WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic beam produced

  1. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM/sub x/ heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared with that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe 2 . An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced

  2. Characteristics of plasma in uranium atomic beam produced by electron-beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    2000-08-01

    The electron temperature of plasma and the ion flux ratio in the uranium atomic beam produced by electron-beam heating were characterized with Langmuir probes. The electron temperature was 0.13 eV, which was lower than the evaporation surface temperature. The ion flux ratio to atomic beam flux was more than 3% at higher evaporation rates. The ion flux ratio has increased with decreasing acceleration energy of the electron-beam under constant electron-beam power. This is because of an increase of electron-beam current and a large ionization cross-section of uranium by electron-impact. It was confined that the plasma is produced by electron-impact ionization of the evaporated atoms at the evaporation source. (author)

  3. Ion Flux Measurements in Electron Beam Produced Plasmas in Atomic and Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S. G.; Leonhardt, D.; Blackwell, D. D.; Murphy, D. P.; Fernsler, R. F.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, mass- and time-resolved measurements of ion fluxes sampled from pulsed, electron beam-generated plasmas will be discussed. Previous works have shown that energetic electron beams are efficient at producing high-density plasmas (10^10-10^12 cm-3) with low electron temperatures (Te < 1.0 eV) over the volume of the beam. Outside the beam, the plasma density and electron temperature vary due, in part, to ion-neutral and electron-ion interactions. In molecular gases, electron-ion recombination plays a significant role while in atomic gases, ion-neutral interactions are important. These interactions also determine the temporal variations in the electron temperature and plasma density when the electron beam is pulsed. Temporally resolved ion flux and energy distributions at a grounded electrode surface located adjacent to pulsed plasmas in pure Ar, N_2, O_2, and their mixtures are discussed. Measurements are presented as a function of operating pressure, mixture ratio, and electron beam-electrode separation. The differences in the results for atomic and molecular gases will also be discussed and related to their respective gas-phase kinetics.

  4. Matrix isolation sublimation: An apparatus for producing cryogenic beams of atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacramento, R. L.; Alves, B. X.; Silva, B. A.; Wolff, W.; Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, A. N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); INMETRO, Av. Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Li, M. S. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Ave. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, 13565-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    We describe the apparatus to generate cryogenic beams of atoms and molecules based on matrix isolation sublimation. Isolation matrices of Ne and H{sub 2} are hosts for atomic and molecular species which are sublimated into vacuum at cryogenic temperatures. The resulting cryogenic beams are used for high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The technique also aims at loading atomic and molecular traps.

  5. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grueebler, W.

    1984-01-01

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  6. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos{sup n} {theta}, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, {theta} is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R{sup 0.25} where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = {alpha} Kn{sub 0}{sup -0.25}, where Kn{sub 0}{sup -1} is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and {alpha} is the constant. (author)

  7. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos n θ, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, θ is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R 0.25 where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = α Kn 0 -0.25 , where Kn 0 -1 is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and α is the constant. (author)

  8. Characterization of an atom beam produced with the help of a hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin, F.; Gagne, J.

    1986-01-01

    A hollow-cathode type discharge is used as a refractory element vapor generator for the formation of an atomic beam. The development of the technique brings us to discuss its possibilities in spectroscopic studies of refractory elements. We focus primarily on the production of a uranium atomic beam and its characterization by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. We determine, among other things, the beam divergence and the most probable velocity along its axis for specific current and pressure conditions in the discharge. We also discuss beam behavior with respect to buffer gas pressure and electric current in the discharge

  9. Stanford polarized atomic beam target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavis, D.G.; Dunham, J.S.; Hugg, J.W.; Glavish, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A polarized atomic beam source was used to produce an atomic hydrogen beam which was in turn used as a polarized proton target. A target density of 2 x 10'' atoms/cm 3 and a target polarization of 0.37 without the use of rf transitions were measured. These measurements indicate that a number of experiments are currently feasible with a variety of polarized target beams

  10. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  11. Atomic and molecular beams production and collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Cyril Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and molecular beams are employed in physics and chemistry experiments and, to a lesser extent, in the biological sciences. These beams enable atoms to be studied under collision-free conditions and allow the study of their interaction with other atoms, charged particles, radiation, and surfaces. Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation explores the latest techniques for producing a beam from any substance as well as from the dissociation of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.The book not only provides the basic expressions essential to beam design but also offers

  12. Uses of laser optical pumping to produce polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Laser optical pumping can be used to produce polarized alkali atom beams or polarized alkali vapor targets. Polarized alkali atom beams can be converted into polarized alkali ion beams, and polarized alkali vapor targets can be used to produce polarized H - or 3 He - ion beams. In this paper the authors discuss how the polarized alkali atom beams and polarized alkali vapor targets are used to produce polarized ion beams with emphasis on the production of polarized negative ion beams

  13. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Atomic beams probe surface vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the last two years, surface scientist have begun trying to obtain the vibrational frequencies of surface atoms in both insulating and metallic crystals from beams of helium atoms. It is the inelastic scattering that researchers use to probe surface vibrations. Inelastic atomic beam scattering has only been used to obtain vibrational frequency spectra from clean surfaces. Several experiments using helium beams are cited. (SC)

  15. CERN: Producing radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerating radioactive beams has long been of interest at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator - the possibility was discussed at a CERN Workshop on intermediate energy physics as early as 1977. Meanwhile, as was highlighted in the 1991 report of the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee, widespread scientific interest in these beams has developed and a range of projects are proposed, under construction or operational throughout the world

  16. Collision-produced atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1988-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have witnessed the development of a new, powerful class of experimental techniques for atomic collision studies, allowing partial or complete determination of the state of the atoms after a collision event, i.e. the full set of quantum-mechanical scattering amplitudes or - more generally - the density matrix describing the system. Evidently, such studies, involving determination of alignment and orientation parameters, provide much more severe tests of state-of-the-art scattering theories than do total or differential cross section measurements which depend on diagonal elements of the density matrix. The off-diagonal elements give us detailed information about the shape and dynamics of the atomic states. Therefore, close studies of collision-produced atomic states are currently leading to deeper insights into the fundamental physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of atomic collision events. The first part of the lectures deals with the language used to describe atomic states, while the second part presents a selection of recent results for model systems which display fundamental aspects of the collision physics in particularly instructive ways. I shall here restrict myself to atom-atom collisions. The discussion will be focused on states decaying by photon emission though most of the ideas can be easily modified to include electron emission as well. (orig./AH)

  17. Optics with an Atom Laser Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Immanuel; Koehl, Michael; Greiner, Markus; Haensch, Theodor W.; Esslinger, Tilman

    2001-01-01

    We report on the atom optical manipulation of an atom laser beam. Reflection, focusing, and its storage in a resonator are demonstrated. Precise and versatile mechanical control over an atom laser beam propagating in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is achieved by optically inducing spin flips between atomic ground states with different magnetic moment. The magnetic force acting on the atoms can thereby be effectively switched on and off. The surface of the atom optical element is determined by the resonance condition for the spin flip in the inhomogeneous magnetic field. More than 98% of the incident atom laser beam is reflected specularly

  18. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1994-01-01

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state

  19. Molecular beam studies of hot atom chemical reactions: Reactive scattering of energetic deuterium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Balko, B.A.; Lee, Y.T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H 2 /minus/> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C 2 H 2 /minus/> C 2 HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible. 18 refs., 9 figs

  20. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  1. Atom diffraction with a 'natural' metastable atom nozzle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, J-C; Wipf, N; Grucker, J; Perales, F; Boustimi, M; Vassilev, G; Bocvarski, V; Mainos, C; Baudon, J; Robert, J

    2005-01-01

    The resonant metastability-exchange process is used to obtain a metastable atom beam with intrinsic properties close to those of a ground-state atom nozzle beam (small angular aperture, narrow velocity distribution). The estimated effective source diameter (15 μm) is small enough to provide at a distance of 597 mm a transverse coherence radius of about 873 nm for argon, 1236 nm for neon and 1660 nm for helium. It is demonstrated both by experiment and numerical calculations with He*, Ne* and Ar* metastable atoms, that this beam gives rise to diffraction effects on the transmitted angular pattern of a silicon-nitride nano-slit grating (period 100 nm). Observed patterns are in good agreement with previous measurements with He* and Ne* metastable atoms. For argon, a calculation taking into account the angular aperture of the beam (0.35 mrad) and the effect of the van der Waals interaction-the van der Waals constant C 3 1.83 +0.1 -0.15 au being derived from spectroscopic data-leads to a good agreement with experiment

  2. Atomic physics using relativistic H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An 8 GeV hydrogen atom can traverse a focused laser beam of width of 1 micron in a time of 353 attoseconds in its rest frame. A design is currently underway at Fermilab for a superconducting linear accelerator that will accelerate H - ions to 8 GeV. This 'Proton Driver' beam is intended to be injected, after stripping down to protons, into the 120 GeV Main Injector for the mass production of neutrinos aimed at a neutrino detector (MINOS) in a mine shaft in Soudan, Minnesota (USA) for the study of neutrino oscillations. It has not passed unnoticed that with some advance planning a few nanoamps from the up-to-250 mA beam could be diverted for atomic physics experiments. Relativistic kinematics enable the creation of extreme conditions for a beam atom. For example, the Doppler shift allows a very large tuning range in the atom's rest frame of a laser beam that is fixed- frequency in the lab. At 8 GeV the rest frame Doppler shift ranges from a factor of 19 in the forward direction to 0.05 backward. The laser intensity is enhanced by the square of the Doppler shift, so that the world's most intense laser beam would be amplified by a factor of 360 in the atom's rest frame. Furthermore, although there are extreme changes in the frequency and intensity in the atom's frame as one changes the intersection angle, the ponderomotive potential remains constant, as it is a relativistic invariant. One of the interesting problems that arises in the planning for this accelerator is the stripping of electrons from the negative ions by photodetachment from Doppler shifted thermal photons. We estimate that, if the transfer lines are kept at 300 K (room temperature), the mean free path at 8 GeV for stripping from collisions with cavity radiation is about 1300 km. The physics of the interactions of such a beam with very thin material foils, again in the attosecond regime, has been treated theoretically, but has not been studied experimentally at such high energies. We will

  3. Atomic battery with beam switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, E.A.; McKenna, R.P.; Peterick, E.Th. Jr.; Trexler, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    An electric power generating apparatus that is powered primarily by the emission of electrically charged particles from radio-active materials enclosed in an evacuated vessel of glass or the like. An arrangement of reflecting electrodes causes a beam of particles to switch back and forth at a high frequency between two collecting electrodes that are connected to a resonating tuned primary circuit consisting of an inductor with resonating capacitor. The reflecting electrodes are energized in the proper phase relationship to the collecting electrodes to insure sustained oscillation by means of a secondary winding coupled inductively to the primary winding and connected to the reflecting electrodes. Power may be drawn from the circuit at a stepped down voltage from a power take-off winding that is coupled to the primary winding. The disclosure also describes a collecting electrode arrangement consisting of multiple spatially separated electrodes which together serve to capture a maximum of the available particle energy. A self-starting arrangement for start of oscillations is described. A specially adapted version of the invention utilizes two complementary beams of oppositely charged particles which are switched alternatingly between the collecting electrodes

  4. ASACUSA: the first beam of anti-hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at CERN has produced for the first time a beam of anti-hydrogen atoms, 80 atoms of anti-hydrogen have been detected at a distance of 2.7 meters away from their production place which is the true achievement of this experiment. The ASACUSA team has developed an innovative device that allows the transfer of the anti-hydrogen atoms in a place where they can be studied in flight, away from the intense magnetic field that was necessary to produce them but affect their spectroscopic properties. Anti-hydrogen atoms are made up of anti-electrons and anti-protons, according to the theory their spectrum must be identical to that of hydrogen atoms and any difference that might be detected by the ASACUSA experiment may shed light on the matter-antimatter asymmetry issue. (A.C.)

  5. Laser optical pumping of sodium and lithium atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusma, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The method of optical pumping with a continuous wave dye laser has been used to produce beams of polarized 23 Na atoms and polarized 6 Li atoms. Optical pumping of a 23 Na atom beam using either a multimode dye laser or a single frequency dye laser with a double passed acousto-optic modulator results in electron spin polarizations of 0.70-0.90 and nuclear spin polarizations of 0.75-0.90. Optical pumping of a 6 Li atom beam using a single frequency dye laser either with an acousto-optic modulator or with Doppler shift pumping results in electron spin polarizations of 0.77-0.95 and nuclear spin polarizations greater than 0.90. The polarization of the atom beam is measured using either the laser induced fluorescence in an intermediate magnetic field or a 6-pole magnet to determine the occupation probabilities of the ground hyperfine sublevels following optical pumping. The results of the laser optical pumping experiments agree with the results of a rate equation analysis of the optical pumping process which predicts that nearly all atoms are transferred into a single sublevel for our values of laser intensity and interaction time. The use of laser optical pumping in a polarized ion source for nuclear scattering experiments is discussed. The laser optical pumping method provides a means of constructing an intense source of polarized Li and Na ions

  6. Light forces on an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeter, B.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis it was studied, whether indium is a possible candidate for the nanostructuration respectively atomic lithography. For this known method for the generation and stabilization of the light necessary for the laser cooling had to be fitted to the special properties of indium. The spectroscopy of indium with the 451 nm and the 410 nm light yielded first hints that the formulae for the atom-light interaction for a two-level atom cannot be directly transferred to the indium atom. By means of the obtained parameters of the present experiment predictions for a possible Doppler cooling of the indium atomic beam were calculated. Furthermore the possibility for the direct deposition of indium on a substrate was studied

  7. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  8. Laser control of atomic beam motion and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V.I.; Letokhov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the results of an experimental investigation of the control of atomic beam motion by the light pressure of laser radiation. Collimation, focusing and reflection of the atomic beam are considered. Collimation of the atomic beam is achieved by the interaction of laser radiation with atoms, when the light pressure force depends only on the atom's velocity. A similar regime of atomic beam interaction with radiation was performed with transversal irradiation of a beam by the axis-symmetrical field. The axis-symmetrical field was formed by laser radiation reflected from the conical mirror surface of a reflecting axicon. The axis of the atomic beam coincided with that of the axicon. The collimation regime was reached under negative detuning of the laser radiation frequency from the atomic transition frequency by a value equal to several homogeneous widths. With positive detuning by the same value the regime of beam decollimation was observed. The density of atoms on the beam axis was changed by 10 3 times, when the collimation regime was replaced by that of decollimation. Focusing of the atomic beam was achieved by light pressure dependent on the atomic coordinate. Focusing was performed within the field configuration formed by divergent laser Gaussian beams propagating in the direction +- X, +- Y of a Cartesian coordinate system. Waists of the laser beams were an equal distance from the atomic beam axis. With an atomic beam propagating along the z axis, expressions for local distance and a formula for the laser lens were obtained. Focusing of the atomic beam was experimentally accomplished, and the image of the atomic beam was received. In this work they also investigated reflection of the atomic beam by laser radiation. The possibility of creating the optics of a neutral atomic beam is shown

  9. Cold atomic beams of high brightness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhdestvensky, Yu V

    2004-01-01

    The possibility is studied for obtaining intense cold atomic beams by using the Renyi entropy to optimise the laser cooling process. It is shown in the case of a Gaussian velocity distribution of atoms, the Renyi entropy coincides with the density of particles in the phase space. The optimisation procedure for cooling atoms by resonance optical radiation is described, which is based on the thermodynamic law of increasing the Renyi entropy in time. Our method is compared with the known methods for increasing the laser cooling efficiency such as the tuning of a laser frequency in time and a change of the atomic transition frequency in an inhomogeneous transverse field of a magnetic solenoid. (laser cooling)

  10. Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam...steering and collimating flows with higher densities and energies than current common practice . One impediment to this extension is the development of...where Δεg is the ground state Stark shift, Ω is the Rabi frequency (related to intensity), Isat is the saturation intensity of the transition, and I(r

  11. Polarization measurement of atomic hydrogen beam spin-exchanged with optically oriented sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Akira; Ogura, Kouichi; Wakuta, Yoshihisa; Kumabe, Isao

    1988-01-01

    The spin-exchange reaction between hydrogen atoms and optically oriented sodium atoms was used to produce a polarized atomic hydrogen beam. The electron-spin polarization of the atomic hydrogen beam, which underwent the spin-exchange reaction with the optically oriented sodium atoms, was measured. A beam polarization of -(8.0±0.6)% was obtained when the thickness and polarization of the sodium target were (5.78±0.23)x10 13 atoms/cm 2 and -(39.6±1.6)%, respectively. The value of the spin-exchange cross section in the forward scattering direction, whose scattering angle in the laboratory system was less than 1.0 0 , was obtained from the experimental results as Δσ ex =(3.39±0.34)x10 -15 cm 2 . This value is almost seven times larger than the theoretical value calculated from the Na-H potential. The potential was computed quantum mechanically in the space of the appropriate wave functions of the hydrogen and the sodium atoms. (orig./HSI)

  12. An atomic beam source for fast loading of a magneto-optical trap under high vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, P.D.; Hilliard, Andrew; Grünzweig, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a directional atomic beam created using an alkali metal dispenser and a nozzle. By applying a high current (15 A) pulse to the dispenser at room temperature we can rapidly heat it to a temperature at which it starts dispensing, avoiding the need for preheating. The atomic beam produced...... is capable of loading 90 of a magneto-optical trap (MOT) in less than 7 s while maintaining a low vacuum pressure of 10 -11 Torr. The transverse velocity components of the atomic beam are measured to be within typical capture velocities of a rubidium MOT. Finally, we show that the atomic beam can be turned...

  13. Laser-evaporated pulsed atomic beam and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanping; Hu Qiquan; Su Haizheng; Lin Fucheng

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining an atomic beam, laser-evaporated atomic vapor was studied experimentally. The signals of multiphoton ionization of refractory metal atoms obtained with the pulsed atomic beam were observed, and the problem associated with the detection of these signals was discussed

  14. Molecular beam studies and hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.; Lee, Y.T.

    1993-01-01

    The application of the crossed molecular beam technique to the study of hot atom chemistry has provided significant insights into the dynamics of hot atom reaction. To illustrate this, two recent studies are discussed. Those are the study on the influence of translational energy in 0.6 to 1.5 eV range on endoergic reaction, and the experimental study on the detailed dynamics of elementary reaction at translational energy of 0.53 and 1.01 eV. The first example illustrates the contribution that molecular beam experiment can make in the understanding of the dynamics of endoergic substitution reaction. The second example illustrates the role that such studies can play in evaluating exact three-dimensional quantum scattering calculation and ab initio potential energy surfaces for chemical reaction. In the case of endoergic reaction of halogen substitution, it was observed that the reactive collision involved short lived collision complexes. It is suggested that energetic effect alone cannot account for the difference in cross sections, and dynamic effect most play a large role. In atom-diatom reaction, the differential cross section measurement of D+H 2 →DH+H reaction was carried out, and the results are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    OpenAIRE

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in ...

  16. A Survey of Atom Interferometer Beam-Combination Configurations and Beam Splitter Designs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of the art of atom-interferometry experiments, with an emphasis on the beam-splitting and beam-combination configurations, as well as on the different choices of beam...

  17. Manipulating beams of ultra-cold atoms with a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, W.J.; Lau, D.C.; Opat, G.I.; Sidorov, A.I.; McLean, R.J.; Hannaford, P.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results on the deflection of a beam of ultra-cold atoms by a static magnetic field are presented. Caesium atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are cooled using optical molasses, and then fall freely under gravity to form a beam of ultra-cold atoms. The atoms pass through a static inhomogeneous magnetic field produced by a single current-carrying wire, and are deflected by a force dependent on the magnetic substate of the atom. A schematical diagram of the experimental layout for laser trapping and cooling of cesium atom is given. The population of atoms in various magnetic substates can be altered by using resonant laser radiation to optically pump the atoms. The single-wire deflection experiment described can be considered as atomic reflexion from a cylindrical magnetic mirror; the underlying principles and techniques being relevant to the production of atomic mirrors and diffraction gratings. 16 refs., 10 figs

  18. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  19. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper suggests several current atomic physics questions important to ion beam fusion. Among the topics discussed are beam transport, beam-target interaction, and reactor design. The major part of the report is discussion concerning areas of research necessary to better understand beam-target interactions

  20. Neutral atom beam technique enhances bioactivity of PEEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Sean R.; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E.; Kirkpatrick, Allen; Svrluga, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently gaining popularity in orthopedic and spinal applications but has potential drawbacks in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent; however, it has been shown to be inert and does not integrate well with bone. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK by modifying the surface to improve the bone-implant interface. We have employed a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam technique (ANAB) to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. ANAB employs an intense beam of cluster-like packets of accelerated unbonded neutral argon (Ar) gas atoms. These beams are created by first producing a highly energetic Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) comprised of van der Waals bonded Ar atoms, then transferring energy to the clusters so as to cause release of most of the interatomic bonds, and finally deflecting away the remaining electrically charged cluster cores of still bonded atoms. We identified that ANAB treatment of PEEK results in nanometer scale surface modifications as well as increased surface hydrophilicity. Human osteoblasts seeded onto the surface of ANAB-treated PEEK exhibited enhanced growth as compared to control PEEK as evidenced by cell proliferation assays and microscopy. This increase in bioactivity resulted in cell proliferation levels comparable to native titanium. An in vivo study using a rat calvarial critical size defect model revealed enhanced osseointegration where bone tissue formation was evident only on the ANAB treated PEEK. Taken together, these data suggest that ANAB treatment of PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, resulting in bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants

  1. Generation of a cold pulsed beam of Rb atoms by transfer from a 3D magneto-optic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanu, Sapam Ranjita; Rathod, Ketan D.; Natarajan, Vasant, E-mail: vasant@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2016-08-26

    We demonstrate a technique for producing a cold pulsed beam of atoms by transferring a cloud of atoms trapped in a three dimensional magneto-optic trap (MOT). The MOT is loaded by heating a getter source of Rb atoms. We show that it is advantageous to transfer with two beams (with a small angle between them) compared to a single beam, because the atoms stop interacting with the beams in the two-beam technique, which results in a Gaussian velocity distribution. The atoms are further cooled in optical molasses by turning off the MOT magnetic field before the transfer beams are turned on. - Highlights: • Getter-source loaded magneto-optic trap (MOT). • Cold atomic beam generated by deflection from the MOT. • Use of two inclined beams for deflection.

  2. Neutron filters for producing monoenergetic neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Harvey, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements have been made on high-purity, highly-enriched samples of 58 Ni (99.9%), 60 Ni (99.7%), 64 Zn (97.9%) and 184 W (94.5%) to measure their neutron windows and to assess their potential usefulness for producing monoenergetic beams of intermediate energies from a reactor. Transmission measurements on the Los Alamos Sc filter (44.26 cm Sc and 1.0 cm Ti) have been made to determine the characteristics of the transmitted neutron beam and to measure the total cross section of Sc at the 2.0 keV minimum. When corrected for the Ti and impurities, a value of 0.35 +- 0.03 b was obtained for this minimum

  3. A double-stage pulsed discharge fluorine atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zefeng; Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2006-01-01

    Molecular-beam intensity and speed ratio are two major limiting factors in many molecular-beam experiments. This article reports a high-intensity, high-speed-ratio, pulsed supersonic fluorine atom beam source using a double-stage discharge beam source. Its performance is indicated by the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrum in the crossed beam experiment of F( 2 P)+para-H 2

  4. Utilization of an arc-heated jet for production of supersonic seeded beams of atomic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Newton, K.R.; Herrmann, J.M.; Bernstein, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    Intense supersonic beams of atomic nitrogen (>10 17 atoms sr -1 sec -1 ) have been produced from the dissociation of N 2 in an Ar arc (at temperatures in excess of 6000 K) using the arc-heated nozzle beam source of Young, Rodgers, and Knuth. Experiments characterizing the N 2 dissociation and the translational energies of the N, N 2 , and Ar components in the beams are described. Evidence is presented for the formation of atomic C as well as C 2 and CH from the pyrolysis of CH 4 and C 2 H 4 in the Ar arc

  5. Noninterferometric phase imaging of a neutral atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, P.J.; Mackin, T.R.; Turner, L.D.; Colton, I.; Nugent, K.A.; Scholten, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative phase imaging of a neutral atomic beam by using a noninterferometric technique. A collimated thermal atomic beam is phase shifted by an off-resonant traveling laser beam with both a Gaussian and a TEM 01 profile and with both red and blue detuning of as much as 50 GHz. Phase variations of more than 1000 rad were recovered from velocity-selective measurements of the propagation of the atomic beam and were found to be in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions based on independently measured phase object intensity profiles and detunings

  6. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  7. Beams made of twisted atoms: A theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayrapetyan, Armen [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Matula, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Surzhykov, Andrey [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed Bessel beams of two-level atoms that are driven by a linearly polarized laser light. Based on the Schroedinger equation for two-level systems, we first determine the states of two-level atoms in a plane-wave field by taking into account propagation directions both of the atom and the field. For such laser-driven two-level atoms, we construct Bessel beams by going beyond the typical paraxial approximation. In particular, we show that the probability density of these atomic beams exhibits a non-trivial, Bessel-squared-type behavior. The profile of such twisted atoms is affected by atom and laser parameters, such as the nuclear charge, atom velocity, laser frequency, and propagation geometry of the atom and laser beams. Moreover, we spatially and temporally characterize the beam of hydrogen and selected (neutral) alkali-metal atoms that carry non-zero orbital angular momentum (OAM). The proposed spatiotemporal Bessel states (i) are able to describe twisted states of any two-level system which is driven by the radiation field and (ii) have potential applications in atomic and nuclear processes as well as in quantum communication.

  8. Measurement of the force on microparticles in a beam of energetic ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trottenberg, Thomas; Schneider, Viktor; Kersten, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The force on microparticles in an energetic ion beam is investigated experimentally. Hollow glass microspheres are injected into the vertically upward directed beam and their trajectories are recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. The net force on the particles is determined by means of the measured vertical acceleration. The resulting beam pressures are compared with Faraday cup measurements of the ion current density and calorimetric measurements of the beam power density. Due to the neutral gas background, the beam consists, besides the ions, of energetic neutral atoms produced by charge-exchange collisions. It is found that the measured composition of the drag force by an ion and a neutral atom component agrees with a beam model that takes charge-exchange collisions into account. Special attention is paid to the momentum contribution from sputtered atoms, which is shown to be negligible in this experiment, but should become measurable in case of materials with high sputtering yields.

  9. Generation of dense, pulsed beams of refractory metal atoms using two-stage laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadar-Kallen, M.A.; Bonin, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    We report a technique for generating a dense, pulsed beam of refractory metal atoms using two-stage laser ablation. An atomic beam of uranium was produced with a peak, ground-state number density of 1x10 12 cm -3 at a distance of z=27 cm from the source. This density can be scaled as 1/z 3 to estimate the density at other distances which are also far from the source

  10. To test photon statistics by atomic beam deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhu; Chen Yudan; Huang Weigang; Liu Liang

    1985-02-01

    There exists a simple relation between the photon statistics in resonance fluorescence and the statistics of the momentum transferred to an atom by a plane travelling wave [Cook, R.J., Opt. Commun., 35, 347(1980)]. Using an atomic beam deflection by light pressure, we have observed sub-Poissonian statistics in resonance fluorescence of two-level atoms. (author)

  11. Relative-velocity distributions for two effusive atomic beams in counterpropagating and crossed-beam geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Formulas are presented for calculating the relative velocity distributions in effusive, orthogonal crossed beams and in effusive, counterpropagating beams experiments, which are two important geometries for the study of collision processes between atoms. In addition formulas for the distributions...

  12. Generation of a slow and continuous cesium atomic beam for an atomic clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Ho Seong; Shin, Eun-joo; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Yang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Hyuck

    2002-01-01

    A thermal atomic beam from a cesium oven was slowed down by use of the Hoffnagle modified white-light cooling technique. In addition, the atomic beam was collimated by use of a two-dimensional optical molasses that was installed transverse to the atomic-beam direction. The flux of the atomic beam was 2x10 10 atoms/s, an increase of a factor of 16 as a result of the collimation. The mean longitudinal velocity was ∼24.4 m/s, and the rms velocity spread of the slowed atomic beam was ∼1 m/s. Compared with other methods, we found that the Hoffnagle method is suitable for the generation of slow atomic beams to be used in an atomic clock, which requires an ultralow magnetic field environment. This atomic beam was deflected by an angle of 30 deg. by a one-dimensional optical molasses to separate it from laser light and high-velocity atoms

  13. Laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultra cold atom beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajani-Talesh, Anoush

    2014-07-01

    This thesis examines two complimentary methods for the laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultra-cold atom beam. If combined, these methods could serve as a starting point for high-through put and possibly even continuous production of Bose-Einstein condensates. First, a mechanism is outlined to harvest ultra cold atoms from a magnetically guided atom beam into an optical dipole trap. A continuous loading scheme is described that dissipates the directed kinetic energy of a captured atom via deceleration by a magnetic potential barrier followed by optical pumping to the energetically lowest Zeeman sublevel. The application of this scheme to the transfer of ultra cold chromium atoms from a magnetically guided atom beam into a deep optical dipole trap is investigated via numerical simulations of the loading process. Based on the results of the theoretical studies the feasibility and the efficiency of our loading scheme, including the realisation of a suitable magnetic field configuration, are analysed. Second, experiments were conducted on the transverse laser cooling of a magnetically guided beam of ultra cold chromium atoms. Radial compression by a tapering of the guide is employed to adiabatically heat the beam. Inside the tapered section heat is extracted from the atom beam by a two-dimensional optical molasses perpendicular to it, resulting in a significant increase of atomic phase space density. A magnetic offset field is applied to prevent optical pumping to untrapped states. Our results demonstrate that by a suitable choice of the magnetic offset field, the cooling beam intensity and detuning, atom losses and longitudinal heating can be avoided. Final temperatures below 65 μK have been achieved, corresponding to an increase of phase space density in the guided beam by more than a factor of 30.

  14. Laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultra cold atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghajani-Talesh, Anoush

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines two complimentary methods for the laser cooling of a magnetically guided ultra-cold atom beam. If combined, these methods could serve as a starting point for high-through put and possibly even continuous production of Bose-Einstein condensates. First, a mechanism is outlined to harvest ultra cold atoms from a magnetically guided atom beam into an optical dipole trap. A continuous loading scheme is described that dissipates the directed kinetic energy of a captured atom via deceleration by a magnetic potential barrier followed by optical pumping to the energetically lowest Zeeman sublevel. The application of this scheme to the transfer of ultra cold chromium atoms from a magnetically guided atom beam into a deep optical dipole trap is investigated via numerical simulations of the loading process. Based on the results of the theoretical studies the feasibility and the efficiency of our loading scheme, including the realisation of a suitable magnetic field configuration, are analysed. Second, experiments were conducted on the transverse laser cooling of a magnetically guided beam of ultra cold chromium atoms. Radial compression by a tapering of the guide is employed to adiabatically heat the beam. Inside the tapered section heat is extracted from the atom beam by a two-dimensional optical molasses perpendicular to it, resulting in a significant increase of atomic phase space density. A magnetic offset field is applied to prevent optical pumping to untrapped states. Our results demonstrate that by a suitable choice of the magnetic offset field, the cooling beam intensity and detuning, atom losses and longitudinal heating can be avoided. Final temperatures below 65 μK have been achieved, corresponding to an increase of phase space density in the guided beam by more than a factor of 30.

  15. Coherent and non coherent atom optics experiment with an ultra-narrow beam of metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grucker, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis, we present a new type of atomic source: an ultra-narrow beam of metastable atoms produced by resonant metastability exchange inside a supersonic beam of rare gas atoms. We used the coherence properties of this beam to observe the diffraction of metastable helium, argon and neon atoms by a nano-transmission grating and by micro-reflection-gratings. Then, we evidenced transitions between Zeeman sublevels of neon metastable 3 P 2 state due to the quadrupolar part of Van der Waals potential. After we showed experimental proofs of the observation of this phenomenon, we calculated the transition probabilities in the Landau - Zener model. We discussed the interest of Van der Waals - Zeeman transitions for atom interferometry. Last, we described the Zeeman cooling of the supersonic metastable argon beam ( 3 P 2 ). We have succeeded in slowing down atoms to speeds below 100 m/s. We gave experimental details and showed the first time-of-flight measurements of slowed atoms

  16. A Compact, High-Flux Cold Atom Beam Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James R.; Kohel, James M.; Thompson, Robert J.; Aveline, David C.; Yu, Nan; Schlippert, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cold atom experiments relying on three-dimensional magneto-optical trap techniques can be greatly enhanced by employing a highflux cold atom beam to obtain high atom loading rates while maintaining low background pressures in the UHV MOT (ultra-high vacuum magneto-optical trap) regions. Several techniques exist for generating slow beams of cold atoms. However, one of the technically simplest approaches is a two-dimensional (2D) MOT. Such an atom source typically employs at least two orthogonal trapping beams, plus an additional longitudinal "push" beam to yield maximum atomic flux. A 2D atom source was created with angled trapping collimators that not only traps atoms in two orthogonal directions, but also provides a longitudinal pushing component that eliminates the need for an additional push beam. This development reduces the overall package size, which in turn, makes the 2D trap simpler, and requires less total optical power. The atom source is more compact than a previously published effort, and has greater than an order of magnitude improved loading performance.

  17. The CERN polarized atomic hydrogen beam target project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubischta, W.; Dick, L.

    1990-01-01

    The UA6-experiment at the CERN p bar p Colider is at present using an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target with a thickness up to 5.10 14 atoms/cm 2 . It is planned to replace this target by a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target with a thickness up to about 10 13 atoms/cm 2 . This paper discusses basic requirements and results of atom optical calculations

  18. Modified source of a fast neutral atom beam with a controlled energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.A.; Elakhovskij, D.V.; Khakhaev, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A source of a metastable helium atom beam with a controlled energy based on a phenomenon of resonant ion neutralization on the surface of a solid body is described. The neutral particle energy control is carried out by changing ion velocities before their transformation into metastable atoms. The results of experiments with a modified construction of atomic beam source are stated. These experiments were conducted to find the possibilities to control velocities of atoms in a flow as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of operation of a collimator-converter of this construction. Dependences of a halfwidth of the ion velocity distribution function on the ion source parameters have been investigated. The possibility for particle energy control in a collimated flow of fast neutral. atoms has been experimentally shown, it is also shown that a mean value of atom energy in a beam coincides with a value of mean energy of ions from which atoms are produced by the resonant neutralization method; the construction of the source provides the possibility to realize the method of ''overtaking beams'' for neutral atoms and as a result of this to give a possibility for studying atom-atom collisions in a wide energy range at relatively high densities of flows

  19. Laser ionization installation for measurement of atomic beam parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tukhlibaev, O; Khalilov, E E; Alimov, U Z

    2002-01-01

    The design of the laser ionization installation for determination of the atomic beam intensity, density and spatial structure is described. The method of the atoms laser resonance staged photoionization is applied in the installation. The above installation consists of two lasers on the dyestuffs, the atomizer, the ionization system and the ion signals registration system. The results of studies on the spatial structure of the In atoms beam are presented. The proposed method provides for the spatial resolution at the level of 10-100 mu m

  20. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 −5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm −3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  1. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph [Physics Department, The College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  2. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 -5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm -3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  3. A polarized atomic-beam target for COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.; Glende, M.; Walker, M.; Hiemer, A.; Gebel, R.

