneling to injection tunneling. From the transition voltage, we have estimated the values of barrier height for 9CB and 10CB to be 0.71 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively. For both 9CB and 10CB, the effective mass of electron was calculated to be 0.021 me and 0.065 me, respectively. These parameters are important in the design of molecular electronic devices

  8. Electrical conductivity in Langmuir-Blodgett films of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyls using current sensing atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri, H. N.; Suresh, K. A., E-mail: suresh@cnsms.res.in [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, P. B. No. 1329, Jalahalli, Bangalore 560013 (India)

    2015-06-28

    We report our studies on the nanoscale electrical conductivity in monolayers of n-alkyl cyanobiphenyl materials deposited on solid surface. Initially, the 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer films were prepared by the Langmuir technique at air-water interface and characterized by surface manometry and Brewster angle microscopy. The monolayer films were transferred on to solid substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) technique. The 8CB, 9CB, and 10CB monolayer L-B films were deposited on freshly cleaved mica and studied by atomic force microscope (AFM), thereby measuring the film thickness as ∼1.5 nm. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out on 9CB and 10CB monolayer L-B films deposited onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite using current sensing AFM. The nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) measurements show a non-linear variation. The nature of the curve indicates electron tunneling to be the mechanism for electrical conduction. Furthermore, analysis of the I-V curve reveals a transition in the electron conduction mechanism from direct tunneling to injection tunneling. From the transition voltage, we have estimated the values of barrier height for 9CB and 10CB to be 0.71 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively. For both 9CB and 10CB, the effective mass of electron was calculated to be 0.021 m{sub e} and 0.065 m{sub e}, respectively. These parameters are important in the design of molecular electronic devices.

  9. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  10. Programme and practices on electrical equipment at Tarapur Atomic Power Station [Paper No.: VB-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment related to the safety of the nuclear reactors needs a different approach to maintenance efforts. On other equipment, the approach is designed to suit the working cycle and the environment where the equipment is located. The preventive maintenance programme chart as prepared indicates the dates on which a particular equipment is due to check-up. History data in respect of all equipment as maintained provides ready and easily accessible information on equipment performance, history of malfunctions, data on corrective actions as taken etc. All major check-outs and overall equipment are synchronised with the refuelling outage of the associated reactor unit. Work procedures/check lists as prepared ensure a consistent approach to the work. Extra high voltage equipment at the out-door switchyard needs attention on continuous basis due to the saline pollution problems. Steps taken to mitigate the effects of pollution are explained. The paper is a summary of report on maintenance practices on electrical equipment as in vogue at Tarapur. (author)

  11. An Analysis of R&D Project Performance from Research to Commercialization ~ Evidence from a Japanese Electric Company

    OpenAIRE

    Osawa, Yoshitaka; Miyazaki, Kumiko

    2005-01-01

    For a business enterprise, research and development projects provide a crucial engine for growth and the management of research and development projects has a tremendous impact on the future of the enterprise. The key in R&D management is how to select projects and allocate finite management resources. It is extremely important to thoroughly discuss ways to make such selection and allocation. In this study, we analyzed a group of R&D projects that had been carried out at Sumitomo Electric Ind...

  12. Studies of single walled carbon nanotubes for biomedical, mechanical and electrical applications using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiji, Roya Roientan

    The promise of carbon nanotubes to provide high-strength composites implies that carbon nanotubes might find widespread use throughout the world, implying that humans everywhere will be exposed to carbon nanotube-containing materials. In order to study what effects if any carbon nanotubes might have on the function of living cells, we have studied the association of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a first step toward understanding the interaction of SWCNTs with living matter. Studies have been performed on both as-received and chemically oxidized SWCNTs to better understand the preferential association of ssDNA with SWCNTs. Samples of T30 ssDNA:SWCNT were examined under ambient conditions using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)) techniques. AFM images of well-dispersed, as-received SWCNTs revealed isolated features on the SWCNT that are 1.4 to 2.8 nm higher than the bare SWCNT itself. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed these features to be T30 ssDNA in nature. Chemically oxidizing SWCNTs before dispersion by sonication is found to be an effective way to increase the number of T30 ssDNA features. A series of experiments showed that free radical scavengers such as ascorbic acid and trolox can effectively prevent the conjugation of ssDNA to SWCNTs, suggesting a significant role of free radicals in this association. Also hybridization of the complimentary ssDNA sequences showed the covalent nature of this association. These results are important to understanding the precise mechanism of ssDNA:SWCNT association and provide valuable information for future use in electronics, biosensors and as a possible drug carrier into individual cells. If SWCNTs are used in biosensor or circuit design applications then it is important to note how much energy can be stored in a SWCNT based on its shape and configuration before a permanent damage is introduced to it. Therefore a study has been done on bending SWCNTs into

  13. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  14. Atomic polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed

  15. QED-based Optical Bloch Equations without electric dipole approximation: A model for a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic X-ray laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    We derive a set of optical Bloch equations (OBEs) directly from the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (bound-state QED). Such optical Bloch equations are beyond the former widely-used ones due to that there is no electric dipole approximation (EDA) on the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state QED. Then our optical Bloch equations can describe a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light of arbitrary wavelength, which are suitable to study the spectroscopy and the Rabi oscillations of two-level atoms in X-ray laser beams since that the wavelength of X-ray is close to an atom to make the electric dipole approximation (EDA) invalid.

  16. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system

  17. Regulating technological change - The strategic reactions of utility companies towards subsidy policies in the German, Spanish and UK electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on how incumbent electric utilities strategically react to subsidy schemes supporting renewable energy technologies in the UK, Germany, and Spain. Firms coordinate the development of their technological capabilities and their political activities to shape their regulatory environment. Analysing the diffusion of wind power in these countries, we show that the different ways, in which firms coordinate their technological and political strategies, lead to very different market outcomes, both for the firms' market share and the size of the overall market. Although incumbents are usually seen as being resistant to change in energy systems, we show that Spanish utilities proactively drive the diffusion of wind power. We speculate about the relation between the ownership structure of the energy system and its inertia with respect to the integration of new technologies. We derive novel policy implications that explicitly take into account the strategic actions of incumbent firms shaping the technological and regulatory system. (author)

  18. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide layers grown by the low-temperature atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewski, Tomasz A.; Dybko, Krzysztof; Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Witkowski, Bartlomiej S.; Duzynska, Anna; Kopalko, Krzysztof; Lusakowska, Elzbieta; Kowalski, Bogdan J.; Guziewicz, Elzbieta [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, ul. Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    This paper reports on the electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films grown at the temperature range between 160 and 240 C by the atomic layer deposition method using diethylzinc (Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, DEZn) and deionized water precursors. Silicon and glass were used as substrates for the ZnO growth. These films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low temperature photoluminescence (LT PL) and low temperature Hall effect measurements. This analysis revealed that all the obtained as-grown ZnO layers are fairly smooth (with a roughness RMS parameter less than 4 nm), show a metallic-like conductivity, exhibited a carriers' concentration (n) of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} which was found to be practically independent of temperature between 7 and 300 K. From the LT PL spectra, it was established that the carriers' concentration is nearly inversely proportional to the intensity of the LT PL edge emission peak. These observations, together with the fact that the Hall mobility slightly increases at higher temperatures, indicate the existence of a competitive scattering mechanism (on grain boundaries as well as on ionized impurities). However, ionized impurity scattering seems to be the dominant factor limiting the carrier mobility in the discussed case. Moreover, the results suggest that efficient non-radiative Auger processes are responsible for the observed photoluminescence (PL) quenching in the samples with higher electron concentration. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Additional costs for Norwegian power companies from the OED-proposed implementation of the Electricity Directive II; Merkostnader for norske kraftselskaper ved OEDs forslag til implementering av Eldirektiv II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The cost-related consequences for Norwegian vertically integrated power companies caused by the proposed implementation of Electricity Directive II by OED (Norwegian Oil and Energy Department) are considered. Electricity Directive II demands a company and functional division between the network activities and the activities exposed to competition. The OED proposition aims at lowering the limit for which network companies are included by the new demands, from 100.000 to either 20.000 or 10.000 network clients. Moreover, they propose measures that ensure the network companies' independence, and these exceed by far the minimum requirements of Electricity Directive II. The additional costs may be significant in some aspects. Especially the requirement of an independent management in parent- and subsidiary company will lead to added costs of about Nok 320 million for the Norwegian power business. Further, a split-up management structure may be poorly compatible with the mind set behind the corporate model, something which potentially can lead to bad investments or a weaker utilization of potential cost synergies. The motive for proposing stricter demands on Norwegian power business is among other to limit cross-subsidies so that the competition in the market is reinforced. In light of substantial, quantified additional costs and other negative effects, the proposition's effect on the competition should be investigated further, including alternative measures that may be more cost-effective and/or more accurate (ml)

  20. To Explore The Method of Reducing The Failure Rate of County Electric Power Supply Company%探究降低县级供电公司农网故障率的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺刚

    2015-01-01

    本文简要叙述县级供电公司农网故障及原因,提出农网故障的检测方法及有效降低县级供电公司农网故障率的方法。%With the rapid development of national economy, the construction and development of county-level power supply company website speed also appear gradually accelerated condition, this paper analyzes the reasons of the failure of the county-level power supply company's web site, in a timely and properly handle the rural power failures, can effectively reduce the rate of contribution to the company website at the county level, improve the rural power supply reliability, stability and security. Due to the particularity of county electric power supply company public network cable, cable buried underground, most of the rural power failures can't directly find the fault point, and then use the instrument test site failure. This paper briefly describes the failure and the reason of county-level power supply company website, rural electricity fault detection method is proposed, puts forward the effective method to reduce the failure rate at the county level power supply company.

  1. Electrical properties of amorphous and epitaxial Si-rich silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the electrical properties and derived the energy band structures of amorphous Si-rich W silicide (a-WSin) films and approximately 1-nm-thick crystalline WSin epitaxial films (e-WSin) on Si (100) substrates with composition n = 8–10, both composed of Sin clusters each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSin clusters). The effect of annealing in the temperature range of 300–500 °C was also investigated. The Hall measurements at room temperature revealed that a-WSin is a nearly intrinsic semiconductor, whereas e-WSin is an n-type semiconductor with electron mobility of ∼8 cm2/V s and high sheet electron density of ∼7 × 1012 cm−2. According to the temperature dependence of the electrical properties, a-WSin has a mobility gap of ∼0.1 eV and mid gap states in the region of 1019 cm−3 eV−1 in an optical gap of ∼0.6 eV with considerable band tail states; e-WSin has a donor level of ∼0.1 eV with sheet density in the region of 1012 cm−2 in a band gap of ∼0.3 eV. These semiconducting band structures are primarily attributed to the open band-gap properties of the constituting WSin cluster. In a-WSin, the random network of the clusters generates the band tail states, and the formation of Si dangling bonds results in the generation of mid gap states; in e-WSin, the original cluster structure is highly distorted to accommodate the Si lattice, resulting in the formation of intrinsic defects responsible for the donor level

  2. Parametric study of prospective early commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC). General Electric Company, task 1: Parametric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

  3. Tables of Transition Probabilities and Branching Ratios for Electric Dipole Transitions Between Arbitrary Levels of Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.