    1998-01-01

    An atomic-beam target (ABT) for the EDDA experiment has been built in Bonn and was tested for the very first time at the cooler synchrotron COSY. The ABT differs from the polarized colliding-beams ion source for COSY in the DC-operation of the dissociator and the use of permanent 6-pole magnets. At present the beam optics of the ABT is set-up for maximum density in the interaction zone, but for target-cell operation it can be modified to give maximum intensity. The modular concept of this atomic ground-state target allows to provide all vector- (and tensor) polarizations for protons and deuterons, respectively. Up to now the polarization of the atomic-beam could be verified by the EDDA experiment to be > or approx. 80% with a density in the interaction zone of > or approx. 10 11 atoms/cm 2

  4. Molecular beam studies of oxide reduction by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The graphite and oxide internals of a CTR are susceptible to chemical corrosion as well as to physical degradation by high-energy particles. Reactions of thermal atomic hydrogen with oxides are being studied. The hydrogen used is at thermal energy (0.22 eV). Typical data are reported for the H/UO 2 system. The reaction probability is plotted as a function of solid temperature at fixed beam intensity and moculation frequency. The reaction probability increases from low temperature to a high-temperature plateau at about 1300 0 C. Here the reaction rate is limited solely by the sticking probability of H on the surface; about one in seven of the incident atoms is chemisorbed by the surface and ultimately returns to the gas phase as water vapor. A reaction model comprising sticking, recombination to H 2 , solution and diffusion of H in the bulk of the UO 2 , surface reaction of adsorbed H with lattice oxygen atoms to produce the hydroxyl radical, and production of water is constructed. The rate constants for the elementary steps in the mechanism are tabulated. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on atomic physics with fast heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, E.P.; Minchinton, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Workshop on Atomic Physics with Fast Heavy-Ion Beams was held in the Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory on January 20 and 21, 1983. The meeting brought together approx. 50 practitioners in the field of accelerator-based atomic physics. The workshop was held to focus attention on possible areas of atomic physics research which would benefit from use of the newest generation of accelerators designed to produce intense high-quality beams of fast heavy ions. Abstracts of individual paper were prepared separately for the data base

  6. Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson; Thywissen; Dekker; Berggren; Chu; Younkin; Prentiss

    1998-06-05

    The spatially dependent de-excitation of a beam of metastable argon atoms, traveling through an optical standing wave, produced a periodic array of localized metastable atoms with position and momentum spreads approaching the limit stated by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Silicon and silicon dioxide substrates placed in the path of the atom beam were patterned by the metastable atoms. The de-excitation of metastable atoms upon collision with the surface promoted the deposition of a carbonaceous film from a vapor-phase hydrocarbon precursor. The resulting patterns were imaged both directly and after chemical etching. Thus, quantum-mechanical steady-state atom distributions can be used for sub-0.1-micrometer lithography.

  7. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} 6s7s {sup 1}S{sub 0}) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm{sup 3} and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s{sup 1}S{sub 0} state via the intercombination 6s6p{sup 3}P{sub 1} state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle.

  8. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s 2 1 S 0 ↔ 6s7s 1 S 0 ) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm 3 and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s 1 S 0 state via the intercombination 6s6p 3 P 1 state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 °C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle.

  9. Properties of the accelerator-produced beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Chambers, F.W.; Cole, A.G.; Fawley, W.M.; Struve, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Obtaining detailed knowledge of the condition of the electron beam delivered to the experimental tank is of prime importance in the attempt to correlate the propagation data with theory. There are many interesting and unique features of the beam delivered by Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) to the experimental tank

  10. Atomic beam formed by the vaporization of a high velocity pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    A description of an atomic beam formed by vaporizing an electrostatically accelerated high velocity pellet is given. Uniformly sized droplets of neon will be formed by the mechanical disintegration of liquid jet and frozen by adiabatic vaporization in vacuum. The pellets produced will be charged and accelerated by contacting a needle held at high potential. The accelerated pellets will be vaporized forming a pulse of mono-energetic atoms. The advantages are that a wide range of energies will be possible. The beam will be mono-energetic. The beam is inheretly pulsed, allowing a detailed time of flight velocity distribution measurement. The beam will have a high instantaneous intensity. The beam will be able to operate into an ultra high vacuum chamber

  11. Thousands of cold anti-atoms produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The antimatter factory delivers its first major results. ATHENA has just produced thousands of anti-atoms. This is the result of techniques developed by ATRAP and ATHENA, the two collaborations aiming to study antihydrogen.

  12. Atomic-Beam Magnetic Resonance Experiments at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the atomic-beam magnetic resonance (ABMR) experiments at ISOLDE is to map the nuclear behaviour in wide regions of the nuclear chart by measuring nuclear spins and moments of ground and isomeric states. This is made through an investigation of the atomic hyperfine structure of free, neutral atoms in a thermal atomic-beam using radio-frequency techniques. On-line operation allows the study of short-lived nuclei far from the region of beta-stability.\\\\ \\\\ The ABMR experiments on the |2S^1 ^2 elements Rb, Cs, Au and Fr have been completed, and present efforts are directed towards the elements with an open p-shell and on the rare-earth elements.\\\\ \\\\ The experimental data obtained are compared with results from model calculations, giving information on the single-particle structure and on the nuclear shape parameters.

  13. Optically pumped polarized alkali atomic beams and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The optical pumping of 23 Na and 6 Li atomic beams is discussed. Experiments on the optical pumping of 23 Na atomic beams using either a single mode dye laser followed by a double passed acousto-optic modulator or a multimode dye laser are reported. The optical pumping of a 23 Na vapor target for use in a polarized H - ion source is discussed. Results on the use of viton as a wall coating with a long relaxation time are reported. 31 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  14. Ice and Atoms: experiments with laboratory-based positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, P G

    2011-01-01

    This short review presents results of new positron and positronium (Ps) experiments in condensed matter and atomic physics, as an illustration of the satisfying variety of scientific endeavours involving positron beams which can be pursued with relatively simple apparatus in a university laboratory environment. The first of these two studies - on ice films - is an example of how positrons and Ps can provide new insights into an important system which has been widely interrogated by other techniques. The second is an example of how simple positron beam systems can still provide interesting information - here on a current interesting fundamental problem in positron atomic physics.

  15. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy in atomic beams of radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the resonant scattering of light from CW tunable dye lasers, by a well collimated atomic beam, enable hyperfine splittings and optical isotope shifts to be determined with high precision and high sensitivity. Recent off-line atomic beam experiments with minute samples, comprising measurements with stable and unstable Ba, Ca and Pb isotopes are reviewed. The experimental methods and the analysis of the data are discussed. Information on the variation of the rms charge radii and on electromagnetic moments of nuclei in long isotopic chains is presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  17. On-line spectroscopy with thermal atomic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, C.; Guimbal, P.; Klapisch, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Serre, J.M.; Touchard, F.; Duong, H.T.; Jacquinot, P.; Juncar, P.

    1981-01-01

    On-line high resolution laser spectroscopy experiments have been performed in which the light from a cw tunable dye laser interacts at right angles with a thermal atomic beam. sup(76-98)Rb, sup(118-145)Cs and sup(208-213)Fr have been studied using the ionic beam delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator at CERN while sup(20-31)Na and sup(38-47)K have been studied by setting the apparaturs directly on-line with the PS 20 GeV proton beam. The principle of the method is briefly explained and some results concerning nuclear structure are given. (orig.)

  18. Plasma heating with multi-MeV neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Eubank, H.P.

    1981-10-01

    We explore the utility and feasibility of neutral beams of greater than or equal to 6 AMU formed from negative ions, and also of D 0 formed from D - . The negative ions would be accelerated to approx. 1 to 2 MeV/AMU and neutralized, whereupon the neutral atoms would be used to heat and, perhaps, to drive current in magnetically confined plasmas. Such beams appear feasible and offer the promise of significant advantages relative to conventional neutral beams based on positive deuterium ions at approx. 150 keV

  19. Method of producing excited states of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.; Morita, R.

    1976-01-01

    A method is claimed of producing excited states of atomic nuclei which comprises bombarding atoms with x rays or electrons, characterized in that (1) in the atoms selected to be produced in the excited state of their nuclei, (a) the difference between the nuclear excitation energy and the difference between the binding energies of adequately selected two electron orbits is small enough to introduce the nuclear excitation by electron transition, and (b) the system of the nucleus and the electrons in the case of ionizing an orbital electron in said atoms should satisfy the spin and parity conservation laws; and (2) the energy of the bombarding x rays or electrons should be larger than the binding energy of one of the said two electron orbits which is located at shorter distance from the atomic nucleus. According to the present invention, atomic nuclei can be excited in a relatively simple manner without requiring the use of large scale apparatus, equipment and production facilities, e.g., factories. It is also possible to produce radioactive substances or separate a particular isotope with an extremely high purity from a mixture of isotopes by utilizing nuclear excitation

  20. Production of pulsed atomic oxygen beams via laser vaporization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinza, D.E.; Coulter, D.R.; Liang, R.H.; Gupta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Energetic pulsed atomic oxygen beams were generated by laser-driven evaporation of cryogenically frozen ozone/oxygen films and thin films of indium-tin oxide (ITO). Mass and energy characterization of beams from the ozone/oxygen films were carried out by mass spectrometry. The peak flux, found to occur at 10 eV, is estimated from this data to be 3 x 10(20) m(-2) s(-1). Analysis of the time-of-flight data indicates a number of processes contribute to the formation of the atomic oxygen beam. The absence of metastable states such as the 2p(3) 3s(1) (5S) level of atomic oxygen blown off from ITO films is supported by the failure to observe emission at 777.3 nm from the 2p(3) 3p(1) (5P/sub J/) levels. Reactive scattering experiments with polymer film targets for atomic oxygen bombardment are planned using a universal crossed molecular beam apparatus

  1. Optimization of atomic beam sources for polarization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Martin; Nass, Alexander; Stroeher, Hans [IKP, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For experiments with spin-polarized protons and neutrons a dense target is required. In current atomic beam sources an atomic hydrogen or deuterium beam is expanded through a cold nozzle and a system of sextupole magnets and RF-transition units selects a certain hyperfine state. The achievable flux seems to be limited to about 10{sup 17} particles per second with a high nuclear polarization. A lot of experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken to understand all effects and to increase the flux. However, improvements have remained marginal. Now, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the DSMC part of the open source C++ library OpenFOAM is set up in order to get a better understanding of the flow and to optimize the various elements. It is intended to include important effects like deflection from magnetic fields, recombination on the walls and spin exchange collisions in the simulation and make quantitative predictions of changes in the experimental setup. The goal is to get a tool that helps to further increase the output of an atomic beam source. So far, a new binary collision model, magnetic fields, RF-transition units and a tool to measure the collision age are included. The next step will be to couple the whole simulation with an optimization algorithm implementing Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) in order to automatically optimize the atomic beam source.

  2. Nanodevices produced with focussed ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doetsch, U.; Wieck, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    In directly writing the 30 nm focus of a focussed Ga-ion beam (FIB) with an energy of 100 keV we define insulating lines in two-dimensional electronic layers in semiconductors. Ga ions act in GaAs and silicon as deep impurities or p-type doping, respectively. In this way the insulation by such written lines is due to lateral depletion within npn-like interfaces. In writing two FIB lines with a close spacing we define conducting channels between them. In applying a voltage of several Volts to the adjacent areas of the channel relative to it we can tune the effective width of the channel in the range of a few 100 nm to zero and obtain thus a one-dimensional field-effect-transistor-type structure. This transistor exhibits a pure lateral field effect and is thus topologically very different to current transistor concepts. Due to its particular geometry it is called in-plane-gate (IPG) transistor, since the gate and the channel are in the same plane. The fabrication of this type of transistor is thus completely maskless and does not require any alignment procedures since gate, source and drain are all written in the same writing process. Due to the computer-control of the beam deflection even more complex structures are just a question of software and do not need a set of specific masks or photoresist like in the classical lithography. The required line ion dose is of the order of 10 6 cm -1 which means that there are about 100 ions per μm implanted. For devices with maximum micron dimensions only a few hundred ions need thus to be implanted. (orig.)

  3. Cell micro-patterning by atom beam exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taiji; Kajita, Fumiaki; Sato, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Koshi; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new cell micro-patterning method by controlling material surface affinity of the cell using atomic oxygen beam exposure. Surfaces of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene (FEP) were exposed to the atomic oxygen beam. On the LDPE surface, the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) did not change much, however, the oxygen concentration on the surface measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) significantly increased that resulted in increase in wettability. Contrary to this, on the FEP surface, the oxygen concentration showed no significant change, but roughness of the surface remarkably increased and the wettability decreased. As a result of the surface modification, affinity of the osteoblastic cells on the FEP surface increased, which was also confirmed by increase in the cell area. Finally, cell micro-patterning on the FEP surface was carried out based on difference in the affinity between modified and unmodified surfaces patterned by masking method. (author)

  4. Development of atomic beam probe for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Széchenyi István University, EURATOM Association, Győr (Hungary); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Havlícek, J.; Háček, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ABP is newly developed diagnostic. • Unique measurement method for the determination of plasma edge current variations caused by different transient events such as ELMs. • The design process has been fruitfully supported by the physically motivated computer simulations. • Li-BES system has been modified accordingly to the needs of the ABP. -- Abstract: The concept and development of a new detection method for light alkali ions stemming from diagnostic beams installed on medium size tokamak is described. The method allows us the simultaneous measurement of plasma density fluctuations and fast variations in poloidal magnetic field, therefore one can infer the fast changes in edge plasma current. The concept has been worked out and the whole design process has been done at Wigner RCP. The test detector with appropriate mechanics and electronics is already installed on COMPASS tokamak. General ion trajectory calculation code (ABPIons) has also been developed. Detailed calculations show the possibility of reconstruction of edge plasma current density profile changes with high temporal resolution, and the possibility of density profile reconstruction with better spatial resolution compared to standard Li-BES measurement, this is important for pedestal studies.

  5. Development of atomic beam probe for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, M.; Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Havlícek, J.; Háček, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ABP is newly developed diagnostic. • Unique measurement method for the determination of plasma edge current variations caused by different transient events such as ELMs. • The design process has been fruitfully supported by the physically motivated computer simulations. • Li-BES system has been modified accordingly to the needs of the ABP. -- Abstract: The concept and development of a new detection method for light alkali ions stemming from diagnostic beams installed on medium size tokamak is described. The method allows us the simultaneous measurement of plasma density fluctuations and fast variations in poloidal magnetic field, therefore one can infer the fast changes in edge plasma current. The concept has been worked out and the whole design process has been done at Wigner RCP. The test detector with appropriate mechanics and electronics is already installed on COMPASS tokamak. General ion trajectory calculation code (ABPIons) has also been developed. Detailed calculations show the possibility of reconstruction of edge plasma current density profile changes with high temporal resolution, and the possibility of density profile reconstruction with better spatial resolution compared to standard Li-BES measurement, this is important for pedestal studies

  6. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  7. Electron beam producing system for very high acceleration voltages and beam powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Dommaschk, W.; Ott, W.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.

    1975-01-01

    An electron beam producing system for acceleration voltages on the order of megavolts and beam powers on the order of gigawatts is described. A tubular housing of insulating material is used, and adjacent to its one closed end, a field emission cathode with a large surface area is arranged, while at its other end, from which the electron beam emerges, an annular anode is arranged. The device for collimating the electron beam consists of annular electrodes. (auth)

  8. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, Roger.

    1986-01-01

    The nearly endless variety of interesting and challenging problems makes physics research enjoyable. Most of us would choose to be physicists even if physics had no practical applications. However, physics does have practical applications. This workshop deals with one of those applications, namely ion beam fusion. Not all interesting and challenging atomic physics questions are important for ion beam fusion. This paper suggests some questions that may be important for ion beam fusion. It also suggests some criteria for determining if a question is only interesting, or both interesting and important. Importance is time dependent and, because of some restrictions on the flow of information, also country dependent. In the early days of ion beam fusion, it was important to determine if ion beam fusion made sense. Approximate answers and bounds on various parameters were required. Accurate, detailed answers were not needed. Because of the efforts of many people attending this workshop, we now know that ion beam fusion does make some sense. We must still determine if ion beam fusion truly makes good sense. If it does make good sense, we must determine how to make it work. Accurate detailed answers are becoming increasingly important. (author)

  9. Isotope separation by laser deflection of an atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1975-02-01

    Separation of isotopes of barium was accomplished by laser deflection of a single isotopic component of an atomic beam. With a tunable narrow linewidth dye laser, small differences in absorption frequency of different barium isotopes on the 6s 2 1 S 0 --6s6p 1 P 1 5536A resonance were exploited to deflect atoms of a single isotopic component of an atomic beam through an angle large enough to physically separate them from the atomic beam. It is shown that the principal limitation on separation efficiency, the fraction of the desired isotopic component which can be separated, is determined by the branching ratio from the excited state into metastable states. The isotopic purity of the separated atoms was measured to be in excess of 0.9, limited only by instrumental uncertainty. To improve the efficiency of separation, a second dye laser was employed to excite atoms which had decayed to the 6s5d metastable state into the 6p5d 1 P 1 state from which they could decay to the ground state and continue to be deflected on the 5535A transition. With the addition of the second laser, separation efficiency of greater than 83 percent was achieved, limited by metastable state accumulation in the 5d 2 1 D 2 state which is accessible from the 6p5d 1 P 1 level. It was found that the decay rate from the 6p5d state into the 5d 2 metastable state was fully 2/3 the decay rate to the ground state, corresponding to an oscillator strength of 0.58. (U.S.)

  10. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Tunable atom-light beam splitter using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Wen, Rong; Chen, J. F.

    2018-06-01

    With electromagnetically induced transmission (EIT), an optical field can be converted into collective atomic excitation and stored in the atomic medium through switching off the strong-coupling field adiabatically. By varying the power of the coupling pulse, we can control the ratio between the transmitted optical field and the stored atomic mode. We use a cloud of cold 85Rb atoms prepared in magneto-optical trap as the experimental platform. Based on a model of EIT dark-state polariton, we consider the real case where the atomic medium has a finite length. The theoretical calculation gives numerical results that agree well with the experimental data. The results show that the ratio can be changed approximately from 0 to 100%, when the maximum power of the coupling pulse (the pulse length is 100 ns) varies from 0 to 20 mW, in the cold atomic ensemble with an optical depth of 40. This process can be used to achieve an atom-light hybrid beam splitter with tunable splitting ratio and thus find potential application in interferometric measurement and quantum information processing.

  12. Entanglement of atomic beams: Tests of complementarity and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogar, P.; Bergou, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that distinct atomic beams can be entangled when they interact with quantum superpositions of macroscopically separated micromaser fields. Experimentally feasible tests of complementarity are proposed, detecting Ramsey interference (or not) in one and open-quote open-quote Welcher Weg close-quote close-quote information (or not) in the other entangled beam. Available information and fringe contrast can be manipulated using classical and quantum fields. The open-quote open-quote quantum eraser close-quote close-quote is realized in the former case, while it is only a special feature in the latter one. Other applications of entangled atoms are also suggested. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Measurements of atomic transition probabilities in highly ionized atoms by fast ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.; Curtis, L.J.; Lindgaerd, A.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of the beam-foil method by which level lifetimes and transition probabilities can be determined in atoms and ions. Results are presented for systems of particular interest for fusion research, such as the Li, Be, Na, Mg, Cu and Zn isoelectronic sequences. The available experimental material is compared to theoretical transition probabilities. (author)

  14. Optimization of atomic beam sources for polarization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Martin; Nass, Alexander; Stroeher, Hans [IKP, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For experiments with spinpolarized protons and neutrons a dense target is required. In current atomic beam sources an atomic hydrogen or deuterium beam is expanded through a cold nozzle and a system of sextupole magnets and RF-transition units selects a certain hyperfine state. The achievable flux seems to be limited to about 10{sup 17} particles per second with a high nuclear polarization. A lot of experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken to understand all effects and to increase the flux. However, improvements have remained marginal. Now, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the DSMC part of the open source C++ library OpenFOAM is set up in order to get a better understanding of the flow and to optimize the various elements. The goal is to include important effects like deflection from a magnetic field, recombination on the walls and spin exchange collisions in the simulation and make quantitative predictions of changes in the experimental setup. The goal is to get a tool that helps to further increase the output of an atomic beam source.

  15. Atomic size effect on the formation of ionized cluster beam epitaxy in Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh Horngming; Averback, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ionized cluster beam deposition is studied by molecular dynamics simulations in which the atomic size of incident cluster atoms is different from the size of substrate atoms. Lennard-Jones interatomic potentials are used for the two-component system. The results provide the morphologies of the overlayers for various atomic sizes and are compared to simulation results of molecular beam epitaxy. (orig.)

  16. Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru [Moscow State University of Technology ' Stankin,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

  17. Modeling nitrogen plasmas produced by intense electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P. F. [Independent contractors for NRL through Engility, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    A new gas–chemistry model is presented to treat the breakdown of a nitrogen gas with pressures on the order of 1 Torr from intense electron beams with current densities on the order of 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and pulse durations on the order of 100 ns. For these parameter regimes, the gas transitions from a weakly ionized molecular state to a strongly ionized atomic state on the time scale of the beam pulse. The model is coupled to a 0D–circuit model using the rigid–beam approximation that can be driven by specifying the time and spatial profiles of the beam pulse. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the line–integrated electron density from experiments done using the Gamble II generator at the Naval Research Laboratory. It is found that the species are mostly in the ground and metastable states during the atomic phase, but that ionization proceeds predominantly through thermal ionization of optically allowed states with excitation energies close to the ionization limit.

  18. Structured mirror array for two-dimensional collimation of a chromium beam in atom lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wan-Jing; Ma Yan; Li Tong-Bao; Zhang Ping-Ping; Deng Xiao; Chen Sheng; Xiao Sheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Direct-write atom lithography, one of the potential nanofabrication techniques, is restricted by some difficulties in producing optical masks for the deposition of complex structures. In order to make further progress, a structured mirror array is developed to transversely collimate the chromium atomic beam in two dimensions. The best collimation is obtained when the laser red detunes by natural line-width of transition 7 S 3 → 7 P 0 4 of the chromium atom. The collimation ratio is 0.45 vertically (in x axis), and it is 0.55 horizontally (in y axis). The theoretical model is also simulated, and success of our structured mirror array is achieved. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Atomic spin resonance in a rubidium beam obliquely incident to a transmission magnetic grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, A; Goto, K

    2016-01-01

    We studied atomic spin resonance induced by atomic motion in a spatially periodic magnetostatic field. A rubidium atomic beam, with a velocity of about 400 m s −1 , was obliquely incident to a transmission magnetic grating that produced a spatially periodic magnetic field. The magnetic grating was formed by a magnetic thin film on a polyimide substrate that had multiple slits at 150 μm intervals. The atoms experienced field oscillation, depending on their velocity and the field period when passing through the grating, and underwent magnetic resonance. Resonance spectra obtained with a perpendicular magnetization film were in clear contrast to ones obtained with an in-plane magnetization film. The former exhibited resonance peaks at odd multiples of the frequency, determined by the velocity over the period, while the latter had dips at the same frequencies. (paper)

  20. Performance predictions of a focused ion beam from a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaf, G. ten; Wouters, S. H. W.; Vredenbregt, E. J. D.; Mutsaers, P. H. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Geer, S. B. van der [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-28

    Focused ion beams are indispensable tools in the semiconductor industry because of their ability to image and modify structures at the nanometer length scale. Here, we report on performance predictions of a new type of focused ion beam based on photo-ionization of a laser cooled and compressed atomic beam. Particle tracing simulations are performed to investigate the effects of disorder-induced heating after ionization in a large electric field. They lead to a constraint on this electric field strength which is used as input for an analytical model which predicts the minimum attainable spot size as a function of, amongst others, the flux density of the atomic beam, the temperature of this beam, and the total current. At low currents (I < 10 pA), the spot size will be limited by a combination of spherical aberration and brightness, while at higher currents, this is a combination of chromatic aberration and brightness. It is expected that a nanometer size spot is possible at a current of 1 pA. The analytical model was verified with particle tracing simulations of a complete focused ion beam setup. A genetic algorithm was used to find the optimum acceleration electric field as a function of the current. At low currents, the result agrees well with the analytical model, while at higher currents, the spot sizes found are even lower due to effects that are not taken into account in the analytical model.

  1. Atomic physics measurements in an electron Beam Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bennett, C.

    1989-01-01

    An electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged ions (q ≤ 70/+/) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of transition energies and electron excitation cross sections for x-ray line emission are summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs

  2. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  3. Diffuse ions produced by electromagnetic ion beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of the electromagnetic ions beam instability driven by the reflected ion component backstreaming away from the earth's how shock into the foreshock region is studied by means computer simulation. The linear the quasi-linear states of the instability are found to be in good agreement with known results for the resonant model propagating parallel to the beam along the magnetic field and with theory developed in this paper for the nonresonant mode, which propagates antiparallel to the beam direction. The quasi-linear stage, which produces large amplitude 8Bapprox.B, sinusoidal transverse waves and ''intermediate'' ion distribution, is terminated by a nonlinear phase in which strongly nonlinear, compressive waves and ''diffuse'' ion distributions are produced. Additional processes by which the diffuse ions are accelerated to observed high energies are not addressed. The results are discussed in terms of the ion distributions and hydromagnetic waves observed in the foreshock of the earth's bow shock and of interplanetary shocks

  4. High-flux cold rubidium atomic beam for strongly-coupled cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Basudev [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (India); University of Maryland, MD (United States); Scholten, Michael [University of Maryland, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents a setup capable of producing a high-flux continuous beam of cold rubidium atoms for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the region of strong coupling. A 2D{sup +} magneto-optical trap (MOT), loaded with rubidium getters in a dry-film-coated vapor cell, fed a secondary moving-molasses MOT (MM-MOT) at a rate greater than 2 x 10{sup 10} atoms/s. The MM-MOT provided a continuous beam with a tunable velocity. This beam was then directed through the waist of a cavity with a length of 280 μm, resulting in a vacuum Rabi splitting of more than ±10 MHz. The presence of a sufficient number of atoms in the cavity mode also enabled splitting in the polarization perpendicular to the input. The cavity was in the strong coupling region, with an atom-photon dipole coupling coefficient g of 7 MHz, a cavity mode decay rate κ of 3 MHz, and a spontaneous emission decay rate γ of 6 MHz.

  5. Reactions of carbon atoms in pulsed molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisler, H. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program consists of a broad scope of experiments designed to unravel the chemistry of atomic carbon in its two spin states, P and D, by using well-controlled initial conditions and state-resolved detection of products. Prerequisite to the proposed studies (and the reason why so little is known about carbon atom reactions), is the development of clean sources of carbon atoms. Therefore, in parallel with the studies of its chemistry and reaction dynamics, the authors continuously explore new, state-specific and efficient ways of producing atomic carbon. In the current program, C({sup 3}P) is produced via laser ablation of graphite, and three areas of study are being pursued: (i) exothermic reactions with small inorganic molecules (e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}) that can proceed via multiple pathways; (ii) the influence of vibrational and translational energy on endothermic reactions involving H-containing reactants that yield CH products (e.g., H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}CO); (iii) reactions of C({sup 3}P) with free radicals (e.g., HCO, CH{sub 3}O). In addition, the authors plan to develop a source of C({sup 1}D) atoms by exploiting the pyrolysis of diazotetrazole and its salts in the ablation source. Another important goal involves collaboration with theoreticians in order to obtain relevant potential energy surfaces, rationalize the experimental results and predict the roles of translational and vibrational energies.

  6. Techniques to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu Constantin; Lettry, Jacques; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    The production and acceleration of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) continues the long line of nuclear investigations started in the XIXth century by Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford. The contemporary applications of the RIBs span a wide range of physics fields: nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. ISOLDE is a world-leading Isotope mass-Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility hosted at CERN in Geneva for more than 40 years, offering the largest variety of radioactive ion beams with, until now, more than 1000 isotopes of more than 72 elements (with Z ranging from 2 to 88), with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions/s. The post acceleration of the full variety of beams allows reaching final energies between 0.8 and 3.0 MeV/u. This thesis describes the development of a new series of FEBIAD (“Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge”) ion sources at CERN-ISOLDE. The VADIS (“Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source�...

  7. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Golkovski, M. G., E-mail: golkoski@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Akademika Lavrentiev Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Glukhov, I. A., E-mail: gia@ispms.tsc.ru; Eroshenko, A. Yu., E-mail: eroshenko@ispms.tsc.ru; Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bataev, V. A., E-mail: bataev@vadm.ustu.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  8. Electron-Beam Produced Air Plasma: Optical and Electrical Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Robert; Stalder, Kenneth; Seeley, Megan

    2006-10-01

    High energy electron impact excitation is used to stimulate optical emissions that quantify the measurement of electron beam current. A 100 keV 10-ma electron beam source is used to produce air plasma in a test cell at a pressure between 1 mTorr and 760 Torr. Optical emissions originating from the N2 2^nd positive line at 337.1 nm and the N2^+ 1^st negative line at 391.4 nm are observed. Details on calibration using signals from an isolated transmission window and a Faraday plate are discussed. Results using this technique and other electrical signal are presented.

  9. Discrete Energies of a Weakly Outcoupled Atom Laser Beam Outside the Bose–Einstein Condensate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budi Prayitno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a discrete set of energies of a weakly outcoupled atom laser beam to the homogeneous Schrödinger equation with anisotropic harmonic trap in Cartesian coordinates outside the Bose–Einstein condensate region. This treatment is used because working in the cylindrical coordinates is not really possible, even though we implement the cigar-shaped trap case. The Schrödinger equation appears to replace a set of two-coupled Gross– Pitaevskii equations by enabling the weak-coupling assumption. This atom laser can be produced in a simple way that only involves extracting the atoms in a condensate from by using the radio frequency field. We initially present the relation between condensates as sources and atom laser as an output by exploring the previous work of Riou et al. in the case of theoretical work for the propagation of atom laser beams. We also show that even though the discrete energies are obtained by means of an approaching harmonic oscillator, degeneracy is only available in two states because of the anisotropic external potential

  10. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  11. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Thomas J T; Morgado, Richard E; Wang, Tai-Sen F; Vodolaga, B; Terekhin, V; Onischenko, L M; Vorozhtsov, S B; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, A S; Alenitsky, Yu G; Perpelkin, E E; Glazov, A A; Novikov, D L; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Vostrikov, V; Mashinin, V A; Fedotov, S N; Minayev, S A

    2010-10-01

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  12. Procedure for 40K isotope separation from beam of potassium atoms using optical orientation of atoms and radio-frequency excitation of target isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Velichko, A.M.; Vnukov, A.V.; Mal'tsev, K.K.; Nabiev, Sh.Sh.

    1999-01-01

    The procedure for potassium isotope separation, which is liable to reduce of the prise of the product as compared with the up-to-date prise of the 40 K isotope obtained by means of electromagnetic procedure for isotope separation, is proposed. The scheme assumes the increasing flow of the wanted isotope at the sacrifice of the increasing intensity of atomic beam and the increase of the selectivity of need isotope atoms at the sacrifice of the the reduction in the square of collector profile. The objective is achieved that provide of polarized state of the potassium atoms is produced by optic orientation with circular-polarized light [ru

  13. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  14. Beam diagnostics using transition radiation produced by a 100 Mev electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonka, M.; Leroy, J.; Hanus, X.; Derost, J.C.; Wartski, L.

    1991-01-01

    We report on several experiments using the optical transition radiation (OTR) produced by a 100 MeV electron beam. In using a sensitive video camera coupled with a digital image processing system an accurate and simple beam profile monitor has been devised. In measuring with a photo-multiplier the radiation emitted in a small solid angle around the direction of the OTR emission, a signal very sensitive to beam energy variations has been obtained. These experiments have been carried out on the Saclay ALS linac

  15. High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high intensity (10 19 O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10 22 O-atoms/cm 2 in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO 2 laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O 2 mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm 2 have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H 2 O, NO, CO 2 ). Teflon reacts with ∼0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs

  16. Two-step resonance ionization spectroscopy of Na atomic beam using cw and pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragawa, H.; Minowa, T.; Shimazu, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two-step photoionization of sodium atomic beam has been carried out using a cw and a pulsed dye lasers. Sodium ions have been detected by a time of flight method in order to reduce background noise. With a proper power of the pulsed dye laser the sodium atomic beam has been irradiated by a resonant cw dye laser. The density of the sodium atomic beam is estimated to be 10 3 cm -3 at the ionization area. (author)

  17. Ion-Ion Plasmas Produced by Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, R. F.; Leonhardt, D.; Walton, S. G.; Meger, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The ability of plasmas to etch deep, small-scale features in materials is limited by localized charging of the features. The features charge because of the difference in electron and ion anisotropy, and thus one solution now being explored is to use ion-ion plasmas in place of electron-ion plasmas. Ion-ion plasmas are effectively electron-free and consist mainly of positive and negative ions. Since the two ion species behave similarly, localized charging is largely eliminated. However, the only way to produce ion-ion plasmas at low gas pressure is to convert electrons into negative ions through two-body attachment to neutrals. While the electron attachment rate is large at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 eV) in many of the halogen gases used for processing, these temperatures occur in most reactors only during the afterglow when the heating fields are turned off and the plasma is decaying. By contrast, Te is low nearly all the time in plasmas produced by electron beams, and therefore electron beams can potentially produce ion-ion plasmas continuously. The theory of ion-ion plasmas formed by pulsed electron beams is examined in this talk and compared with experimental results presented elsewhere [1]. Some general limitations of ion-ion plasmas, including relatively low flux levels, are discussed as well. [1] See the presentation by D. Leonhardt et al. at this conference.

  18. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  19. Design and performance of a high intensity copper atom beam source nozzle for use in inelastic atom--atom collision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santavicca, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The research was aimed at developing a neutral copper atom beam source which could be used to study the collision cross sections for electronic excitation of neutral copper atoms in collision with neutral argon atoms. Of particular interest is the excitation from the ground state to the two upper laser levels at 3.80 and 3.82 electron volts

  20. Coherent and non coherent atom optics experiment with an ultra-narrow beam of metastable rare gas atoms; Experiences d'optique atomique coherente ou non avec un jet superfin d'atomes metastables de gaz rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grucker, J

    2007-12-15

    In this thesis, we present a new type of atomic source: an ultra-narrow beam of metastable atoms produced by resonant metastability exchange inside a supersonic beam of rare gas atoms. We used the coherence properties of this beam to observe the diffraction of metastable helium, argon and neon atoms by a nano-transmission grating and by micro-reflection-gratings. Then, we evidenced transitions between Zeeman sublevels of neon metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} state due to the quadrupolar part of Van der Waals potential. After we showed experimental proofs of the observation of this phenomenon, we calculated the transition probabilities in the Landau - Zener model. We discussed the interest of Van der Waals - Zeeman transitions for atom interferometry. Last, we described the Zeeman cooling of the supersonic metastable argon beam ({sup 3}P{sub 2}). We have succeeded in slowing down atoms to speeds below 100 m/s. We gave experimental details and showed the first time-of-flight measurements of slowed atoms.

  1. Versatile user-oriented atomic and molecular beam apparatus for use with the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.A.; Grover, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    A proposed atomic and moleuclar beam apparatus is described for photon interaction studies using the National Sychrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This apparatus will employ ultrahigh vacuum techniques compatible with storage ring operation. Supersonic nozzle sources will be used to produce the beams and signal detection will be accomplished using a quadrupole mass analysis system. The equipment is intended for use both by in-house and outside users and primary consideration has been given to flexibility of design. The application of photoionization techniques to the study of crossed beam reactive scattering with particular emphasis on internal energy distribution analysis is discussed

  2. Chemical states of localized Fe atoms in ethylene matrices using in-beam Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y., E-mail: kyoshio@pc.uec.ac.jp [University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Yamada, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Tanigawa, S. [University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Mihara, M. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Kubo, M. K. [International Christian University, Division of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Sato, W. [Kanazawa University, Institute of Science and Engineering (Japan); Miyazaki, J. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Japan); Nagatomo, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Sato, Y.; Natori, D.; Suzuki, M. [University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Kobayashi, J. [International Christian University, Division of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Science (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The reaction products of isolated single iron atoms in a low concentration matrix of ethylene were studied using in-beam Mössbauer spectroscopy with a short-lived {sup 57}Mn (T{sub 1/2}=1.45 m) beam. The in-beam Mössbauer spectrum of {sup 57}Fe arising from {sup 57}Mn in a matrix of ethylene and argon measured at 16 K was analyzed with four components. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to confirm the assignments. It was suggested that the reaction produced monoiron species of Fe(C {sub 2}H{sub 4}) with a spin state of S = 2.

  3. Manipulation and analysis of atomic and molecular beams using transmission gratings and Fresnel zone plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisenti, R.E.

    2000-06-01

    In this thesis experimental results on the diffraction of rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr) and molecular (D{sub 2}) beams by a 100 nm period transmission grating and on the focusing of a helium atom beam through a Fresnel zone plate have been reported. (orig.)

  4. Development of atomic-beam resonance method to measure the nuclear moments of unstable nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, T., E-mail: sugimoto@ribf.riken.jp [SPring-8 (Japan); Asahi, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Kawamura, H.; Murata, J. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nagae, D.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Ueno, H.; Yoshimi, A. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    We have been working on the development of a new technique of atomic-beam resonance method to measure the nuclear moments of unstable nuclei. In the present study, an ion-guiding system to be used as an atomic-beam source have been developed.

  5. The effect of atoms excited by electron beam on metal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Guo Feng; Ying Chun Tong

    2002-01-01

    In atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), the metal is heated to melt by electron beams. The vapor atoms may be excited by electrons when flying through the electron beam. The excited atoms may be deexcited by inelastic collision during expansion. The electronic energy transfers translational energy. In order to analyse the effect of reaction between atoms and electron beams on vapor physical parameters, such as density, velocity and temperature, direct-simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) is used to simulate the 2-D gadolinium evaporation from long and narrow crucible. The simulation results show that the velocity and temperature of vapor increase, and the density decreases

  6. Polarization-dependent spectra in the photoassociative ionization of cold atoms in a bright sodium beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jaime; DeGraffenreid, William; Weiner, John

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of cold photoassociative ionization (PAI) spectra obtained from collisions within a slow, bright Na atomic beam. A high-brightness atom flux, obtained by optical cooling and focusing of the atom beam, permits a high degree of alignment and orientation of binary collisions with respect to the laboratory atom-beam axis. The results reveal features of PAI spectra not accessible in conventional magneto-optical trap studies. We take advantage of this high degree of alignment to selectively excite autoionizing doubly excited states of specific symmetry

  7. Development of indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer for producing metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.K.; Qasim, A.M.; Ahmed, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas atomization is one of the methods for production of clean metal powders at relatively moderate cost. A laboratory scale gas atomizer was designed and fabricated indigenously to produce metal powders with a batch capacity of 500 g of copper (Cu). The design includes several features regarding fabrication and operation to provide optimum conditions for atomization. The inner diameter of atomizing chamber is 440 mm and its height is 1200 mm. The atomizing nozzle is of annular confined convergent type with an angle of 25 degree. Argon gas at desired pressure has been used for atomizing the metals to produce relatively clean powders. A provision has also been made to view the atomization process. The indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer was used to produce tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) powders with different atomizing gas pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. The particle size of different powders produced ranges from 40 to 400 im. (author)

  8. Electron-Beam Produced Air Plasma: Optical Measurement of Beam Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Robert; Stalder, Kenneth; Seeley, Megan

    2006-10-01

    Experiments to quantify the electron beam current and distribution of beam current in air plasma are discussed. The air plasma is produced by a 100-keV 10-mA electron beam source that traverses a transmission window into a chamber with air as a target gas. Air pressure is between 1 mTorr and 760 Torr. Strong optical emissions due to electron impact ionization are observed for the N2 2^nd positive line at 337.1 nm and the N2^+ 1^st negative line at 391.4 nm. Calibration of optical emissions using signals from the isolated transmission window and a Faraday plate are discussed. The calibrated optical system is then used to quantify the electron distribution in the air plasma.

  9. Two-stage crossed beam cooling with ⁶Li and ¹³³Cs atoms in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Yao, Hepeng; Wang, Lu; Li, Chen; Yang, Shifeng; Chen, Xuzong; Ma, Zhaoyuan

    2015-05-04

    Applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method developed for ultracold Bose-Fermi mixture gases research, we study the sympathetic cooling process of 6Li and 133Cs atoms in a crossed optical dipole trap. The obstacles to producing 6Li Fermi degenerate gas via direct sympathetic cooling with 133Cs are also analyzed, by which we find that the side-effect of the gravity is one of the main obstacles. Based on the dynamic nature of 6Li and 133Cs atoms, we suggest a two-stage cooling process with two pairs of crossed beams in microgravity environment. According to our simulations, the temperature of 6Li atoms can be cooled to T = 29.5 pK and T/TF = 0.59 with several thousand atoms, which propose a novel way to get ultracold fermion atoms with quantum degeneracy near pico-Kelvin.

  10. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  11. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  12. Process to produce excited states of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.; Morita, R.

    The claims of a patented process which relates to the production of excited states of atomic nuclei are outlined. Among these are (1) production of nuclear excited states by bombarding the atoms with x rays or electrons under given conditions, (2) production of radioactive substances by nuclear excitation with x rays or electrons, (3) separation of specific isotopes from a mixture of isotopes of the same element by means of nuclear excitation followed by chemical treatment. The invention allows production of excited states of atomic nuclei in a relatively simple manner without the need of large apparatus and equipment

  13. Polarization of photoelectrons produced from atoms by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Lu, D.C.; Huang, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    The polarization of photoelectrons from stoms has proved to be an important tool for studying correlation effects in atoms, as well as relativistic effects such as the spin-orbit interaction. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies have been made of the Fano effect, which is the production of polarized electrons by photoionization of unpolarized atoms by circularly polarized light. The experiments have dealt mostly with alkali atoms and with photon energies slightly above the ionization thresholds. Measurements that could be made to utilize polarized radiation are discussed

  14. Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516

  15. Atomic fusion, Gerrard atomic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerrard, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    In the approach to atomic fusion described here the heat produced in a fusion reaction, which is induced in a chamber by the interaction of laser beams and U.H.F. electromagnetic beams with atom streams, is transferred to a heat exchanger for electricity generation by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. (U.K.)

  16. Second CERN group produces cold atoms of antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Goss, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    A new experiment, by CERN's ATRAP collaboration, which introduced a technique for determining the quantum state in which antihydrogen atoms are formed was discussed. To make antihydrogen, antiprotons were taken from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, further slowed down, and trapped with a configuration of electric fields. The evidence gathered confirmed that the H over bar atoms formed in the experiment occupy highly excited Rydberg states. (Edited abstract) 5 Refs.

  17. Process for producing a coating composition. [electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T; Harada, H; Kobayashi, S; Nakamoto, H; Sunano, K

    1968-07-19

    An easily hardenable acrylic coating composition is produced by irradiation with low energy electron beams to economize the industrial application of the composition. A polymer with molecular weights in the 5,000 to 500,000 range is composed of 1 to 40% by weight of a vinyl monomer containing a glycidyl radical, 30 to 99% of a methacrylic monomer and 0 to 69% of other copolymerizable vinyl monomers. This polymer dissolves in a monomer containing at least 30% of an acrylic monomer and 70% of other vinyl monomers. The reaction takes place between 0.1 to 1.0 mole of vinyl monomer containing a carboxyl radical and one mole of glycidyl radical in the solution. In an embodiment, 17.5% by weight of glycidyl methacrylate and 82.5% of alkyl acrylate are polymerized in suspension in the presence of a catalyst to form a bead like polymer with molecular weights in the 5,000 to 500,000 range. After 120 parts of the bead like polymer are dissolved in 180 parts of the acrylic monomer in the presence of a polymerization inhibitor by heating, 22 parts of ..cap alpha.., ..beta..- unsaturated monocarboxylic acid are added to the solution to react with the glycidyl radical, whereby a non-solvent type coating material containing the polymer having a vinyl radical side chain is produced. In the place of the catalyst, electron beams can be used at an energy level of 0.1 to 20 MeV. The dose rate may be in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 Mrad/sec.

  18. Development of a positronium atom diagnostic beam to study transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surko, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Anomalous transport is probably the key physics issue in magnetic confinement fusion. It severely limits our ability to create and maintain a dense, hot, fusion plasma. There is also good evidence that there is a fundamental lack of understanding in this area, namely the transport of particles and energy induced by waves and fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas. The positronium atom beam diagnostic, if successful, can provide a qualitatively new and different way of studying transport in tokamak fusion plasmas. The use of the positron as a thermalized, electron-mass test particle will allow important new tests of current theories of plasma transport. In particular, it could provide unique insights into the potential role of magnetic fluctuations in producing anomalous transport. This is particularly significant in that, at present, there is essentially no in situ probe of these fluctuations or the transport which they produce. Some results of this study are summarized

  19. l- and n-changing collisions during interaction of a pulsed beam of Li Rydberg atoms with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, B.; Harnafi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The pulsed Li atomic beam produced in our experiment is based on controlled transversely-excited-atmospheric CO2 laser-induced ablation of a Li metal target. The atomic beam is propagated in vacuum or in CO2 gas at low pressure. Atoms in the beam are probed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. This allows the determination of time-of-flight and velocity distributions. Li Rydberg states (n=5-13) are populated in the beam by two-step pulsed-laser excitation. The excited atoms interact with CO2 molecules. l- and n-changing cross sections are deduced from the time evolution of the resonant or collision-induced fluorescence following this selective excitation. l-changing cross sections of the order of 104 AṦ are measured; they increase with n as opposed to the plateau observed for Li* colliding with a diatomic molecule. This behavior is qualitatively well explained in the framework of the free-electron model. n-->n' changing processes with large cross sections (10-100 AṦ) are also observed even in the case of large electronic energy change (ΔEnn'>103 cm-1). These results can be interpreted in terms of resonant-electronic to vibrational energy transfers between Li Rydberg states and CO2 vibrational modes.

  20. Collisional effects on metastable atom population in vapour generated by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikshit, B; Majumder, A; Bhatia, M S; Mago, V K

    2008-01-01

    The metastable atom population distribution in a free expanding uranium vapour generated by electron beam (e-beam) heating is expected to depart from its original value near the source due to atom-atom collisions and interaction with electrons of the e-beam generated plasma co-expanding with the vapour. To investigate the dynamics of the electron-atom and atom-atom interactions at different e-beam powers (or source temperatures), probing of the atomic population in ground (0 cm -1 ) and 620 cm -1 metastable states of uranium was carried out by the absorption technique using a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The excitation temperature of vapour at a distance ∼30 cm from the source was calculated on the basis of the measured ratio of populations in 620 to 0 cm -1 states and it was found to be much lower than both the source temperature and estimated translational temperature of the vapour that is cooled by adiabatic free expansion. This indicated relaxation of the metastable atoms by collisions with low energy plasma electrons was so significant that it brings the excitation temperature below the translational temperature of the vapour. So, with increase in e-beam power and hence atom density, frequent atom-atom collisions are expected to establish equilibrium between the excitation and translational temperatures, resulting in an increase in the excitation temperature (i.e. heating of vapour). This has been confirmed by analysing the experimentally observed growth pattern of the curve for excitation temperature with e-beam power. From the observed excitation temperature at low e-beam power when atom-atom collisions can be neglected, the total de-excitation cross section for relaxation of the 620 cm -1 state by interaction with low energy electrons was estimated and was found to be ∼10 -14 cm 2 . Finally using this value of cross section, the extent of excitational cooling and heating by electron-atom and atom-atom collisions are described at higher e-beam powers

  1. Development of francium atomic beam for the search of the electron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Tomoya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using Fr atoms, a Fr ion-atom conversion is one of the most critical process. An ion-atom converter based on the “orthotropic” type of Fr source has been developed. This converter is able to convert a few keV Fr ion beam to a thermal atomic beam using a cycle of the surface ionization and neutralization. In this article, the development of the converter is reported.

  2. Optimization of a constrained linear monochromator design for neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A focused ground state, neutral atom beam, exploiting its de Broglie wavelength by means of atom optics, is used for neutral atom microscopy imaging. Employing Fresnel zone plates as a lens for these beams is a well established microscopy technique. To date, even for favorable beam source conditions a minimal focus spot size of slightly below 1 μm was reached. This limitation is essentially given by the intrinsic spectral purity of the beam in combination with the chromatic aberration of the diffraction based zone plate. Therefore, it is important to enhance the monochromaticity of the beam, enabling a higher spatial resolution, preferably below 100 nm. We propose to increase the monochromaticity of a neutral atom beam by means of a so-called linear monochromator set-up – a Fresnel zone plate in combination with a pinhole aperture – in order to gain more than one order of magnitude in spatial resolution. This configuration is known in X-ray microscopy and has proven to be useful, but has not been applied to neutral atom beams. The main result of this work is optimal design parameters based on models for this linear monochromator set-up followed by a second zone plate for focusing. The optimization was performed for minimizing the focal spot size and maximizing the centre line intensity at the detector position for an atom beam simultaneously. The results presented in this work are for, but not limited to, a neutral helium atom beam. - Highlights: • The presented results are essential for optimal operation conditions of a neutral atom microscope set-up. • The key parameters for the experimental arrangement of a neutral microscopy set-up are identified and their interplay is quantified. • Insights in the multidimensional problem provide deep and crucial understanding for pushing beyond the apparent focus limitations. • This work points out the trade-offs for high intensity and high spatial resolution indicating several use cases.

  3. Optimization of a constrained linear monochromator design for neutral atom beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas

    2016-04-15

    A focused ground state, neutral atom beam, exploiting its de Broglie wavelength by means of atom optics, is used for neutral atom microscopy imaging. Employing Fresnel zone plates as a lens for these beams is a well established microscopy technique. To date, even for favorable beam source conditions a minimal focus spot size of slightly below 1 μm was reached. This limitation is essentially given by the intrinsic spectral purity of the beam in combination with the chromatic aberration of the diffraction based zone plate. Therefore, it is important to enhance the monochromaticity of the beam, enabling a higher spatial resolution, preferably below 100 nm. We propose to increase the monochromaticity of a neutral atom beam by means of a so-called linear monochromator set-up – a Fresnel zone plate in combination with a pinhole aperture – in order to gain more than one order of magnitude in spatial resolution. This configuration is known in X-ray microscopy and has proven to be useful, but has not been applied to neutral atom beams. The main result of this work is optimal design parameters based on models for this linear monochromator set-up followed by a second zone plate for focusing. The optimization was performed for minimizing the focal spot size and maximizing the centre line intensity at the detector position for an atom beam simultaneously. The results presented in this work are for, but not limited to, a neutral helium atom beam. - Highlights: • The presented results are essential for optimal operation conditions of a neutral atom microscope set-up. • The key parameters for the experimental arrangement of a neutral microscopy set-up are identified and their interplay is quantified. • Insights in the multidimensional problem provide deep and crucial understanding for pushing beyond the apparent focus limitations. • This work points out the trade-offs for high intensity and high spatial resolution indicating several use cases.

  4. Magneto-optical transmission-reflection beam splitter for multi-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.E.; Goodman, P.; Sidorov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    An atomic de Broglie wave beam splitter is proposed. The interaction of multi-level atoms (J g = 1 - J e = 0) with a laser beam in the presence of a static magnetic field leads to the partial transmission and reflection of the atomic beam. The coherent splitting of the atomic beam occurs due to non-adiabatic transitions between different dressed states in the vicinity of avoided crossings. The transition probabilities and populations of split beams are dependent on the value of the magnetic field, laser detuning, and the ratio between different polarization components in the laser beam. For optimal conditions the population of each of the two transmitted and two reflected beams is 25 per cent. For cooled atoms it is possible to obtain splitting angles of 80 mrad. The effect of spontaneous emission during the atom-light interaction was estimated and for a reasonable detuning losses were reduced to less than 10 per cent. 14 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  5. Process for producing a novel copolymer. [electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiwa, M; Matsumoto, A; Tojima, M; Matsumoto, K; Sasaki, H

    1970-11-27

    Diaryl oxalate present in a polymer not only decomposes at lower temperatures, but also provides for stronger free radicals initiating polymerization than diaryl oxalate present in a monomer. A copolymer of vinyl monomers is produced by providing a diaryl oxalate polymer or a diaryl oxalate monomer-co-vinyl monomer, decomposing them to release the diaryl oxalate units by heating or irradiating with radiation thereby copolymerizing the vinyl monomer with the polymer radicals by utilizing the diaryl oxalate unit. For example, a single diaryl oxalate polymer or a copolymer containing the diaryl oxalate polymer as a constituent of the copolymer are irradiated or heated with a vinyl monomer, i.e. methyl methacrylate, acrylnitrile, vinyl acetate, styrene etc., to form a copolymer without difficulty. In one of the examples, 500 g of diaryl oxalate monomer, 1,200 ml of benzene and 0.2 mol/l of benzoil peroxide as an initiator were mixed and polymerized in nitrogen gas at 70/sup 0/C for 8 hrs. From this polymerized solution, a polymer was deposited in methanol. The produced polymer had an iodin value of 77.7 with a yield of 35%. The gel content of the produced polymer was 98.9% for 10 Mrad. This polymer was dissolved in methyl methacrylate, thereafter filled in a mold and irradiated with electron beams of 2 MeV in nitrogen gas to harden it. The advantage of this process is that the polymerization is effected with low energy radiations at room temperature without requiring any catalyst.

  6. A new atomic beam polarized ion source for the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory: overview, operating experience, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Lemieux, S.K.; Sayer, R.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Hooke, W.M.; Howell, C.R.; Lewis, H.W.; Lovette, A.W.; Pfutzner, H.J.; Sweeton, K.A.; Wilburn, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    A newly constructed source of polarized H ± and D ± ions is described. Atomic H or D beams from a dissociator with a cooled nozzle enter a system of two sextupole magnets and several radio-frequency transitions where they are focused and polarized. They enter a downstream electron-cyclotron-resonance-heated plasma ionizer from which positive ions are extracted. When negative ions are desired, they may be produced from the positive beam by charge-exchange in cesium vapor. Emerging beams are intense, have good polarization, low energy spread, and good optical quality. Descriptions are included for all major systems and for diagnostic procedures used to optimize both the intensity and the polarization of the output H ± or D ± beams obtained. Typical operating experience, performance figures, and a description of routine maintenance procedures are given. ((orig.))

  7. Particle beam technology for control of atomic-bonding state in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Junzo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The atomic-bonding state in materials can be controlled through `kinetic bonding` process by energetic particle beams which have a sufficient atomic kinetic energy. In order to clarify the `kinetic bonding` process the negative-ion beam deposition is considered as an ideal method because the negative ion has no additional active energies. Sputter type heavy negative-ion sources can be used for this purpose. Carbon films prepared by carbon negative-ion beam deposition have a strong dependency of the film properties on ion beam kinetic energy and have a quite high thermal conductivity which is comparable to that of the IIb diamond at a kinetic energy of 50-100 eV/atom. It suggests that new or metastable materials could be formed through the `kinetic bonding` process. Negative-ion beams can also be used for ion implantation, in which charging problems are perfectly reduced. (author)

  8. A sextupole-magnet as variable velocity selector for paramagnetic atomic beams in the thermal range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, G.; Ebinghaus, H.; Steffens, E.

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of employing a sextupole-magnet as a velocity selector on account of its velocity dependent focusing properties for paramagnetic atomic beams is investigated. In comparison with a traditional velocity selector with rotating disks, a sextupole-magnet as velocity selector has the advantage of additional focusing and polarizing the atomic beam. Moreover it suppresses polymer molecules without an effective magnetic momentum of the electronic shell

  9. Optimization of a constrained linear monochromator design for neutral atom beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A focused ground state, neutral atom beam, exploiting its de Broglie wavelength by means of atom optics, is used for neutral atom microscopy imaging. Employing Fresnel zone plates as a lens for these beams is a well established microscopy technique. To date, even for favorable beam source conditions a minimal focus spot size of slightly below 1μm was reached. This limitation is essentially given by the intrinsic spectral purity of the beam in combination with the chromatic aberration of the diffraction based zone plate. Therefore, it is important to enhance the monochromaticity of the beam, enabling a higher spatial resolution, preferably below 100nm. We propose to increase the monochromaticity of a neutral atom beam by means of a so-called linear monochromator set-up - a Fresnel zone plate in combination with a pinhole aperture - in order to gain more than one order of magnitude in spatial resolution. This configuration is known in X-ray microscopy and has proven to be useful, but has not been applied to neutral atom beams. The main result of this work is optimal design parameters based on models for this linear monochromator set-up followed by a second zone plate for focusing. The optimization was performed for minimizing the focal spot size and maximizing the centre line intensity at the detector position for an atom beam simultaneously. The results presented in this work are for, but not limited to, a neutral helium atom beam. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New diagnostic technique for Zeeman-compensated atomic beam slowing: technique and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.; Metcalf, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the study of Zeeman-compensated slowing of an alkali atomic beam. Our time-of-flight technique measures the longitudinal veloc- ity distribution of the slowed atoms with a resolution below the Doppler limit of 30 cm/s. Furthermore, it can map

  11. Self-corrected sensors based on atomic absorption spectroscopy for atom flux measurements in molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Y.; Liyu, A. V.; Droubay, T. C.; Chambers, S. A.; Li, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high sensitivity atom flux sensor based on atomic absorption spectroscopy has been designed and implemented to control electron beam evaporators and effusion cells in a molecular beam epitaxy system. Using a high-resolution spectrometer and a two-dimensional charge coupled device detector in a double-beam configuration, we employ either a non-resonant line or a resonant line with low cross section from the same hollow cathode lamp as the reference for nearly perfect background correction and baseline drift removal. This setup also significantly shortens the warm-up time needed compared to other sensor technologies and drastically reduces the noise coming from the surrounding environment. In addition, the high-resolution spectrometer allows the most sensitive resonant line to be isolated and used to provide excellent signal-to-noise ratio

  12. Tunable atomic force microscopy bias lithography on electron beam induced carbonaceous platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kurra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable local electrochemical and physical modifications on the carbonaceous platforms are achieved using Atomic force microscope (AFM bias lithography. These carbonaceous platforms are produced on Si substrate by the technique called electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD. EBICD is composed of functionalized carbon species, confirmed through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. AFM bias lithography in tapping mode with a positive tip bias resulted in the nucleation of attoliter water on the EBICD surface under moderate humidity conditions (45%. While the lithography in the contact mode with a negative tip bias caused the electrochemical modifications such as anodic oxidation and etching of the EBICD under moderate (45% and higher (60% humidity conditions respectively. Finally, reversible charge patterns are created on these EBICD surfaces under low (30% humidity conditions and investigated by means of electrostatic force microscopy (EFM.

  13. Ion-atom charge-transfer system for a heavy-ion-beam pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Kroetz, W.; Wieser, J.; Murnick, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    An Ar target to which Cs vapor could be added, excited by a pulsed beam of 100-MeV 32 S ions, was studied as a prototype ion-atom charge-transfer system for pumping short-wavelength lasers. Low-velocity Ar 2+ ions were efficiently produced; a huge increase in the intensity of the Ar II 4d-4p spectral lines was observed when Cs vapor was added to the argon. This observation is explained by a selective charge transfer of the Cs 6s electron into the upper levels of the observed transitions. A rate constant of (1.4±0.2)x10 -9 cm 3 /s for the transfer process was determined

  14. Chemistry, spectroscopy and isotope separation of zirconium and its compounds as revealed by laser diagnostics of laser produced metal beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.A.; Humphries, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Bourne, O.L.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work from the author's laboratory on zirconium beams is reviewed. Zirconium metal beams have been produced by laser vaporization of solid zirconium targets coupled with supersonic expansion of helium gas. The resultant supersonic metal beam is shown to present an ideal environment for various spectroscopic techniques. The state distribution of zirconium atoms in the beam is obtained from low resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) studies. High resolution LIF studies give information on the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of the zirconium-91 isotope. Information on the hyperfine splitting in the excited state is obtained from quantum beat spectroscopy. Low resolution 2 color multiphoton ionization spectroscopy using a XeCl laser allows isotope separation of all isotopes of zirconium. These metal beams are highly reactive and can be used to produce novel chemical species. The results of two studies in which a reactant is added to the expansion gas are reported here. Zirconium oxide (ZrO), a molecule observed in the emission spectra of cool stars and in laboratory studies at high temperatures, is produced in a low temperature, collision free environment by adding small quantities of oxygen to the expansion gas. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF), a molecule previously unobserved, is produced by the addition of small quantities of CF/sub 4/

  15. Atomic scattering from an adsorbed monolayer solid with a helium beam that penetrates to the substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, L.W.; Dammann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction and one-phonon inelastic scattering of a thermal energy helium atomic beam are evaluated in the situation that the target monolayer lattice is so dilated that the atomic beam penetrates to the interlayer region between the monolayer and the substrate. The scattering is simulated......(1 × 1) commensurate monolayer solid of H2/KCl(001). For the latter, there are cases where part of the incident beam is trapped in the interlayer region for times exceeding 50 ps, depending on the spacing between the monolayer and the substrate and on the angle of incidence. The feedback effect...

  16. Optimization of the performance of rf transitions for the TUNL atomic beam polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosson, E.R.; Clegg, T.B.; Karwowski, H.J.; Lemieux, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    We have utilized the spin-dependence of the cross section for electron impact ionization of H 0 and D 0 atoms in the ionizer of our atomic beam polarized ion source to study the performance of the rf transitions which provide the nuclear polarization of the atomic beam. Switching the rf transitions on and off modulates the output polarized current. This modulation is observed using a lock-in amplifier and provides a fast and reliable method for optimization of transition unit parameters. (orig.)

  17. Polarized electron beams elastically scattered by atoms as a tool for testing fundamental predictions of quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapor, Maurizio

    2018-03-29

    Quantum information theory deals with quantum noise in order to protect physical quantum bits (qubits) from its effects. A single electron is an emblematic example of a qubit, and today it is possible to experimentally produce polarized ensembles of electrons. In this paper, the theory of the polarization of electron beams elastically scattered by atoms is briefly summarized. Then the POLARe program suite, a set of computer programs aimed at the calculation of the spin-polarization parameters of electron beams elastically interacting with atomic targets, is described. Selected results of the program concerning Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms are presented together with the comparison with experimental data about the Sherman function for low kinetic energy of the incident electrons (1.5eV-350eV). It is demonstrated that the quantum-relativistic theory of the polarization of electron beams elastically scattered by atoms is in good agreement with experimental data down to energies smaller than a few eV.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of the Laser Beam Waist on Cold Atom Guiding Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningfang; Hu, Di; Xu, Xiaobin; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiangxiang; Song, Yitong

    2018-02-28

    The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the vertical guiding laser beam waist on cold atom guiding efficiency. In this study, a double magneto-optical trap (MOT) apparatus is used. With an unbalanced force in the horizontal direction, a cold atomic beam is generated by the first MOT. The cold atoms enter the second chamber and are then re-trapped and cooled by the second MOT. By releasing a second atom cloud, the process of transferring the cold atoms from MOT to the dipole trap, which is formed by a red-detuned converged 1064-nm laser, is experimentally demonstrated. And after releasing for 20 ms, the atom cloud is guided to a distance of approximately 3 mm. As indicated by the results, the guiding efficiency depends strongly on the laser beam waist; the efficiency reaches a maximum when the waist radius ( w ₀) of the laser is in the range of 15 to 25 μm, while the initial atom cloud has a radius of 133 μm. Additionally, the properties of the atoms inside the dipole potential trap, such as the distribution profile and lifetime, are deduced from the fluorescence images.

  19. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafalla, D.; Tabares, F.L.; Ortiz, P.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  20. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari [Suntory Flowers Ltd., Higashiomi, Shiga (Japan); Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN, Nishina Center, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2007-03-15

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  1. New cultivar produced by heavy-ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Kenichi; Iwaki, Kazunari; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoriko; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    The RIKEN accelerator research facility (RARF) is the one of the biggest facilities to accelerate heavy ions in all over the world since 1986. We started our trials in plant breeding since 1993. Soon we found that the ion beam is highly effective in the cause of mutagenesis of tobacco embryos during the fertilization without damage to other plant tissue. RIKEN and Suntory Flowers Ltd. have jointly developed some new ornamental varieties of Verbena and Petunia using ion-beam irradiation. We already put 5 new flower cultivars on the market in Japan, USA, Canada and EU since 2002. We report here a new variety of Torenia obtained by ion-beam irradiation. (author)

  2. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at λ ω = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5±3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 ± 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, Λ-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two-color spectroscopy experiment

  3. Efficient sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an indium atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ihn

    2009-07-23

    Laser cooled atomic gases and atomic beams are widely studied samples in experimental research in atomic and optical physics. For the application of ultra cold gases as model systems for e.g. quantum many particle systems, the atomic species is not very important. Thus this field is dominated by alkaline, earthalkaline elements which are easily accessible with conventional laser sources and have convenient closed cooling transition. On the other hand, laser cooled atoms may also be interesting for technological applications, for instance for the creation of novel materials by atomic nanofabrication (ANF). There it will be important to use technologically relevant materials. As an example, using group III atoms of the periodical table in ANF may open a route to generate fully 3D structured composite materials. The minimal requirement in such an ANF experiment is the collimation of an atomic beam which is accessible by one dimensional laser cooling. In this dissertation, I describe transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam. For efficient laser cooling on a cycling transition, I have built a tunable, continuous-wave coherent ultraviolet source at 326 nm based on frequency tripling. For this purpose, two independent high power Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for the generation of the fundamental radiation at {lambda}{sub {omega}} = 977 nm have been constructed. I have observed sub-Doppler transverse laser cooling of an Indium atomic beam on a cycling transition of In by introducing a polarization gradient in the linear-perpendicular-linear configuration. The transverse velocity spread of a laser-cooled In atomic beam at full width at half maximum was achieved to be 13.5{+-}3.8 cm/s yielding a full divergence of only 0.48 {+-} 0.13 mrad. In addition, nonlinear spectroscopy of a 3-level, {lambda}-type level system driven by a pump and a probe beam has been investigated in order to understand the absorption line shapes used as a frequency reference in a previous two

  4. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  5. Expectations for prospective applications of new beam technology to atomic energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, Takio; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Konashi, Kenji; Mizumoti, Motoharu.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the new beam technology based on high energy electron beam, for example free electron laser, low speed positrons and so on, has developed remarkably. Moreover, also in the field of ion beams, toward the utilization of further high level, the plans of using micro-beams, heightening energy, increasing electric current and so on are in progress. In near future, it is expected that the advanced application of such new beam technology expands more and more in the fields of materials, physical properties, isotope separation, biology, medical science, medical treatment and so on. In this report, placing emphasis on the examples of application, the development and application of new beam technology are described. Takasaki ion accelerators for advanced radiation application in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the generation of low speed positrons and the utilization for physical property studies, the annihilation treatment of long life radioactive nuclides, and the generation of free electron laser and its application are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Transverse resonance-radiation pressure on atomic beams and the influence of fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Freeman, R.R.; Ashkin, A.; Pearson, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated that a beam of neutral sodium atoms can be focused to a spot diameter of approx. 50 μ using the transverse dipole resonance-radiation pressure exerted by a 40 mW laser beam. Simple analysis shows that in some cases the spot sizes are limited by the random fluctuations of the spontaneous radiation pressure; with 1 W of laser power, spot sizes less than 10 μ should be attainable. The effects of heating by spontaneous scattering can have important detrimental effects in other applications of resonance - radiation pressure on atoms, such as the slowing or guiding of atoms. Consideration of heating effects is of paramount importance in the design of optical traps for neutral atoms. (KBE)

  7. Antihydrogen atom formation in a CUSP trap towards spin polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, N., E-mail: kuroda@radphys4.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Michishio, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Kim, C. H. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Torii, H. A. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N. [Universita di Brescia and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l' Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Imao, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Nagashima, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Juhasz, B. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik (Austria); and others

    2012-12-15

    The ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. For this purpose, an efficient extraction of a spin polarized antihydrogen beam is essential. In 2010, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. The CUSP trap confines antiprotons and positrons simultaneously with its axially symmetric magnetic field to form antihydrogen atoms. It is expected that antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are defocused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam.