  4. Physical and electrical characterization of atomic-layer-deposited Ru nanocrystals embedded into Al2O3 for memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth of uniformly distributed Ru nanocrystals on Al2O3 is demonstrated via atomic layer deposition using bis(cyclopentadienyl)-ruthenium and oxygen precursors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveal that metallic Ru nanocrystals were formed in this experiment, and the RuO2 surface is due to oxidation of Ru when exposed to air. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitors with Ru nanocrystals embedded into Al2O3 are electrically measured, exhibiting obvious memory effects such as a large hysteresis memory window of 3.4 V for the sweeping gate voltage of -2.5/ + 8 V and a significant flat-band voltage shift of 3.2 V under the programming of 10 V/1 ms, i.e. an effective electron injection rate as fast as 1.78 x 10-6 C cm-2 ms-1. This relates to the program mechanism of direct tunnelling and a large potential well depth. (fast track communication)

  5. Frequency characteristics of nuclear spin oscillator with an artificial feedback toward search for 129Xe atomic electric dipole moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Furukawa, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Nanao, Tsubasa; Chikamori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Hayashi, Hironori; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Ichikawa, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hatakeyama, Naoto; Kagami, Sota; Uchida, Makoto; Ueno, Hideki; Matsuo, Yukari; Fukuyama, Takeshi; Asahi, Koichiro

    2016-06-01

    A 129Xe nuclear spin oscillator with an artificial feedback was constructed, and detailed studies were conducted on its performance, focusing on the frequency stability. As a result, the major sources of drift of the precession frequency in the present spin oscillator setup were identified to be drifts of a solenoid current and an environmental magnetic field. By introducing stabilization systems for the current and the environmental field, which yielded improvements by one order of magnitude on the solenoid current and by a factor of three on the environmental field, a frequency precision of 7.9 nHz was obtained for a one-shot measurement of 3 × 104 s duration. We found, however, that the Allan deviation leveled off at around 30 μHz, indicating a strong need for the precision monitor of the experimental conditions represented by magnetometry. The frequency stability of the spin oscillator is discussed in relation to an experimental search for an electric dipole moment of the 129Xe atom.

  6. Resonance and interference phenomena in the photoionisation of a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent experimental and theoretical works on the Stark photoionisation spectrum of the hydrogen atom are analysed and compared with the results of the semi-classical approach developed in the preceding papers of the present series. It is shown that the observed cross section structure is described by the semiclassical theory without any modifications. Thus the experiments confirm the principal advantage of the semi-classical theory: it is uniform both in photoelectron energy and the electric field strength. In particular, the measured Stark photodetachment cross sections are reproduced well by simple analytical formulae. The shape of the resonance profiles is described by Fano parametrisation. Its criticism is shown to be unjustified. Lorentz parametrisation with the energy-dependent width suffers from serious disadvantages. Fano parametrisation with account for rapid variation of the cross section background reproduces all the characteristic features of the profiles observed in other experiments. The semiclassical results agree well with the recent numerical calculations for resonances lying above the ionisation threshold. The approximate expressions for the resonance widths describe the experimental results well. (author)

  7. Advance of technological innovations of electric power in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve companies in Japan reported on the technological innovations in 2012. The Japan Atomic Power Company mainly studied five projects; (1) control of wall thinning of the secondary system in PWR by injection of molybdic acid, (2) application of pipe test method using electromagnetic acoustic resonance to existing equipment, (3) developed high performance Co-60 crud removal resin for Tsuruga Power Station Unit 2, (4) improvement of technology for safety of core in FBR, and (5) improvement of technology for coolant of FBR by dispersing nano-particles in liquid sodium metal. Tokyo Electric Power Company developed mainly three projects; (1) the support for the mental health care activities by industry protection staff at the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant, (2) laboratory test method using non-radioactive cesium for performance of decontamination reagent, and (3) decontamination effects estimation code (DeConEP). Hokuriku Electric Power Company reported the operations management measures in accordance with the safety enhancement measures to Shika nuclear power station. Other nine reports are published by Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Okinawa Electric Power Company Inc. and J-Power. (S.Y.)

  8. Line shapes and time dynamics of the F\\"orster resonances between two Rydberg atoms in a time-varying electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Yakshina, E A; Beterov, I I; Entin, V M; Andreeva, C; Cinins, A; Markovski, A; Iftikhar, Z; Ekers, A; Ryabtsev, I I

    2016-01-01

    The observation of the Stark-tuned F\\"orster resonances between Rydberg atoms excited by narrowband cw laser radiation requires usage of a Stark-switching technique in order to excite the atoms first in a fixed electric field and then to induce the interactions in a varied electric field, which is scanned across the F\\"orster resonance. In our experiments with a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms we have found that the transients at the edges of the electric pulses strongly affect the line shapes of the F\\"orster resonances, since the resonances occur mainly on a time scale of ~100 ns, which is comparable with the duration of the transients. For example, a short-term ringing at a certain frequency causes additional radio-frequency-assisted F\\"orster resonances, while non-sharp edges lead to asymmetry. The intentional application of the radio-frequency field induces transitions between collective states, whose line shape depends on the interaction strengths and time. Spatial averaging over the atom positions in a singl...

  9. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  10. Resolution 139/012. It authorize to RIO MIRADOR S.A company to generate a wind electricity source by a generating plant located in Maldonado town 5a. Catastral section, as well as the connection to the Interconnected National System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Resolution authorizes the generation of electricity using wind energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by RIO MIRADOR S.A wind generation company with the proposal to instal an electrical plant in Maldonado town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  11. Farewell to 'atomic electricity'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essay deals with legal questions concerning the abolition of licences for nuclear power plants. In particular, only a changed philosophy of risks of the executive does not give a reason for an abolition of those administrative acts. An accelerated renunciation from nuclear energy will cost an economical and ecological price. Energy costs will increase considerably and the environment will suffer more than before under traditional air pollution. (KW)

  12. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 23Po,2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 23Po level of helium-like krypton

  13. Allocation of petroleum feedstock: Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Sollers Point SNG Plant, Sollers Point, Baltimore County, Maryland. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1978-04-01

    An allocation of naphtha feedstock up to 2,186,000 barrels per year to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) to operate its synthetic natural gas (SNG) facility is being considered. The allocation would enable BG and E to produce 10,800,000 mcf of SNG during a 180 day period. Operation of the plant at design capacity is expected to result in annual pollution emissions as follows: 626.4 tons of sulfur oxides, 168.5 tons of nitrogen oxides and 21.6 tons of particulate matter. Incremental emissions due to plant operations relative to existing emissions in Baltimore County are less than 1%. All Federal and State air quality standards should be met. Treated effluent is to be discharged into the Patapasco River where the environmental impacts are not expected to be significant. The SNG facility has been designed to be in compliance with all applicable Federal, State and local effluent standards. Water consumption requirements of 335,000 gallons per day are not expected to significantly tax the area's water resources. Sound generated by the SNG facility will be inaudible or imperceptible. All other operational impacts on land use, population, visual quality, roadways, community facilities and services and ecological systems were judged to be minimal. Environmental impacts resulting from various alternatives ranging from full allocation through denial of an allocation are discussed.

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, Dockets Nos. 50-352 and 50-353: Philadelphis Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1983 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0991) regarding the application of the Philadelphia Electric Company (the licensee) for licenses to operate the Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2, located on a site in Montgomery and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania. Supplement 1 to NUREG-0991 was issued in December 1983. Supplements 2 and 3 were issued in October 1984. License NPF-27 for the low-power operation of Limerick Unit 1 was issued on October 26, 1984. Supplement 4 was issued in May 1985, Supplement 5 was issued in July 1985, and Supplement 6 was issued in August 1985. These supplements addressed further issues that required resolution before Unit 1 proceeded beyond the 5-percent power level. The full-power operating license for Limerick Unit 1 (NPF-39) was issued August 8, 1985, and the unit has completed two cycles of operation. This supplement addresses the major design differences between Units 1 and 2, the resolution of all issues that remained open when the Unit 1 full-power license was issued, the staff's assessment of the licensee's application to operate Unit 2, and the issues that require resolution before issuance of an operating license for Unit 2

  15. Seawater contamination problem due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company and comparison with Bikini accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from the cases of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, systematic study on environmental radioactivity in Japan started in the wake of the exposure of the Daigo Fukuryu Maru to the radioactive substances released from the nuclear test in the atmosphere, which was conducted at the Bikini atoll of the Pacific Ocean in 1954. This study was related with the survey on the medical effect as well as the oceanic/atmospheric contamination effect of this accident. This paper introduces artificial radioactive contamination in the ocean, with focuses on marine contamination due to large-scale nuclear test such as the Bikini test, contamination due to Chernobyl nuclear plant accident, and radioactive contamination in the Pacific Ocean caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident of Tokyo Electric Power Company. This paper firstly demonstrates the summary of marine surveys by Japan and the United States after the Bikini hydrogen bomb test and the chart of extension of marine contamination obtained from the observation data, as well as the chart of internal transport route obtained from observation of the whole territory of the Pacific Ocean in the 2000s. Furthermore, it introduces the transport route survey on radioactive cesium in the oceanic contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, and points out that the past information was very useful for the survey. (A.O.)

  16. Electricity generation cost issues - public authorities and power generation companies points of view; Approches du cout de production du KWH: vision publique et vision producteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lermusieau, Ph. [Electrabel France, 75 - Paris (France); Leban, R. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France); Percebois, J. [Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France); Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie (CREDEN), 34 - Montpellier (France); Regent, A. [Ambassade de France a Londres (United Kingdom); Ged, A. [Solving France, 75 - Paris (France); Boulanger, Ph. [ENDESA France (France); Dallemagne, G. [Societe Generale (France); Favennec, J.P. [AEE-France, 92 6 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Gonnot, F.M. [Depute de l' Oise, 95 (France); Percebois, J. [Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie (CREDEN), 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2008-07-15

    This dossier is dedicated to the cost of the production of electricity. As for any investment, we have to consider the future income the investment will give, this income depends on a list of parameters from which we can highlight for nuclear power in Europe: the opening of the market to competitors, the inter-connection of the national markets, the oscillation of prices between long-term and short-term costs. We have to consider also the structure of the cost (CO{sub 2}, fuel, operation and maintenance) and the issue of risk management for the investor (delay, civil liability, dismantlement). It appears that nuclear investments require long term cooperation between companies deeply involved in the power industry but the structures allowing such cooperation have to be defined. A competitive market will produce results that match public interest if social and environmental costs are included in the production costs and if the assessment of complete costs of every energy source using the best available technology are regularly published. The United-Kingdom is the first country to launch a massive program concerning nuclear energy that is backed by private investors. (A.C.)

  17. Electrical properties of amorphous and epitaxial Si-rich silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Naoya, E-mail: okada-naoya@aist.go.jp [Japan Science and Technology Agency, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Uchida, Noriyuki [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Kanayama, Toshihiko [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2015-03-07

    We investigated the electrical properties and derived the energy band structures of amorphous Si-rich W silicide (a-WSi{sub n}) films and approximately 1-nm-thick crystalline WSi{sub n} epitaxial films (e-WSi{sub n}) on Si (100) substrates with composition n = 8–10, both composed of Si{sub n} clusters each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSi{sub n} clusters). The effect of annealing in the temperature range of 300–500 °C was also investigated. The Hall measurements at room temperature revealed that a-WSi{sub n} is a nearly intrinsic semiconductor, whereas e-WSi{sub n} is an n-type semiconductor with electron mobility of ∼8 cm{sup 2}/V s and high sheet electron density of ∼7 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}. According to the temperature dependence of the electrical properties, a-WSi{sub n} has a mobility gap of ∼0.1 eV and mid gap states in the region of 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1} in an optical gap of ∼0.6 eV with considerable band tail states; e-WSi{sub n} has a donor level of ∼0.1 eV with sheet density in the region of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} in a band gap of ∼0.3 eV. These semiconducting band structures are primarily attributed to the open band-gap properties of the constituting WSi{sub n} cluster. In a-WSi{sub n}, the random network of the clusters generates the band tail states, and the formation of Si dangling bonds results in the generation of mid gap states; in e-WSi{sub n}, the original cluster structure is highly distorted to accommodate the Si lattice, resulting in the formation of intrinsic defects responsible for the donor level.