  8. Atomic data for beam-stimulated plasma spectroscopy in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Schlummer, T.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Schultz, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Injection of high energy atoms into a confined plasma volume is an established diagnostic technique in fusion research. This method strongly depends on the quality of atomic data for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS), motional Stark effect (MSE) and beam-emission spectroscopy (BES). We present some examples of atomic data for CXRS and review the current status of collisional data for parabolic states of hydrogen atoms that are used for accurate MSE modeling. It is shown that the collisional data require knowledge of the excitation density matrix including the off-diagonal matrix elements. The new datasets for transitions between parabolic states are used in an extended collisional-radiative model. The ratios between the σ- and π-components and the beam-emission rate coefficients are calculated in a quasi-steady state approximation. Good agreement with the experimental data from JET is found which points out to strong deviations from the statistical distribution for magnetic sublevels

  9. An atomic coilgun: using pulsed magnetic fields to slow a supersonic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narevicius, E; Parthey, C G; Libson, A; Narevicius, J; Chavez, I; Even, U; Raizen, M G

    2007-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel method to slow atoms and molecules with permanent magnetic moments using pulsed magnetic fields. In our experiments, we observe the slowing of a supersonic beam of metastable neon from 461.0 ± 7.7 to 403 ± 16 m s -1 in 18 stages, where the slowed peak is clearly separated from the initial distribution. This method has broad applications as it may easily be generalized, using seeding and entrainment into supersonic beams, to all paramagnetic atoms and molecules

  10. Accelerator-based atomic physics experiments with photon and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerator-based atomic physics experiments at Brookhaven presently use heavy-ion beams from the Dual MP Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility for atomic physics experiments of several types. Work is presently in progress to develop experiments which will use the intense photon beams which will be available in the near future from the ultraviolet (uv) and x-ray rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Plans are described for experiments at the NSLS and an exciting development in instrumentation for heavy-ion experiments is summarized

  11. Working group report on the required atomic database for neutral hydrogen beam penetration in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.; Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the required atomic database for the physical processes involved in the beam attenuation kinetics, when multistep processes are included, i.e., electron and proton impact processes, impurity-ion impact processes, radiative processes, as well as Lorentz field ionization. It also discusses the required accuracies of different parts of the data base in order to achieve the overall accuracy of about 10 percent that is required for the total beam stopping power cross section. 3 refs

  12. X-ray transition yields of low-Z kaonic atoms produced in Kapton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Beer, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CNC, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Berucci, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bombelli, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bragadireanu, A.M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); IFIN-HH, Institutul National pentru Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara Horia Hulubei, Reactorului 30, Magurele (Romania); Cargnelli, M. [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Curceanu, C.; D' Uffizi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Fiorini, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ghio, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma I and Instituto Superiore di Sanita, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Guaraldo, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Hayano, R.S. [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iliescu, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Ishiwatari, T., E-mail: tomoichi.ishiwatari@assoc.oeaw.ac.at [Stefan-Meyer-Institut für subatomare Physik, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Wien (Austria); Iwasaki, M. [RIKEN, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2013-10-23

    The X-ray transition yields of kaonic atoms produced in Kapton polyimide (C{sub 22}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were measured for the first time in the SIDDHARTA experiment. X-ray yields of the kaonic atoms with low atomic numbers (Z=6,7, and 8) and transitions with high principal quantum numbers (n=5–8) were determined. The relative yields of the successive transitions in the same atoms and the yield ratios of carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and carbon-to-oxygen (C:O) for the same transitions were also determined. These X-ray yields provide important information for understanding the capture ratios and cascade mechanisms of kaonic atoms produced in a compound material, such as Kapton.

  13. Heavy-atom neutral beams for tandem-mirror end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Santarius, J.F.; Emmert, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    The advantages of neutral beams with Z greater than or equal to 3 formed from negative ions, accelerated to 0.5 to 1.0 MeV/amu, and neutralized with high efficiency, are investigated for use in tandem mirror reactor end plugs. These beams can produce Q's of 20 to 30, and thus can replace the currently proposed 200 to 500 keV neutral proton beams presently planned for tandem mirror reactors. Thus, these Z greater than or equal to 3 neutral beams increase the potential attractiveness of tandem mirror reactors by offering a substitute for difficult high energy neutral hydrogen end plug beams

  14. Injection locking method for Raman beams in atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Fei; Deng, Jianing; Zeng, Daji; Li, Tong; Sun, Mingli; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method to generate two phase-locked beams with a frequency offset of 6.834 GHz. The output of the master laser is firstly modulated by an electric optical modulator (EOM), and then further injected into an Extended Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL) which is used to filter out the unwanted mode and amplify the laser power. By locking to the first-order lower sideband of the modulated master laser, the average variance of the phase fluctuations is 5.6 x 10-3 rad2 , which implies phase coherence of 99.44% between the master laser and the slave ECDL. The line width of the beat notes is less than 1Hz. For the long term stability, with the delicate design of the electronic controller in ECDL, the phase coherence of the two laser beams can be stabilized over 200 hours without any adjustment. The Raman system is applicable for gravity detection with a preliminary sensitivity Δg/g of 4.5 x 10-7 for interrogation time of 1500 s.

  15. Reaction mechanism of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons by the crossed molecular beams method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, R.J.; Baseman, R.J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y.T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  16. Recent progress in the studies of atomic spectra and transition probabilities by beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, I.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of recent studies of atomic structure (in particular atomic spectra, energy levels and transition probabilities) using fast beams from ion accelerators. Thanks to improved spectral resolution detailed and quite accurate studies of energy levels are now possible, a number of such results will be discussed. The non-autoionizing, multiply excited levels in atoms and ions (including negative ions) are being vigorously investigated at present, some new results will be reported. The accuracy in lifetime determinations continues to improve, and several new ways for reduction of cascading effects have been developed. Some selected examples of recent progress in lifetime measurements are also included. (orig.)

  17. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  18. New diagnostic technique for Zeeman-compensated atomic beam slowing: technique and results

    OpenAIRE

    Molenaar, P.A.; Straten, P. van der; Heideman, H.G.M.; Metcalf, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the study of Zeeman-compensated slowing of an alkali atomic beam. Our time-of-flight technique measures the longitudinal veloc- ity distribution of the slowed atoms with a resolution below the Doppler limit of 30 cm/s. Furthermore, it can map the position and velocity distribution of atoms in either ground hyperfine level inside the solenoid without any devices inside the solenoid. The technique reveals the optical pumping ef- fects, and shows in de...

  19. Nonlinear dynamic response of cantilever beam tip during atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanolithography of copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y-L; Jang, M-J; Wang, C-C; Lin, Y-P; Chen, K-S

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever beam tip during the nanolithography of a copper (Cu) surface using a high-depth feed. The dynamic motion of the tip is modeled using a combined approach based on Newton's law and empirical observations. The cutting force is determined from experimental observations of the piling height on the Cu surface and the rotation angle of the cantilever beam tip. It is found that the piling height increases linearly with the cantilever beam carrier velocity. Furthermore, the cantilever beam tip is found to execute a saw tooth motion. Both this motion and the shear cutting force are nonlinear. The elastic modulus in the y direction is variable. Finally, the velocity of the cantilever beam tip as it traverses the specimen surface has a discrete characteristic rather than a smooth, continuous profile

  20. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O( 3 P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O( 1 D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O( 3 P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively

  1. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  2. Physical principles of the surface plasma method for producing beams of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'chenko, Yu.I.; Dimov, G.I.; Dudnikov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The processes which are important for the production of intense beams of negative ions from surface plasma sources (SPS) are examined. The formation of negative ions when atomic particles interact with a surface is analyzed on the basis of both experimental results obtained when a surface was bombarded with beams and recently developed theoretical considerations of reflection, scattering, and electron exchange. The characteristic features of these processes in SPS, when a surface is bombarded with intense fluxes of plasma particles, are revealed in special experiments. The characteristics of generation and acceleration of the bombarding particles in a gas discharge SPS plasma, the characteristics of transportation of negative ions through the plasma toward the beam forming system, the role of cesium in SPS, and the characteristics of formation of the intense negative ion beams as well as the removal of parasite electrons from the beam

  3. Large-angle adjustable coherent atomic beam splitter by Bragg scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, A.E.A.; Jansen, G.T.; Domen, K.F.E.M.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Using a "monochromatic" (single-axial-velocity) and slow (250 m/s) beam of metastable helium atoms, we realize up to eighth-order Bragg scattering and obtain a splitting angle of 6 mrad at low laser power (3 mW). This corresponds to a truly macroscopic separation of 12 mm on the detector. For

  4. Status of the hydrogen and deuterium atomic beam polarized target for NEPTUN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balandikov, N.I.; Ershov, V.P.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Kulikov, M.V.; Pilipenko, Y.K.; Shutov, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    NEPTUN-NEPTUN-A is a polarized experiment at Accelerating and Storage Complex (UNK, IHEP) with two internal targets. Status of the atomic beam polarized target that is being developed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna is presented. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Laser-induced fluorescence of metal-atom impurities in a neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, C.F.; Pyle, R.V.; Sabetimani, Z.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    The need to limit impurities in fusion devices to low levels is well known. We have investigated, by the technique of laser-induced fluorescence, the concentration of heavy-metal atoms in a neutral beam caused by their evaporation from the hot filaments in a conventional high-current multifilament hydrogen-ion source

  6. Electron capture in slow collisions of multicharged ions with hydrogen atoms using merged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havener, C.C.; Nesnidal, M.P.; Porter, M.R.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute total electron-capture cross-section mesurements are reported for collisions of O 3+ and O 4+ with atomic hydrogen in the energy range 1-1000 eV /amu using merged beams. The data are compared with available coupled-states theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  7. On the theory of diffraction of Maxwellian atomic beams by solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, F.O.

    1976-01-01

    In the context of diffraction of Maxwellian (thermal) atomic beams by solid surfaces, the usual assumption that the angular position of the maximum in a diffracted beam corresponds to the diffraction angle of atoms with the most probable de Broglie wavelength is examined, and compared with other possible criteria and with the correct result. It is concluded that, although this criterion may be the best simple one available, it is certainly bad in some situations; the reasons why, and the conditions under which, it is expected to be good are discussed. Also, it is shown that considerable care must be taken when shapes of diffracted beams and when angular positions of their maxima are calculated, because certain physical effects (which are always present) may change these shapes and positions in unexpected ways. The theory is compared with two sets of relatively modern experimental data, one set for which the fit is good, and another set for which a fit is impossible

  8. Dependence of ion - photon emission characteristics on the concentration of implanted atoms of the bombarding beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belykh, S.F.; Evtukhov, R.N.; Redina, I.V.; Ferleger, V.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experiment, where Dy + beams, its spraying products emitting intensively optical radiation with continuous spectrum (CSR), are used for tantalum surface bombardment, are presented. The given experiment allowed one to separate the scattered particle CSR contribution and was conducted under controlled beam n atom concentration on the target surface. E 0 energy and j 0 dysprosium ion flux density made up respectively 3.5 keV and 3x10 5 Axcm -2 . The obtained result analysis has shown that a notable dependence of spectrum type on n value is detected. Dy scattered atoms to not emit CSR. The main contribution to CSR is made by sprayed particles, containing dysprosium atoms

  9. Nonlinear effects in optical pumping of a cold and slow atomic beam

    KAUST Repository

    Porfido, N.

    2015-10-12

    By photoionizing hyperfine (HF) levels of the Cs state 62P3/2 in a slow and cold atom beam, we find how their population depends on the excitation laser power. The long time (around 180μs) spent by the slow atoms inside the resonant laser beam is large enough to enable exploration of a unique atom-light interaction regime heavily affected by time-dependent optical pumping. We demonstrate that, under such conditions, the onset of nonlinear effects in the population dynamics and optical pumping occurs at excitation laser intensities much smaller than the conventional respective saturation values. The evolution of population within the HF structure is calculated by numerical integration of the multilevel optical Bloch equations. The agreement between numerical results and experiment outcomes is excellent. All main features in the experimental findings are explained by the occurrence of “dark” and “bright” resonances leading to power-dependent branching coefficients.

  10. Economic feasibility of producing inside-out beams from small-diameter logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Patterson; Richard A. Kluender; James E. Granskog

    2002-01-01

    Previous work has shown that it is technically feasible to produce inside-out (ISO) beams by taking small-diameter (5 to 7 in.) logs, slabbing four sides, quartering the cant, and turning the quarters inside out and gluing them together. After drying, the beams were found to be straight, with no cracks, and of equal or better mechanical properties than solid sawn...

  11. Production of rare-earth atomic negative ion beams in a cesium-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, V.T.; Covington, A.M.; Duvvuri, S.S.; Kraus, R.G.; Emmons, E.D.; Kvale, T.J.; Thompson, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The desire to study negative ion structure and negative ion-photon interactions has spurred the development of ion sources for use in research and industry. The many different types of negative ion sources available today differ in their characteristics and abilities to produce anions of various species. Thus the importance of choosing the correct type of negative ion source for a particular research or industrial application is clear. In this study, the results of an investigation on the production of beams composed of negatively-charged rare-earth ions from a cylindrical-cathode-geometry, cesium-sputter-type negative ion source are presented. Beams of atomic anions have been observed for most of the first-row rare-earth elements, with typical currents ranging from hundreds of picoamps to several nanoamps

  12. Post acceleration of a pseudospark-produced electron beam by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, B.N.; Myers, T.J.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a high-brightness electron beam produced by a simple pseudospark device has been reported. Typically, the electron beam has a peak current of up to 1 kA, FWHM pulse duration of 30 ns, and an effective emittance of 4[ 2 > r2 > - 2] 1/2 = 100 mm-mrad. The normalized brightness of the beam is estimated to be on the order of 10 11 A/(m 2 -rad 2 ). This high-brightness beam may be immediately useful for high current accelerators and free-electron lasers if the beam energy can be boosted up. In this paper, the authors present preliminary results of the post acceleration of the electron beam by using an induction linac. The pseudospark device is modified by adding a trigger electrode in the hollow cavity of the cathode so that the generation of the electron beam is synchronized with the induction linac. A simple induction linac system of 25 kV, 1 kA, 50 ns pulse is being constructed. The electron beam, which is born in a low pressure gas, will be accelerated in the same background gas. This gas provides a sufficient ion channel for necessary focusing of this high-current density beam. Preliminary results on the beam current, energy spectrum, and emittance measurements of the post-accelerated beam will be presented

  13. Computer simulation of void formation in residual gas atom free metals by dual beam irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Nishiguchi, R.; La Rubia, T.D. de; Guinan, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent experiments (1), we found that voids nucleate at vacancy clusters which trap gas atoms such as hydrogen and helium in ion- and neutron-irradiated copper. A molecular dynamics computer simulation, which implements an empirical embedded atom method to calculate forces that act on atoms in metals, suggests that a void nucleation occurs in pure copper at six and seven vacancy clusters. The structure of six and seven vacancy clusters in copper fluctuates between a stacking fault tetrahedron and a void. When a hydrogen is trapped at voids of six and seven vacancy, a void can keep their structure for appreciably long time; that is, the void do not relax to a stacking fault tetrahedron and grows to a large void. In order to explore the detailed atomics of void formation, it is emphasized that dual-beam irradiation experiments that utilize beams of gas atoms and self-ions should be carried out with residual gas atom free metal specimens. (author)

  14. A channeling investigation of the interaction between solute atoms and irradiation-produced defects in magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Quenneville, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    The trapping of irradiation-produced defects by solute atoms in Mg crystals was monitored by measuring the displacement of the solute atoms from lattice sites using the backscattering-channeling technique. In Mg-0.2 at.% Ag crystals, irradiation at 30 K with 1 MeVHe + ions resulted in a very large fraction of Ag atoms being displaced from their lattice sites. The Ag atom displacement appeared to be along directions and is attributed to the trapping of migrating Mg interstitial atoms by Ag atoms to form Mg-Ag mixed dumbbells. Recovery of the Ag atom displacements and the irradiation-induced dechanneling increment occurred principally in two stages, 80-160 K (stage III) and 200-280 K (stage IV). Stage III is attributed mainly to some type of interstitial migration and stage IV is attributed to the migration of single vacancies. In contrast to the Mg-Ag results, a very small displaced fraction of Bi atoms occurred in an irradiated Mg-0.08 at.% Bi crystal; hence Mg-Bi mixed dumbbells do not appear to be formed. (author)

  15. Reflex tetrode for producing an efficient unidirectional ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.; Kapetanakos, C.A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Pasour, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A reflex tetrode device for efficiently generating intense, pulsed unidirectional ion beams is disclosed. The device includes two thin, semitransparent anodes spaced from a real cathode which is maintained at ground potential. The first anode is spaced from and faces the real cathode. The second anode is spaced a short distance from the first anode and a virtual cathode is formed beyond the second anode when a sufficiently high electron current flows from the real cathode and through the anodes. The anodes are ring-like or disc-like structures secured to the edges of a support member with their planes perpendicular to the axis of the device between the real and virtual cathodes. The anode structure (i.e., the support member together with the two anodes) is connected to a pulsed high-voltage generator which is operated in positive polarity. Consequently, both anodes are at the same positive potential. The first anode, because of its material, does not readily form an ionic plasma when electrons pass through it, but the second anode does

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional No. 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida do Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: nunoni@itn.pt; Arstila, K. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Battistig, G. [MFA Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bianconi, M. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Dytlewski, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lulli, G. [CNR-IMM-Sezione di Bologna, Via P. Gobetti, 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rauhala, E. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Thompson, M. [Department of MS and E/Bard Hall 328, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  17. Charge-exchange-induced formation of hollow atoms in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F.B. [TU-Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Auguste, T.; D' Oliveira, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique DSM/DRECAM/SPAM, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Andreev, N.E.; Chegotov, M.V.; Veisman, M.E. [High Energy Density Research Centre, Institute of High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-03-14

    For the first time registration of high-resolution soft x-ray emission and atomic data calculations of hollow-atom dielectronic satellite spectra of highly charged nitrogen have been performed. Double-electron charge-exchange processes from excited states are proposed for the formation of autoionizing levels nln'l' in high-intensity laser-produced plasmas, when field-ionized ions penetrate into the residual gas. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment. Plasma spectroscopy with hollow ions is proposed and a temperature diagnostic for laser-produced plasmas in the long-lasting recombining regime is developed. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  18. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-01-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ∼ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi 0.85 Co 0.15 O 2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  19. Self-modulation and anomalous collective scattering of laser produced intense ion beam in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The collective interaction between intense ion beams and plasmas is studied by simulations and experiments, where an intense proton beam produced by a short pulse laser is injected into a pre-ionized gas. It is found that, depending on its current density, collective effects can significantly alter the propagated ion beam and the stopping power. The quantitative agreement that is found between theories and experiments constitutes the first validation of the collective interaction theory. The effects in the interaction between intense ion beams and background gas plasmas are of importance for the design of laser fusion reactors as well as for beam physics. Keywords: Two stream instabilities, Ultra intense short pulse laser, Proton beam, Wake field, Electron plasma wave, Laser plasma interaction, PACS codes: 52.38.Kd, 29.27.Fh, 52.40.Kh, 52.70.Nc

  20. Kinetic theory of beam-induced plasmas generalised to sophisticated atomic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyraud-Cuenca, Nelly

    1987-01-01

    We present an analytic kinetic model available for all particle-beam-induced atomic plasmas, without any restriction on the distribution of electronic levels. The method is an iteration of the already known solution available only for the distribution of atomic levels as in the rare gases. We recall a universal atomic kinetic model which, independently of its applications to the study of efficient laser systems, might be a first step in the analytic investigation of molecular problems. Then, the iteration is systematically applied to all possible atomic structures whose number is increased by the non-local character of inelastic processes. We deduce a general analytic representation of the 'tail' of the electron distribution function as a ratio between non-local source terms and a combination of inelastic cross sections, from which we exhibit a physical interpretation and essential scaling laws. The theory is applied to sodium which is an important element in the research of efficient laser systems. (author)

  1. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S., E-mail: sargis@gist.ac.kr [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M. [Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Berlin 12489 (Germany); Prasad, R. [Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf 40225 (Germany); Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7-1NN (United Kingdom); Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CEA, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, 33405 Talence (France)

    2016-02-15

    The scenario of “electron-capture and -loss” was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities.

  2. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-01-01

    The scenario of “electron-capture and -loss” was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities

  3. Electron, ion and atomic beams interaction with solid high-molecular dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyavskij, V V; Skvortsov, V A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High Energy Density Research Center

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model was constructed and numerical investigation performed of the interaction between intense electron, ion and atomic beams and solid high-molecular dielectrics under various boundary conditions. The model is based on equations of the mechanics of continuum, electrodynamics and kinetics, describing the accumulation and relaxation of space charge and shock-wave processes, as well as the evolution of electric field in the sample. A semi-empirical procedure is proposed for the calculation of energy deposition by electron beam in a target in the presence of a non-uniform electric field. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Constructing oxide interfaces and heterostructures by atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qingyu; Golalikhani, Maryam; Davidson, Bruce A.; Liu, Guozhen; Schlom, D. G.; Qiao, Qiao; Zhu, Yimei; Chandrasena, Ravini U.; Yang, Weibing; Gray, Alexander X.; Arenholz, Elke; Farrar, Andrew K.; Tenne, Dmitri A.; Hu, Minhui; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale engineering of oxide interfaces and heterostructures have led to discoveries of emergent phenomena and new artificial materials. Combining the strengths of reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and pulsed-laser deposition, we show here, with examples of Sr1+xTi1-xO3+delta, Ruddlesden-Popper phase Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 4), and LaAl1+yO3(1+0.5y)/SrTiO3 interfaces, that atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular-beam epitaxy (ALL-Laser MBE) significantly advances the state of the art...

  5. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. On the atomic state densities of plasmas produced by the "torch a injection axiale"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, J.; Vos, H.P.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Timmermans, E.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The atomic state densities of helium and argon plasmas produced by the microwave driven plasma torch called the "torche à injection axiale" are presented. They are obtained by absolute line intensity measurements of the excited states and by applying the ideal gas law to the ground state. It will be

  7. Time-resolved energy spectrum of a pseudospark-produced high-brightness electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Ding, B.N.; Rhee, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pseudospark, a fast low-pressure gas discharge between a hollow cathode and a planar anode, is found to be an interesting high-brightness electron beam source. Typically, all electron beam produced in the pseudospark has the peak current of ∼1 kA, pulse duration of ∼50 ns, and effective emittance of ∼100 mm-mrad. The energy information of this electron beam, however, is least understood due to the difficulty of measuring a high-current-density beam that is partially space-charge neutralized by the background ions produced in the gas. In this paper, an experimental study of the time-resolved energy spectrum is presented. The pseudospark produced electron beam is injected into a vacuum through a small pinhole so that the electrons without background ions follow single particle motion; the beam is sent through a negative biased electrode and the only portion of beam whose energy is greater than the bias voltage can pass through the electrode and the current is measured by a Faraday cup. The Faraday cup signals with various bias voltage are recorded in a digital oscilloscope. The recorded waveforms are then numerically analyzed to construct a time-resolved energy spectrum. Preliminary results are presented

  8. Trapping and accumulation of positrons from a pulsed beam produced by a linear accelerator for gravitational interaction of antimatter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The Gravitational Behaviour of Anti-hydrogen at Rest experiment - GBAR - is designed to perform a direct measurement of the weak equivalence principle on antimatter by measuring the acceleration (g-bar) of anti-hydrogen atoms in free fall. Its originality is to produce H-bar + ions and use sympathetic cooling to achieve μK temperature. H-bar + ions are produced by the reactions: p-bar + Ps → H-bar + e - , and H-bar + Ps → H-bar + + e - , where p-bar is an antiproton, Ps stands for positronium (the bound-state of a positron and an electron), H-bar is the anti-hydrogen and H-bar + the anti-ion associated. To produce enough Ps atoms, 2*10 10 positrons must be impinged on a porous SiO 2 target within 100 ns. Such an intense flux requires the accumulation (collection and cooling) of the positrons in a particle trap. This thesis describes the injector being commissioned at CEA Saclay for GBAR. It consists of a Penning-Malmberg trap (moved from RIKEN) fed by a slow positron beam. A 4.3 MeV linear accelerator shooting electrons on a tungsten target produces the pulsed positron beam, which is moderated by a multi-grid tungsten moderator. The slow positron flux is 10 4 e + /pulse, or 2*10 6 e + /s at 200 Hz. This work presents the first ever accumulation of low-energy positrons produced by an accelerator (rather than a radioactive source) and their cooling by a prepared reservoir of 2*10 10 cold electrons. (author) [fr

  9. Ion beam focusing by the atomic chains of a crystal lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulga, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    A study is made of the focusing of a parallel ion beam by a pair of close packed atomic chains of a crystal. The focal length of this system has been calculated to the approximation of continuous potential of chain in the general form and also for a number of specific potentials of ion-atom interactions. Ar ion beam focusing by a Cu chain pair is discusssed in detail. For this case, the focal length has been calculated as a function of ion energy using the method of computer simulation of ion trajectories in the chain field. The calculations were made on the basis of the Born-Mayer potential with various constants. A pronounced dependence of focal length on the constant in this potential has been found. (author)

  10. Design and development of high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharyulu, G.V.S.G.; Sankari, M.; Kiran Kumar, P.V.; Suryanarayana, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for the determination of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in atomic species has been designed and developed. A resistively heated graphite tube atomic beam source was designed, tested and integrated into a compact interaction chamber for atomic beam fluorescence experiments. The design of the laser-atom interaction chamber and the source has been modified in a phased manner so as to achieve sub-Doppler resolution. The system has been used to record the hyperfine spectrum of the D2 transitions of Rb and K isotopes. The spectral resolution achieved is ∼ 26 MHz and is adequate to carry out high resolution measurement of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of various atomic species. The other major advantage of the source is that it requires very small amounts of sample for achieving very good signal to noise ratio. (author)

  11. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author )

  12. Nano-fabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nano-structuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condenser-monochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing free-standing nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented. (author)

  13. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P.D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p-vector - p-vector excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions are discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets. (orig.)

  14. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1997-02-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p¯-p¯ excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Jülich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions will be discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets.

  15. ELF waves and ion resonances produced by an electron beam emitting rocket in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.; Abe, Y.; Erickson, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from the ECHO-6 electron-beam-injection experiment, performed in the auroral-zone ionosphere on March 30, 1983 using a sounding rocket equipped with two electron guns and a free-flying plasma-diagnostics instrument package. The data are presented in extensive graphs and diagrams and characterized in detail. Large ELF wave variations, superposed on the strong beam-sector-directed quasi-dc component, are observed in the 100-eV beam-induced plasma when the beam is injected in a transverse spiral, but not when it is injected upward parallel to the magnetic-field line. ELF activity is found to be suppressed whenever the rocket passed through field lines with auroral activity, suggesting that the waves are produced by the interaction of the beam potentials, plasma currents, and return currents neutralizing the accelerator payload. 12 references

  16. Design and performance of an UHV beamline to produce low and hyperthermal energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, D.L.; Cooper, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    We have constructed and tested an UHV beamline to produce beams of alkali metal and noble gas ions over the energy range 0 angular divergence, and nanoamps of current at 25 eV in a 4-mm beam spot with +- 2 0 angular divergence. By applying Liouville's theorem to the beam's emittance and using waist-to-waist transport through the beam optics, the current on the sample is maximized while limiting the spot size and angular divergence. To achieve useful current at the lowest energies, special attention was paid to minimizing space-charge effects. Beam emittances measured at the sample position are consistent with Liouville's theorem. Equations for waist-to-waist transport are derived in the Appendix

  17. Fluorescence detection of white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy: towards element-sensitive projections of local atomic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    A method for a direct measurement of X-ray projections of the atomic structure is described. Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO 3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO 3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples

  18. In-Situ atomic force microscopic observation of ion beam bombarded plant cell envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangyuenyongpipat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Brown, I.G.; Seprom, C.; Vilaithong, T.

    2007-01-01

    A program in ion beam bioengineering has been established at Chiang Mai University (CMU), Thailand, and ion beam induced transfer of plasmid DNA molecules into bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) has been demonstrated. However, a good understanding of the fundamental physical processes involved is lacking. In parallel work, onion skin cells have been bombarded with Ar + ions at energy 25 keV and fluence1-2 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 , revealing the formation of microcrater-like structures on the cell wall that could serve as channels for the transfer of large macromolecules into the cell interior. An in-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) system has been designed and installed in the CMU bio-implantation facility as a tool for the observation of these microcraters during ion beam bombardment. Here we describe some of the features of the in-situ AFM and outline some of the related work

  19. Applications of beam-foil spectroscopy to atomic collisions in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    Some selected papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Beam-Foil Spectroscopy, whose results are of particular pertinence to ionic collision phenomena in solids, are reviewed. The topics discussed include solid target effects and means of surmounting them in the measurement of excited projectile ion lifetimes for low-energy heavy element ions; the electron emission accompanying the passage of heavy particles through solid targets; the collision broadening of X rays emitted from 100 keV ions moving in solids; residual K-shell excitation in chlorine ions penetrating carbon; comparison between 40 MeV Si on gaseous SiH4 targets at 300 mtorr and 40 MeV Si on Al; and the emergent surface interaction in beam-foil spectroscopy. A distinct overlap of interests between the sciences of beam-foil spectroscopy and atomic collisions in solids is pointed out.

  20. Survey of atomic data base needs and accuracies for helium beam stopping and alpha particle diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, H.P.; Hellermann, M. von.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with establishing a recommended collection of atomic collision data for the modelling, experimental investigation and exploitation of helium beams. The motivation stems from proposals for diagnostic beams for the ITER tokamak, targeted at alpha particle measurement via double charge transfer, neutralized alpha particle analysis and spectroscopic analysis of recombination radiation. The report discusses the beam energies, species involved in collisions with the helium atom beam (fuel, helium ash and plasma impurities) and plasma conditions prevailing in large tokamak devices. It also lists the required cross-section data

  1. Monte-Carlo study on primary knock-on atom energy spectrum produced by neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei; Liu Yongkang; Deng Yongjun; Ma Jimin

    2012-01-01

    Computational method on energy distribution of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced by neutron radiation was built in the paper. Based on the DBCN card in MCNP, reaction position, reaction type and energy transfer between neutrons and atoms were recorded. According to statistic of these data, energy and space distributions of PKAs were obtained. The method resolves preferably randomicity of random number and efficiency of random sampling computation. The results show small statistical fluctuation and well statistical. Three-dimensional figure of energy and space distribution of PKAs were obtained, which would be important to evaluate radiation capability of materials and study radiation damage by neutrons. (authors)

  2. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  3. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  4. Physical principles of the surface-plasma method of producing beams of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'chenko, Yu.I.; Dimov, G.I.; Dudnikov, V.G.

    A study is made of the processes used to produce intensive beams of negative ions from surface-plasma sources (SPS). The concepts now being formulated concerning the formation of negative ions upon interaction of bombarding particles with the surface of a solid are analyzed. The peculiarities of the realization of optimal conditions for the production of beams of negative ions in SPS of various designs are discussed

  5. Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kevin J; Goyal, Gaurav; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Min Jun

    2017-05-10

    The use of atomically thin graphene for molecular sensing has attracted tremendous attention over the years and, in some instances, could displace the use of classical thin films. For nanopore sensing, graphene must be suspended over an aperture so that a single pore can be formed in the free-standing region. Nanopores are typically drilled using an electron beam (e-beam) which is tightly focused until a desired pore size is obtained. E-beam sculpting of graphene however is not just dependent on the ability to displace atoms but also the ability to hinder the migration of ad-atoms on the surface of graphene. Using relatively lower e-beam fluxes from a thermionic electron source, the C-atom knockout rate seems to be comparable to the rate of carbon ad-atom attraction and accumulation at the e-beam/graphene interface (i.e., R knockout ≈ R accumulation ). Working at this unique regime has allowed the study of carbon ad-atom migration as well as the influence of various substrate materials on e-beam sculpting of graphene. We also show that this information was pivotal to fabricating functional graphene nanopores for studying DNA with increased spatial resolution which is attributed to atomically thin membranes.

  6. Isotopic separation of 235U and 238U in an atomic beam with selective two-step photo-ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The present work gives a report on investigations on isotope separation of 235 U and 238 U by means of selective two-stage photo-ionization on atomic uranium. An atomic beam of sufficient particle density was produced by dissociation of URe 2 in an electron beam heated tungsten furnace at a temperature of 2.500 k. A continuously operated rhodamin-69 dye laser with a maximum output of 120 mW and about 50 mHz band width in one-made operation was used for selective excitation from the ground state. From this state of excitation, ionization resulted achieving a light power of 1.8 W below 3030 A in the reaction volume. The measured separation factors show that the laser method enables the enrichment of uranium to the required valve of three or more percent 235 U for light water reactors in a single separation step. The hyperfine structure could be considerably better resolved compared to earlier investigations, so that it was possible for the first time to identify and measure hitherto unobserved weak components. (orig.) [de

  7. Low-pressure supersonic gas expansions. A study of the formation of cold hydrogen- and deuterium atomic beams for polarised gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, A.

    2002-04-01

    In the present thesis expansions of atomic and molecular gases were studied. Velocity distributions characterize thereby the arising beams very well and give conclusions on the processes occurring in the expansion. these can be described by continuum models until the transition to the molecular flow range occurs. By certain criteria this transition can be described. Because a description of all processes by these models is difficult, the possibility was studied to describe gas expansions by means of Monte Carlo simulations. These simulate by means of binary collisions the motion of the molecules of the expanding gas and calculate from the distribution of the particles in the phase space the beam parameter, like for instance density, flow velocities, and beam temperatures. The results of these calculations were tested by different experimental means. To this belong especially the measurements of the velocity distributions by the time-of-flight method and the intensity profiles by the beam-profile monitor. All experimentally obtained data agree with the results of the calculations within the measurement errors. By this it is possible to predict the behavior during an expansion both qualitatively and quantitatively. precise statements on density and velocity distributions are possible, by which for instance new beam-shaping geometries can be tested. From the simulated distributions also a novel start generator for sextupole Monte Carlo simulations can be generated, which contains no models, but relates directly to the obtained data. The thesis that by a H 2 carrier beam a hydrogen or deuterium atomic beam with high phase-space density can be produced, was uniquely disproved. The high diffusion of both kinds of particles leads to a fast mixing and by this to no improvement of the atomic- beam intensity. The measured data were confirmed by the performed Monte Carlo simulations. The calculations on the base of Navier-Stokes equations are in the flow range applied here

  8. Measurements of radiation near an atomic spectral line from the interaction of a 30 GeV electron beam and a long plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catravas, P.E.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Assmann, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Whittum, D.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C; Joshi, C.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Wang, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions produced or initiated by a 30 GeV electron beam propagating through a ∼ 1 m long heat pipe oven containing neutral and partially ionized vapor have been measured near atomic spectral lines in a beam-plasma wakefield experiment. The Cerenkov spatial profile has been studied as a function of oven temperature and pressure, observation wavelength, and ionizing laser intensity and delay. The Cerenkov peak angle is affected by the creating of plasma, and estimates of neutral and plasma density have been extracted. Increases in visible background radiation, consistent with increased plasma recombination emissions due to dissipation of wakefields, were simultaneously measured

  9. An easy-to-use method for measuring the flux of free atoms in a cluster beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuvellier, J.; Binet, A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is proposed to measure the flux of free atoms remaining in a beam of clusters. The time-of-flight (TOF) of an Ar beam containing clusters was analysed for this purpose using an electron impact + quadrupole mass spectrometer as detector. When considering TOF's with mass settings at Ar + , a double mode structure was observed. The slow component was interpreted as coming from Ar clusters that fragment as Ar + in the ionization chamber of the detector. The rapid mode in the TOF's was linked to the free atoms remaining in the Ar beam. Evaluating the area of this mode allowed one to measure the flux of free atoms in the Ar beam. The method is not restricted to measurements on Ar beams

  10. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  11. Reaction of hydrogen atoms produced by radiolysis and photolysis in solid phase at 4 and 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    1991-01-01

    The behavior of H atoms in the solid phase has been reviewed with special attention to comparison of H atoms produced by radiolysis with those produced by photolysis. The paper consists of three parts. I -Production of H atoms: (1) the experimental results which indicate H-atom formation in the radiolysis of solid alkane are summarized; (2) ESR saturation behavior of trapped H atoms depends upon the method of H-atom-production, i.e. photolysis or radiolysis, and upon the initial energy of H atoms in the photolysis. II - Diffusion of H atoms: (1) activation energies for thermally-activated diffusion of H atoms are shown; (2) quantum diffusion of H atoms in solid H 2 is explained in terms of repetition of tunneling reaction H 2 + H → H + H 2 . III -Reaction of H atoms: (1) reactions and trapping processes of hot H atoms have been shown in solid methane and argon by use of hot H atoms with specified initial energy; (2) when H atoms are produced by the radiolysis of solvent alkane or by the photolysis of HI in the alkane mixtures at 77 K, the H atoms react very selectively with solute alkane at low concentration. The selective reaction of the H atom has been found in eight matrices; (3) activation energy for a hydrogen-atom-abstraction reaction by thermal H atoms at low temperatures is less than than several kJ mol -1 because of quantum tunneling. The absolute rate constants for H 2 (D 2 , HD) + H(D) tunneling reactions have been determined experimentally in solid hydrogen at 4.2K; (4) theoretical studies for tunneling reactions H 2 (D 2 ,HD) + H(D) at ultralow temperatures were reviewed. The calculated rate constants were compared with the rate constants obtained experimentally. (author)

  12. Nuclear moments and isotopic variation of the mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei by atomic beam laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1987-10-01

    Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 10 11 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.) [de

  13. Optimized coupling of cold atoms into a fiber using a blue-detuned hollow-beam funnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Jerome; Light, Philip S.; Kashyap, Raman; Luiten, Andre N. [Frequency Standards and Metrology Group, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Perth (Australia); Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3A7 (Canada); Frequency Standards and Metrology, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Western Australia 6009, Perth (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    We theoretically investigate the process of coupling cold atoms into the core of a hollow-core photonic-crystal optical fiber using a blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian beam. In contrast to the use of a red-detuned Gaussian beam to couple the atoms, the blue-detuned hollow beam can confine cold atoms to the darkest regions of the beam, thereby minimizing shifts in the internal states and making the guide highly robust to heating effects. This single optical beam is used as both a funnel and a guide to maximize the number of atoms into the fiber. In the proposed experiment, Rb atoms are loaded into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) above a vertically oriented optical fiber. We observe a gravito-optical trapping effect for atoms with high orbital momentum around the trap axis, which prevents atoms from coupling to the fiber: these atoms lack the kinetic energy to escape the potential and are thus trapped in the laser funnel indefinitely. We find that by reducing the dipolar force to the point at which the trapping effect just vanishes, it is possible to optimize the coupling of atoms into the fiber. Our simulations predict that by using a low-power (2.5 mW) and far-detuned (300 GHz) Laguerre-Gaussian beam with a 20-{mu}m-radius core hollow fiber, it is possible to couple 11% of the atoms from a MOT 9 mm away from the fiber. When the MOT is positioned farther away, coupling efficiencies over 50% can be achieved with larger core fibers.

  14. THE METHODS OF PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED NEUTRON BEAMS FOR HYSPEC AT THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; PASSELL, L.; ZALIZNYAK, A.; GHOSH, V.J.; LEONHARDT, W.L.; HAGEN, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC), under construction at the SNS on beam line 14B, is the only inelastic scattering instrument designed to enable polarization of the incident and the scattered neutron beams. A Heusler monochromator will replace the graphite crystal for producing polarized neutrons. In the scattered beam it is planned to use a collimator--multi-channel supermirror bender array to analyze the polarization of the scattered beam over the final energy range from 5-20 meV. Other methods of polarization analysis under consideration such as transmission filters using He 3 , Sm, and polarized protons are considered. Their performance is estimated and a comparison of the various methods of polarization is made

  15. Pencil-like mm-size electron beams produced with linear inductive voltage adders (LIVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Rovang, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents design, analysis, and first results of the high brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia. Anticipated beam parameters are: energy 12 MeV, current 35-40 kA, rms radius 0.5 mm, pulse duration 40 ns FWHM. The accelerator is SABRE, a pulsed LIVA modified to higher impedance, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. 20 to 30 Tesla solenoidal magnets are required to insulate the diode and contain the beam to its extremely small sized (1 mm) envelope. These experiments are designed to push the technology to produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam. Design, numercial simulations, and first experimental results are presented

  16. Pencil-like mm-size electron beams produced with Linear Inductive Voltage Adders (LIVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Rovang, D C.; Maenchen, J.E.; Cordova, S.R.; Menge, P.R.; Pepping, R.; Bennett, L.; Mikkelson, K.; Smith, D.L.; Halbleib, J.; Stygar, W.A.; Welch, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    We present the design, analysis, and first results of the high brightness electron beam experiments currently under investigation at Sandia National Laboratories. The anticipated beam parameters are the following: energy 12 MeV, current 35-40 kA, rms radius 0.5 mm, and pulse duration 40 ns FWHM. The accelerator is SABRE, a pulsed LIVA modified to higher impedance, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless electron diode. Twenty to thirty Tesla solenoidal magnets are required to insulate the diode and contain the beam to its extremely small sized (1 mm) envelope. These experiments are designed to push the technology to produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimeter radius beam. Design, numerical simulations, and first experimental results are presented. (author)

  17. Spectral and spatial shaping of a laser-produced ion beam for radiation-biology experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pommarel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of radiation biology on laser-based accelerators is most interesting due to the unique irradiation conditions they can produce, in terms of peak current and duration of the irradiation. In this paper we present the implementation of a beam transport system to transport and shape the proton beam generated by laser-target interaction for in vitro irradiation of biological samples. A set of four permanent magnet quadrupoles is used to transport and focus the beam, efficiently shaping the spectrum and providing a large and relatively uniform irradiation surface. Real time, absolutely calibrated, dosimetry is installed on the beam line, to enable shot-to-shot control of dose deposition in the irradiated volume. Preliminary results of cell sample irradiation are presented to validate the robustness of the full system.

  18. Theory of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo and parity violating Berry-phases in atoms; Theorie des longitudinalen Atomstrahl-Spinechos und paritaetsverletzende Berry-Phasen in Atomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, T.F.

    2006-07-19

    We present a nonrelativistic theory for the quantum mechanical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments, where a beam of neutral atoms is subjected to static electric and magnetic fields. The atomic wave function is the solution of a matrix-valued Schroedinger equation and can be written as superposition of local (atomic) eigenstates of the potential matrix. The position- and time-dependent amplitude function of each eigenstate represents an atomic wave packet and can be calculated in a series expansion with a master formula that we derive. The zeroth order of this series expansion describes the adiabatic limit, whereas the higher order contributions contain the mixing of the eigenstates and the corresponding amplitude functions. We give a tutorial for the theoretical description of longitudinal atomic beam spin echo experiments and for the so-called Fahrplan model, which is a visualisation tool for the propagation of wave packets of different atomic eigenstates. As an example for the application of our theory, we study parity violating geometric (Berry-)phases. In this context, we define geometric flux densities, which for certain field configurations can be used to illustrate geometric phases in a vector diagram. Considering an example with a specific field configuration, we prove the existence of a parity violating geometric phase. (orig.)

  19. A polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source for internal target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, D.; Buuren, L.D. van; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Bulten, H.J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Klous, S.; Kolster, H.; Lang, J.; Mul, F.; Poolman, H.R.; Simani, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    A high-brightness hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source is presented. The apparatus, previously used in electron scattering experiments with tensor-polarized deuterium (Ferro-Luzzi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 2630; van den Brand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 1235; Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1998) 687; Bouwhuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 3755), was configured as a source for internal target experiments to measure single- and double-polarization observables, with either polarized hydrogen or vector/tensor polarized deuterium. The atomic beam intensity was enhanced by a factor of ∼2.5 by optimizing the Stern-Gerlach focusing system using high tip-field (∼1.5 T) rare-earth permanent magnets, and by increasing the pumping speed in the beam-formation chamber. Fluxes of (5.9±0.2)x10 16 1 H/s were measured in a diameter 12 mmx122 mm compression tube with its entrance at a distance of 27 cm from the last focusing element. The total output flux amounted to (7.6±0.2)x10 16 1 H/s

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. A facility to produce collimated neutron beams at the Legnaro Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colautti, P.; Talpo, G.; Tornielli, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 7 MV Van de Graaff and the 16 MV Tandem accelerators at the Legnaro National Laboratories can be used to produce fast neutron fluxes of moderate intensity, ranging in energy from 1 MeV to 50 MeV. A W-polyethylene-Pb cylindrical collimator has been constructed in order to produce a collimated neutron beam, with well defined dose and microdose characteristics for radiobiological experiments. The collimator can be assembled in different configurations allowing both for different thicknesses and different beam apertures. Dosimetric measurements have been made with a d(4.5)+Be source. These demonstrate sharp beam edges with attenuation behind the shield of 20% with the 15 cm collimator and 1.5% with the 50 cm collimator. (author)

  2. Intensity-gradient induced Sisyphus cooling of a single atom in a localized hollow-beam trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yaling; Xia, Yong; Ren, Ruimin; Du, Xiangli; Yin, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize a convenient and efficient laser cooling of a single atom, we propose a simple and promising scheme to cool a single neutral atom in a blue-detuned localized hollow-beam trap by intensity-gradient induced Sisyphus cooling, and study the dynamic process of the intensity-gradient cooling of a single 87 Rb atom in the localized hollow-beam trap by using Monte-Carlo simulations. Our study shows that a single 87 Rb atom with a temperature of 120 μK from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) can be directly cooled to a final temperature of 4.64 μK in our proposed scheme. We also investigate the dependences of the cooling results on the laser detuning δ of the localized hollow-beam, the power RP 0 of the re-pumping laser beam, the sizes of both the localized hollow-beam and the re-pumping beam, and find that there is a pair of optimal cooling parameters (δ and RP 0 ) for an expected lowest temperature, and the cooling results strongly depend on the size of the re-pumping beam, but weakly depend on the size of the localized hollow-beam. Finally, we further study the cooling potential of our localized hollow-beam trap for the initial temperature of a single atom, and find that a single 87 Rb atom with an initial temperature of higher than 1 mK can also be cooled directly to about 6.6 μK. (paper)

  3. Investigation of plasma stream collision produced by thin films irradiated by powerful pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, V P; Demidov, B A; Ivkin, M V; Mescheryakov, A N; Petrov, V A; Potapenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    Collision of fast plasma streams in vacuum is investigated. Plasma streams were produced by irradiation of thin foils with a powerful pulsed electron beam. Interaction of the plasma flows was studied by using frame and streak cameras. One-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out. Application of this method for porous ICF targets and high-energy physics is discussed

  4. Photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David U.; Clendenin, James E.; Kirby, Robert E.

    2004-06-01

    A photoelectron linear accelerator for producing a low emittance polarized electric beam. The accelerator includes a tube having an inner wall, the inner tube wall being coated by a getter material. A portable, or demountable, cathode plug is mounted within said tube, the surface of said cathode having a semiconductor material formed thereon.

  5. Continuous all-optical deceleration of molecular beams and demonstration with Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xueping; Jayich, Andrew; Campbell, Wesley

    2017-04-01

    Ultracold samples of molecules are desirable for a variety of applications, such as many-body physics, precision measurement and quantum information science. However, the pursuit of ultracold molecules has achieved limited success: spontaneous emission into many different dark states makes it hard to optically decelerate molecules to trappable speed. We propose to address this problem with a general optical deceleration technique that exploits a pump-dump pulse pair from a mode-locked laser. A molecular beam is first excited by a counter-propagating ``pump'' pulse. The molecular beam is then driven back to the initial ground state by a co-propagating ``dump'' pulse via stimulated emission. The delay between the pump and dump pulse is set to be shorter than the excited state lifetimes in order to limit decays to dark states. We report progress benchmarking this stimulated force by accelerating a cold sample of neutral Rb atoms.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on graphene through controlled ion beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Seok; Oh, Il-Kwon; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Hyungjun; Yeom, Geun Young; Kim, Kyong Nam

    2016-01-01

    The polymer residue generated during the graphene transfer process to the substrate tends to cause problems (e.g., a decrease in electron mobility, unwanted doping, and non-uniform deposition of the dielectric material). In this study, by using a controllable low-energy Ar + ion beam, we cleaned the polymer residue without damaging the graphene network. HfO 2 grown by atomic layer deposition on graphene cleaned using an Ar + ion beam showed a dense uniform structure, whereas that grown on the transferred graphene (before Ar + ion cleaning) showed a non-uniform structure. A graphene–HfO 2 –metal capacitor fabricated by growing 20-nm thick HfO 2 on graphene exhibited a very low leakage current (<10 −11 A/cm 2 ) for Ar + ion-cleaned graphene, whereas a similar capacitor grown using the transferred graphene showed high leakage current.

  7. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  8. High quality atomically thin PtSe2 films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Wang, Eryin; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Guangqi; Zhang, Hongyun; Zhang, Kenan; Yao, Wei; Lu, Nianpeng; Yang, Shuzhen; Wu, Shilong; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Wu, Yang; Yu, Pu; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun

    2017-12-01

    Atomically thin PtSe2 films have attracted extensive research interests for potential applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Obtaining high quality thin films with large size and controlled thickness is critical. Here we report the first successful epitaxial growth of high quality PtSe2 films by molecular beam epitaxy. Atomically thin films from 1 ML to 22 ML have been grown and characterized by low-energy electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Moreover, a systematic thickness dependent study of the electronic structure is revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), and helical spin texture is revealed by spin-ARPES. Our work provides new opportunities for growing large size single crystalline films to investigate the physical properties and potential applications of PtSe2.

  9. Production of atomic negative ion beams of the Group IA elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A method has been developed which enables the direct sputter generation of atomic negative ion beams of all members of the Group IA elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs). The method consists of the use of sputter samples formed by pressing mixtures of the carbonates of the Group IA elements and 10% (atomic) Cu, Ag, or other metal powder. The following intensities are typical of those observed from carbonate samples subjected to /approximately/3 KeV cesium ion bombardment: Li - : ≥0.5 μA; Na - : ≥0.5 μA; K - : ≥0.5 μA; Rb - : ≥0.5 μA; Cs - : ≥0.2 μA. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Vecksler-Macmillan phase stability for neutral atoms accelerated by a laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikov, I. V.; Haus, J. W.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2003-05-01

    We use a Fokker-Planck equation to study the phenomenon of accelerating a neutral atom bunch by a chirped optical beam. This method enables us to obtain a semi-analytical solution to the problem in which a wide range of parameters can be studied. In addition it provides a simple physical interpretation where the problem is reduced to an analogous problem of charged particles accelerators, that is, the Vecksler-Macmillan principle of phase stability. A possible experimental scenario is suggested, which uses a photonic crystal fiber as the guiding medium.

  11. Use of an Atmospheric Atomic Oxygen Beam for Restoration of Defaced Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Karla, Margaret; Norris, Mary Jo; Real, William A.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    An atmospheric atomic oxygen beam has been found to be effective in removing organic materials through oxidation that are typical of graffiti or other contaminant defacements which may occur to the surfaces of paintings. The technique, developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is portable and was successfully used at the Carnegie Museum of Art to remove a lipstick smudge from the surface of porous paint on the Andy Warhol painting "Bathtub." This process was also evaluated for suitability to remove felt tip and ball point ink graffiti from paper, gesso on canvas and cotton canvas.

  12. Collapse and Revival of an Atomic Beam Interacting with a Coherent State Light Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben, Li; Jing-Biao, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We report on the phenomena of the periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in the dynamics of an atomic beam interacting with a single-mode and coherent-state light field. Conventional collapse and revival by Eberly et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 44 (1980) 1323] are presented in the case of the evolution with time of the population inversion. Here, we study the evolution with coupling strength of population inversion. We define the collapse and revival coupling strengths as characteristic parameters to describe the above collapse and revival. Furthermore, we present the analytic formulas for the population inversion, the collapse and revival coupling strengths

  13. Application of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mima, K.; Fujita, K.; Azuma, H.; Yamazaki, A.; Kato, Y.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. A proton micro-beam with the beam diameter of ∼1.5 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used to analyze the positive electrode of the Li-ion battery with PIGE and PIXE. WThe PIGE and PIXE images of Li and Ni respectively for Li x Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (x = 0.75 ∼ 1.0) anodes have been taken. The PIGE images of Li x Ni 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 particles and the depth profile of the Li density have been obtained with high spatial resolution (a few μm). The images of the Li density distribution are very useful for the RandD of the Li ion battery. In order to make the in-situ ion beam analysis of the Li battery possible, a compact accelerator for a high quality MeV proton beam is necessary. Form this point of view, the diagnostics of Li ion battery is an appropriate field for the applications of laser produced ion beams. (authors)

  14. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi + + Bi + ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  15. Radioactive ion beams produced by neutron-induced fission at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Gilardoni, S S; Köster, U

    2003-01-01

    The production rates of neutron-rich fission products for the next-generation radioactive beam facility EURISOL are mainly limited by the maximum amount of power deposited by protons in the target. An alternative approach is to use neutron beams to induce fission in actinide targets. This has the advantage of reducing: the energy deposited by the proton beam in the target; contamination from neutron-deficient isobars that would be produced by spallation; and mechanical stress on the target. At ISOLDE CERN, tests have been made on standard ISOLDE actinide targets using fast neutron bunches produced by bombarding thick, high-Z metal converters with 1 and 1.4 GeV proton pulses. This paper reviews the first applications of converters used at ISOLDE. It highlights the different geometries and the techniques used to compare fission yields produced by the proton beam directly on the target with neutron-induced fission. Results from the six targets already tested, namely UC2/graphite and ThO2 targets with tungsten an...

  16. Polarization of the sigma minus hyperon produced by a polarized neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A spin transfer technique has been tried in an attempt to produce a beam of polarized hyperons. The method makes use of a two-stage targeting scheme where unpolarized protons from Fermilab's Tevatron incident on target number one (Cu) at production angles of ±2.0 mrad would produce a beam of particles containing polarized Λs and Ξs as well as neutrons and Ks. This secondary beam would then be swept magnetically to retain only neutral particles and brought to bear on target number two (Cu) at 0.0 mrad, producing a tertiary beam of hyperons. The polarization of some 1.3 millions reconstructed Σ - → nπ - events in this tertiary beam (the Σ - having been produced in the inclusive reaction neutrals + Cu → Σ - + X) has been measured at average Σ - momenta 320 GeV/c (1.14 millions events) and 410 GeV/c (135,000 events) and found to be |P| = 3.9 ± 3.2 ± 1.8% and |P| = 13.9 ± 8.1 ± 2.0% respectively, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. These polarizations are small and consistent with zero, and preclude a meaningful measurement of the Σ - magnetic moment by the spin precession method. The sign of the polarizations at the target is ambiguous, giving rise to two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of which distinctly disagrees with the world average value for the moment. However, this solution fits the data slightly better than the other. This inconsistency would not exist if the polarization is, in fact, zero

  17. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  18. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO 2 + with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H 2 densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH + , CH 2 + , and CH 4 + have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  19. Nanosecond and femtosecond mass spectroscopic analysis of a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kamikado, Toshiya; Okuno, Yoshishige; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The spray-jet molecular beam apparatus enabled us to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules under high vacuum from a sprayed mist of sample solutions. The apparatus has been used in spectroscopic studies and as a means of molecular beam deposition. We analyzed the molecular beam, consisting of non-volatile, solvent, and carrier-gas molecules, by using femtosecond- and nanosecond- laser mass spectroscopy. The information thus obtained provided insight into the molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

  20. Dose properties of x-ray beams produced by laser-wakefield-accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, K K; Hogstrom, K R; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D

    2005-01-01

    Given that laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been demonstrated experimentally to accelerate electron beams to energies beyond 25 MeV, it is reasonable to assess the ability of existing LWFA technology to compete with conventional radiofrequency linear accelerators in producing electron and x-ray beams for external-beam radiotherapy. We present calculations of the dose distributions (off-axis dose profiles and central-axis depth dose) and dose rates of x-ray beams that can be produced from electron beams that are generated using state-of-the-art LWFA. Subsets of an LWFA electron energy distribution were propagated through the treatment head elements (presuming an existing design for an x-ray production target and flattening filter) implemented within the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Three x-ray energy configurations (6 MV, 10 MV and 18 MV) were studied, and the energy width ΔE of the electron-beam subsets varied from 0.5 MeV to 12.5 MeV. As ΔE increased from 0.5 MeV to 4.5 MeV, we found that the off-axis and central-axis dose profiles for x-rays were minimally affected (to within about 3%), a result slightly different from prior calculations of electron beams broadened by scattering foils. For ΔE of the order of 12 MeV, the effect on the off-axis profile was of the order of 10%, but the central-axis depth dose was affected by less than 2% for depths in excess of about 5 cm beyond d max . Although increasing ΔE beyond 6.5 MeV increased the dose rate at d max by more than 10 times, the absolute dose rates were about 3 orders of magnitude below those observed for LWFA-based electron beams at comparable energies. For a practical LWFA-based x-ray device, the beam current must be increased by about 4-5 orders of magnitude. (note)

  1. Environmental sensing with optical fiber sensors processed with focused ion beam and atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    We report an optical fiber chemical sensor based on a focused ion beam processed optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor is based on a cavity formed onto a standard 1550 nm single-mode fiber by either chemical etching, focused ion beam milling (FIB) or femtosecond laser ablation, on which side channels are drilled by either ion beam milling or femtosecond laser irradiation. The encapsulation of the cavity is achieved by optimized fusion splicing onto a standard single or multimode fiber. The empty cavity can be used as semi-curved Fabry-Pérot resonator for gas or liquid sensing. Increased reflectivity of the formed cavity mirrors can be achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alternating metal oxides. For chemical selective optical sensors, we demonstrate the same FIB-formed cavity concept, but filled with different materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which show selective swelling when immersed in different solvents. Finally, a reducing agent sensor based on a FIB formed cavity partially sealed by fusion splicing and coated with a thin ZnO layer by ALD is presented and the results discussed. Sensor interrogation is achieved with spectral or multi-channel intensity measurements.

  2. XUV laser-produced plasma sheet beam and microwave agile mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Scharer, J.E.; Porter, B.; Lam, N.T.

    1994-01-01

    An excimer-laser (λ = 193 nm) produced plasma in an organic gas (TMAE) has been generated and studied. These studies have determined the ion-electron recombination coefficient and the photon absorption cross-section, of the neutral gas. The dependences of wave transmission, reflection and absorption on plasma density are obtained. A new optical system with an array of cylindrical XUV coated lenses has been implemented to form a plasma sheet to study its usage as agile mirror microwave reflector. The lens system expands the incident laser beam in X direction and compresses it in Y direction to form a sheet beam. The expanded beam then passes through a vacuum chamber filled with TMAE at 50--500 nTorr to produce the plasma sheet. Space-time measurements of the plasma density and temperature as measured by a Langmuir probe are presented. XUV optical measurements of the laser beam as measured by a photodiode are presented. Initial experiments have generated a plasma sheet of 5--10 mm x 11 cm with peak plasma density of 5 x 10 13 cm -3 . A microwave source will be utilized to study the agile mirror character of the plasma sheet. Modeling of the microwave reflection from the plasma profile will also be discussed

  3. Comparison of the secondary electrons produced by proton and electron beams in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: m-r-kia@aut.ac.ir; Noshad, Houshyar [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The secondary electrons produced in water by electron and proton beams are compared with each other. The total ionization cross section (TICS) for an electron impact in water is obtained by using the binary-encounter-Bethe model. Hence, an empirical equation based on two adjustable fitting parameters is presented to determine the TICS for proton impact in media. In order to calculate the projectile trajectory, a set of stochastic differential equations based on the inelastic collision, elastic scattering, and bremsstrahlung emission are used. In accordance with the projectile trajectory, the depth dose deposition, electron energy loss distribution in a certain depth, and secondary electrons produced in water are calculated. The obtained results for the depth dose deposition and energy loss distribution in certain depth for electron and proton beams with various incident energies in media are in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data. The difference between the profiles for the depth dose deposition and production of secondary electrons for a proton beam can be ignored approximately. But, these profiles for an electron beam are completely different due to the effect of elastic scattering on electron trajectory.

  4. Energy variable monoenergetic positron beam study of oxygen atoms in Czochralski grown Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, S.; Wei, L.; Tabuki, Y.; Nagai, R.; Takeda, E.

    1992-01-01

    A monoenergetic positron beam has been used to investigate the state of interstitial oxygen in Czochralski-grown Si with the coverage of SiO 2 (100 nm) and poly-Si (200 nm)/SiO 2 (100 nm), respectively. It was found that (i) the growth of SiO 2 gives rise to a strong Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiations in the bulk of Si, (ii) such a broadening can be recovered to the original level by annealing at 450degC, by the removal of overlayers using chemical etching and long-term aging at room temperature, (iii) the film stress over the CZ-grown Si is responsible for the rearrangement of oxygen atoms in S and (iv) only tensile stress gives rise to the clustering of oxygen atoms. The observed broadening was assigned to arise from the positron trapping by oxygen interstitial clusters. It was concluded that film stress is responsible for the rearrangement of oxygen atoms in CZ-grown Si. (author)

  5. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  6. Breeding of tryptophanase-producing Escherichia coli by use of N+ ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Min; Yao Jianming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the mutation breeding on Escherichia coli producing tryptophanase was studied after low energy N + ion beam implantation. Parameters in the N + ion beam implantation were firstly determined. It has been indicated that a high mutation rate of E.coli could be obtained by N + implantation with 10 keV and 13 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 when glycerin at 15 % concentration used as protector. After continuous mutagenicity a high-yield tryptophanase-producing strain has been screened out and both of its biomass and enzymatic activity are higher than the previous levels respectively. The results of scale-up production show that the biomass could be reach 8.2 g ww ·L -1 and 110 g L-tryptophan could be formed in the volume of 1L enzymatic reaction system. In addition, the characteristics of its stable descend ability and easy operation make it a promising strain for industrialization. (authors)

  7. On the usage of electron beam as a tool to produce radioactive isotopes in photonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    We treat the Bremsstrahlung, induced by initial electron beam in converter, and the production of a desirable radioisotope due to the photonuclear reaction caused by this Bremsstrahlung. By way of illustration, the yield of a number of some, the most applicable in practice, radioisotopes is evaluated. The acquired findings persuade us that usage of modern electron accelerators offers a practicable way to produce the radioisotopes needful nowadays for various valuable applications in the nuclear medicine

  8. On the feasibility of producing secondary radioactive nuclear beams using reactions in reversed geometries at HI-13 tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xixiang; Liu Weiping

    1993-01-01

    Some of (p,n),(d,p),(d,n) and (d, 3 He) reactions involving heavy-ions in reversed geometries are proposed for producing the kinematically compressed beams of ions such as 6 He, 7 Be, 8 Li, 11 C, 12 B, 13 N, 15 O and 17 F. A simple facility being constructed to produce and utilize these beams is briefly described

  9. Fluorescence detection of white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy: towards element-sensitive projections of local atomic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples. PMID:21997909

  10. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  11. Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Hudak, Bethany M.; Zarkadoula, Eva; Song, Jiaming; Maksov, Artem; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kravchenko, Ivan; Snijders, Panchapakesan C.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2018-06-01

    Semiconductor fabrication is a mainstay of modern civilization, enabling the myriad applications and technologies that underpin everyday life. However, while sub-10 nanometer devices are already entering the mainstream, the end of the Moore’s law roadmap still lacks tools capable of bulk semiconductor fabrication on sub-nanometer and atomic levels, with probe-based manipulation being explored as the only known pathway. Here we demonstrate that the atomic-sized focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate semiconductors such as Si on the atomic level, inducing growth of crystalline Si from the amorphous phase, reentrant amorphization, milling, and dopant front motion. These phenomena are visualized in real-time with atomic resolution. We further implement active feedback control based on real-time image analytics to automatically control the e-beam motion, enabling shape control and providing a pathway for atom-by-atom correction of fabricated structures in the near future. These observations open a new epoch for atom-by-atom manufacturing in bulk, the long-held dream of nanotechnology.

  12. Direct atomic fabrication and dopant positioning in Si using electron beams with active real-time image-based feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Hudak, Bethany M; Zarkadoula, Eva; Song, Jiaming; Maksov, Artem; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kravchenko, Ivan; Snijders, Panchapakesan C; Lupini, Andrew R; Borisevich, Albina Y; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2018-06-22

    Semiconductor fabrication is a mainstay of modern civilization, enabling the myriad applications and technologies that underpin everyday life. However, while sub-10 nanometer devices are already entering the mainstream, the end of the Moore's law roadmap still lacks tools capable of bulk semiconductor fabrication on sub-nanometer and atomic levels, with probe-based manipulation being explored as the only known pathway. Here we demonstrate that the atomic-sized focused beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate semiconductors such as Si on the atomic level, inducing growth of crystalline Si from the amorphous phase, reentrant amorphization, milling, and dopant front motion. These phenomena are visualized in real-time with atomic resolution. We further implement active feedback control based on real-time image analytics to automatically control the e-beam motion, enabling shape control and providing a pathway for atom-by-atom correction of fabricated structures in the near future. These observations open a new epoch for atom-by-atom manufacturing in bulk, the long-held dream of nanotechnology.

  13. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  14. Crossed molecular beam study of H and D atom reactions with NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberland, H.; Lucadou, W. von; Rohwer, P.

    1976-01-01

    Angular distributions and time of flight spectra of OH and OD from the reactions H + NO 2 and D + NO 2 have been measured at a relative kinetic energy of 440 meV (approximately 10 kcal/mol). Both angular distributions peak in the forward (atom beam) direction, the fall off to larger angles being more rapid for OD than for OH. Within statistical error the centre of mass velocity spectra do not show an isotope effect. Only 24 +- 5% of the total energy available is channeled into product translation independent of the isotope. This value is in very good agreement with our earlier results and with data from Polanyi and Sloans chemiluminescence experiments. (orig.) [de

  15. Atom beam sputtered Ag-TiO{sub 2} plasmonic nanocomposite thin films for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Sahu, Kavita [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India); Pandey, A. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Som, T.; Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India)

    2017-07-31

    The development of nanocomposite coatings with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity is important for photocatalytic purification of water and air. We report on the synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam co-sputtering technique. The effects of Ag concentration on the structural, morphological, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite thin films were investigated. UV–visible DRS studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles together with the excitonic absorption peak originating from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies showed that the nanocomposite thin films consist of Ag nanoparticles and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with 5 at% Ag were found to exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity for sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water, indicating their potential application in water purification.

  16. Two-color above-threshold ionization of atoms and ions in XUV Bessel beams and intense laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipt, D.; Müller, R. A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-11-01

    The two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms and ions is investigated for a vortex Bessel beam in the presence of a strong near-infrared (NIR) light field. While the photoionization is caused by the photons from the weak but extreme ultraviolet (XUV) vortex Bessel beam, the energy and angular distribution of the photoelectrons and their sideband structure are affected by the plane-wave NIR field. We here explore the energy spectra and angular emission of the photoelectrons in such two-color fields as a function of the size and location of the target atoms with regard to the beam axis. In addition, analog to the circular dichroism in typical two-color ATI experiments with circularly polarized light, we define and discuss seven different dichroism signals for such vortex Bessel beams that arise from the various combinations of the orbital and spin angular momenta of the two light fields. For localized targets, it is found that these dichroism signals strongly depend on the size and position of the atoms relative to the beam. For macroscopically extended targets, in contrast, three of these dichroism signals tend to zero, while the other four just coincide with the standard circular dichroism, similar as for Bessel beams with a small opening angle. Detailed computations of the dichroism are performed and discussed for the 4 s valence-shell photoionization of Ca+ ions.

  17. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.; Beyer, H.; Bosch, F.; Dohmann, H.D.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Mann, R.; Mokler, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerator UNILAC is well suited to experiments in the field of atomic physics because, with the aid of high-energy heavy ions atoms can be produced in exotic states - that is, heavy atoms with only a few electrons. Also, in close collisions of heavy ions (atomic number Z 1 ) and heavy target atoms (Z 2 ) short-lived quasi-atomic 'superheavy' systems will be formed - huge 'atoms', where the inner electrons are bound in the field of the combined charge Z 1 + Z 2 , which exceeds by far the charge of the known elements (Z <= 109). Those exotic or transient superheavy atoms delivered from the heavy ion accelerator make it possible to study for the first time in a terrestrial laboratory exotic, but fundamental, processes, which occur only inside stars. Some of the basic research carried out with the UNILAC is discussed. This includes investigation of highly charged heavy atoms with the beam-foil method, the spectroscopy of highly charged slow-recoil ions, atomic collision studies with highly ionised, decelerated ions and investigations of super-heavy quasi-atoms. (U.K.)

  18. Semi-empirical model for the generation of dose distributions produced by a scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, R.; Gignac, C.E.; Agostinelli, A.G.; Rothberg, S.; Schulz, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are linear accelerators (Sagittaire and Saturne accelerators produced by Compagnie Generale de Radiologie (CGR/MeV) Corporation) which produce broad, flat electron fields by magnetically scanning the relatively narrow electron beam as it emerges from the accelerator vacuum system. A semi-empirical model, which mimics the scanning action of this type of accelerator, was developed for the generation of dose distributions in homogeneous media. The model employs the dose distributions of the scanning electron beams. These were measured with photographic film in a polystyrene phantom by turning off the magnetic scanning system. The mean deviation calculated from measured dose distributions is about 0.2%; a few points have deviations as large as 2 to 4% inside of the 50% isodose curve, but less than 8% outside of the 50% isodose curve. The model has been used to generate the electron beam library required by a modified version of a commercially-available computerized treatment-planning system. (The RAD-8 treatment planning system was purchased from the Digital Equipment Corporation. It is currently available from Electronic Music Industries

  19. Albumin/gentamicin microspheres produced by supercritical assisted atomization: optimization of size, drug loading and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, G; Adami, R; Del Gaudio, P; Prota, L; Aquino, R; Reverchon, E

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the supercritical assisted atomization (SAA) is proposed, for the first time, not only as a micronization technology but also as a thermal coagulation process for the production of bovine serum albumin (BSA) microspheres charged with Gentamicin sulfate (GS). Particularly, different water solutions of BSA/GS were processed by SAA to produce protein microspheres with different size and antibiotic content. SAA precipitation temperature was selected in the range 100-130 °C to generate protein coagulation and to recover micronized BSA in form of hydrophobic aggregates; GS loading was varied between 10% and 50% (w/w) with an encapsulation efficiency which often reached 100%. In all cases, spherical and noncoalescing particles were successfully produced with a mean particle size of 2 µm and with a standard deviation of about ±1 µm. The microspheres also showed a good stability and constant water content after 60 days of storage. The release profiles of the entrapped drug were monitored using Franz cells to evaluate the possible application of the produced microspheres in wound dressing formulations. Particularly, the microspheres with a BSA/GS ratio of 4:1 after the first burst effect (of 40% of GS loaded) were able to release the GS continuously over 10 days. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  20. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  1. Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} on graphene through controlled ion beam treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Seok [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Il-Kwon; Jung, Hanearl; Kim, Hyungjun [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei Ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Young, E-mail: knam1004@dju.kr, E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Nam, E-mail: knam1004@dju.kr, E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejeon University, Yongun-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34520 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-23

    The polymer residue generated during the graphene transfer process to the substrate tends to cause problems (e.g., a decrease in electron mobility, unwanted doping, and non-uniform deposition of the dielectric material). In this study, by using a controllable low-energy Ar{sup +} ion beam, we cleaned the polymer residue without damaging the graphene network. HfO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition on graphene cleaned using an Ar{sup +} ion beam showed a dense uniform structure, whereas that grown on the transferred graphene (before Ar{sup +} ion cleaning) showed a non-uniform structure. A graphene–HfO{sub 2}–metal capacitor fabricated by growing 20-nm thick HfO{sub 2} on graphene exhibited a very low leakage current (<10{sup −11} A/cm{sup 2}) for Ar{sup +} ion-cleaned graphene, whereas a similar capacitor grown using the transferred graphene showed high leakage current.