  18. Static electric multipole susceptibilities of the relativistic hydrogen-like atom in the ground state: Application of the Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function

    CERN Document Server

    Szmytkowski, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    The ground state of the Dirac one-electron atom, placed in a weak, static electric field of definite $2^{L}$-polarity, is studied within the framework of the first-order perturbation theory. The Sturmian expansion of the generalized Dirac-Coulomb Green function [R. Szmytkowski, J. Phys. B 30 (1997) 825, erratum: 30 (1997) 2747] is used to derive closed-form analytical expressions for various far-field and near-nucleus static electric multipole susceptibilities of the atom. The far-field multipole susceptibilities --- the polarizabilities $\\alpha_{L}$, electric-to-magnetic cross-susceptibilities $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{E}L\\to\\mathrm{M}(L\\mp1)}$ and electric-to-toroidal-magnetic cross-susceptibilities $\\alpha_{\\mathrm{E}L\\to\\mathrm{T}L}$ --- are found to be expressible in terms of one or two non-terminating generalized hypergeometric functions ${}_{3}F_{2}$ with the unit argument. Counterpart formulas for the near-nucleus multipole susceptibilities --- the electric nuclear shielding constants $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{E}L\\to\\m...

  19. Using frequency detuning to improve the sensitivity of electric field measurements via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Holloway, Christopher L.; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Raithel, Georg

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an approach for improved sensitivity in weak radio frequency (RF) electric-field strength measurements using Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. This is accomplished by varying the RF frequency around a resonant atomic transition and extrapolating the weak on-resonant field strength from the resulting off-resonant Autler-Townes (AT) splittings. This measurement remains directly traceable to SI compared to previous techniques, precluding any knowledge of experimental parameters such as optical beam powers as is the case when using the curvature of the EIT line shape to measure weak fields. We use this approach to measure weak RF fields at 182 GHz and 208 GHz demonstrating improvement greater than a factor of 2 in the measurement sensitivity compared to on-resonant AT splitting RF electric field measurements.

  20. Charge asymmetry in high-energy μ{sup +}μ{sup −} photoproduction in the electric field of a heavy atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downie, E.J. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Lee, R.N.; Milstein, A.I. [G.I. Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ron, G. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel)

    2014-01-20

    The charge asymmetry in the differential cross section of high-energy μ{sup +}μ{sup −} photoproduction in the electric field of a heavy atom is obtained. This asymmetry arises due to the Coulomb corrections to the amplitude of the process (next-to-leading term with respect to the atomic field). The deviation of the nuclear electric field from the Coulomb field at small distances is crucially important for the charge asymmetry. Though the Coulomb corrections to the total cross section are negligibly small, the charge asymmetry is measurable for selected final states of μ{sup +} and μ{sup −}. We further discuss the feasibility for experimental observation of this effect.

  1. Atoms in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the history of development of using of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic as well as in the Czechoslovakia (before 1993 year) is presented. The aim of the book is to preserve the memory of the period when the creation and development of nuclear physics, technology, nuclear medicine, radioecology and energetics in Slovakia occurred - as witnessed by people who experienced this period and to adapt it to future generations. The Editorial board of the SNUS collected the views of 60 contributors and distinguished workers - Slovakian experts in nuclear science, education and technology. Calling upon a wide spectrum of experts ensured an objective historical description of the period. A huge amount of subjective views on recent decades were collected and supported by a wealth of photographic documentation. This created a synthesised reflection on the history of the 'atoms' in Slovakia. The book contains 15 tables, 192 black and white and 119 colour pictures from around the world and from places involved in the compilation of the study and with the study of atomic science in Slovakia. The main chapters are as follows: Atoms in the world, Atoms in Slovakia, Atoms in the educational system, Atoms in health services (Radiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation protection, the Cyclotron centre of the Slovak Republic), Radioecology, Other applications of irradiation, Nuclear energetics (Electric energy in the second half of the 20th century, NPP Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, the back-end of Nuclear energetics, Big names in Nuclear energetics in Slovakia), Chronology and an Appendix entitled 'Slovak companies in nuclear energetics'

  2. Results of the scientific and humanitarian projects supported by the German electricity companies (VDEW e.V.) after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Electricity Companies, organized by VDEW e.V., tried to support in manifold ways the areas and people affected by the Chernobyl accident in their management of the situation. Apart from their prompting numerous help projects of the German public; we must mention three efforts especially: 1. the program for partnership in security matters initiated by the German nuclear power plants has been serving a quick and efficient support of the Eastern European plants since 1990- parallel to the efforts on a European level (strategic exchange of views of the experts concerned, consultation and training on the management level, optimization of training programs). 2: the project [Scientists Help Chernobyl Children] of the Joint Committee for Radiation Research (GAST), an union of the scientific societies working on radiation research in Germany under the chairmanship of Prof. Reiners (Essen/Wuerzburg) in cooperation with Prof. Streffer (Essen), Dr. Parezke (Munich), Dr. Heinemann (Hannover) and Dr. Pfob (Karlsruhe), aims to give humanitarian and scientific help for children ill with thyroid cancer in Belarus. Therapy and training, molecular biological examinations, dosimetry, and risk evaluation, as well as consultation and coordination in Minsk are parts of the project. 3: the project of the Radiation Cytogenetics Association (RCA) under the chairmanship of Prof. Bauchinger (GSF Muenchen) has been giving coordinated help with biological dosimetry to institutions and scientist in the states of the former USSR. Through retrospective biological dosimetry, especially the employment of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization)-technology for the assessment of so-called stable translocations, both individual and population doses were analyzed. All three of these projects, even if to a different extent, have been leading to new and unique results up to the present day. Especially the GAST-project has been marked to a high extent by its humanitarian help for the

  3. The strategic ''pull'' and operational ''push'' of total quality management in UK regional electricity service companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdam, R.; McLean, J.; Henderson, J.

    2003-04-30

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the UK regional electricity companies (RECs) has used total quality management (TQM) as a ''push'' or as a ''pull'' change methodology. ''Push'' is the operational improvement role of TQM; ''pull'' is the strategic or direction giving, improvement role of TQM. Following the onset of privatisation in 1990 there has been evidence of the RECs adopting TQM in both ''push'' and ''pull'' methodologies with varying degrees of success. An evaluation of the change processes involved will enable improved change models to be developed leading to increased business effectiveness in this 30 billion pounds sterling industry. Other possible benefits include the possible generalisations to other utilities such as water, roads, gas and telecoms. The research methodology includes a comparative case study analysis of five RECs, which have used TQM as their overarching approach to change. One of the cases is analysed to a more in-depth level based on the multiple case findings. The findings indicate that the ''push-pull'' analysis enables the full range of TQM activities to be evaluated in the RECs studied. Overall, there is a need to have a balanced portfolio of operational or ''push''-based TQM activity that is driven by strategic or ''pull'' based TQM planning and activity. (author)

  4. Radiation risk perception by radiation professionals. Survey results just before the radiological accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals belonging to the radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they consider as a 'safe' dose of radiation for themselves, their spouse, parents, children, brothers and friends. Although the 'safe' dose varied widely from less than 1 mSv/y to higher than 100 mSv/y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv/y that was around the middle point between the exposure dose limits for annual average (20 mSv/y) and for any single year (50 mSv/y). Similar results were obtained from another surveys for the members of Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv/y) and for the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv/y). Among the family members and friends, the minimum average 'safe' dose was 8.5 mSv/y for children, to whom 50% of responders claimed the 'safe' dose less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the responder also affected the 'safe' dose. These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely and that the legal exposure dose limit derived from the regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety even in radiation professionals. The different level of risk perception for different target groups in radiation professionals appears similar to those in non-professional whole population. The gap between these characteristics of real radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might take a part in a state of confusion after the radiological accident. (author)

  5. Progress of technological innovation on electric power in FY2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper overviews the technological development in FY2014 at Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Electric Power Company, Hokuriku Electric Power Company, Shikoku Electric Power Company, and Electric Power Development Company. In this overview, further breakdown was made for the following departments of each company: nuclear power generation, thermal power generation, hydraulic power generation, power transmission, power distribution, transformation, research and development and technological development, and information and communication. In addition, this paper outlines the achievement of technological development at Japan Atomic Power Company, such as the technological development related to the existing power station, development of new technology, and the development of future reactor. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has developed an investigative system using a high altitude survey robot and a movable monitoring system. Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station examined the feasibility of state diagnostic technique based on multi-point analysis, and studied stress corrosion cracking at the newly established Nuclear Safety Research Laboratory. Shika Nuclear Power Station (Unit 1) applied a pipe stress improvement process by means of high frequency induction heating as a stress corrosion cracking countermeasure. Ikata Nuclear Power Station newly adopted high degree cross-linking cation resin, and high cracking strength anion resin as the primary resins. Oma Nuclear Power Station worked on the all reactor core utilization technology of MOX fuel. (A.O.)

  6. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources; Zur Rechtsnatur von Stromlieferungsvertraegen zwischen Elektrizitaetsversorgungsunternehmen und Erzeugern erneuerbarer Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, B.J. [Rechtszentrum fuer Europaeische und Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Paragraph 2 StEG konstituiert nicht etwa ein gesetzliches Schuldverhaeltnis, sondern beinhaltet einen Kontrahierungszwang. Der danach abzuschliessende Vertrag ist notwendige Voraussetzung des tatsaechlichen Leistungsaustausches und damit eigentliche Grundlage des Stromabnahmeverhaeltnisses. Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass die Charakterisierung als Kaufvertrag oder kaufaehnlicher Vertrag das Wesen des aufgrund des StEG geschlossenen Einspeisevertrages in mancher Hinsicht (noch) treffender beschreibt, als dies beim Stromversorgungsvertrag zwischen EltVU und Tarif- oder Sonderkunden der Fall ist. Besonders herauszustellen ist, dass den Erzeugern regenerativer Elektrizitaet durch das StEG keine Pflicht zur Stromeinspeisung auferlegt wird und fuer sie deshalb keine Notwendigkeit besteht, elektrische Leistung vorzuhalten. Fuer das in die

  7. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy p...

  8. Influence of post-annealing on structural, electrical and optical properties of manganese oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese oxide films are fabricated on silicon wafer by an atomic layer deposition method. The effects of different post-annealing temperatures on the valence of the manganese and the crystal structure and electrical and optical properties of the films have been studied. It is found that the oxidation state of the manganese decreases with increasing post-annealing temperature. The chemical composition of the films as-deposited and post-annealed at lower temperature is β-MnO2 and transforms into Mn2O3 when the post-annealing temperature is higher than 600 °C. The electrical resistivity of the β-MnO2 films decreases from 3.10 Ω·cm to 1.12 Ω·cm with the post-annealing temperature increasing. These samples exhibit stronger absorption in the visible light region. After being post-annealed at temperature higher than 600 °C, the films exhibit higher electrical resistivity and higher transmittance in the visible light region. These results indicate that the post-annealing is an effective method to modify the electrical and optical properties of manganese oxides and useful for the applications of manganese oxide films in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Manganese oxide films were prepared by an atomic layer deposition method. • Effects of post-annealing temperature were studied. • Valence of manganese decreases with post-annealing temperature increasing. • MnO2 transformed into Mn2O3 when post-annealing temperature was higher than 600 °C. • Electrical and optical properties of manganese oxide were adjusted by post-annealing

  9. Axion-induced effects in atoms, molecules and nuclei: parity non-conservation, anapole moments, electric dipole moments, and spin-gravity and spin-axion momentum couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Y V

    2013-01-01

    We show that the interaction of an axion field, or in general a pseudoscalar field, with the axial-vector current generated by an electron through a derivative-type coupling can give rise to a time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in atomic and molecular systems. Likewise, the analogous interaction of an axion field with the axial-vector current generated by a nucleon can give rise to time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in nuclear systems. This mixing can induce oscillating electric dipole moments, oscillating parity non-conservation effects and oscillating anapole moments in such systems. By adjusting the energy separation between the opposite-parity states of interest to match the axion mass energy, axion-induced experimental observables can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. Oscillating atomic electric dipole moments can also be generated by axions through hadronic mechanisms, namely the P,T-violating nucleon-nucleon interaction and through the axion-induced electric dipole mome...

  10. Impact of morphological defects on the electrical breakdown of ultra thin atomic layer deposition processed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spahr, Holger; Bülow, Tim; Nowak, Christine; Hirschberg, Felix; Reinker, Johannes; Hamwi, Sami; Johannes, Hans-Hermann, E-mail: h2.johannes@ihf.tu-bs.de; Kowalsky, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    We report on the continuous increase of the breakdown electric field, also known as disruptive strength, of an ultra thin layer based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) by reducing its thickness down to 3 nm. By measuring the disruptive strength for lower thicknesses, we demonstrate that these observations are in agreement with recent reports. Furthermore we detected an increase within the disruptive strength towards lower thicknesses together with a rise of the pin hole density. The pin holes, originating from an inhomogeneous growth of the dielectric and referred to as morphological defects and current conducting paths, are detected by Cu electroplating and result in a lower permittivity of the dielectric. As a conclusion, the dielectric breakdown of thin, low temperature ALD processed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers does not seem to be negatively influenced by the increase of the pin hole density. Thus, the increase of the disruptive strength is either due to the morphological defects in the form of pin holes or a material phenomenon that is not affected by its nanoporous structure. - Highlights: • Defects in atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films detected by Cu electroplating • Defect density rises as layer thickness decreases. • Relative permittivity decreases at lower layer thicknesses. • Despite of increasing defect density, breakdown electric field increases. • Defect density not correlated to those defects supporting electrical breakdown.

  11. State Grid, for Example the Enterprise Social Responsibility Management of Electric Power Company%以国家电网为例的电力企业信息管理系统探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬娟

    2014-01-01

    随着经济、社会的发展,企业需要承担相应的社会责任已经成为全球趋势,研究企业社会责任,加强社会责任管理势在必行。本文在以国家电网公司为例研究电力企业的企业社会责任管理,在分析已有企业社会责任管理理论及模型的基础上,建立了适用于电力企业的塔状企业社会责任管理模型。并对电力企业进行企业社会责任管理提出建议。%With the development of economy and society,companies need to bear the social responsibility has become a global trend,the study of corporate social responsibility and strengthen the management of social responsibility is imperative.In this paper,state grid,for example study the enterprise social responsibility management of electric power company,on the basis of the analysis of the existing corporate social responsibility management theory and model, the establishment of a pyramid-shaped corporate social responsibility management model.that apply to electric power company.And make some advise for electric power company in corporate social responsibility management.

  12. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  13. Development of the Measurement System for the Search of an Electric Dipole Moment of the Electron with Laser-Cooled Francium Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We plan to measure the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM of the electron, which has the sensitivity to the CP violation in theories beyond the standard model by using the laser-cooled francium (Fr atom. This paper reports the present status of the EDM measurement system. A high voltage application system was constructed in order to produce the strong electric field (100 kV/cm needed for the experiment. After conditioning, the leakage current was 10 pA when a high voltage of 43 kV was applied. Also, a drift of an environmental field was measured at the planned location of the Fr-EDM experiment. The drift is suppressed at present down to the level of 10 pT by installing a 4-layermagnetic shield. Improvements are still needed to reach the required field stability of 1 fT.

  14. Trading Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Háblová, Agáta

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is aimed at the transformation of the legal form of a Limited Liability Company (LLC) into a Joint Stock Company (JSC). It draws comparisons between several forms of business ownership, their advantages and disadvantages. With the change of the legal form of the business, there are certain legal steps which are needed to be processed, so that the transformation could have been done successfully. In the bachelor thesis I would like to stress out these single steps, which a...

  15. In-situ atomic layer deposition of tri-methylaluminum and water on pristine single-crystal (In)GaAs surfaces: electronic and electric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, T. W.; Lin, Y. H.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Chiang, T. H.; Wei, C. H.; Lin, Y. C.; Wertheim, G. K.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structure of single-crystal (In)GaAs deposited with tri-methylaluminum (TMA) and water via atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented with high-resolution synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission and capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics. The interaction of the precursor atoms with (In)GaAs is confined at the topmost surface layer. The Ga-vacant site on the GaAs(111)A-2 × 2 surface is filled with Al, thereby effectively passivating the As dangling bonds. The As-As dimers on the GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface are entirely passivated by one cycle of TMA and water. The presumed layerwise deposition fails to happen in GaAs(001)-4 × 6. In In0.20Ga0.80As(001)-2 × 4, the edge row As atoms are partially bonded with the Al, and one released methyl then bonds with the In. It is suggested that the unpassivated surface and subsurface atoms cause large frequency dispersions in CV characteristics under the gate bias. We also found that the (In)GaAs surface is immune to water in ALD. However, the momentary exposure of it to air (less than one minute) introduces significant signals of native oxides. This indicates the necessity of in situ works of high κ/(In)GaAs-related experiments in order to know the precise interfacial atomic bonding and thus know the electronic characteristics. The electric CV measurements of the ALD-Al2O3 on these (In)GaAs surfaces are correlated with their electronic properties.

  16. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  17. Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion. (J.S.)

  18. Electric field modulation of the band gap, dielectric constant and polarizability in SnS atomically thin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Longfei; Zou, Bingsuo; Shi, Li-Jie

    2016-06-01

    The band structure and dielectric properties of multilayer SnS films have been investigated by density-functional theory total-energy calculations. It shows that electric field can tune the band gap of SnS multilayer and induce a phase transition from semiconductor to semi-metal. The critical electric field of phase transition for SnS bilayer is 0.09 V/Å, which is lower than MoS2(0.3 V/Å), MoSe2(0.25 V/Å), MoTe2(0.2 V/Å), WS2(0.27 V/Å) and WSe2(0.20 V/Å). Combining the electric structure with dielectric properties, we explain the reason why multilayer SnS films are more sensitive to the electric field. The sensitive response character to electric field makes SnS multilayer as a potential material for the nano-electronic and nano-optical devices.

  19. Growth conditions and structural properties as limiting factors of electrical parameters of ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition with diethylzinc and water precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Guziewicz, Elzbieta; Witkowski, Bartlomiej; Lukasiewicz, Malgorzata; Lusakowska, Elzbieta; Kowalski, Bogdan J.; Paszkowicz, Wojciech [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, Marek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, ul. Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewski, Tomasz A.

    2010-06-15

    This paper discusses the correlations between growth conditions and electrical, structural and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films grown at low temperature by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method from diethylzinc (DEZn) and deionized water. The surface morphology and microstructure of ZnO layers were studied with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. The electrical and optical properties of samples were examined by performing room temperature Hall effect and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. These investigations and Electron Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that changes of the growth conditions (growth temperature, number of ALD cycles (layer thickness)) enable us to control the free electron concentration in as-grown ZnO layers in the range of 10{sup 17}-5 x 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3}, which is related to the changes in structural properties and stoichiometry of the films (defect concentration, grains' sizes). (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of AlN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuntas, Halit; Bayrak, Turkan; Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited at 200 °C, on p-type silicon substrates utilizing a capacitively coupled hollow-cathode plasma source integrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. The structural properties of AlN were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, by which we confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite single-phase crystalline structure. The films exhibited an optical band edge around ∼5.7 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the AlN films were measured via a spectroscopic ellipsometer. In addition, to investigate the electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties, Al/AlN/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated, and current density–voltage and frequency dependent (7 kHz–5 MHz) dielectric constant measurements (within the strong accumulation region) were performed. A peak of dielectric loss was observed at a frequency of 3 MHz and the Cole–Davidson empirical formula was used to determine the relaxation time. It was concluded that the native point defects such as nitrogen vacancies and DX centers formed with the involvement of Si atoms into the AlN layers might have influenced the electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of the plasma-assisted ALD grown AlN films.

  1. Variation of the matrix elements of the hydrogen atom dipole under the influence of a uniform external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum mechanical perturbation theory as used in a foregoing paper, for the determination of the frequencies of the Stark components of hydrogen in an uniform external electric field is taken up again to calculate the intensities of the line components. The numerical results show that the influence of the perturbing electric field is important also in higher orders. In the first paragraph of this report we give a theoretical justification of our calculations; the second paragraph contains the equations used for the numerical calculations, and the third paragraph contains the numerical results for the components of the first lines of the Lyman and Balmer series. (authors)

  2. Enhancement of electrical characteristics and reliability in crystallized ZrO2 gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallized ZrO2 high-K gate dielectrics treated with in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using remote N2 and NH3 plasma were investigated, to suppress the capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), leakage current density (Jg), and interfacial state density (Dit). The stress-induced leakage current (SILC) was reduced significantly as well. The tetragonal/cubic phase of ZrO2 was formed by post metallization annealing at a low temperature of 450 °C to offer a high dielectric constant of the gate oxide. The in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen using the remote NH3 plasma contributes to the deactivation of the oxygen vacancies and the well passivation of Dit. Accordingly, a suppressed Jg of 4.79 × 10−5 A cm−2 and Dit of 3.96 × 1011 cm−2 eV−1 were realized in the crystallized ZrO2 gate oxide with a low CET of 1.35 nm. The gate dielectrics were also optically examined by the photoluminescence from the high-K/Si interface, indicating that the Dit is highly correlated with the hydrogen passivation originating from the remote NH3 plasma. The results indicate that in-situ atomic layer doping of nitrogen is an applicable and effective technique to improve the electrical properties of crystallized gate dielectrics in the advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  3. An in vivo study of electrical charge distribution on the bacterial cell wall by atomic force microscopy in vibrating force mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlière, Christian; Dhahri, Samia

    2015-05-01

    We report an in vivo electromechanical atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram+ Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, under physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach/retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between the tip and the sample. In addition to classical height and mechanical (as stiffness) data, mapping of local electrical properties, such as bacterial surface charge, was proved to be feasible at a spatial resolution better than a few tens of nanometers. This innovative method relies on the measurement of the cantilever's surface stress through its deflection far from (>10 nm) the repulsive contact zone: the variations of surface stress come from the modification of electrical surface charge of the cantilever (as in classical electrocapillary measurements) likely stemming from its charging during contact of both the tip and the sample electrical double layers. This method offers an important improvement in local electrical and electrochemical measurements at the solid/liquid interface, particularly in high-molarity electrolytes when compared to techniques focused on the direct use of electrostatic force. It thus opens a new way to directly investigate in situ biological electrical surface processes involved in numerous practical applications and fundamental problems such as bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cells, etc.We report an in vivo electromechanical atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram+ Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, under physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach/retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between the tip and the sample. In addition to classical

  4. Orbital origin of the electrical conduction in ferromagnetic atomic-size contacts: Insights from shot noise measurements and theoretical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardimon, R.; Matt, M.; Nielaba, P.; Cuevas, J. C.; Tal, O.