  2. High-intensity laser-accelerated ion beam produced from cryogenic micro-jet target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, M., E-mail: maxence.gauthier@stanford.edu; Kim, J. B.; Curry, C. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Göde, S.; Propp, A.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Aurand, B.; Willi, O. [Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf (Germany); Goyon, C.; Hazi, A.; Pak, A.; Ruby, J.; Williams, G. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kerr, S. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1R1 (Canada); Ramakrishna, B. [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rödel, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We report on the successful operation of a newly developed cryogenic jet target at high intensity laser-irradiation. Using the frequency-doubled Titan short pulse laser system at Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we demonstrate the generation of a pure proton beam a with maximum energy of 2 MeV. Furthermore, we record a quasi-monoenergetic peak at 1.1 MeV in the proton spectrum emitted in the laser forward direction suggesting an alternative acceleration mechanism. Using a solid-density mixed hydrogen-deuterium target, we are also able to produce pure proton-deuteron ion beams. With its high purity, limited size, near-critical density, and high-repetition rate capability, this target is promising for future applications.

  3. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J; Sadeghi, H; Schulz-Weiling, M; Grant, E R

    2014-01-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range ℓ-mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-ℓ states promotes dipole–dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, n 0 ℓ 0 =42d, a 432 V cm −1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of ℓ-mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5×10 8 cm −3 . (paper)

  4. Evolution from Rydberg gas to ultracold plasma in a supersonic atomic beam of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J.; Sadeghi, H.; Schulz-Weiling, M.; Grant, E. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Rydberg gas of xenon, entrained in a supersonic atomic beam, evolves slowly to form an ultracold plasma. In the early stages of this evolution, when the free-electron density is low, Rydberg atoms undergo long-range \\ell -mixing collisions, yielding states of high orbital angular momentum. The development of high-\\ell states promotes dipole-dipole interactions that help to drive Penning ionization. The electron density increases until it reaches the threshold for avalanche. Ninety μs after the production of a Rydberg gas with the initial state, {{n}_{0}}{{\\ell }_{0}}=42d, a 432 V cm-1 electrostatic pulse fails to separate charge in the excited volume, an effect which is ascribed to screening by free electrons. Photoexcitation cross sections, observed rates of \\ell -mixing, and a coupled-rate-equation model simulating the onset of the electron-impact avalanche point consistently to an initial Rydberg gas density of 5\\times {{10}^{8}}\\;c{{m}^{-3}}.

  5. Light and/or atomic beams to detect ultraweak gravitational effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartaglia Angelo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We shall review the opportunities lent by ring lasers and atomic beams interferometry in order to reveal gravitomagnetic effects on Earth. Both techniques are based on the asymmetric propagation of waves in the gravitational field of a rotating mass; actually the times of flight for co- or counter-rotating closed paths turn out to be different. After discussing properties and limitations of the two approaches we shall describe the proposed GINGER experiment which is being developed for the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy. The experimental apparatus will consist of a three-dimensional array of square rings, 6m × 6m, that is planned to reach a sensitivity in the order of 1prad/√Hertz or better. This sensitivity would be one order of magnitude better than the best existing ring, which is the G-ring in Wettzell, Bavaria, and would allow for the terrestrial detection of the Lense-Thirring effect and possibly of deviations from General Relativity. The possibility of using either the ring laser approach or atomic interferometry in a space mission will also be considered. The technology problems are under experimental study using both the German G-ring and the smaller G-Pisa ring, located at the Gran Sasso.

  6. Distinct atomic structures of the Ni-Nb metallic glasses formed by ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, K. P.; Wang, L. T.; Liu, B. X.

    2007-01-01

    Four Ni-Nb metallic glasses are obtained by ion beam mixing and their compositions are measured to be Ni 77 Nb 23 , Ni 55 Nb 45 , Ni 31 Nb 69 , and Ni 15 Nb 85 , respectively, suggesting that a composition range of 23-85 at. % of Nb is favored for metallic glass formation in the Ni-Nb system. Interestingly, diffraction analyses show that the structure of the Nb-based Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glass is distinctly different from the structure of the Nb-based Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass, as the respective amorphous halos are located at 2θ≅38 and 39 deg. To explore an atomic scale description of the Ni-Nb metallic glasses, an n-body Ni-Nb potential is first constructed with an aid of the ab initio calculations and then applied to perform the molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation results determine not only the intrinsic glass forming range of the Ni-Nb system to be within 20-85 at. % of Nb, but also the exact atomic positions in the Ni-Nb metallic glasses. Through a statistical analysis of the determined atomic positions, a new dominant local packing unit is found in the Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass, i.e., an icositetrahedron with a coordination number to be around 14, while in Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glasses, the dominant local packing unit is an icosahedron with a coordination number to be around 12, which has been reported for the other metallic glasses. In fact, with increasing the irradiation dose, the Ni 31 Nb 69 metallic glasses are formed through an intermediate state of face-centered-cubic-solid solution, whereas the Ni 15 Nb 85 metallic glass is through an intermediate state of body-centered-cubic-solid solution, suggesting that the structures of the constituent metals play an important role in governing the structural characteristics of the resultant metallic glasses

  7. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, A.J.M.; Mulders, J.J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure,

  8. Properties of Silicon Dioxide Amorphous Nanopowder Produced by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav G. Il’ves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 amorphous nanopowder (NP is produced with the specific surface area of 154 m2/g by means of evaporation by a pulsed electron beam aimed at Aerosil 90 pyrogenic amorphous NP (90 m2/g as a target. SiO2 NP nanoparticles showed improved magnetic, thermal, and optical properties in comparison to Aerosil 90 NP. Possible reasons of emergence of d0 ferromagnetism at the room temperature in SiO2 amorphous NP are discussed. Photoluminescent and cathode luminescent properties of the SiO2 NP were investigated.

  9. SERS analysis of Ag nanostructures produced by ion-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Nikov, Ru G.; Grüner, Ch; Rauschenbach, B.; Fukata, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the development of a novel technique for formation of advanced Ag nanostructures (NSs) to be applied to high-resolution analyses based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It has direct bearing on human health and food quality, e.g., monitoring small amount or traces of pollutants or undesirable additives. Three types of nanostructured Ag samples were produced using ion-beam deposition at glancing angle (GLAD) on quartz. All fabricated structures were covered with BI-58 pesticide (dimethoate) or Rhodamine 6G (R6G) for testing their potential for use as substrates for (SERS).

  10. Deflection of atomic beams with isotope separation by optical resonance radiation using stimulated emission and the ac stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Liao, P.F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Improved atomic beam deflection and improved isotope separation, even in vapors, is proposed by substituting the A.C. Stark effect for the baseband chirp of the pushing beam in the prior proposal by I. Nebenzahl et al., Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 25, page 327 (September 1974). The efficiency inherent in re-using the photons as in the Nebenzahl et al proposal is retained; but the external frequency chirpers are avoided. The entire process is performed by two pulses of monochromatic coherent light, thereby avoiding the complication of amplifying frequency-modulated light pulses. The A.C. Stark effect is provided by the second beam of coherent monochromatic light, which is sufficiently intense to chirp the energy levels of the atoms or isotopes of the atomic beam or vapor. Although, in general, the A.C. Stark effect will alter the isotope shift somewhat, it is not eliminated. In fact, the appropriate choice of frequencies of the pushing and chirping beams may even relax the requirements with respect to the isotope absorption line shift for effective separation. That is, it may make the isotope absorption lines more easily resolvable

  11. Ionization of a cesium atom by an absorption process involving two photons from a laser beam; Ionisation d'un atome de cesium par un processus d'absorption a deux photons issus d'un faisceau laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, Y; Trahin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The expression giving the ionisation cross-section of an atom, by an absorption process involving two photons produced from a laser beam, is derived. The non-relativistic case is considered and the dipolar approximation used. The summation over the intermediate states is carried out rigorously by means of a special technique which is described in detail. A method is presented which makes it possible to obtain the numerical solution. (authors) [French] La formule donnant la section efficace d'ionisation d'un atome, par un processus d'absorption mettant en jeu deux photons issus d'un faiseau Laser, est etablie. On se place dans le cas non relativiste et Pon utilise l'approximation dipolaire. La sommation sur les etats intermediaires est effectuee rigoureusement au moyen d'une technique particuliere qui est decrite en detail. On expose une methode permettant d'obtenir la solution numerique. (auteurs)

  12. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1983-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandems in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S 6 - 16 + on He and Ar at 6-20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl 16 + + Ar collisions at 20, 10 and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  13. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl 16 + + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  14. Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation produced by atoms near a J=1→J=0 transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscinski, Vitalij; Czub, Janusz; Miklaszewski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear magneto-optical rotation in a medium consisting of J=1→J=0 atoms placed in a static magnetic field is studied. The density matrix approach and irreducible atomic basis are used to describe the state of the atomic system. The stationary propagation equations for two collinear laser beams with perpendicular circular polarizations are derived and analyzed in the case of the magnetic field perpendicular to the light propagation direction. The effect of the linear polarization rotation toward the direction parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field vector and lossless propagation of the resulting light are predicted. The conversion of the circularly polarized beam into linearly polarized one is shown. The propagation of the leading edges of switched on cw-laser beams and their stationary propagation are analyzed numerically. The dependence of the considered effects on the light detuning and on the additional magnetic field component parallel to the light propagation direction is discussed. The destructive role of the collisional relaxation is demonstrated

  15. Metallographic techniques for evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coatings produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Matthew; Singh, Jogender; Todd, Judith; Copley, Steven; Wolfe, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) produced by Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) are primarily applied to critical hot section turbine components. EB-PVD TBC for turbine applications exhibit a complicated structure of porous ceramic columns separated by voids that offers mechanical compliance. Currently there are no standard evaluation methods for evaluating EB-PVD TBC structure quantitatively. This paper proposes a metallographic method for preparing samples and evaluating techniques to quantitatively measure structure. TBC samples were produced and evaluated with the proposed metallographic technique and digital image analysis for columnar grain size and relative intercolumnar porosity. Incorporation of the proposed evaluation technique will increase knowledge of the relation between processing parameters and material properties by incorporating a structural link. Application of this evaluation method will directly benefit areas of quality control, microstructural model development, and reduced development time for process scaling

  16. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  17. Inhibitive formation of nanocavities by introduction of Si atoms in Ge nanocrystals produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, R. S.; Shang, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J. [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Y. Q., E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca [The Cultivation Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Physics Science, Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Ross, G. G.; Barba, D., E-mail: yqwang@qdu.edu.cn, E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca [INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge-nc) were successfully synthesized by co-implantation of Si and Ge ions into a SiO{sub 2} film thermally grown on (100) Si substrate and fused silica (pure SiO{sub 2}), respectively, followed by subsequent annealing at 1150 °C for 1 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations show that nanocavities only exist in the fused silica sample but not in the SiO{sub 2} film on a Si substrate. From the analysis of the high-resolution TEM images and electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra, it is revealed that the absence of nanocavities in the SiO{sub 2} film/Si substrate is attributed to the presence of Si atoms inside the formed Ge-nc. Because the energy of Si-Ge bonds (301 kJ·mol{sup −1}) are greater than that of Ge-Ge bonds (264 kJ·mol{sup −1}), the introduction of the Si-Ge bonds inside the Ge-nc can inhibit the diffusion of Ge from the Ge-nc during the annealing process. However, for the fused silica sample, no crystalline Si-Ge bonds are detected within the Ge-nc, where strong Ge outdiffusion effects produce a great number of nanocavities. Our results can shed light on the formation mechanism of nanocavities and provide a good way to avoid nanocavities during the process of ion implantation.

  18. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P., E-mail: atkinson@insp.jussieu.fr; Eddrief, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Etgens, V. H. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); VeDeCom-Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles (France); Khemliche, H., E-mail: hocine.khemliche@u-psud.fr; Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Momeni, A. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Univ. Cergy Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy (France)

    2014-07-14

    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  19. Multichannel analysis of He*(21S)+Ne elastic and inelastic scattering in crossed atomic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.; Fukuyama, T.; Siska, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    State-to-state elastic and inelastic angular distribution and time-of-flight measurements are reported for the scattering of He*(2 1 S) by Ne in crossed supersonic atom beams at four collision energies in the range 0.6--2.8 kcal/mol. The inelastic collision products He+Ne*(nl), where nl=3d', 4p, 4p', 5s, 5s', and 4d, are scattered predominantly forward with respect to the direction of incidence, except for endothermic states near threshold. The data are analyzed with a numerically exact multichannel curve-crossing model that yields good agreement with experimental cross section branching fractions and total quenching and state-to-state rate constants as well as the angular measurements. The model suggests the importance of intermediate ''chaperone'' states, in which the excited electron is temporarily trapped in a d or f Rydberg Ne orbital, in channeling flux into the 4s' and 5s' upper laser states of Ne by energy transfer from He*(2s 1,3 S)

  20. Enhanced bioactivity and osseointegration of PEEK with accelerated neutral atom beam technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Joseph; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E; Bachand, James; Kurz, Arthur C; Walsh, Michael; Assad, Michel; Svrluga, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is growing in popularity for orthopedic, spinal, and trauma applications but has potential significant limitations in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent, but is inert and therefore does not integrate well with bone. Current efforts are focusing on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK with surface modifications to improve the bone-implant interface. We used a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. Human osteoblast-like cells seeded on ANAB-treated PEEK result in significantly enhanced proliferation compared with control PEEK. Cells grown on ANAB-treated PEEK increase osteogenic expression of ALPL (1.98-fold, p PEEK implants resulted in enhanced bone-in-contact by 3.09-fold (p PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, leading to bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants. ANAB treatment, therefore, may significantly enhance the performance of PEEK medical implants and lead to improved clinical outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 531-543, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Augmenting the bioactivity of polyetheretherketone using a novel accelerated neutral atom beam technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, S; Coathup, M J; Khoury, J; Blunn, G W

    2017-08-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is an alternative to metallic implants in orthopedic applications; however, PEEK is bioinert and does not osteointegrate. In this study, an accelerated neutral atom beam technique (ANAB) was employed to improve the bioactivity of PEEK. The aim was to investigate the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human osteoblasts (hOB), and skin fibroblasts (BR3G) on PEEK and ANAB PEEK. The surface roughness and contact angle of PEEK and ANAB PEEK was measured. Cell metabolic activity, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was measured and cell attachment was determined by quantifying adhesion plaques with cells. ANAB treatment increased the surface hydrophilicity [91.74 ± 4.80° (PEEK) vs. 74.82 ± 2.70° (ANAB PEEK), p PEEK compared to PEEK (p PEEK surfaces. MSCs seeded on ANAB PEEK in the presence of osteogenic media, expressed increased levels of ALP compared to untreated PEEK (p PEEK. ANAB treatment may improve the osteointegration of PEEK implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1438-1446, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J., E-mail: manish.butte@stanford.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  3. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  4. Ca-48 handling for a cyclotron ECR ion source to produce highly intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.Ya.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kutner, V.B.; Shamanin, A.N.; Yakushev, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of highly intense ion beams of 48 Ca is one of the main tasks in experiments carried out within the framework of the synthesis of new superheavy elements. 48 Ca is very rare and expensive isotope, therefore there is necessity to reach the high intensity of ion beams of the isotope at a low consumption rate. Analysis and our preliminary experiments have showed that the best way of producing highly intense calcium ion beams is evaporation of metallic calcium in an ECR ion source. So we have developed a technique of metallic 48 Ca production by reducing CaO (this chemical form is available at the market with 40-80% of 48 Ca ) with aluminium powder. We used two tantalum crucibles: a larger, with a mixture of CaO + Al heated up to 1250 deg C, which was connected to the smaller (2 mm I.D. and 30 mm long) in which calcium vapour condensed. The temperature distribution in the small crucible was about 50 deg C at the bottom and about 500 deg C in the middle of the crucible. The pressure inside of the set-up was between 0.1 and 1 Pa. The production rate of metallic 48 Ca was 10-20 mg/h. The crucible with the condensed metallic Ca in argon atmosphere was transferred to the ECR-4M ion source, where it was inserted in a wired tubular oven and the calcium evaporation was controlled through the oven power supply. The application of metallic 48 Ca as the working substance for the ECR-4M ion source of the U-400 cyclotron of allowed us to approach a stable high intensity of 48 Ca ion beams: the intensities for the internal and external beams were 10 13 c -1 and 3.10 12 c -1 , respectively, at a consumption rate about 0.4 mg/h. A technique was developed for the reclamation of 48 Ca from the residue inside of the large crucible and from the inner parts of the ECR ion source. Extracting Ca from the inner parts of the ion source enabled us to save up to some 25% of the calcium used in the ECR ion source, so that the actual consumption rate was about 0.3 mg/h at the highest 48

  5. Fractal characterization of the silicon surfaces produced by ion beam irradiation of varying fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, R.P. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Kumar, T. [Department of Physics, Central University of Haryana, Jant-Pali, Mahendergarh, Haryana 123029 (India); Mittal, A.K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Dwivedi, S., E-mail: suneetdwivedi@gmail.com [K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Fractal analysis of Si(1 0 0) surface morphology at varying ion fluences. • Autocorrelation function and height–height correlation function as fractal measures. • Surface roughness and lateral correlation length increases with ion fluence. • Ripple pattern of the surfaces is found at higher ion fluences. • Wavelength of the ripple surfaces is computed for each fluence. - Abstract: Si (1 0 0) is bombarded with 200 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at oblique incidence with fluences ranging from 3 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} to 3 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. The surface morphology of the irradiated surfaces is captured by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) for each ion fluence. The fractal analysis is performed on the AFM images. The autocorrelation function and height–height correlation function are used as fractal measures. It is found that the average roughness, interface width, lateral correlation length as well as roughness exponent increase with ions fluence. The analysis reveals the ripple pattern of the surfaces at higher fluences. The wavelength of the ripple surfaces is computed for each ion fluence.

  6. Formation of atomic clusters through the laser ablation of refractory materials in a supersonic molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haufler, R.E.; Puretzky, A.A.; Compton, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    Concepts which guide the design of atomic cluster supersonic beam sources have been developed. These ideas are founded on the knowledge of laser ablation dynamics and are structured in order to take advantage of certain features of the ablation event. Some of the drawbacks of previous cluster source designs become apparent when the sequence of events following laser ablation are clarified. Key features of the new cluster source design include control of the cluster size distribution, uniform performance with a variety of solid materials and elements, high beam intensity, and significant removal of internal energy during the supersonic expansion

  7. Proposed method to produce a highly polarized e+ beam for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Masami; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method to produce a spin-polarized e + beam using e + e - pair-creation by circularly polarized photons. Assuming Compton scattering of an unpolarized e - beam and circularly polarized laser light, scattered γ-rays at the high end of the energy spectrum are also circularly polarized. If those γ-rays are utilized to create e ± pairs on a thin target, the spin-polarization is preserved for e + 's at the high end of their energy spectrum. By using the injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility at KEK and a commercially available Nd:YAG pulse laser, we can expect about 10 5 polarized e + 's per second with a degree of polarization of 80% and a kinetic energy of 35-80 MeV. The apparatus for creation and measurement of polarized e + 's is being constructed. We present new idea for possible application of our method to future linear colliders by utilizing a high-power CO 2 laser. (author)

  8. Coupled-Multiplier Accelerator Produces High-Power Electron Beams for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatridge, M.; McIntyre, P.; Roberson, S.; Sattarov, A.; Thomas, E.; Meitzler, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The coupled multiplier is a new approach to efficient generation of MeV d.c. power for accelerator applications. High voltage is produced by a series of modules, each of which consists of a high-power alternator, step-up transformer, and 3-phase multiplier circuit. The alternators are connected mechanically along a rotating shaft, and connected by insulating flexible couplers. This approach differs from all previous d.c. technologies in that power is delivered to the various stages of the system mechanically, rather than through capacitive or inductive electrical coupling. For this reason the capital cost depends linearly on required voltage and power, rather than quadratically as with conventional technologies. The CM technology enables multiple electron beams to be driven within a common supply and insulating housing. MeV electron beam is extremely effective in decomposing organic contaminants in water. A 1 MeV, 100 kW industrial accelerator using the CM technology has been built and is being installed for treatment of wastewater at a petrochemical plant

  9. Spectroscopy of high lying resonances in {sup 9}Be produced with radioactive {sup 8}Li beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepini-Szily, A.; Leistenschneider, E.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Condori, R. Pampa; Scarduelli, V.; Rossi, E.; Zagatto, V.A.; Aguiar, V.A.P.; Duarte, J., E-mail: alinka@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Faria, P.N. de; Santos, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Descouvemont, P. [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium); Barioni, A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pires, K.C.C. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UFTPR), Cornelio Procopio, PR (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itabira, MG (Brazil); Moraes, M.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Britos, T.; Assuncao, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil); Zamora, J.C. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, (Germany); Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of the {sup 8}Li(p,α){sup 5}He and {sup 8}Li(p,p){sup 8}Li reactions measured at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) system. The experiment was realized in inverse kinematics using a thick [CH{sub 2}]{sub n} polyethylene target and an incident {sup 8}Li beam, produced by RIBRAS. Using the thick target method, the complete excitation function could be measured between E{sub cm} = 0.2 - 2.1 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The excitation function of the {sup 8}Li(p,α){sup 5}He reaction, populating resonances between 16.888 and 19.0 MeV in {sup 9}Be, was obtained[1] and the resonances were fitted using R-matrix calculations. This study shed light on spins, parities, partial widths and isospin values of high lying resonances in {sup 9}Be. The measurement of the resonant elastic scattering {sup 8}Li(p,p){sup 8}Li populating resonances in the same energy region can constrain the resonance parameters. Preliminary results of the elastic scattering are also presented. (author)

  10. A three-dimensional relaxation model for calculation of atomic mixing and topography changes induces by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.; Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    A simple model for three-dimensional material relaxation associated with atomic mixing is presented. The relaxation of the solid to accommodate the extra effective displacement volume Ω of an implanted or relocated atom is modelled by treating the surrounding solid as an incompressible medium. This leads to a tractable general formalism which can be used to predict implant distribution and changes in surface topography induced by ion beams, both in monatomic and multicomponent targets. The two-component case is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  11. Intense ${^31-35}$Ar beams produced with a nanostructured CaO target at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, J P; Mendonça, T M; Seiffert, C; Senos, A M R; Fynbo, H O U; Tengblad, O; Briz, J A; Lund, M V; Koldste, G T; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Pesudo, V; Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    At the ISOLDE facility at CERN, thick targets are bombarded with highly energetic pulsed protons to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The isotopes produced in the bulk of the material have to diffuse out of the grain and effuse throughout the porosity of the material to a transfer line which is connected to an ionizer, from which the charged isotopes are extracted and delivered for physics experiments. Calcium oxide (CaO) powder targets have been used to produce mainly neutron deficient argon and carbon RIBs over the past decades. Such targets presented unstable yields, either decaying over time or low from the beginning of operation. These problems were suspected to come from the degradation of the target microstructure (sintering due to high temperature and/or high proton intensity). In this work, a CaO microstructural study in terms of sintering was conducted on a nanostructured CaO powder synthesized from the respective carbonate. Taking the results of this study, several changes were made at ISOLDE i...

  12. Atomic collisions related to atomic laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Takemasa

    1995-01-01

    Atomic collisions are important in various places in atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). At a vaporization zone, many atomic collisions due to high density have influence on the atomic beam characteristics such as velocity distribution and metastable states' populations at a separation zone. In the separation zone, a symmetric charge transfer between the produced ions and the neutral atoms may degrade selectivity. We have measured atomic excitation temperatures of atomic beams and symmetric charge transfer cross sections for gadolinium and neodymium. Gadolinium and neodymium are both lanthanides. Nevertheless, results for gadolinium and neodymium are very different. The gadolinium atom has one 5d electron and neodymium atom has no 5d electron. It is considered that the differences are due to existence of 5d electron. (author)

  13. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Loisel, G.; Yahia, V.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Rafelski, J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity-pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high-energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments. (authors)

  14. The influence of target structure on topographical features produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Grant, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ion beam erosion of solid surfaces often results in the development of distinctive topographical features. The relationship between the type of features formed by ion erosion and target structure has been investigated. Single crystals of copper and nickel and the amorphous alloy Metglas have been bombarded to high doses (approx. >=10 19 ions cm -2 ) with 40 keV Ar + and P + . Topography changes were monitored using SEM and structural changes by TEM. Targets that retain their long range crystallinity show sharply defined, regular features that are related to the target structure. Targets that are highly disordered, either intrinsically or as a result of the ion bombardment, produce diffuse, smaller features. Those differences are observed at all stages in topographical evolution. (orig.)

  15. Effective source size, radial, angular and energy spread of therapeutic 11C positron emitter beams produced by 12C fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2014-02-01

    The use of positron emitter light ion beams in combination with PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and PET-CT (Computed Tomography) imaging could significantly improve treatment verification and dose delivery imaging during radiation therapy. The present study is dedicated to the analysis of the beam quality in terms of the effective source size, as well as radial, angular and energy spread of the 11C ion beam produced by projectile fragmentation of a primary point monodirectional and monoenergetic 12C ion beam in a dedicated range shifter of different materials. This study was performed combining analytical methods describing the transport of particles in matter and the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT+. A high brilliance and production yield of 11C fragments with a small effective source size and emittance is best achieved with a decelerator made of two media: a first liquid hydrogen section of about 20 cm followed by a hydrogen rich section of variable length. The calculated intensity of the produced 11C ion beam ranges from about 5% to 8% of the primary 12C beam intensity depending on the exit energy and the acceptance of the beam transport system. The angular spread is lower than 1 degree for all the materials studied, but the brilliance of the beam is the highest with the proposed mixed decelerator.

  16. The Impact of Beam Deposition on Bootstrap Current of Fast Ion Produced by Neutral Beam Tangential Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qian-Hong; Gong Xue-Yu; Lu Xing-Qiang; Yu Jun; Cao Jin-Jia

    2015-01-01

    The density profile of fast ions arising from a tangentially injected diffuse neutral beam in tokamak plasma is calculated. The effects of mean free paths and beam tangency radius on the density profile are discussed under typical HL-2A plasmas parameters. The results show that the profile of fast ions is strongly peaked at the center of the plasma when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than the minor radius, while the peak value decreases when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than twice that of the minor radius due to the beam transmission loss. Moreover, the bootstrap current of fast ions for various mean free paths at the maximum deuteron density is calculated and its density is proved to be closely related to the deposition of the neutral beam. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases. Meanwhile, the peak central fast ion density increases when the beam tangency radius approaches the major radius, and the net bootstrap current increases rapidly with the increasing beam tangency radius. (paper)

  17. Intense 31-35Ar beams produced with a nanostructured CaO target at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, J. P.; Gottberg, A.; Mendonça, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    At the ISOLDE facility at CERN, thick targets are bombarded with highly energetic pulsed protons to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The isotopes produced in the bulk of the material have to diffuse out of the grain and effuse throughout the porosity of the material to a transfer line which ...

  18. A possible method to produce a polarized antiproton beam at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Vaandering, E.W.; Hofmann, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    A feasible and conservative design for a medium energy polarized antiproton beam has been presented. The design requires an intense beam of unpolarized antiprotons (≥ 10 7 /sec) from a typical secondary beam line in order to achieve reasonable anti pp elastic scattering count rates. All three beam spin directions can be achieved. Methods were discussed to reverse the spin directions in modest times, and to change to a polarized proton beam if desired. It is expected that experiments with such a beam would have a profound effect on the understanding of the anti NN interaction at intermediate energies

  19. Quasiclassical trajectory study of the molecular beam kinetics of the deuterium atom--hydrogen halide exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, L.M.; Suzukawa, H.H. Jr.; Thompson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Unadjusted quasiclassical trajectory computations have been carried out to simulate the molecular beam scattering of thermal D atom beams at 2800 degreeK crossed with beams of HCl and HI at 250 degreeK. Total reaction cross sections, energy partitioning distributions, and differential scattering cross sections have been computed for the exchange reactions D+HCl → DCl+H and D+HI → DI+H while total reaction cross sections are reported for the corresponding abstractions, i.e., D+HCl → HD+Cl and D+HI → HD+I. For the exchange reactions, the computed reaction cross sections are within the range estimated from the crossed beam experiments. The calculated average energy partitioned into relative translational motion of products is in near quantitative agreement with the beam results, and the predicted differential scattering cross sections appear to be in qualitative accord with the beam experiments. The over-all agreement between theory and experiment indicates that previously computed values for the thermal rate coefficients for the exchange reactions are of the right order and that a systematic error exists in the interpretation of photolysis data in the hydrogen--hydrogen halide systems

  20. First test experiment to produce the slowed-down RI beam with the momentum-compression mode at RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikama, T., E-mail: sumikama@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ahn, D.S.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoi, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO), CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France); Hasegawa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ideguchi, E. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imai, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    The {sup 82}Ge beam has been produced by the in-flight fission reaction of the {sup 238}U primary beam with 345 MeV/u at the RIKEN RI beam factory, and slowed down to about 15 MeV/u using the energy degraders. The momentum-compression mode was applied to the second stage of the BigRIPS separator to reduce the momentum spread. The energy was successfully reduced down to 13 ± 2.5 MeV/u as expected. The focus was not optimized at the end of the second stage, therefore the beam size was larger than the expectation. The transmission of the second stage was half of the simulated value mainly due to out of focus. The two-stage separation worked very well for the slowed-down beam with the momentum-compression mode.

  1. Search for Light Dark Matter Produced in a Proton Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Remington Tyler [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological observations indicate that our universe contains dark matter (DM), yet we have no measurements of its microscopic properties. Whereas the gravitational interaction of DM is well understood, its interaction with the Standard Model is not. Direct detection experiments, the current standard, search for a nuclear recoil interaction and have a low-mass sensitivity edge of order 1 GeV. A path to detect DM with mass below 1 GeV is the use of accelerators producing boosted low-mass DM. Using neutrino detectors to search for low-mass DM is logical due to the similarity of the DM and neutrino signatures in the detector. The MiniBooNE experiment, located at Fermilab on the Booster Neutrino Beamline, has produced the first proton beam-dump light DM search results. Using dark matter scattering from nucleons 90% confidence limits were set over a large parameter space and, to allow tests of other theories, a model independent DM rate was extracted.

  2. Electron spin resonance of the solvation of radiation-produced silver atoms in alcohol-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.S.W.; Kevan, L.

    1982-01-01

    Frozen solutions of silver salts exposed to 60 Co γ-irradiation form silver atoms by reaction of radiation-produced electrons with the silver ion. At 4 K the silver atoms are initially produced in a nonequilibrium or presolvated state and upon brief thermal excitation to 77 K the first solvation shell geometry changes towards an equilibrium or solvated silver atom. This is most pronounced in water but also occurs in methanol, ethanol and n-propanol matrices. The changes in the electron spin resonance magnetic parameters upon silver atom solvation have been determined. In alcohol-water mixtures Ag 0 is preferentially solvated by polycrystalline water at low alcohol concentration. Above a particular alcohol mole percent Ag 0 suddenly changes its environment to a glassy alcohol one. This sudden change occurs at 17, 13 and 6 mol % methanol, ethanol and n-propanol, respectively. These mole percents correlate with the minimum of the excess enthalpy of mixing and with the hydrogen atom trapping ability of these alcohol-water mixtures. The results also suggest that the local environmental disorder around Ag 0 increases with alcohol chain length in alcohol-water frozen solutions. (author)

  3. Optical emissions from an ionized channel produced by an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the visible light generated by the Astron beam (5 MeV, 400 A) in passing through 500 torr air and nitrogen are reported. Experiments show that in the presence of the beam, the light is from .01 to 0.1 percent sun's brightness. After the beam, the light decays extremely rapidly. The size and position of the beam in the gas can be determined from observations of the channel light

  4. Atomic retention and near infrared photoluminescence from PbSe nanocrystals fabricated by sequential ion implantation and electron beam annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R.J.; Kennedy, J.; Fang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals of PbSe have been fabricated in a silicon dioxide matrix by sequential low energy ion implantation followed by an electron beam annealing step. Transmission electron microscopy reveals PbSe nanocrystals with typical sizes between 3 and 10 nm in the sub-surface region. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used to study the total atomic retention, as a function of implanted atoms, following annealing. Photoluminescence was observed in various samples, at 4 K, as a broad peak between 1.4 and 2.0 μm, with observation of a dependence of the peak wavelength on annealing temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed for samples with a high retention of implanted atoms, demonstrating the importance of nanocrystal density for achieving ambient temperature emission in these systems

  5. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  6. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V produced via electron beam additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian J.

    In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) has become an increasingly promising method used for the production of structural metallic components. There are a number of reasons why AM methods are attractive, including the ability to produce complex geometries into a near-net shape and the rapid transition from design to production. Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy frequently used in the aerospace industry which is receiving considerable attention as a good candidate for processing via electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM). The Sciaky EBAM method combines a high-powered electron beam, weld-wire feedstock, and a large build chamber, enabling the production of large structural components. In order to gain wide acceptance of EBAM of Ti-6Al-4V as a viable manufacturing method, it is important to understand broadly the microstructural features that are present in large-scale depositions, including specifically: the morphology, distribution and texture of the phases present. To achieve such an understanding, stereological methods were used to populate a database quantifying key microstructural features in Ti-6Al-4V including volume fraction of phases, alpha lath width, colony scale factor, and volume fraction of basket weave type microstructure. Microstructural features unique to AM, such as elongated grains and banded structures, were also characterized. Hardness and tensile testing were conducted and the results were related to the microstructural morphology and sample orientation. Lastly, fractured surfaces and defects were investigated. The results of these activities provide insight into the process-structure-properties relationships found in EBAM processed Ti-6Al-4V.

  7. Effect of airstream velocity on mean drop diameters of water sprays produced by pressure and air atomizing nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning radiometer was used to determine the effect of airstream velocity on the mean drop diameter of water sprays produced by pressure atomizing and air atomizing fuel nozzles used in previous combustion studies. Increasing airstream velocity from 23 to 53.4 meters per second reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 50 percent with both types of fuel nozzles. The use of a sonic cup attached to the tip of an air assist nozzle reduced the Sauter mean diameter by approximately 40 percent. Test conditions included airstream velocities of 23 to 53.4 meters per second at 293 K and atmospheric pressure.