    2016-02-01

    With the goal of elucidating the nature of spin-dependent electronic transport in ferromagnetic atomic contacts, we present here a combined experimental and theoretical study of the conductance and shot noise of metallic atomic contacts made of the 3 d ferromagnetic materials Fe, Co, and Ni. For comparison, we also present the corresponding results for the noble metal Cu. Conductance and shot noise measurements, performed using a low-temperature break-junction setup, show that in these ferromagnetic nanowires, (i) there is no conductance quantization of any kind, (ii) transport is dominated by several partially open conduction channels, even in the case of single-atom contacts, and (iii) the Fano factor of large contacts saturates to values that clearly differ from those of monovalent (nonmagnetic) metals. We rationalize these observations with the help of a theoretical approach that combines molecular dynamics simulations to describe the junction formation with nonequilibrium Green's function techniques to compute the transport properties within the Landauer-Büttiker framework. Our theoretical approach successfully reproduces all the basic experimental results and it shows that all the observations can be traced back to the fact that the d bands of the minority-spin electrons play a fundamental role in the transport through ferromagnetic atomic-size contacts. These d bands give rise to partially open conduction channels for any contact size, which in turn lead naturally to the different observations described above. Thus, the transport picture for these nanoscale ferromagnetic wires that emerges from the ensemble of our results is clearly at variance with the well established conduction mechanism that governs the transport in macroscopic ferromagnetic wires, where the d bands are responsible for the magnetism but do not take part in the charge flow. These insights provide a fundamental framework for ferromagnetic-based spintronics at the nanoscale.

  5. Electric focusing preconcentration devices for element in-time monitoring of air aerosols by atomic emission spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Zbyněk; Mikuška, Pavel; Dočekal, Bohumil; Šikola, T.; Zlámal, J.

    Pardubice : Univerzita Pardubice a Spektroskopická společnost JMM, 2005 - (Černohorský, T.; Krejčová, A.; Šrámková, J.; Matěcha, J.). s. 207 [International Conference on Inorganic Environmental Analysis /4./. 19.09.2005-22.09.2005, Pardubice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310505 Keywords : electrostatic pre-concentration * airborne particles * atomic emission spectrometric detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  6. The effect of nozzle layout on droplet ejection of a piezo-electrically actuated micro-atomizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanying Feng; Zhaoying Zhou; Junhua Zhu; Guibin Du

    2007-01-01

    We study here effects of nozzle layout on the droplet ejection of a micro atomizer, which was fabricated with the arrayed nozzles by the MEMS technology and actuated by a piezoelectric disc. A theoretical model was first built for this piezoelectric-liquid-structure coupling system to characterize the acoustic wave propagation in the liquid chamber, which determined the droplet formation out of nozzles. The modal analysis was carried out numerically to predict resonant frequencies and simulate the corresponding pressure wave field. By comparing the amplitude contours of pressure wave on the liquid-solid interface at nozzle inlets with the designed nozzle layout, behaviors of the device under different vibration modes can be predicted. Experimentally, an impedance analyzer was used to measure the resonant frequencies of the system. Three types of atomizers with different nozzle layouts were fabricated for measuring the effect of nozzle distribution on the ejection performance. The visualization experiment of droplet generation was carried out and volume flow rates of these devices were measured. The good agreement between the experiment and the prediction proved that only the increase of nozzles may not enhance the droplet generation and a design of nozzle distribution from a viewpoint of frequency is necessary for a resonant related atomizer.

  7. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B

    2016-04-21

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO's bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate-film interfaces reveal BTO's homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices. PMID:27009677

  8. Effect of Thermal Budget on the Electrical Characterization of Atomic Layer Deposited HfSiO/TiN Gate Stack MOSCAP Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z N; Ahmed, S; Ali, M

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors (MOSCAP) have been instrumental in making CMOS nano-electronics realized for back-to-back technology nodes. High-k gate stacks including the desirable metal gate processing and its integration into CMOS technology remain an active research area projecting the solution to address the requirements of technology roadmaps. Screening, selection and deposition of high-k gate dielectrics, post-deposition thermal processing, choice of metal gate structure and its post-metal deposition annealing are important parameters to optimize the process and possibly address the energy efficiency of CMOS electronics at nano scales. Atomic layer deposition technique is used throughout this work because of its known deposition kinetics resulting in excellent electrical properties and conformal structure of the device. The dynamics of annealing greatly influence the electrical properties of the gate stack and consequently the reliability of the process as well as manufacturable device. Again, the choice of the annealing technique (migration of thermal flux into the layer), time-temperature cycle and sequence are key parameters influencing the device's output characteristics. This work presents a careful selection of annealing process parameters to provide sufficient thermal budget to Si MOSCAP with atomic layer deposited HfSiO high-k gate dielectric and TiN gate metal. The post-process annealing temperatures in the range of 600°C -1000°C with rapid dwell time provide a better trade-off between the desirable performance of Capacitance-Voltage hysteresis and the leakage current. The defect dynamics is thought to be responsible for the evolution of electrical characteristics in this Si MOSCAP structure specifically designed to tune the trade-off at low frequency for device application. PMID:27571412

  9. Cross Kelvin force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies of organic bulk heterojunction blends for local morphology and electrical behavior analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve-Faure, C., E-mail: Christina.villeneuve@laplace.unvi-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); Le Borgne, D. [LAPLACE, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse (France); UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bedel-Pereira, E.; Séguy, I. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Moineau Chane-Ching, K. I.; Hernandez-Maldonado, D. [UPS, INPT, Université de Toulouse, LCC 31077 Toulouse (France); LCC-CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2015-02-07

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic devices performances depend on the relative organization and physical properties of the electron-donor and -acceptor materials. In this paper, BHJs of poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) associated with an electron acceptor material, 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C6 (PCBM) or [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}], are studied in terms of morphology, ordering, and electrical properties. First, comparison between the two BHJs performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman characterizations shows that P3HT structuration is improved by blending with [Ni(4dodpedt){sub 2}]. Then, the relationship between charges trapping, electrical properties, and film morphology is investigated using conductive AFM and Kelvin Force Microscopy. Measurements in dark condition and under solar cell simulator provide complementary information on electrical phenomena in these organic nanostructures. Finally, time dependent measurement highlights the influence of charges stacking on conduction. Specifically, we demonstrate that charge accumulation initiated by illumination remains valid after switching off the light, and induces the modification in current versus voltage characteristic of P3HT: PCBM blend. Finally, we observe a current increasing which can be attributed to the energy barrier decreasing due to charges trapping in PCBM.

  10. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R−11 dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R−13 behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R−1 in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift

  11. Company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory provides an alphabetical listing of manufacturers and suppliers of equipment and services to the oil and gas industry. The listing includes the names of approximately 350 Canadian companies, their address, phone number, names of key personnel, description of business, in some cases email and web site addresses and domestic and international service locations

  12. Company profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Datacon was founded in 1986 and, since the beginning of 2005, has been part of the Dutch Besi group (BE Semiconductor Industries N.V.), an international group of companies operating in the semiconductor industry. Besi is a leading manufacturer of semiconductor die sorting, die bonding, packaging and plating equipment and provides the most cost efficient solution for RFID inlay production.

  13. Electrical and mechanical stability of aluminum-doped ZnO films grown on flexible substrates by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, G., E-mail: gluka@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Witkowski, B.S.; Wachnicki, L.; Jakiela, R. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Virt, I.S. [University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow (Poland); Drohobych Ivan Franko State Pedagogical University, Drohobych (Ukraine); Andrzejczuk, M.; Lewandowska, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Transparent and conductive ZnO:Al films were grown by atomic layer deposition. • The films were grown on flexible substrates at low growth temperatures (110–140 °C). • So-obtained films have low resistivities, of the order of 10{sup −3} Ω cm. • Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm. • Possible sources of the film resistivity changes upon bending are proposed. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low deposition temperatures (110–140 °C). The films have low resistivities, ∼10{sup −3} Ω cm, and high transparency (∼90%) in the visible range. Bending tests indicated a critical bending radius of ≈1.2 cm, below which the resistivity changes became irreversible. The films deposited on PET with additional buffer layer are more stable upon bending and temperature changes.

  14. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  15. CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE PRODUCTS OF INDIAN AND MULTI NATIONAL COMPANIES - A COMPARITIVE STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, K.; DR.D.VENKATARAMARAJU

    2011-01-01

    The entry of MNCs in India leads to exit of certain Indian companies of various industries. However Indian people compromise to purchase Indian products, if they had quality and special features in thoseproducts also. People are interested to buy the MNCs products not only for quality or for product features but also for cost, brand image, service, social status and host number of other factors. Thegrowth of MNCs product in 2007 has crossed the $33 billion mark. The impact of MNCs product in ...

  16. Precision measurements on lithium atoms in an electric field compared with R-matrix and other Stark theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, G. D.; Iu, C.-H.; Bergeman, T.; Metcalf, H. J.; Seipp, I.; Taylor, K. T.; Delande, D.

    1996-03-01

    We have made careful measurements of Stark resonances in 7Li Rydberg states above and below the classical saddle point to test various theories and to obtain a precise calibration of the electric field. Rydberg states were populated by two-step diode laser excitation to the 3 2S state followed by He-Ne or diode laser excitation to Stark sublevels near the n=15 manifold energy. Calibration was performed by comparing measured resonance positions with theoretical results. For zero-field energies, the theoretical calculations were made using quantum defect parameters obtained by fitting available spectral data on Li, and from recent polarization model results of Drachman and Bhatia [Phys. Rev. A 51, 2926 (1995)]. Three theoretical methods were used: (1) matrix diagonalization over a basis of spherical coordinate states, for which the precision declines as one approaches the saddle point; (2) frame transformation theory, which makes very economical use of computer resources but is not reliable beyond a precision of about 500 ppm in an electric field; (3) a recently developed R-matrix method. The last of these was most accurate and, like the second, could be used both below and above the saddle point. From the measured resonance positions and an optimum set of Li quantum defect parameters, the R-matrix calculations provided a calibration of the electric field to about +/- 2 ppm +/-4 mV/cm. We briefly discuss certain refinements and shortcomings of the other two theoretical methods, and the special procedures used to obtain high accuracy with the R-matrix method.

  17. Noise and Electrical Oscillations Generation during the Investigation of the Resistive Switching in the Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Films by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gorshkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of resistive switching in the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ thin films on Si substrates has been studied by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (CAFM. The resistive switching of the YSZ films from the low conductive state to the highly conductive one has been found to be associated with the increasing of the noise with broad frequency spectrum related to the redistribution of the oxygen vacancies in YSZ. The electrical oscillations in oscillation loop connected in series to the CAFM probe, the sample, and the bias source related to the excitation of the oscillation loop by the noise in the probe-to-sample contact film have been observed. The effect discovered is promising for application in the memristor devices of new generation.

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-395, South Carolina Electric and Gas Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for systems, structures, and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety features; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; accident analysis; quality assurance; and TMI requirements

  19. Determination of the Regulatory Asset Base of power distribution companies. Background report of 'Guidelines for price cap regulation in the Dutch electricity sector'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    July 1999 The Netherlands Electricity Regulatory Service (DtE) published an Information and Consultation Document on the subject of 'Price Cap Regulation in the Dutch Electricity Sector'. By means of price cap regulation tariffs are determined such that businesses are stimulated continuously to organize their total processes and operation as efficient as possible. In the consultation document a large number of questions with respect to the future organization and planning of the system of economic regulation of the electricity sector in the Netherlands can be found. Many reactions and answers were received, compiled and analyzed. The results are presented in the main report, which forms the framework for the DtE to shape the economic regulation of the Dutch electricity sector. In this background document attention is paid to a method to determine the Regulatory Asset Base (RAB)

  20. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-358. Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; instrumentation and controls; electric power; auxiliary systems; conduct of operations; and TMI-2 requirements

  1. Growth and electrical properties of atomic-layer deposited ZrO2 /Si-nitride stack gate dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Anri; Yokoyama, Shin

    2004-01-01

    We deposited ZrO2 thin films by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) using zirconium tertiary–butoxide [Zr(t-OC4H9)4, (ZTB)] and H2O source gases on Si substrates at low temperatures. We grew ZrO2 films layer by layer in a temperature range of 175–250 °C to minimize surface roughness. The deposited ZrO2 film thickness had self-limiting properties with the exposure time of ZTB and vapor pressures of ZTB and H2O. The deposition rate per cycle was independent of the vapor pressure of ZTB from 0.01 kPa ...

  2. Local electrical characteristics of passive films formed on stainless steel surfaces by current sensing atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souier, T. [Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, F.; Bataillon, C. [Laboratoire d' Etude de la corrosion Aqueuse, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cousty, J., E-mail: jacques.cousty@cea.fr [Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-02-01

    A current sensing atomic force microscope was used to study the topography and the local electronic properties of the passive film formed on a duplex ferrite-austenite stainless steel (Uranus 50). Comparison of current maps with topography AFM images reveals that the passive film covering austenite and ferrite phases exhibits different properties. On freshly formed passive film, a high and homogenous resistance (typically 10 G{Omega} for 1 V) characterises the film on austenite grains while current maps of the passive layer covering the ferrite grains show a high density of spots (few 100 M{Omega} for 1 V). Besides the current maps, local I-V curves acquired on austenite show wider band gap energy than the ones obtained on ferrite grains. Finally, the conductivity difference in passive films covering ferrite and austenite grains is discussed.

  3. Electrical Characteristics of TiO(2-x)/TiO2 Resistive Switching Memory Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Kwan-Jun; Kim, Won-You; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2016-06-01

    The rewritable low-power operated nonvolatile resistive random access memory device composed of Al(top)/TiO(2-x)/TiO2/Al(bottom) are demonstrated. The active component, the TiO2 layer of the device, is fabricated by atomic layer deposition. The oxygen vacancy TiO(2-x)/TiO2 layer annealed at 600 degrees C using rapid thermal annealing and it was proven to be in the rutile phase by X-ray diffraction analysis. The device exhibits nonvolatile memory behavior consistent with resistive switching properties, demonstrates an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 1,000:1, requires range of low voltage less than 0.4 V, and is still operational more than 120 times. PMID:27427707

  4. Structural, electrical and optical characterization of Ti-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ti-doped ZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. • Increase in a-axis orientation with Ti content. • Lowest resistivity of 1.8 × 10−3 Ω cm at 1.7 cat% Ti. • Increase in mobility with small amount of Ti doping. • Burstein–Moss-shift observed with increasing Ti concentration. - Abstract: Thin films of Ti-doped ZnO (TZO) have been deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) achieving highly conductive materials with resistivities down to 1.8 × 10−3 Ω cm at 1.7 cat% Ti doping, with a maximum dopant efficiency of 31%. The high conductivity and doping efficiency suggests a good distribution of dopants, otherwise a common challenge for doping by ALD. The charge mobility for Ti concentrations below 1.2 cat% was higher than for pure ZnO. The texture of the films changed from a predominantly c-axis to a-axis orientation with increasing Ti concentration, while the lattice parameters remained unaltered. The TZO films were highly transparent with an absorbance in the visible range of less than 2% for 200 nm films. The band gap increased with Ti content from 3.28 eV for pure ZnO to 3.67 eV for 5.9 cat% Ti, attributed to the Burstein Moss effect. The index of refraction varied with the Ti content showing a minimum of 1.90 for 1.7 cat% Ti

  5. Structural and Electrical Properties of EOT HfO2 (<1 nm) Grown on InAs by Atomic Layer Deposition and Its Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Kang, Hang-Kyu; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Baik, Min; An, Youngseo; Kim, Hyoungsub; Song, Jin-Dong; Cho, Mann-Ho

    2016-03-23

    We report on changes in the structural, interfacial, and electrical characteristics of sub-1 nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) HfO2 grown on InAs by atomic layer deposition. When the HfO2 film was deposited on an InAs substrate at a temperature of 300 °C, the HfO2 was in an amorphous phase with an sharp interface, an EOT of 0.9 nm, and low preexisting interfacial defect states. During post deposition annealing (PDA) at 600 °C, the HfO2 was transformed from an amorphous to a single crystalline orthorhombic phase, which minimizes the interfacial lattice mismatch below 0.8%. Accordingly, the HfO2 dielectric after the PDA had a dielectric constant of ∼24 because of the permittivity of the well-ordered orthorhombic HfO2 structure. Moreover, border traps were reduced by half than the as-grown sample due to a reduction in bulk defects in HfO2 dielectric during the PDA. However, in terms of other electrical properties, the characteristics of the PDA-treated sample were degraded compared to the as-grown sample, with EOT values of 1.0 nm and larger interfacial defect states (Dit) above 1 × 10(14) cm(-2) eV(-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicated that the diffusion of In atoms from the InAs substrate into the HfO2 dielectric during the PDA at 600 °C resulted in the development of substantial midgap states. PMID:26928131

  6. Influence of annealing in H atmosphere on the electrical properties of Al2O3 layers grown on p-type Si by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkovsky, Vl.; Stübner, R.; Langa, S.; Wende, U.; Kaiser, B.; Conrad, H.; Schenk, H.

    2016-09-01

    In the present study the electrical properties of 100 nm and 400 nm alumina films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique on p-type Si before and after a post-deposition annealing at 440 °C and after a dc H plasma treatment at different temperatures are investigated. We show that the density of interface states is below 2 × 1010 cm-2 in these samples and this value is significantly lower compared to that reported previously in thinner alumina layers (below 50 nm). The effective minority carrier lifetime τg,eff and the effective surface recombination velocity seff in untreated p-type Si samples with 100 nm and 400 nm aluminum oxide is comparable with those obtained after thermal oxidation of 90 nm SiO2. Both, a post-deposition annealing in forming gas (nitrogen/hydrogen) at elevated temperatures and a dc H-plasma treatment at temperatures close to room temperature lead to the introduction of negatively charged defects in alumina films. The results obtained in samples annealed in different atmospheres at different temperatures or subjected to a dc H plasma treatment allow us to correlate these centers with H-related defects. By comparing with theory we tentatively assign them to negatively charged interstitial H atoms.

  7. Company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual update to the directory of manufacturers and suppliers of equipment and services to the oil and gas industry is provided. Companies are listed in alphabetical order, with name, address, telephone and fax numbers and e-mail addresses given, where applicable. Nature of the services provided, or equipment offered, and names of officers and key contact personnel are also listed. The section has its own subject index

  8. Evaluation and optimization of quartz resonant-frequency retuned fork force sensors with high Q factors, and the associated electric circuits, for non-contact atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Fujii, Mikihiro; Tomitori, Masahiko; Arai, Toyoko

    2016-02-01

    High-Q factor retuned fork (RTF) force sensors made from quartz tuning forks, and the electric circuits for the sensors, were evaluated and optimized to improve the performance of non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. To exploit the high Q factor of the RTF sensor, the oscillation of the RTF sensor was excited at its resonant frequency, using a stray capacitance compensation circuit to cancel the excitation signal leaked through the stray capacitor of the sensor. To improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the detected signal, a small capacitor was inserted before the input of an operational (OP) amplifier placed in an UHV chamber, which reduced the output noise from the amplifier. A low-noise, wideband OP amplifier produced a superior S/N ratio, compared with a precision OP amplifier. The thermal vibrational density spectra of the RTF sensors were evaluated using the circuit. The RTF sensor with an effective spring constant value as low as 1000 N/m provided a lower minimum detection limit for force differentiation. A nc-AFM image of a Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was produced with atomic resolution using the RTF sensor in a constant frequency shift mode; tunneling current and energy dissipation images with atomic resolution were also simultaneously produced. The high-Q factor RTF sensor showed potential for the high sensitivity of energy dissipation as small as 1 meV/cycle and the high-resolution analysis of non-conservative force interactions.

  9. Company Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天田

    2011-01-01

    有些演员长得不好看但上镜,这叫有Camera Face;而有些企业有明星企业家,这叫有Company Face.塑造一张Company Face对企业来说是非常合算的,因为公众对于枯燥的商业概念和数据并无兴趣,把企业人格化才是建立沟通的捷径.然而,究竟你的CompanyFace是杂志封面的人物还是客户走进公司会接触的保安、保洁和秘书?听说一个绿色八卦:张艺谋在《山楂树之恋》选角时,为了“静秋”可谓是踏破铁鞋.当时分了若干组人马四处寻访,但是带回来的候选人张艺谋统统看不上.张艺谋讽刺一位选角的同事:你选出来的女孩儿,一打开电视满眼都是!这位同事立即反唇相讥:你选的呢?连电视都不让上!

  10. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  11. Systematic errors in the measurement of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the 199 Hg atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Graner, Brent; Heckel, Blayne; Lindahl, Eric

    2016-05-01

    This talk provides a discussion of the systematic errors that were encountered in the 199 Hg experiment described earlier in this session. The dominant systematic error, unseen in previous 199 Hg EDM experiments, arose from small motions of the Hg vapor cells due to forces exerted by the applied electric field. Methods used to understand this effect, as well as the anticipated sources of systematic errors such as leakage currents, parameter correlations, and E2 and v × E / c effects, will be presented. The total systematic error was found to be 72% as large as the statistical error of the EDM measurement. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1306743 and by DOE Grant DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  12. Influence of dopants on atomic migration and void formation in molten Ge2Sb2Te5 under high-amplitude electrical pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study systemically investigates the retardation of electrical-stress-induced degradation in Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) by modifying its material properties through doping. The effects of doping on the electromigration and void formation in molten GST are explored by studying the model of a large and symmetric line-shaped GST cell doped with nitrogen, oxygen and bismuth, using high-amplitude electrical pulse stress. The electromigration rate, which is represented by the product of the diffusion coefficient and effective charge number (DZ*), and the amount of void formation in doped GST are quantified and compared with undoped GST. The DZ* and void area in Bi-doped GST increased by ∼10% compared with those in undoped GST; these values decreased by 30% and 45% in the O- and N-doped GST, respectively. The results suggest that the interstitial-type dopant could suppress the electromigration rate and void formation by decreasing the free volume; however, the substitutional-type dopant could not. The change in the free volume of molten GST due to dopants led to the change in the electromigration rate and the area of void formation. Understanding how the atomic-bonding type of dopants affects the degradation phenomena helps in designing phase-change material that is more stable against device failures.