  8. Lifetime broadening of atomic lines produced upon ultrafast dissociation of HCl and HBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lablanquie, P., E-mail: pascal.lablanquie@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Iwayama, H. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Penent, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Soejima, K. [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafast dissociation of HCl is triggered by 2p{sub 3/2} → σ* excitation. • Ultrafast dissociation of HBr is triggered by 3d{sub 5/2} → σ* excitation. • Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals sharp vibrational molecular lines and broad atomic lines. • The profiles of the atomic lines are analyzed in detail. • We extract the lifetime of the inner shell hole in the neutral atomic fragment. - Abstract: Ultrafast dissociation of the HCl and HBr molecules excited respectively to the 2p{sub 3/2} → σ* and 3d{sub 5/2} → σ* resonances are studied with high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. Sharp vibrational molecular lines and broad atomic lines are observed. The analysis of the profile of the atomic lines gives access to the lifetimes of the inner shell 2p{sub 3/2} hole in the Cl* (2p{sub 3/2}){sup −1} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} configuration, and the inner shell 3d{sub 5/2} hole in the Br* (3d{sub 5/2}){sup −1} 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 6} configuration.

  9. Positron beam lifetime spectroscopy of atomic scale defect distributions in bulk and microscopic volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Cowan, T.E.; Hartley, J.; Sterne, P.; Brown, B.

    1996-05-01

    We are developing a defect analysis capability based on two positron beam lifetime spectrometers: the first is based on a 3 MeV electrostatic accelerator and the second on our high current linac beam. The high energy beam lifetime spectrometer is operational and positron lifetime analysis is performed with a 3 MeV positron beam on thick samples. It is being used for bulk sample analysis and analysis of samples encapsulated in controlled environments for insitu measurements. A second, low energy, microscopically focused, pulsed positron beam for defect analysis by positron lifetime spectroscopies is under development at the LLNL high current positron source. This beam will enable defect specific, 3-D maps of defect concentration with sub-micron location resolution and when coupled with first principles calculations of defect specific positron lifetimes it will enable new levels of defect concentration mapping and defect identification

  10. Development of a two-dimensional simulation code (koad) including atomic processes for beam direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshikawa, K.; Hattori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional simulation code for the beam direct energy conversion called KVAD (Kyoto University Advanced DART) including various loss mechanisms has been developed, and shown excellent agreement with the authors' experiments using the He + beams. The beam direct energy converter (BDC) is the device to recover the kinetic energy of unneutralized ions in the neutral beam injection (NBI) system directly into electricity. The BDC is very important and essential not only to the improvements of NBI system efficiency, but also to the relaxation of high heat flux problems on the beam dump with increase of injection energies. So far no simulation code could have successfully predicted BDC experimental results. The KUAD code applies, an optimized algorithm for vector processing, the finite element method (FEM) for potential calculation, and a semi-automatic method for spatial segmentations. Since particle trajectories in the KVAD code are analytically solved, very high speed tracings of the particle could be achieved by introducing an adjacent element matrix to identify the neighboring triangle elements and electrodes. Ion space charges are also analytically calculated by the Cloud in Cell (CIC) method, as well as electron space charges. Power losses due to atomic processes can be also evaluated in the KUAD code

  11. Precision spectroscopy of the 2S-4P{sub 1/2} transition in atomic hydrogen on a cold thermal beam of optically excited 2S atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Axel; Kolachevsky, Nikolai; Alnis, Janis; Yost, Dylan C.; Matveev, Arthur; Parthey, Christian G.; Pohl, Randolf; Udem, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Khabarova, Ksenia [FSUE ' VNIIFTRI' , 141570 Moscow (Russian Federation); Haensch, Theodor W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, 80799 Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The 'proton size puzzle', i.e. the discrepancy between the values for the proton r.m.s. charge radius deduced from precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and electron-proton-scattering on one side and the value deduced from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy on the other side, has been persisting for more than two years now. Although huge efforts have been put into trying to resolve this discrepancy from experimental and theoretical side, no convincing argument could be found so far. In this talk, we report on a unique precision spectroscopy experiment on atomic hydrogen, which is aiming to bring some light to the hydrogen part of the puzzle: In contrast to any previous high resolution experiment probing a transition frequency between the meta-stable 2S state and a higher lying nL state (n=3,4,6,8,12, L=S,P,D), our measurement of the 2S-4P{sub 1/2} transition frequency is the first experiment being performed on a cold thermal beam of hydrogen atoms optically excited to the 2S state. We will discuss how this helps to efficiently suppresses leading systematic effects of previous measurements and present the preliminary results we obtained so far.

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus and of Aspergillus niger using beams of argon ions, of oxygen molecules and of oxygen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, V; Benedikt, J; Keudell, A von [Research Group Reactive Plasmas, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Wunderlich, J [Fraunhofer Institut for Process Engineering and Packaging, Giggenhauser Strasse 35, 85354 Freising (Germany)], E-mail: Achim.vonKeudell@rub.de

    2008-06-07

    The inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus and of Aspergillus niger using beams of argon ions, of oxygen molecules and of oxygen atoms is studied. Thereby, the conditions occurring in oxygen containing low pressure plasmas are mimicked and fundamental inactivation mechanisms can be revealed. It is shown that the impact of O atoms has no effect on the viability of the spores and that no etching of the spore coat occurs up to an O atom fluence of 3.5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}. The impact of argon ions with an energy of 200 eV does not cause significant erosion for fluences up to 1.15 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. However, the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules or atoms causes significant etching of the spores and significant inactivation. This is explained by the process of chemical sputtering, where an ion-induced defect at the surface of the spore reacts with either the incident bi-radical O{sub 2} or with an incident O atom. This leads to the formation of CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and thus to erosion.

  13. Plasma waves produced by an ion beam: observations by the VLF experiment on Porcupine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the VLF electric field experiments flown on Porcupine flights F3 and F4, which also had ejectable xenon ion sources. The xenon ion beam was found to produce plasma instabilities whose frequencies could be linked to the local proton gyrofrequency fsub(cH + ). The main energy in the instabilities lies at approximately 3kHz for events when the Xe + source is close to the rocket, and at approximately 7kHz when the source is farther away. Theory predicts that these frequencies should be the lower-hybrid-resonance and this implies that Xe + is the dominant ion in the first case and that it is the ambient plasma that dominates later. There is no discernable antenna spin-modulation during the Xe events which indicates that the wave k-vectors are not unidirectional. A theory is cited based on the 'setting up' of the proton cyclotron harmonic waves by the Xe + or O + cyclotron harmonic waves. The second Xe + event on both flights exhibited an, as yet, unexplained harmonic structure related to fsub(cH + )/2. (Auth.)

  14. The structure and properties of a nickel-base superalloy produced by osprey atomization-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Rodger H.

    1986-04-01

    The production of a nickel-base superalloy, René* 80, by the Osprey atomization-deposition process has been investigated. Dense (>99 pct) material with a fine-grained equiaxed microstructure was deposited using either argon or nitrogen as the atomizing gas. Defects present in the material included a chill region at the collector plate interface, entrapped recirculated particles, porosity, and ceramic particles from the melting and dispensing system. In contrast to other rapid solidification techniques, low oxygen pick-ups are noted in the current technique. Tensile strengths above those displayed by castings are found in both nitrogen and argon atomized material, and in both the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. In addition, no profound mid-temperature ductility loss is displayed by this low oxygen material, in contrast to results on other rapidly solidified material with high oxygen contents. These results are explained in terms of oxygen embrittlement. In view of the excellent properties measured, the attractive economics of the process, and the fact that fine control of the gas/metal flow ratio is shown to be unnecessary, it is concluded that atomization-deposition presents an attractive potential production route for advanced alloys.

  15. Properties of atomic pairs produced in the collision of Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziń, Paweł; Wasak, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    During a collision of Bose-Einstein condensates correlated pairs of atoms are emitted. The scattered massive particles, in analogy to photon pairs in quantum optics, might be used in the violation of Bell's inequalities, demonstration of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, or sub-shot-noise atomic interferometry. Usually, a theoretical description of the collision relies either on stochastic numerical methods or on analytical treatments involving various approximations. Here, we investigate elastic scattering of atoms from colliding elongated Bose-Einstein condensates within the Bogoliubov method, carefully controlling performed approximations at every stage of the analysis. We derive expressions for the one- and two-particle correlation functions. The obtained formulas, which relate the correlation functions to the condensate wave function, are convenient for numerical calculations. We employ the variational approach for condensate wave functions to obtain analytical expressions for the correlation functions, whose properties we analyze in detail. We also present a useful semiclassical model of the process and compare its results with the quantum one. The results are relevant for recent experiments with excited helium atoms, as well as for planned experiments aimed at investigating the nonclassicality of the system.

  16. Investigations on the production of labelled organic compounds by recoil labelling with gamma,n-produced 11-C-atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenbach, U.

    1981-01-01

    ''Hot'' 11 C atoms are produced from 12 C(γ,n) 11 C nuclear reactions by bremsstrahlung at the 65 MeV electron linear accelerator in Giessen. The relative retention in various C-atoms of the amino acid, methionine, is determined by splitting of the terminal C-atoms of the molecule and by independent determination of the content of 11 C in the isolated and derived fragments. The terminal groups (thiomethyl or carboxyl groups) each carry approx. 25% of the total retained radioactivity, the remaining 50% being spread over the three inner carbon atoms. The activation of alkylamines, crystallised as hydrochlorides, hydrofluorides, oxalates and sulphates, leads to similar yields of direct labelling from 5 to 15%. Amines activated in the liquid state show a retention of less than 5%. The yields for labelled synthetic products are between 10 and 15% for amino acids and are often higher for crystallised amines. Amines activated in the liquid state produced greater yields of synthesis products but at the same time an increase in the product range. The labelled synthesis products can be separated faster by suitable methods such as preparative HPLC and are then available for carrier-free studies in the life sciences. (orig./EF) [de

  17. Accelerator system for producing two-component beams for studies of interactive surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Ekern, R.; Hess, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    For studies of interactive surface effects caused by the simultaneous bombardment of targets by both chemically active and inactive ion species (e.g., D + and He + , respectively) a two beam component accelerator facility was placed in operation. One component, consisting of light ions (e.g., H, D, He) is accelerated by a 2-MV Van de Graaff accelerator which provides a mass analyzed and focussed beam for the energy range from approximately 100-keV to 2-MeV (for singly charged ions). The other component is a beam of light ions in the energy range from approximately 10-keV to 100-keV. This is furnished by a 100-kV dc accelerator system which provides a mass analyzed focussed beam. This beam is guided into the beam line of the Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically, and with the aid of beam steerers it is made to be co-axial with the Van de Graaff generated beam. The angle of incidence becomes hereby a free parameter for the interaction of the mixed beams with a surface. For each beam component, current densities of 650 μA cm -2 on target can readily be obtained. In order to reduce carbon contamination of the irradiated targets significantly, stainless steel beam lines have been used together with a combination of turbomolecular pumps and ion-sublimation pumps.A total pressure of 2 to 3 x 10 -8 torr in the beam lines and of 2 x 10 -9 torr in the target chamber can be obtained readily. Experimental results on the surface damage of Ni bombarded simultaneously with He + and D + ions are presented. The importance of such studies of interactive surface effects for the controlled thermonuclear fusion program are discussed

  18. Study of the light emission from hydrogen atoms excited by the beam-foil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broll, Norbert.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-field and Stark-induced quantum beat measurements have been performed for beam foil excited hydrogen (H + and H 2 + beam). Experimental evidence of coherent excitation of S and P states of Lyman α line has been demonstrated [fr

  19. Investigation of the effect of the incorporated Fe atoms in the ion-beam induced nanopatterns on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbabaee, Behnam; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Festkoerperphysik; Cornejo, Marina; Frost, Frank [Leibniz-Institute fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V. (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam erosion of semiconductor surfaces can modify the surface and depends on main sputtering parameters; different surface topographies such as ripple or dot like pattern are fabricated on the surface. Recent experiments have shown that the incorporation of foreign metallic atoms during the sputtering process plays a crucial role in pattern formation on surfaces. In the result of investigation we report on the depth profile of Fe atoms incorporated in sputtering process on Si(100) with low energy Kr ion beam. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements determine the concentration profile of Fe atoms. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at the Fe K-edge (7112 eV) shows the formation of Fe rich silicide near surface region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows a shift in the binding energy of Si2p levels at the surface compared top bulk confirming the formation of different phases of Fe-silicide on tope and below the surface. The depth profiles obtained by XRR are compared to results obtained by complementary secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

  20. A crossed-beam experiment on intramultiplet mixing collisions with short-lived Ne** {(2p)5(3p)} atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, M.P.I.; Ruyten, W.M.J.; van de Beucken, F..J.H.M.; Driessen, J.P.J.; Veugelers, W.J.T.; Kramer, P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; van Hoek, W.B.M.; Sandker, G.J.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    We describe the design, operation, and calibration of a crossed-beam experiment for the study of intramultiplet mixing collisions of short-lived electronically excited Ne{(2p)5(3p)}≡{α} atoms with ground-state atoms/molecules. The excellent performance of almost 1 kHz/Å2 (number of counts per unit

  1. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The experimental activities at GSI were concentrated on the progress in beam-plasma interaction experiments of heavy ion with ionized matter, plasma -lens forming devices, intense beam at high temperature experimental area, and charge exchange collisions of ions. The development to higher intensities and phase space densities during 1993 for the SIS and the ESR is recorded. The possibility of studying of funneling of two beams in a two-beam RFQ is studied. Specific results are presented with respect to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The problem of ion stopping in plasma and pumping X-ray lasers with heavy ion beams are discussed. Various contributions deal with dense plasma effects, shocks and opacity. (HP)

  2. Calculation of back-reflected intensities of a Na-atom beam by standing evanescent E-M field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.; Goodman, P.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the computation of the back-scattered intensities of atomic beams, diffracted from the evanescent field generated outside an optical plate by internal counter-propagating laser beams. The method derives from a procedure developed for the similar but importantly differing problem of Low Energy Electron Diffraction, (Lynch and Smith, 1983). Modifications to that theory required for the present problem bring the equations closer to the RHEED solution proposed by Ichimiya (1983). Results from multi-slicing from the same narrow field depth (2 Aangstroems) in this strong field case show the success and also limitations of the program in its present form. Computation to greater depth in the strong field leads to numerical instabilities due to the incorporation of very large tunnelling terms. This requires the application of boundary conditions at each slice rather than the end of the multi-slice calculation. 7 refs., 3 figs

  3. Effect of Pt:Sn atomic ratio on the preparation of PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V.

    2009-01-01

    PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by chronoamperometry. The XRD diffractograms of the PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed typical face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of platinum and the presence of a SnO 2 phase (cassiterite). The mean crystallite sizes of Pt fcc phase was in the range of 3.0-3.5 nm. The PtSn/C electrocatalysts were active for ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature and the material prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 showed the best activity. (author)

  4. Effect of Pt:Sn atomic ratio on the preparation of PtSn/C electrocatalysts using electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Dionisio F.; Oliveira Neto, Almir; Pino, Eddy S.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V., E-mail: dfsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: espinace@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    PtSn/C electrocatalysts were prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 in water/2-propanol using electron beam irradiation. The obtained materials were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The ethanol electro-oxidation was studied by chronoamperometry. The XRD diffractograms of the PtSn/C electrocatalysts showed typical face-centered cubic (fcc) structure of platinum and the presence of a SnO{sub 2} phase (cassiterite). The mean crystallite sizes of Pt fcc phase was in the range of 3.0-3.5 nm. The PtSn/C electrocatalysts were active for ethanol electro-oxidation at room temperature and the material prepared with Pt:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1 showed the best activity. (author)

  5. Study of the Dissociative Processes in O_2 Discharges. Development of an Atomic Oxygen Beam Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnon, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this work is devoted to the study of dissociative processes in an oxygen glow discharge at low pressure (0,1-5 Torr, 1-80 mA). The kinetics of oxygen atoms has been determined supported by the measurements of atomic concentrations by VUV absorption spectroscopy and actinometry. The reaction coefficients for dissociative excitation and direct excitation of oxygen atoms have been calculated using the cross sections of the literature and a previously calculated EEDF. It has been demonstrated that dissociative excitation is negligible in respect with direct excitation for dissociation rates smaller than 2,5 %. An upper limit of 20 % for dissociative rates is observed. This limit has been explained by the increase of the atomic recombination at the discharge wall with increasing wall temperature. Using all these results, we have designed and optimized a source of oxygen atoms which has then been adapted on a MBE device. The spatial distribution of the atomic density has been measured in molecular jet by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and Resonant Multi-Photon Ionization (RMPI). A stimulated emission has been evidenced and the coefficient for this process evaluated. A model for the effusion of atoms has been developed from which the flow of atoms on the sample can be predicted. This source has already been used in industrial MBE devices for in-situ oxidation of copper films, superconductors, and substrates for VLSI high speed applications. The methodology of this work and the diagnostics developed can be applied to other kinds of discharges, of other molecular gases, to design sources of atoms for the treatment of large area samples. (author) [fr

  6. Depth profile investigation of the incorporated iron atoms during Kr{sup +} ion beam sputtering on Si (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbabaee, B., E-mail: khanbabaee@physik.uni-siegen.de [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Arezki, B.; Biermanns, A. [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Cornejo, M.; Hirsch, D. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V. (IOM), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D. [Abteilung Physik, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Frost, F. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V. (IOM), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Pietsch, U. [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the incorporation of iron atoms during nano-patterning of Si surfaces induced by 2 keV Kr{sup +} ion beam erosion under an off-normal incidence angle of 15°. Considering the low penetration depth of the ions, we have used X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) under grazing-incidence angles in order to determine the depth profile and phase composition of the incorporated iron atoms in the near surface region, complemented by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. XRR analysis shows the accumulation of metallic atoms within a near surface layer of a few nanometer thickness. We verify that surface pattern formation takes place only when the co-sputtered Fe concentration exceeds a certain limit. For high Fe concentration, the ripple formation is accompanied by the enhancement of Fe close to the surface, whereas no Fe enhancement is found for low Fe concentration at samples with smooth surfaces. Modeling of the measured XANES spectra reveals the appearance of different silicide phases with decreasing Fe content from the top towards the volume. - Highlights: ► We investigate the incorporation of iron atoms during nano-patterning of Si surfaces. ► Pattern formation occurs when the areal density of Fe exceeds a certain threshold. ► X-ray reflectivity shows a layering at near surface due to incorporated Fe atoms. ► It is shown that the patterning is accompanied with the appearance of Fe-rich silicide.

  7. An atomic hydrogen beam to test ASACUSA's apparatus for antihydrogen spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Diermaier, Martin; Kolbinger, Bernadette; Malbrunot, Chloé; Massiczek, Oswald; Sauerzopf, Clemens; Simon, Martin C.; Wolf, Michael; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    The ASACUSA collaboration aims to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting (GS-HFS) of antihydrogen, the antimatter pendant to atomic hydrogen. Comparisons of the corresponding transitions in those two systems will provide sensitive tests of the CPT symmetry, the combination of the three discrete symmetries charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal. For offline tests of the GS-HFS spectroscopy apparatus we constructed a source of cold polarised atomic hydrogen. In these proceedings we report the successful observation of the hyperfine structure transitions of atomic hydrogen with our apparatus in the earth's magnetic field.

  8. An atomic hydrogen beam to test ASACUSA’s apparatus for antihydrogen spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diermaier, M., E-mail: martin.diermaier@oeaw.ac.at; Caradonna, P.; Kolbinger, B. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics (Austria); Malbrunot, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Wolf, M.; Zmeskal, J.; Widmann, E. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The ASACUSA collaboration aims to measure the ground state hyperfine splitting (GS-HFS) of antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart to atomic hydrogen. Comparisons of the corresponding transitions in those two systems will provide sensitive tests of the CPT symmetry, the combination of the three discrete symmetries charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal. For offline tests of the GS-HFS spectroscopy apparatus we constructed a source of cold polarised atomic hydrogen. In these proceedings we report the successful observation of the hyperfine structure transitions of atomic hydrogen with our apparatus in the earth’s magnetic field.

  9. Experimental observations of electron-backscatter effects from high-atomic-number anodes in large-aspect-ratio, electron-beam diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperstein, G; Mosher, D; Stephanakis, S J; Weber, B V; Young, F C [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Backscattered electrons from anodes with high-atomic-number substrates cause early-time anode-plasma formation from the surface layer leading to faster, more intense electron beam pinching, and lower diode impedance. A simple derivation of Child-Langmuir current from a thin hollow cathode shows the same dependence on the diode aspect ratio as critical current. Using this fact, it is shown that the diode voltage and current follow relativistic Child-Langmuir theory until the anode plasma is formed, and then follows critical current after the beam pinches. With thin hollow cathodes, electron beam pinching can be suppressed at low voltages (< 800 kV) even for high currents and high-atomic-number anodes. Electron beam pinching can also be suppressed at high voltages for low-atomic-number anodes as long as the electron current densities remain below the plasma turn-on threshold. (author). 8 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  11. Development of a Permanent Magnet ECR Source to Produce a 5 mA Deuteron Beam at CEA/Saclay

    CERN Document Server

    Gobin, R; Delferrière, O; Ferdinand, R; Harrault, F

    2004-01-01

    The high intensity light ion source, SILHI, is an ECR ion source operating at 2.45 GHz which produces high intensity (over 100 mA) proton or deuteron beams at 95 keV. It has been moved in the IPHI building after a complete dismantling. At the beginning of 2003, after tuning the source parameters at standard values, the first extracted beam reached more than 70 mA within a few minutes. This encouraged us to propose a permanent magnet source based on the SILHI design to fit in with the injector of the Spiral2 project, requesting 5 mA of D+

  12. Investigation of the composition of an ion beam produced using a multi arc ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelko, V [Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giese, H; Schalk, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). INR; Mishin, M; Tsibin, O Y [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Complementing the diode and beam transport optimization studies currently performed at FZK Karlsruhe on the proton-beam-facility PROFA, supplementary investigations were run at the St. Petersburg State University, focusing on ion beam divergence and composition measurements using the TOF techniques. To ensure direct transferability of the results to the PROFA facility, these measurements were made on a scaled-down replica of the PROFA diode, comprising an array of small polyethylene flash-over plasma sources and a grid extraction system. Only the results of the beam composition measurements are presented, and the following conclusions are made: (i) The ion beam contains H and C ions and heavier constituents that remain to be identified. (ii) The beam composition changes significantly with the total number of shots: While H{sup +} ions predominated in the starting phase of the experiments, heavier components outweighed them later on, presumably due to hydrogen depletion of the surface layer of the anode polyethylene units. (iii) Reconditioning of the polyethylene units may be possible by running the diode at higher currents (self-cleaning) or by cutting off a surface layer. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Enhanced self-magnetic field by atomic polarization in partially stripped plasma produced by a short and intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qianglin; Liu Shibing; Jiang, Y.J.; Zhang Jie

    2005-01-01

    The enhancement and redistribution of a self-generated quasistatic magnetic field, due to the presence of the polarization field induced by partially ionized atoms, are analytically revealed when a linearly polarized intense and short pulse laser propagates in a partially stripped plasma with higher density. In particular, the shorter wavelength of the laser pulse can evidently intensify the amplitude of the magnetic field. These enhancement and redistribution of the magnetic field are considered physically as a result of the competition of the electrostatic field (electron-ion separation) associated with the plasma wave, the atomic polarization field, and the pondoromotive potential associated with the laser field. This competition leads to the generation of a positive, large amplitude magnetic field in the zone of the pulse center, which forms a significant difference in partially and fully stripped plasmas. The numerical result shows further that the magnetic field is resonantly modulated by the plasma wave when the pulse length is the integer times the plasma wavelength. This apparently implies that the further enhancement and restructure of the large amplitude self-magnetic field can evidently impede the acceleration and stable transfer of the hot-electron beam

  14. Electron beam produced in a transient hollow cathode discharge: beam electron distribution function, X-ray emission and solid target ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, Magdalena

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis aims at a better knowledge of phenomena occurring during transient hollow cathode discharges. The author first recalls the characteristics of such a discharge which make it different from conventional pseudo-spark discharges. The objective is to characterise the electron beam produced within the discharge, and the phenomena associated with its interaction with a solid or gaseous target, leading to the production of an X ray or visible radiation. Thus, the author reports the measurement (by magnetic deflection) of the whole time-averaged electronic distribution function. Such a knowledge is essential for a better use of the electron beam in applications such as X-ray source or material ablation. As high repetition frequency pulse X ray sources are very interesting tools, he reports the development and characterisation of Bremsstrahlung X rays during a beam-target interaction. He finally addresses the implementation of a spectroscopic diagnosis for the filamentary plasma and the ablation of a solid target by the beam [fr

  15. Characterization of 17-4PH stainless steel powders produced by supersonic gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ming; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Zhang, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Guo-Liang

    2012-01-01

    17-4PH stainless steel powders were prepared using a supersonic nozzle in a close-coupled gas atomization system. The characteristics of powder particles were carried out by means of a laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results show that the mass median particle diameter is about 19.15 μm. Three main types of surface microstructures are observed in the powders: well-developed dendrite, cellular, and cellular dendrite structure. The XRD measurements show that, as the particle size decreases, the amount of fcc phase gradually decreases and that of bcc phase increases. The cooling rate is inversely related to the particle size, i.e., it decreases with an increase in particle size.

  16. Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng

    2009-10-01

    A range of ion beam techniques have been used to fabricate a variety of photonic guiding structures in the well-known lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LN) crystals that are of great importance in integrated photonics/optics. This paper reviews the up-to-date research progress of ion-beam-processed LiNbO3 photonic structures and reports on their fabrication, characterization, and applications. Ion beams are being used with this material in a wide range of techniques, as exemplified by the following examples. Ion beam milling/etching can remove the selected surface regions of LiNbO3 crystals via the sputtering effects. Ion implantation and swift ion irradiation can form optical waveguide structures by modifying the surface refractive indices of the LiNbO3 wafers. Crystal ion slicing has been used to obtain bulk-quality LiNbO3 single-crystalline thin films or membranes by exfoliating the implanted layer from the original substrate. Focused ion beams can either generate small structures of micron or submicron dimensions, to realize photonic bandgap crystals in LiNbO3, or directly write surface waveguides or other guiding devices in the crystal. Ion beam-enhanced etching has been extensively applied for micro- or nanostructuring of LiNbO3 surfaces. Methods developed to fabricate a range of photonic guiding structures in LiNbO3 are introduced. Modifications of LiNbO3 through the use of various energetic ion beams, including changes in refractive index and properties related to the photonic guiding structures as well as to the materials (i.e., electro-optic, nonlinear optic, luminescent, and photorefractive features), are overviewed in detail. The application of these LiNbO3 photonic guiding structures in both micro- and nanophotonics are briefly summarized.

  17. Supersonic Fe beam source for chromatic aberration-free laser focusing of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, R C M; Van der Straten, P; Leeuwen, K A H

    2002-01-01

    A monochromatic Fe beam is generated by heated supersonic expansion of argon seeded with Fe vapor. At a nozzle temperature of 1930 K and 800 torr argon inlet pressure the Fe beam has an axial velocity spread of 8% and intensity of 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 s sup - sup 1 sr sup - sup 1 , corresponding to a deposition rate of 10 nm/h at 150 mm from the nozzle. The two-chamber alumina crucibles are chemically stable for liquid Fe. With 400 mm sup 3 Fe we have operated for more than 200 hours without reloading. The power consumption at 1930 K is 750 W. Temperature stability at constant power (without feedback) is better than 30 K. The source is intended for deposition of nano-structures by laser focusing of the Fe beam. The small axial velocity spread virtually eliminates the increase in focal spot size due to chromatic aberration. (authors)

  18. Beam experiments with state selected Ne (3P0, 3P2) metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable rare gas atoms play an important role in all types of plasmas and gas discharges, e.g. in fluorescent lamps and in laser discharges (helium-neon laser or excimer lasers). In this thesis, the metastable states of NeI are studied. First, the theory of excited neon atoms and diatomic molecules is introduced, as well as Penning ionisation. Next, some experimental facilities are described (e.g. the dye laser system). With these instruments, natural lifetime measurements of the 2p fine structure states of NeI are carried out. Results are reported. Finally, total Penning ionisation cross sections are calculated using the optical potential model. (Auth.)

  19. Measurement of the Wigner function via atomic beam deflection in the Raman-Nath regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, Ashfaq H [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M Suhail [Center for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2006-12-28

    A method for the reconstruction of photon statistics and even the Wigner function of a quantized cavity field state is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of momentum distribution of two-level atoms in the Raman-Nath regime. Both the cases of resonant and off-resonant atom-field interaction are considered. The Wigner function is reconstructed by displacing the photon statistics of the cavity field. This reconstruction method is straightforward and does not need much mathematical manipulation of experimental data.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy of a CMSX-4 Ni-Base Superalloy Produced by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza B. Parsa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the microstructures of superalloy specimens produced using selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing were characterized. The materials were produced using a CMSX-4 powder. Two selective electron beam melting processing strategies, which result in higher and lower effective cooling rates, are described. Orientation imaging microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and conventional high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to investigate the microstructures. Our results suggest that selective electron beam melting processing results in near equilibrium microstructures, as far as γ′ volume fractions, the formation of small amounts of TCP phases and the partitioning behavior of the alloy elements are concerned. As expected, higher cooling rates result in smaller dendrite spacings, which are two orders of magnitude smaller than observed during conventional single crystal casting. During processing, columnar grains grow in <100> directions, which are rotated with respect to each other. There are coarse γ/γ′ microstructures in high angle boundary regions. Dislocation networks form low angle boundaries. A striking feature of the as processed selective electron beam melting specimens is their high dislocation density. From a fundamental point of view, this opens new possibilities for the investigation of elementary dislocation processes which accompany solidification.

  1. Start broadened profiles with self-consistent radiation transfer and atomic kinetics in plasmas produced by high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.; Comly, J.C.; La Gattuta, J.K.; Kilcrease, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    Spectral line shapes and line strengths have long been used to diagnose plasma temperatures and densities. In dense plasmas, the additional broadening due to Stark effects give additional information about the plasma density. We present calculations that are self-consistent in that the radiation fields of the line transitions and the atomic kinetics are iterated to convergence. Examples are given for simple plasmas with temperature gradients, density gradients, and velocity fields. Then a more complex example of a laser produced plasma is presented

  2. Efficient generation of a narrow-bandwidth and frequency-modulated beam pair from Yb atoms in a ladder configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2011-01-01

    We report on the generation of narrow-bandwidth and frequency-modulated cascaded emission of two photons from a collimated Yb atomic beam. Efficient population transfer from the ground state (6s 2 1 S 0 ) to upper state (6s7s 1 S 0 ), of which direct transition at 291.1 nm is dipole forbidden, is achieved through a resonant two-photon excitation enhanced by the electromagnetically induced transparency mediated by the intermediate state (6s6p 1 P 1 ). Then cascaded emission of two photons with a bandwidth of 54 MHz at 611.3 nm (idler) and 555.8 nm (signal) occurs in sequence from the upper state via the spin triplet state (6s 2 3 P 1 ). Numerical calculations of the density matrix equations taking into account the residual Doppler effect and strong driving fields successfully explain the experimental results for the idler and signal beam intensities depending on the various parameters of the driving fields. Synchronized optical switching and frequency-modulation characteristics of the idler and signal beams are also reported.

  3. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important develop- ments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification tech- niques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffus- ing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, lead- ing to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms a...

  4. Molecular bond formation in Na* + N2 energy transfer: Crossed beam study of atomic alignment and orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiland, W.; Jamieson, G.; Tittes, U.; Hertel, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    We report the first full analysis of collisionally induced atomic alignment and orientation for a molecular collision process. In an experiment with crossed supersonic beams of N 2 and laser excited Na(3 2 Psub(3/2)) we have studied the dependence of angular and energy resolved differential quenching cross sections as a function of the linear and circular polarization of the exciting laser light. The ansisotropies observed in the linear polarization data range up to 2:1 when corrected for electron and nuclear spin relaxation. The maximum effect is found at small scattering angles and intermediate energy transfer where the cross section is also largest. The atomic alignment angle most favourable for quenching relates to the scattering angle and can be understood in a model picture in such a way that the (NaN 2 )* molecular system is formed at internuclear distances as low as R = 10a 0 . The circular asymmetry is small but with significant structure and is attributed to interaction on different potential surfaces at R > 10a 0 . Full analysis of the four measurable parameter is given in terms of the density matrix in a frame with z-axis perpendicular to collision plane which allows a clear understanding of the properties of atomic reflection symmetry and coherence of the scattering process. (orig.)

  5. Quasi-monoenergetic proton beam produced by cone-top-end target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinqing; Jin Xiaolin; Li Bin; Zhou Weimin; Gu Yuqiu

    2012-01-01

    A scheme for generating quasi-monoenergetic proton beam is presented. In this paper, a new cone-top-end target is proposed and investigated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulation. The simulation results show that this target configuration can guide the hot electrons by the self-generated magnetic field along the profile of the cone-top-end target. The peak magnitude of sheath field at the rear surface of solid target can be enhanced, so the proton energy can be improved. The proton beam with energy spread of 9.9% can be obtained. (authors)

  6. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Shchepunov, V. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Gulbekyan, G. G.; Khabarov, M. V.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Efremov, A. A.; Pashenko, S. V.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Yeremin, A. V.; Yavor, M. I.; Kalimov, A. G.

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A≈20 to A≈500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90° electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  7. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oganessian, Yu T; Dmitriev, S N; Itkis, M G; Gulbekyan, G G; Khabarov, M V; Bekhterev, V V; Bogomolov, S L; Efremov, A A; Pashenko, S V; Stepantsov, S V; Yeremin, A V; Yavor, M I; Kalimov, A G

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 sup - sup 3. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A approx 20 to A approx 500, its mass acceptance is as large as +-2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considere...

  8. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . The set up can work in the wide mass range from A∼20 to A∼500, its mass acceptance is as large as ±2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given

  9. The project of the mass separator of atomic nuclei produced in heavy ion induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Shchepunov, V.A. E-mail: shchepun@sunhe.jinr.rushchepun@cv.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Gulbekyan, G.G.; Khabarov, M.V.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Pashenko, S.V.; Stepantsov, S.V.; Yeremin, A.V.; Yavor, M.I.; Kalimov, A.G

    2003-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer, named MASHA (mass analyzer of super heavy atoms), has been designed at the Flerov Laboratory JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10{sup -3}. The set up can work in the wide mass range from A{approx}20 to A{approx}500, its mass acceptance is as large as {+-}2.8%. In particular, it allows unambiguous mass identification of super heavy nuclei with a resolution better than 1 amu at the level of 300 amu. Synthesized in nuclear reactions nuclides are emitted from an ECR ion source at energy E=40 kV and charge state Q=+1. Then they pass the following steps of separation and analysis: the first section of rough separation, the second section of separation and mass analysis and the final section of separation with a 90 deg. electrostatic deflector. In the focal plane of the device, a focal plane detector determines positions (masses) of studied nuclei. Ion optics of the analyzer, optimized up to the second order, is considered. Description of its elements and subsystems is given.