  13. Filling performance and electrical characteristics of Al2O3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition for through-silicon via applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have evaluated the conformality and electrical properties of Al2O3 films deposited by atomic layer deposition at temperatures below 300 °C for through-silicon via (TSV) applications. Al2O3 films were able to be conformally deposited on the scallops of 50-μm-wide, 100-μm-deep TSV at the temperature range between 200 and 300 °C. The median breakdown fields of the metal–insulator–metal device with 30-nm-thick Al2O3 layer were above 6 MV/cm for the films deposited at 250 and 300 °C, while that at 200 °C was inferior due to residual carbon impurities in the oxide layer. - Highlights: • Filling performance and electrical properties of Al2O3 films were evaluated. • Al2O3 films were conformally deposited on the scallops of through-silicon via holes. • The median breakdown field of 30-nm-thick Al2O3 layer was above 6 MV/cm. • The Al2O3 film deposited at 200 °C was inferior due to the residual carbon impurities. • Al2O3 films showed a promise as the dielectric for through-silicon via application

  14. Atomic layer deposition effect on the electrical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-passivated PbS quantum dot field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi; Shim, Hyung Cheoul [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyekyoung; Lee, Seung-Mo; Jeong, Sohee; Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-02

    We have investigated the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the electrical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dot field-effect transistors (PbS QD-FETs). Low-temperature Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD process was used to fill up the pore spaces of PbS QD films containing 1, 2-ethanedithiol ligands. Upon deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on PbS film, the PbS QD-FETs showed ambipolar behavior. The treated film retained this property for over 2 months, despite of exposure to air. This change in the electrical properties of the PbS QD-FETs is attributed to the formation of electron channels in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-passivated PbS film. We conclude that these electron transport channels in the Al{sub x}O{sub y}-PbS film are formed due to substitution of the Pb sites by Al metal and chemical reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions, as determined by an analysis of the depth profile of the film using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Effect of GeO2 deposition temperature in atomic layer deposition on electrical properties of Ge gate stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of GeO2 deposition temperature (T depo) on electronic properties of Al/Al2O3/GeO2/Ge MOS capacitors. Capacitance–voltage characteristics show frequency dispersions under depletion and strong inversion conditions, which can be attributed from the interface states at the atomic layer deposition (ALD)-GeO2/Ge interface and from the defect states in the quasi-neutral region in the Ge substrate, respectively. We found that the interface state density (D it) shows similar values and energy distributions as T depo decreases to 200 from 300 °C, while a higher D it is observed at a T depo of 150 °C. Also, from the temperature dependence of conductance, the frequency dispersion under the strong inversion condition can be related to the minority carrier diffusion to the quasi-neutral region of the Ge substrate. The frequency dependence of conductance reveals that the undesirable increment of the bulk defect density can be suppressed by decreasing T depo. In this study, the bulk defect density in a MOS capacitor prepared at a T depo of 200 °C decreases one tenth compared with that at a T depo of 300 °C. The ALD of GeO2 at a low temperature of around 200 °C is effective for both obtaining a low D it and preventing the undesirable introduction of bulk defect density.

  16. Structure and electrical properties of Al-doped HfO₂ and ZrO₂ films grown via atomic layer deposition on Mo electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon Woo; Jeon, Woojin; Lee, Woongkyu; An, Cheol Hyun; Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2014-12-24

    The effects of Al doping in atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 (AHO) and ZrO2 (AZO) films on the evolutions of their crystallographic phases, grain sizes, and electric properties, such as their dielectric constants and leakage current densities, were examined for their applications in high-voltage devices. The film thickness and Al-doping concentration were varied in the ranges of 60-75 nm and 0.5-9.7%, respectively, for AHO and 55-90 nm and 1.0-10.3%, respectively, for AZO. The top and bottom electrodes were sputtered Mo films. The detailed structural and electrical property variations were examined as functions of the Al concentration and film thickness. The AHO films showed a transition from the monoclinic phase (Al concentration up to 1.4%) to the tetragonal/cubic phase (Al concentration 2.0-3.5%), and finally, to the amorphous phase (Al concentration >4.7%), whereas the AZO films remained in the tetragonal/cubic phase up to the Al concentration of 6.4%. For both the AHO and AZO films, the monoclinic and amorphous phases had dielectric constants of 20-25, and the tetragonal/cubic phases had dielectric constants of 30-35. The highest electrical performance levels for the application to the high-voltage charge storage capacitors in flat panel displays were achieved with the 4.7-9.7% Al-doped AHO films and the 2.6% Al-doped AZO films. PMID:25423483

  17. SAFER - Company Snapshot: SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  18. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  19. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  20. 76 FR 30573 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... the HPC ] stages 2-5 spool, uncontained engine failure, and damage to the airplane. DATES: We...

  1. 营销稽查自定义主题在秦皇岛电力公司的应用实践%Application practice of marketing audit customer self-defined theme in Qinhuangdao Electric Power Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵远; 王亚强; 李永锋; 夏岩; 李志刚

    2013-01-01

    Electric power marketing inspection, as one of the core work for power supply enterprise realizes loss reduction and benefits increasing. Qinhuangdao power company inspection section user-defined three auditing topics, information for enterprise work ef-ficiency, combined with the characteristics of marketing work status, and power consumption of electric power customer to customize the basic electricity charge unusual topic, customer small power subject, the utilization rate of transformer is lower than 30%subject, such as play a marketing audit supervisory system and the SG186 system management, standardize the order of the power supply management.%  电力营销稽查是供电企业实现堵漏增收、降损增效的核心工作之一。秦皇岛电力公司稽查信息室针对企业增效工作,结合营销工作现状和电力客户用电特点自定义了基本电费收取异常主题、客户小电量主题、客户变压器利用率低于30%主题等3个稽查主题,发挥营销稽查监控系统和SG186系统的管理作用,规范了供用电管理秩序。

  2. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  3. Inside the Hydrogen Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, M; Fierro, D Bedoya; Manjarres, A D Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    We apply the non-linear Euler-Heisenberg theory to calculate the electric field inside the hydrogen atom. We will demonstrate that the electric field calculated in the Euler-Heisenberg theory can be much smaller than the corresponding field emerging from the Maxwellian theory. In the hydrogen atom this happens only at very small distances. This effect reduces the large electric field inside the hydrogen atom calculated from the electromagnetic form-factors via the Maxwell equations. The energy content of the field is below the pair production threshold.

  4. Comparative Study on Electric Generation Cost of HTR with Another Electric Plant Using LEGECOST Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monetary and economic crisis in Indonesia resulted in impact of electricity and demand and supply planning that it has to be reevaluated. One of the reasons is budget limitation of the government as well as private companies. Considering this reason, the economic calculation for all of aspect could be performed, especially the calculation of electric generation cost. This paper will discuss the economic aspect of several power plants using fossil and nuclear fuel including High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Using Levelized Generation Cost (LEGECOST) program developed by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), the electric generation cost of each power plant could be calculated. And then, the sensitivity analysis has to be done using several economic parameters and scenarios, in order to be known the factors that influence the electric generation cost. It could be concluded, that the electric generation cost of HTR is cheapest comparing the other power plants including nuclear conventional. (author)

  5. A Multi-Period Electricity Purchasing Model for Power Supply Company%基于时变Copula的供电公司多期购电组合优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗益; 亢娅丽; 郭兴磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the power supply company's electricity purchasing problems in an open market ( e. g. medium and long-term contract market and spot market) where power can be freely traded. Owing to the high volatility of electricity price, the power supply company must purchase electricity from different markets to spread price risk based on financial investment portfolio theory. Most of previous literatures mainly research ona power supply company's single-phase decision-making process. However, the decision-making process is a typical multi-phase problem. As the decision made in one stage may influence the decision and profit in the next stage, we need to consider the multi-phase circumstance in order to optimize the risk of accumulated return. It is important to estimate and simulate the loss distribution function of asset portfolio when measuring the risk of accumulated return since the relationships among multiple variables are characterized by their joint distribution. Therefore, we need to carefully analyze the correlation between electric assets before considering the power market's portfolio strategy. Most of the previous literatures assert that price sequence follows a normal distribution and measures the correlation between electric power assets using linear correlation coefficient. Other studies show that thick tail and heteroscedasticity are typical phenomena in the price return series data. This strong nonlinear characteristic between power assets makes it difficult to use linear correlation coefficient to properly describe their relationships. Fortunately, Copula function can be used to describe the non-linear correlation structure between assets. Based on the above analysis, we establish amulti-phase power purchasing model which takes the maximum expected accumulated return and the minimum risk measured by dynamic coherent risk function as objectives. We adopt the time-variation SJC Copula -(GARCH-T, GARCH-GED) model to fit and simulate a series

  6. Electric power company captured the members of revised Regulatory Guide for Reviewing Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor. Shock of NAIIC official report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National diet of Japan Fukushima nuclear accident independent investigation commission (NAIIC) official report wrote 'the nuclear incident could not be regarded as a natural disaster, it was a profoundly man-made disaster that could and should have been foreseen and prevented', and that 'Governments, regulatory authorities and Tokyo Electric Power (TEPCO) lacked a sense of responsibility to protect people's lives and society' and that 'Despite having a number of opportunities to take measures, regulatory agencies and TEPCO management deliberately postponed decisions, did not take action or took decisions that were convenient for themselves'. This report discussed these problems. It consists of three sections such as revision of Regulatory Guide for Reviewing Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor, NAIIC official report disclosed the truth of matters, and did act some members of Nuclear Safety Commission as spokesman for electric power industry? The third section contained the evaluation period of active fault, active fault definition, and dealing with public comment. (S.Y.)

  7. Final Environmental Statement related to the operation of Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 Docket Nos. 50-440 and 50-441, Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information in this Final Environmental Statement is the second assessment of the environmental impact associated with the construction and operation of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2, located on Lake Erie in Lake County, about 11 km (7 mi) northeast of Painesville, Ohio. The first assessment was the Final Environmental Statement related to the construction of the plant issued in April 1974, prior to issuance of the construction permits (CPRR-148 and CPPR-149). Plant construction for Unit 1 is currently about 83% complete, and Unit 2 about 43% complete. Fuel loading for Units 1 and 2 currently estimated by the licensee (Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company) for November 1983, with Unit 2 fuel load scheduled for May 1987. The present assessment is the result of the NRC staff review of the activities associated with the proposed operation of the plant

  8. 电网企业科技项目后评价指标体系研究%Study on Post Evaluation Index System for the Scientific and Technological Projects in Electric Power Grid Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡巨; 曾艳; 钟万里; 肖小清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了科技项目后评价研究的意义,将电力企业科技项目进行分类,介绍了电力企业建立科技项目指标体系的原则及确定的依据。以实际项目为例,具体阐述了电力企业科技项目在项目管理、项目效果、经济效益评价和综合评价等方面进行定量评价的方法。%The paper discussed the Significance of the study on the post evaluation for scientific and technological projects,then a classification system for scientific and technological projects in electric power grid companies was designed.Finally,after the introduction of the principles and the basis for constructing post evaluation index system,a quantitative evaluation method for the project management evaluation,effectiveness and benefit evaluation and Comprehensive Evaluation on scientific and technological projects was introduced in this paper by an example of a finished scientific and technological project in Guangdong Power Grid Company.

  9. Analysis of rationality and efficiency of electricity utilization in posture poultry companies by computation platform based in fuzzy system; Analise da racionalidade e eficiencia da utilizacao de energia eletrica em empresas de avicultura de postura via plataforma computacional baseada em sistema fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremasco, Camila Pires [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica; Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Viais Neto, Daniel dos Santos; Bordin, Deyver [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Silva, Helenice de Oliveira Florentino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica], E-mails: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br., dvneto@fatecpp.edu.br, bordin@yahoo.com.br, helenice@ibb.unesp.br

    2012-11-01

    A great application of intelligent systems is in control of the electric power consumption of enterprises. For the assessment of the way that the company uses the electricity there are two indices which are called load factor and power factor. To facilitate the assessment of the performance of electric power consumption by the companies it is interesting that there is a single index indicating globally as energy is being used by the same. The goal of this work was to develop a software to assist laying poultry companies in the region of Bastos in more rational and efficient use of electric energy. For this, a system has been developed called Fuzzy Energy integrated environment developed with Delphi 2010. For the determination of fuzzy factor (situation of the company), we used a fuzzy system prepared in advance. The data collected over a period of 3 years helped the system programming. The software was able to present the situation of the company studied in a manner accessible to the user, and their results were tested accuracy 100 according to fuzzy system. With the inference method of Mandani, unable to create a general simulation of all relevant points of enterprise data. (author)

  10. Gamma and proton irradiation effects and thermal stability of electrical characteristics of metal-oxide-silicon capacitors with atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafí, J. M.; Pellegrini, G.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Christophersen, M.; Phlips, B. F.; Lynn, D.; Kierstead, J.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Gorelov, I.; Palni, P.; Wang, R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-02-01

    The radiation hardness and thermal stability of the electrical characteristics of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 layers to be used as passivation films for silicon radiation detectors with slim edges are investigated. To directly measure the interface charge and to evaluate its change with the ionizing dose, metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) capacitors implementing differently processed Al2O3 layers were fabricated on p-type silicon substrates. Qualitatively similar results are obtained for degradation of capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics under gamma and proton irradiations up to equivalent doses of 30 Mrad and 21.07 Mrad, respectively. While similar negative charge densities are initially extracted for all non-irradiated capacitors, superior radiation hardness is obtained for MOS structures with alumina layers grown with H2O instead of O3 as oxidant precursor. Competing effects between radiation-induced positive charge trapping and hydrogen release from the H2O-grown Al2O3 layers may explain their higher radiation resistance. Finally, irradiated and non-irradiated MOS capacitors with differently processed Al2O3 layers have been subjected to thermal treatments in air at temperatures ranging between 100 °C and 200 °C and the thermal stability of their electrical characteristics has been evaluated. Partial recovery of the gamma-induced degradation has been noticed for O3-grown MOS structures. This can be explained by a trapped holes emission process, for which an activation energy of 1.38 ± 0.15 eV has been extracted.

  11. Magnetic characterization and electrical field-induced switching of magnetite thin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition and subsequent thermal reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) of high quality was prepared by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) with a subsequent thermal reduction process. The reduction process in hydrogen atmosphere was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction studies as a function of temperature. A complete reduction to Fe3O4 was confirmed within a narrow temperature window during the thermal treatment. Magnetic characterization of magnetite thin films as a function of temperature, applied magnetic field and magnetic field orientation were performed. The highly stoichiometry- and impurity-sensitive Verwey transition was observed in magnetic and electrical measurements. Moreover, the isotropic point at which the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of magnetite vanishes was unveiled. Both findings prove, first, the formation of the magnetite phase against the undesired maghemite and, second, the quality of the ALD thin films to be comparable with samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The magnetic easy and hard axis could be found to be in-plane and out-of-plane, respectively. Consistent with angular-dependent studies of the coercive field, additionally performed first-order reversal curve measurements revealed a complex micromagnetic structure with different magnetization reversal paths for both configurations. Finally, electric field-induced resistive switching was studied in detail being in perfect agreement with results of single-crystalline samples. The presented data and its analysis support the assumption of previous works of the magnetization reversal in magnetite nanotubes, suggest improvement for future magnetization studies of nanostructures by exploiting the isotropic point and might open new paths for low-cost resistive switching devices. (paper)

  12. A renewable energy supply company for Gloucestershire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This profile gives details of a project to examine the feasibility of setting up a company to market electricity produced from renewable energy sources (green power) in the County of Gloucestershire, and to produce a business plan for the company to trade in the post 1998 electricity market unassisted by the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The project objectives are highlighted, and details are given of the funding and duration of the study. Contact names are provided

  13. The Analysis of the Reaction of the Romanian Companies Supplying Electrical Energy to the Modification of the Geopolitical Context and of the Internal Legislative Frame

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Robu; Elena Claudia Serban; Marina Badileanu

    2007-01-01

    Supplying services in the electrical energy domain that corresponds qualitatively, at acceptable prices, in the context of the respect of the environment preservation standards and of the security of the supply, in accordance with the demands of the economic growth, represents a main component of the lasting development. In the 9th chapter of the 21st Agenda is stated that “energy is essential to the economic and social development and to a better quality of life”. At global level, given the ...

  14. Final report on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's notice of intention to seek certification for Geysers Unit 17, 78-NOI-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Final findings and conclusions are presented on: conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; conformity of the proposed site and facility with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standard ordinances, and laws; and the safety and reliability of the facility. Also included is a proposed decision approving the notice, with conditions, for consideration by the full Commission. In addition, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date; local, state, and federal government agency comments on the Preliminary Report, and the Committee's view of those issues that require further consideration are included. (MHR)

  15. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: Draft for the plan of management for bio-energy. ELSAM/ELKRAFT: The electricity companies' programme for gasification of coal and biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Danish power companies have, since the middle of the 80's carried through a technology development effort for the use of bio-fuels in power (and dual-purpose power) plants. This note concerns the current status of the development and a sketch for an action programme for future effort. Straw is the largest unexploited potential. The use of bio-fuels does not produce so much carbon dioxide, but on the other hand biomass supply can fluctuate. Biofuels are also difficult to stoke, and expensive. Close co-operation between agriculture and forestry is necessary and risks are high for the involved sectors. It must be possible to use bio-fuels combined with coal to secure a sturdy and economic energy production, it is necessary to have a stable energy and industrial policy to maintain interest in the long term development effort, the contrasts of interest between natural gas and bio-fuels on the decentralized thermal power market must be clarified and the prices of bio-fuels must be made competitive by making supply and subsidies more effective. The main areas for future development are the bio-fuel resources, logistics and economy, straw in central power plants, gasification of coal and biomass, bio-fuels in decentralized cogeneration plants, biogas plants, conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels etc. A close co-ordination of ELSAM/ELKRAFT's development activities and cooperation between organizations in Denmark and abroad should be aimed at. (AB)

  16. Physical and electrical characterization of atomic-layer-deposited Ru nanocrystals embedded into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Min; Chen Wei; Ding Shijin; Liu Zhiying; Huang Yue; Liao Zhongwei; Zhang, David Wei [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2008-02-07

    Growth of uniformly distributed Ru nanocrystals on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is demonstrated via atomic layer deposition using bis(cyclopentadienyl)-ruthenium and oxygen precursors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveal that metallic Ru nanocrystals were formed in this experiment, and the RuO{sub 2} surface is due to oxidation of Ru when exposed to air. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitors with Ru nanocrystals embedded into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are electrically measured, exhibiting obvious memory effects such as a large hysteresis memory window of 3.4 V for the sweeping gate voltage of -2.5/ + 8 V and a significant flat-band voltage shift of 3.2 V under the programming of 10 V/1 ms, i.e. an effective electron injection rate as fast as 1.78 x 10{sup -6} C cm{sup -2} ms{sup -1}. This relates to the program mechanism of direct tunnelling and a large potential well depth. (fast track communication)

  17. Temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics during atomic layer deposition and annealing of HfO2 films in p-GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics of p-GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors during atomic layer deposition (ALD) and annealing of HfO2 using the tetrakis (ethylmethyl) amino hafnium precursor. The leakage current decreases with the increase of the ALD temperature and the lowest current is obtained at 300 °C as a result of the Frenkel-Poole conduction induced leakage current being greatly weakened by the reduction of interfacial oxides at the higher temperature. Post deposition annealing (PDA) at 500 °C after ALD at 300 °C leads to the lowest leakage current compared with other annealing temperatures. A pronounced reduction in As oxides during PDA at 500 °C has been observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the interface resulting in a proportional increase in Ga2O3. The increment of Ga2O3 after PDA depends on the amount of residual As oxides after ALD. Thus, the ALD temperature plays an important role in determining the high-k/GaAs interface condition. Meanwhile, an optimum PDA temperature is essential for obtaining good dielectric properties. (paper)

  18. Study of the 5p3/2 -> 6p3/2 electric dipole forbidden transition in atomic rubidium using optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ponciano-Ojeda, Francisco; López-Hernández, Oscar; Mojica-Casique, Cristian; Colín-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ramírez-Martínez, Fernando; Flores-Mijangos, Jesús; Sahagún, Daniel; Jáuregui, Rocío; Jiménez-Mier, José

    2015-01-01

    Direct evidence of excitation of the 5p3/2 -> 6p3/2 electric dipole forbidden transition in atomic rubidium is presented. The experiments were performed in a room temperature rubidium cell with continuous wave extended cavity diode lasers. Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy with counterpropagating beams allows the detection of the non-dipole transition free of Doppler broadening. The 5p3/2 state is prepared by excitation with a laser locked to the maximum F cyclic transition of the D2 line, and the forbidden transition is produced by excitation with a 911 nm laser. Production of the forbidden transition is monitored by detection of the 420 nm fluorescence that results from decay of the 6p3/2 state. Spectra with three narrow lines (~ 13 MHz FWHM) with the characteristic F - 1, F and F + 1 splitting of the 6p3/2 hyperfine structure in both rubidium isotopes were obtained. The results are in very good agreement with a direct calculation that takes into account the 5s -> 5p3/2 preparation dynamics, the...

  19. Temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics during atomic layer deposition and annealing of HfO2 films in p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liu; Yuming, Zhang; Yimen, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Bin, Lu

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependent interfacial and electrical characteristics of p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors during atomic layer deposition (ALD) and annealing of HfO2 using the tetrakis (ethylmethyl) amino hafnium precursor. The leakage current decreases with the increase of the ALD temperature and the lowest current is obtained at 300 °C as a result of the Frenkel-Poole conduction induced leakage current being greatly weakened by the reduction of interfacial oxides at the higher temperature. Post deposition annealing (PDA) at 500 °C after ALD at 300 °C leads to the lowest leakage current compared with other annealing temperatures. A pronounced reduction in As oxides during PDA at 500 °C has been observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the interface resulting in a proportional increase in Ga2O3. The increment of Ga2O3 after PDA depends on the amount of residual As oxides after ALD. Thus, the ALD temperature plays an important role in determining the high-k/GaAs interface condition. Meanwhile, an optimum PDA temperature is essential for obtaining good dielectric properties. Project supported by the Advance Research Project of China (No. 5130803XXXX) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176070).

  20. Electrical Characterization of Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors with Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectrics for Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Jian; HUANG Yue; DING Shi-Jin; ZHANG Wei; LIU Ran

    2007-01-01

    Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 dielectric and TaN electrodes are investigated for rf integrated circuit applications. For 12nm HfO2, the fabricated capacitor exhibits a high capacitance density of 15.5fF/μm2 at 100kHz, a small leakage current density of 6.4 × 10-9 A/cm2 at 1.8 V and 125℃, a breakdown electric field of 2.6 MV/cm as well as voltage coefficients of capacitance (VCCs) of 2110ppm/V2 and -824 ppm/V at 100kHz. Further, it is deduced that the conduction mechanism in the high field range is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel emission, and the conduction mechanism in the low field range is possibly related to trap-assisted tunnelling. Finally, comparison of various HfO2 MIM capacitors is present,suggesting that the present MIM capacitor is a promising candidate for future rf integrated circuit application.