  10. NiO/nanoporous graphene composites with excellent supercapacitive performance produced by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Caiying; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Qin, Yong; Huang, Peipei; Li, Ping; Fan, Jinchuan; Song, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors because of its low cost and high theoretical specific capacitance of 2573 F g −1 . However, the low electronic conductivity and poor cycling stability of NiO limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, an efficient atomic layer deposition (ALD) method is demonstrated here for the fabrication of NiO/nanoporous graphene (NG) composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. ALD allows uniform deposition of NiO nanoparticles with controlled sizes on the surface of NG, thus offering a novel route to design NiO/NG composites for supercapacitor applications with high surface areas and greatly improved electrical conductivity and cycle stability. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the NiO/NG composites obtained by ALD exhibited excellent specific capacitance of up to ∼1005.8 F g −1 per mass of the composite electrode (the specific capacitance value is up to ∼1897.1 F g −1 based on the active mass of NiO), and stable performance after 1500 cycles. Furthermore, electrochemical performance of the NiO/NG composites is found to strongly depend on the size of NiO nanoparticles. (paper)

  11. Influence of low atomic number plasma component on the formation of laser-produced plasma jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Borodziuk, S.; Chodukowski, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2010), s. 114505 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Composed laser targets * target material * laser produced-plasma jets * PALS laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2010 http://pop.aip.org/ resource /1/phpaen/v17/i11/p114505_s1

  12. Machines géantes pour sonder l'univers de l'atome

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilde, M, S

    1966-01-01

    To always more deeply explore the infinitely small world of the atom, Science is paradoxically brought to build buildings and machines increasingly larger - Giant accelerators producing high energy particle beams that can dissociate the structures of the atomic nucleus

  13. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cold atoms [1], with their long measurement times, promise to revolutionize the field of precision measurements. In this respect, laser-cooled Yb constitutes a useful species because its spin-zero ground state obviates the need for a second re-pumping laser, as is required for laser cooling of the more common spin-half ...

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Oxygen Supply and Viability of Human Osteoblasts in Three-Dimensional Titanium Scaffolds Produced by Laser-Beam or Electron-Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Jonitz-Heincke

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic materials for bone replacement must ensure a sufficient mechanical stability and an adequate cell proliferation within the structures. Hereby, titanium materials are suitable for producing patient-individual porous bone scaffolds by using generative techniques. In this in vitro study, the viability of human osteoblasts was investigated in porous 3D Ti6Al4V scaffolds, which were produced by electron-beam (EBM or laser-beam melting (LBM. For each examination, two cylindrical scaffolds (30 mm × 10 mm in size, 700 µm × 700 µm macropores were placed on each other and seeded with cells. The oxygen consumption and the acidification in the center of the structures were investigated by means of microsensors. Additionally, the synthesis of pro-collagen type 1 was analyzed. On the LBM titanium scaffolds, vital bone cells were detected in the center and in the periphery after 8 days of cultivation. In the EBM titanium constructs, however, vital cells were only visible in the center. During the cultivation period, the cells increasingly produced procollagen type 1 in both scaffolds. In comparison to the periphery, the oxygen content in the center of the scaffolds slightly decreased. Furthermore, a slight acidification of the medium was detectable. Compared to LBM, the EBM titanium scaffolds showed a less favorable behavior with regard to cell seeding.

  15. Producing National Ignition Facility (NIF)-quality beams on the Nova and Beamlet lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmayer, C.C.; Auerbach, J.M.; Ehrlich, R.B.

    1996-08-01

    The Nova and Beamlet lasers were used to simulate the beam propagation conditions that will be encountered during the National Ignition Facility operation. Perturbation theory predicts that there is a 5mm scale length propagation mode that experiences large nonlinear power growth. This mode was observed in the tests. Further tests have confirmed that this mode can be suppressed with improved spatial filtering

  16. Dosimetry and narrow X-ray beams, produced by particle linear accelerator for use in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F.; Vizeu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The principal characteristics of dosimetry and narrow X-ray beams(4Mv) monitoring are investigated for use in estereotatic radiosurgery. An additional collimator system and a estereotatic system (Leksell type) are presented. Dosimetric parameters like tissue-air ratio, peak scatter factor, isodose curves are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Interferometric characterization of the structured polarized light beam produced by the conical refraction phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alba; Turpin, Alex; Iemmi, Claudio; Márquez, Andrés; Kalkandjiev, Todor K; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-07-13

    The interest on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon in biaxial crystals has revived in the last years due to its prospective for generating structured polarized light beams, i.e. vector beams. While the intensity and the polarization structure of the CR beams are well known, an accurate experimental study of their phase structure has not been yet carried out. We investigate the phase structure of the CR rings by means of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer while applying the phase-shifting interferometric technique to measure the phase at the focal plane. In general the two beams interfering correspond to different states of polarization (SOP) which locally vary. To distinguish if there is an additional phase added to the geometrical one we have derived the appropriate theoretical expressions using the Jones matrix formalism. We demonstrate that the phase of the CR rings is equivalent to that one introduced by an azimuthally segmented polarizer with CR-like polarization distribution. Additionally, we obtain direct evidence that the Poggendorff dark ring is an annular singularity, with a π phase change between the inner and outer bright rings.

  18. Metallurgical Mechanisms Controlling Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Produced By Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Taminger, Karen M. B.; Begley, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) layer-additive manufacturing process has been developed to directly fabricate complex geometry components. EBF3 introduces metal wire into a molten pool created on the surface of a substrate by a focused electron beam. Part geometry is achieved by translating the substrate with respect to the beam to build the part one layer at a time. Tensile properties have been demonstrated for electron beam deposited aluminum and titanium alloys that are comparable to wrought products, although the microstructures of the deposits exhibit features more typical of cast material. Understanding the metallurgical mechanisms controlling mechanical properties is essential to maximizing application of the EBF3 process. In the current study, mechanical properties and resulting microstructures were examined for aluminum alloy 2219 fabricated over a range of EBF3 process variables. Material performance was evaluated based on tensile properties and results were compared with properties of Al 2219 wrought products. Unique microstructures were observed within the deposited layers and at interlayer boundaries, which varied within the deposit height due to microstructural evolution associated with the complex thermal history experienced during subsequent layer deposition. Microstructures exhibited irregularly shaped grains, typically with interior dendritic structures, which were described based on overall grain size, morphology, distribution, and dendrite spacing, and were correlated with deposition parameters. Fracture features were compared with microstructural elements to define fracture paths and aid in definition of basic processing-microstructure-property correlations.

  19. Atomic data of Ti II from laser produced Ti plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, A.I.; Farrag, A.A.; El Sharkawy, H.; El Sherbini, T.M.

    2005-06-01

    In the present study, the emission spectrum of titanium produced from laser induced plasma has been measured at different distances from the target. The Titanium target is irradiated by using the high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) that generates energy 750 mJ/pulse of duration rate 6 ns and repetition rate 10 Hz in vacuum and at different distances. The variation of the distance from the target affects the measured plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the ion temperature and the velocity distribution. The electron density increases with the increase of the distance from the target. At a distance 0.6 mm from the target it decreases to 2.28·10 16 cm -3 . The temperature increases with the distance from the get until a distance of 1 mm, after that it decreases. It is found that the plasma velocity increases with the distance then it decreases again. Then, Energy levels and transition probabilities for 3d 2 4p →(3d 2 4s + 3d 3 ) lines have been determined by measurement of emission line intensities from an optically thin laser produced plasma of Ti II in vacuum. Calculations with intermediate coupling using Hartree-Fock wave functions have been carried out in order to place the experimental data on an absolute scale and also to evaluate the lifetimes. The plasma parameters in different regions of the plasma plume have been measured and used to obtain further transition probabilities. (author)

  20. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A.

    1999-01-01

    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the Δn = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF 2 target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  1. Unresolved spectral structures emitted from heavy atom plasmas produced by short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraenkel, M.; Zigler, A. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Russian Committee of Standards Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    1999-09-01

    Spectra of rare earth elements emitted from ultra short pulse laser produced plasma were recorded using simultaneously high and low resolution, spectrometers. A study of the broad band emission of the {delta}n = 1 transitions in highly ionized Ba and Sm plasma showed that this band is completely unresolved. The spectra were analyzed using the LTE based on super-transition array (STA) model. The theory reconstructs the entire Ba spectrum using a single temperature and density, whereas for Sm the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are not reconcilable. The agreement in the Ba case is attributed to the fact that BaF{sub 2} target is transparent to the laser's prepulse effects, producing a homogeneous dense plasma, whereas for Sm the dilute plasma created by the prepulse is far from LTE. The obtained results posses a significant implication to the applicability of the STA model, in particular for calculations of opacities and conversion of laser light to X-rays. (orig.)

  2. Atomic physics of highly charged ions in an electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.

    1990-07-01

    Two electron beam ion traps are in use at LLNL for the purpose of studying the properties of very highly charged ions and their interactions with electrons. This paper reviews the operation of the traps and discusses recent experiments in three areas: precision transition energy measurements in the limit of very high ion charge, dielectronic recombination measurements for the He-like isoelectronic sequence, and measurements of x-ray polarization. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  3. Superheavy nuclei and quasi-atoms produced in collisions of transuranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebaev, V.; Oganessian, Y.; Itkis, M.; Greiner, W.

    2005-01-01

    , may remain in contact rather long time. This time delay (up to 10 -19 s) could significantly increase the yield of the so-called spontaneous positron emission from super-strong electric field of quasi-atoms by a static QED process (transition from neutral to charged QED vacuum). This effect was searched sometime ago at GSI but no clear evidences of it have been found. New experiments may be performed now based on our new knowledge of collision dynamics of these nuclei. About twenty years ago damped collisions of very heavy nuclei have been used also for production of chemically separated long-lived actinides. The cross sections were found to be exponentially decreasing with increase of a charge number of heavier fragment, up to the level of 0.1 μb for production of Md isotopes in U + Cm collisions. A new effect, which we found here, is the 'inverse quasi-fission' process. In this process a superheavy nuclear system, say Th + Cf, travelling over the multidimensional potential energy surface, changes its mass asymmetry and may fall into the so-called lead valley. If Th comes to Pb, then Cf grows to the element 106. In spite of rather high excitation energy and low survival probability of residual fragments, this effect significantly increases the yield of nuclei complementary to lead and give us a new way for production of neutron rich (more close to the island of stability) superheavy elements in addition to the extensively used complete fusion reactions. These and some other prospects of subsequent theoretical and experimental studies along with possible collaborations in the field will be discussed in the talk

  4. Study of very neutron-rich nuclei produced by means of a 48Ca beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewitowicz, M.; Artukh, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of experiments with a 48 Ca beam performed at GANIL are presented and discussed. More than 30 very neutron-rich isotopes were identified or studied for the first time. The evidence for particle-unstable character of the 26 O isotope is reported. Half-life measurements for light neutron rich nuclei are compared with different theoretical predictions. (author) 14 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Charge steering of laser plasma accelerated fast ions in a liquid spray — creation of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnürer, M.; Abicht, F.; Priebe, G.; Braenzel, J.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of “electron capture and loss” has been recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with up to MeV kinetic energy [S. Ter-Avetisyan, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051501 (2011)]. Validation of these processes and of their generic nature is here provided in experiments where the ion source and the interaction medium have been spatially separated. Fast positive ions accelerated from a laser plasma source are sent through a cold spray where their charge is changed. Such formed neutral atom or negative ion has nearly the same momentum as the original positive ion. Experiments are released for protons, carbon, and oxygen ions and corresponding beams of negative ions and neutral atoms have been obtained. The electron capture and loss phenomenon is confirmed to be the origin of the negative ion and neutral atom beams. The equilibrium ratios of different charge components and cross sections have been measured. Our method is general and allows the creation of beams of neutral atoms and negative ions for different species which inherit the characteristics of the positive ion source

  6. A study of the luminosity produced by an electron beam-emitting rocket in the polar ionosphere: ECHO 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Optical observations made during the ECHO 7 experiment show for the first time the luminous manifestations of the Beam-Plasma-Interaction in a space environment. The optical observations were made using photometers and a low-light-level television camera over an altitude range of 90 to 290 km. Imagery, obtained for the first time in the ECHO series, show the luminous spatial characteristics of the BPI including the formation of diffuse luminous columns extending along the magnetic field in the same and opposite directions as beam propagation. The beam-plasma-discharge (BPD) evolved from the BPI, igniting first about 140 km, and quenching at 115 km. The BPD appeared as discrete enhancements in the intensity of portions of the diffuse columns extending 200 to 225 m along the magnetic field line. Relaxations oscillations, or non-steady BPD with frequencies between 20 and 45 Hz were observed prior to BPD initiation. At 108 km, the distinct Larmor spiral structure of the beam became visible for distance of about 300 meters along the field. Periodic attitude control system (ACS) Nitrogen gas releases producing spectacular luminosity patterns were seen during the gun operation throughout the flight. The injected gas affected the vehicle neutralization current flow pattern causing current to be concentrated in the gas plume as it flowed toward the MAIN payload. In the absence of ACS gas, the luminosity pattern surrounding the MAIN payload showed an asymmetry, being brighter at the opposite end of the MAIN away from the electron gun

  7. Atom-probe field-ion microscopy investigation of CMSX-4 Ni-base superalloy laser beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    CMSX-4 superalloy laser beam welds were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). The weld microstructure consisted of fine (10- to 50-nm) irregularly shaped γ' precipitates (0.65 to 0.75 volume fraction) within the γ matrix. APFIM compositions of the γ and γ' phases were found to be different from those in the base metal. Concentration profiles across the γ and γ' phases showed extensive variations of Cr, Co and Al concentrations as a function of distance within the γ phase. Calculated lattice misfits near the γ/γ' interface in the welds are positive values compared to the negative values for base metal. (orig.)

  8. High-precision laser and rf spectroscopy of atomic, molecular, and slow ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.J.; Steimle, T.C.; Sen, A.; Azuma, Y.

    1988-01-01

    We have obtained extensive new structural information on the light diatomic radical ScO since the last report in this series. The new studies complete our systematic investigation of the fine and hyperfine structure (hfs) of the group IIIa monoxides LaO, YO, and ScO. The studies of the molecular X 2 Σ + electronic ground state were carried out using the molecular-beam laser-rf double-resonance method, and the excited electronic state information was obtained by complementing this data with Doppler-free laser fluorescence studies

  9. Atomic and nuclear analytical methods. XRF, Moessbauer, XPS, NAA and ion-beam spectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories. (orig.)

  10. Application of the Ta liner technique to produce Ca beams at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (INFN-LNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galatà, A., E-mail: alessio.galata@lnl.infn.it; Sattin, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Martini, D.; Facco, A. [INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories, Legnaro (Pd) (Italy); Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kulevoy, T. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    The ECR ion sources are able to produce a wide variety of highly charged metallic ion beams thanks to the development of different techniques (ovens, sputtering, direct insertion, metal ions from volatile compounds (MIVOC)). In the case of the ovens, the sticking of the hot vapors on the surface of the plasma chamber leads to high material consumption rates. For elements like Ca, a tantalum liner inserted inside the chamber can be used to limit this phenomenon. The modeling of temperature distribution inside the chamber with and without the liner was carried out with COMSOL-multiphysics code. Results of simulation and the comparison with experiments performed at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories with Ca beams are discussed.

  11. Low-energy-spread ion bunches from a trapped atomic gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.P.; Kruisbergen, van P.A.; Taban, G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Luiten, O.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present time-of-flight measurements of the longitudinal energy spread of pulsed ultracold ion beams, produced by near-threshold ionization of rubidium atoms captured in a magneto-optical atom trap. Well-defined pulsed beams have been produced with energies of only 1 eV and a root-mean-square

  12. Experiments with BECs in a Painted Potential: Atom SQUID, Matter Wave Bessel Beams, and Matter Wave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Malcolm; Ryu, Changhyun; Blackburn, Paul; Blinova, Alina; Henderson, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    The painted potential is a time-averaged optical dipole potential which is able to create arbitrary and dynamic two dimensional potentials for Bose Einstein condensates (BECs). This poster reports three recent experiments using this technique. First, we have realized the dc atom SQUID geometry of a BEC in a toroidal trap with two Josephson junctions. We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. Second, we have used free expansion of a rotating toroidal BEC to create matter wave Bessel beams, which are of interest because perfect Bessel beams (plane waves with amplitude profiles described by Bessel functions) propagate without diffraction. Third, we have realized the basic circuit elements necessary to create complex matter wave circuits. We launch BECs at arbitrary velocity along straight waveguides, propagate them around curved waveguides and stadium-shaped waveguide traps, and split them coherently at y-junctions that can also act as switches. Supported by LANL/LDRD.

  13. Characterization of an ion beam produced by extraction and acceleration of ions from a wire plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueroult, R.

    2011-09-01

    In this study we first model a DC low pressure wire plasma source and then characterize the properties of an ion gun derived from the plasma source. In order to study the properties of the derived ion gun, we develop a particle-in-cell code fitted to the modelling of the wire plasma source operation, and validate it by confrontation with the results of an experimental study. In light of the simulation results, an analysis of the wire discharge in terms of a collisional Child-Langmuir ion flow in cylindrical geometry is proposed. We interpret the mode transition as a natural reorganization of the discharge when the current is increased above a threshold value which is a function of the discharge voltage, the pressure and the inter-electrodes distance. In addition, the analysis of the energy distribution function of ions impacting the cathode demonstrates the ability to extract an ion beam of low energy spread around the discharge voltage assuming that the discharge is operated in its high pressure mode. An ion source prototype allowing the extraction and acceleration of ions from the wire source is then proposed. The experimental study of such a device confirms that, apart from a shift corresponding to the accelerating voltage, the acceleration scheme does not spread the ion velocity distribution function along the axis of the beam. It is therefore possible to produce tunable energy (0 - 5 keV) ion beams of various ionic species presenting limited energy dispersion (∼ 10 eV). The typical beam currents are about a few tens of micro-amperes, and the divergence of such a beam is on the order of one degree. A numerical modelling of the ion source is eventually conducted in order to identify potential optimizations of the concept. (author)

  14. Structure and properties of parts produced by electron-beam additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenov, Vasilii; Klopotov, Anatolii; Fedorov, Vasilii; Abzaev, Yurii; Batranin, Andrey; Kurgan, Kirill; Kairalapov, Daniyar

    2017-12-01

    The paper deals with the study of structure, microstructure, composition and microhardness of a tube processed by electron-beam additive manufacturing using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The structure and macrodefects of a tube made of Grade2 titanium alloy is studied using the X-ray computed tomography. The principles of layer-by-layer assembly and boundaries after powder sintering are set out in this paper. It is found that the titanium alloy has two phases. Future work will involve methods to improve properties of created parts.

  15. Atom optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balykin, V. I.; Jhe, W.

    1999-01-01

    Atom optics, in analogy to neutron and electron optics, deals with the realization of as a traditional elements, such as lenes, mirrors, beam splitters and atom interferometers, as well as a new 'dissipative' elements such as a slower and a cooler, which have no analogy in an another types of optics. Atom optics made the development of atom interferometer with high sensitivity for measurement of acceleration and rotational possible. The practical interest in atom optics lies in the opportunities to create atom microprobe with atom-size resolution and minimum damage of investigated objects. (Cho, G. S.)

  16. New sources of cold atoms for atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aucouturier, E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this doctoral work is the realisation of new sources of cold cesium atoms that could be useful for the conception of a compact and high-performance atomic clock. It is based on experiences of atomic physics using light induced atomic manipulation. We present here the experiences of radiative cooling of atoms that have been realised at the Laboratoire de l'Horloge Atomique from 1993 to 1996. Firstly, we applied the techniques of radiative cooling and trapping of atoms in order to create a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap. For this first experience, we developed high quality laser sources, that were used for other experiments. We imagined a new configuration of trapping (two-dimensional magneto-optical trap) that was the basis for a cold atom source. This design gives the atoms a possibility to escape towards one particular direction. Then, we have extracted the atoms from this anisotropic trap in order to create a continuous beam of cold atoms. We have applied three methods of extraction. Firstly, the launching of atoms was performed by reducing the intensity of one of the cooling laser beams in the desired launching direction. Secondly, a frequency detuning between the two laser laser beams produced the launching of atoms by a so-called 'moving molasses'. The third method consisted in applying a static magnetic field that induced the launching of atoms in the direction of this magnetic field. At the same time, another research on cold atoms was initiated at the I.H.A. It consisted in cooling a large volume of atoms from a cell, using an isotropic light. This offers an interesting alternative to the traditional optical molasses. (author)

  17. High-power, high-brightness pseudospark-produced electron beam driven by improved pulse line accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junbino Zhu; Mingchang Wang; Zhijiang Wang

    1995-01-01

    A high power (200KV), intense current density, low emittance (71mmmrad), high brightness (8x10 10 A/m rad) electron beam was generated in the 10cm long, high-voltage-resistive multi-gap hollow cathode pseudospark chamber filled with 15pa nitrogen and driven by an improved pulse line accelerator. The beam was ejected with the 1mm diameter, the 2.2KA beam current, and the 400ns pulse length, and could propagated 20cm in the drift tube. At a distance of 5cm from the anode it penetrated consecutively an acid-sensitive discoloring film and a 0.05mm-thick copper foil both stuck closely, left 0.6mm and 0.3mm holes on them, respectively. That 10 shots on an acid-sensitive film produced a hole of 1.6mm at 7cm downstream of anode showed its good repeatability. After 60 shots the pseudospark discharge chamber was disassembled and observed that almost no destructive damage traces left on the surfaces of its various electrodes and insulators. But on almost all the surfaces of changeable central hole parts installed on intermediate electrodes there are traces of electron emission from the sides facing the anode and of bombardment on the sides facing the cathode, in contrast with which on the front- and back-surfaces of hollow cathode no visible traces of electron emission from then was observed. In addition, there were different tints, strip-like regions on the side of anode facing the cathode. Another interesting phenomenon was that there were a set of concentric circular or elliptical ring pattern on the acid-sensitive discoloring film got at 5cm from the anode and observed tinder a metallograph. It seems that the pseudospark electron beam is Laminar beam i.e, being possessed of a multi-layer structure, at least in the case of multi-gap pseudospark discharge chamber. It was found experimentally that the quality of pseudospark electron beam is much better than that of the cold-cathode electron beam

  18. A Mutant of Bacillus Subtilis with High-Producing Surfactin by Ion Beam Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingmei; Yuan Hang; Wang Jun; Gong Guohong; Zhou Wei; Fan Yonghong; Wang Li; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In order to generate a mutant of Bacillus subtilis with enhanced surface activity through low energy nitrogen ion beam implantation, the effects of energy and dose of ions implanted were studied. The morphological changes in the bacteria were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optimum condition of ions implantation, 20 keV of energy and 2.6x10 15 N + /cm 2 in dose, was determined. A mutant, B.s-E-8 was obtained, whose surface activity of 50-fold and 100-fold diluted cell-free Landy medium was as 5.6-fold and 17.4-fold as the wild strain. The microbial growth and biosurfactant production of both the mutant and the wild strain were compared. After purified by ultrafiltration and SOURCE 15PHE, the biosurfactant was determined to be a complex of surfactin family through analysis of electrospray ionization mass spectrum (ESI/MS) and there was an interesting finding that after the ion beam implantation the intensities of the components were different from the wild type strain

  19. Study of various photomultiplier tubes with muon beams and Cerenkov light produced in electron showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The PMTs of the CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter were found to generate a large size signal when their windows were traversed by energetic charged particles. This signal, which is due to Cerenkov light production at the PMT window, could interfere with the calorimeter signal and mislead the measurements. In order to find a viable solution to this problem, the response of four different types of PMTs to muons traversing their windows at different orientations is measured at the H2 beam-line at CERN. Certain kinds of PMTs with thinner windows show significantly lower response to direct muon incidence. For the four anode PMT, a simple and powerful algorithm to identify such events and recover the PMT signal using the signals of the quadrants without window hits is also presented. For the measurement of PMT responses to Cerenkov light, the Hadron Forward calorimeter signal was mimicked by two different setups in electron beams and the PMT performances were compared with each other. Superior performance of particular PMTs was observed.

  20. Scattering of thermal He beams by crossed atomic and molecular beams. I. Sensitivity of the elastic differential cross section to the interatomic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, M.; Kuppermann, A.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of diffraction oscillations in atomic beam scattering experiments to uniquely determine interatomic potentials for highly quantal systems is examined. Assumed but realistic potentials are used to generate, by scattering calculations and incorporation of random errors, differential cross sections which are then treated as if they were ''experimental'' data. From these, attempts are made to recover the initial potential by varying the parameters of assumed mathematical forms different from the original one, until a best fit to the ''experimental'' results is obtained. It is found that the region of the interaction potential around the van der Waals minimum is accurately determined by the ''measured'' differential cross sections over a range of interatomic separations significantly wider than would be expected classically. It is also found, for collision energies at which the weakly repulsive wall is appreciably sampled, that the SPF--Dunham and double Morse--van der Waals types of potentials lead to accurate determinations of the interatomic potential, whereas many other mathematical forms do not. Analytical parameterizations most appropriate for obtaining accurate interatomic potentials from thermal DCS experiments, for a given highly quantal system, may depend on the collision energy used

  1. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Monica de; Snidero, Elena; Coreno, Marcello; Bongiorno, Gero; Giorgetti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Cepek, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti 3+ is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti 4+ , whereas Ti 2+ is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  2. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10 4 dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-μsec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10 6 rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10 6 rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli

  3. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: causal parameters and duration of memory loss. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T.G.; Hardy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The production of retrograde amnesia (RA) upon electron beam exposure has been investigated. RA production was evaluated using a single-trial avoidance task across a 10/sup 4/ dose range for 10-, 1-, and 0.1-..mu..sec pulsed exposures. The dose-response curve obtained at each pulse duration showed significant RA production. The most effective dose range was 0.1-10 rad at a dose rate of 10/sup 6/ rad/sec. By employing a 10 rad (10/sup 6/ rad/sec) pulse, a memory loss of the events occurring in the previous 4 sec was demonstrated. The conclusion was that the RA effect might be due to sensory activation which provided a novel stimulus that masked previous stimuli.

  4. Isochoric heating of DT fuels through PW-laser-produced proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, G.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Laser Proton Source (LPS) can generate short bunch of energetic protons with a nearly zero initial emittance. It is thus expected that LPS can deposit a very high density of energy inside dense matter, in particular, in the context of fast ignition of an inertial fusion target. We investigate here one of the factors that can limit the density of deposited energy. It concerns the transverse diffusion, occurring during the transport between the LPS and DT. As the rear surface of LPS should be efficiently protected, the proton along its path has to interact with a substantial amount of high-Z material. Therefore the induced transverse dispersion can become significant. The transport of the proton beam inside a plasma target is calculated using a numerical code, which main features are presented

  5. Isochoric heating of DT fuels through PW-laser-produced proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, G. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Pasmas, CNRS UMR8578, bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, F-91405, Orsay (France)]. E-mail: gilles.maynard@pgp.u-psud.fr; Barriga-Carrasco, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Pasmas, CNRS UMR8578, bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, F-91405, Orsay (France)

    2005-05-21

    Laser Proton Source (LPS) can generate short bunch of energetic protons with a nearly zero initial emittance. It is thus expected that LPS can deposit a very high density of energy inside dense matter, in particular, in the context of fast ignition of an inertial fusion target. We investigate here one of the factors that can limit the density of deposited energy. It concerns the transverse diffusion, occurring during the transport between the LPS and DT. As the rear surface of LPS should be efficiently protected, the proton along its path has to interact with a substantial amount of high-Z material. Therefore the induced transverse dispersion can become significant. The transport of the proton beam inside a plasma target is calculated using a numerical code, which main features are presented.

  6. Parametric emittance measurements of electron beams produced by a laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, S. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Lehe, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-05-01

    Laser plasma accelerators (LPA) offer an exciting possibility to deliver high energy, high brightness electrons beams in drastically smaller distance scales than is typical for conventional accelerators. As such, LPAs draw considerable attention as potential drivers for next generation light sources and for a compact linear collider. In order to asses the viability of an LPA source for a particular application, the brightness of the source should be properly characterized. In this paper, we present charge dependent transverse emittance measurements of LPA sources using both ionization injection and shock induced density down ramp injection, with the latter delivering smaller transverse emittances by a factor of two when controlling for charge density. The single shot emittance method is described in detail with a discussion on limitations related to second order transport effects. The direct role of space charge is explored through a series of simulations and found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  7. Flexible, ionic liquid-based micro-supercapacitor produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettini, L.G.; Piseri, P.; De Giorgio, F.; Arbizzani, C.; Milani, P.; Soavi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We exploited Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition for the fabrication of a flexible, planar micro-supercapacitor featuring nanostructured carbon electrodes deposited on a plastic Mylar substrate and N-trimethyl-N-propyl-ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (N 1113 TFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte. • The micro-supercapacitor operates at 3 V above RT up to 80 °C with a capacitance density approaching 10 F cm −3 and delivering maximum specific energy and power densities of 10 mWh cm −3 and 8-10 W cm −3 . • The micro-supercapacitor features long cycling stability over 2x10 4 cycle on flat and bent configuration. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: Power generation and storage in electronics require flexible, thin micro-electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. Micro-supercapacitors (μSCs) with double-layer capacitance carbon electrodes are attracting much attention for their capability of delivering short power pulses with high stability over repeated charge/discharge cycling. Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) is an effective strategy for the development of nanostructured, binder-free porous carbon electrodes on temperature sensitive substrates including polymers. We exploited SCBD for the development of a flexible, planar μSC featuring nanostructured carbon (ns-C) electrodes deposited on a plastic Mylar substrate and N-trimethyl-N-propyl-ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (N 1113 TFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical performance at different temperatures of the μSC which operates at 3 V above RT up to 80 °C with a capacitance density approaching 10 F cm −3 and delivering maximum specific energy and power densities of 10 mWh cm −3 and 8-10 W cm −3 with long cycling stability over 2 × 10 4 cycles is here reported and discussed

  8. Generation of EM radiations using intense electron beam produced in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Shyam, A.; Verma, R.; Deb, P.; Mishra, E.; Meena, M., E-mail: rshukla@barc.gov.in [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facility, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2014-07-01

    The results of a pulse power generator driving an axial virtual cathode oscillator are being presented in this paper as a source of high power microwave (HPM) radiations. The electron beam generator is also modified to attain the intense X-ray burst. The pulse power generator used for these applications is common and is having 10 ohms as its characteristic impedance with 50nS of pulse width. The peak charging voltage of the pulse forming line is 450 kV and hence 225 kV and 22.5 kA is peak voltage and peak current delivery capabilities respectively for the pulse power generator. The peak electrical power of the generator is 5GW for a matched load. The charging power supply for the pulse forming line consists of a high voltage generator made by pulse transformer and charging the pulse forming line in the first cycle of the charging pulse. To utilize the energy of the primary capacitive storage efficiently the pulse transformer is having 0.8 coupling coefficient between its primary and the secondary. The axial vircator chamber is evacuated to attain the vacuum of 2 x 10{sup -4} torr for the HPM application. In the case of modified electron beam chamber for the generation of X-rays the vacuum of same order is used. The pulse forming line is made using equal lengths of high voltage transmission lines, each having a length of 10 meters, connected in the parallel to give a net source impedance of 10 ohm. The pulse power generator can operate in repetitive mode and hence the HPM as well as X-rays may be generated in the repetitive burst. (author)

  9. Hot oxygen atoms: Their generation and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Chu, Yung Y.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen atoms with energies between 1 and 10 eV have been produced through ion beam sputtering from metal oxide targets. Argon ion beams were used on Ta 2 O 5 and V 2 O 5 . Results show that some control may be exerted over the atom's kinetic energy by changing the target. Reactions of the hot O( 3 P) with cis- and trans-butenes were investigated

  10. Soft X-ray generation in gases by means of a pulsed electron beam produced in a high-voltage barier discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarov, A.V.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    A large area pulsed electron beam is produced by a high-voltage barrier discharge. We compare the properties of the x-rays generated by stopping this beam of electrons in a thin metal foil with those generated by stopping the electrons directly in various gases. The generation of x-rays was

  11. Absorption of resonant electromagnetic radiation in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanbekov, T.U.; Pazdzerskii, V.A.; Usachenko, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum theory is used to study the possibility of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in forced braking scattering of an electron beam on atoms. The interaction of the atom with the electromagnetic field is considered in the resonant approximation. Cases of large and small detuning from resonance are considered. It is shown that for any orientation of the electron beam relative to the field polarization vector, absorption of radiation occurs, with the major contribution being produced by atomic electrons

  12. Radial focusing and energy compression of a laser-produced proton beam by a synchronous rf field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ikegami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a MeV laser-produced proton beam affected by a radio frequency (rf electric field has been studied. The proton beam was emitted normal to the rear surface of a thin polyimide target irradiated with an ultrashort pulsed laser with a power density of 4×10^{18}  W/cm^{2}. The energy spread was compressed to less than 11% at the full width at half maximum (FWHM by an rf field. Focusing and defocusing effects of the transverse direction were also observed. These effects were analyzed and reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results show that the transversely focused protons had a broad continuous spectrum, while the peaks in the proton spectrum were defocused. Based on this new information, we propose that elimination of the continuous energy component of laser-produced protons is possible by utilizing a focal length difference between the continuous spectral protons and the protons included in the spectral peak.

  13. Tribological coatings for complex mechanical elements produced by supersonic cluster beam deposition of metal dichalcogenide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzoni, C.; Buttery, M.; Hampson, M. R.; Roberts, E. W.; Ducati, C.; Lenardi, C.; Cavaliere, F.; Piseri, P.; Milani, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fullerene-like MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the fabrication of fluid and solid lubricants. Metal dichalcogenide films have a very low friction coefficient in vacuum, therefore they have mostly been used as solid lubricants in space and vacuum applications. Unfortunately, their use is significantly hampered by the fact that in the presence of humidity, oxygen and moisture, the low-friction properties of these materials rapidly degrade due to oxidation. The use of closed-cage MoS2 and WS2 nanoparticles may eliminate this problem, although the fabrication of lubricant thin films starting from dichalcogenide nanoparticles is, to date, a difficult task. Here we demonstrate the use of supersonic cluster beam deposition for the coating of complex mechanical elements (angular contact ball bearings) with nanostructured MoS2 and WS2 thin films. We report structural and tribological characterization of the coatings in view of the optimization of tribological performances for aerospace applications.

  14. Influence of ion/atom arrival ratio on structure and optical properties of AlN films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jian-ping [Department of Energy Material and Technology, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Fu, Zhi-qiang, E-mail: fuzq@cugb.edu.cn [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiao-peng [Department of Energy Material and Technology, General Research Institute for Nonferrous Metals, Beijing 100088 (China); Yue, Wen; Wang, Cheng-biao [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • AlN films were fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering. • Chemical bond status and phase composition of the films were studied by XPS and XRD. • Optical constants were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. • Influence of ion/atom arrival ratio on the films was studied. - Abstract: In order to improve the optical properties of AlN films, the influence of the ion/atom arrival ratio on the structure and optical characteristics of AlN films deposited by dual ion beam sputtering was studied by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV–vis spectroscopy. The films prepared at the ion/atom arrival ratio of 1.4 are amorphous while the crystalline quality is improved with the increase of the ion/atom arrival ratio. The films deposited at the ion/atom arrival ratio of no less than 1.8 have an approximately stoichiometric ratio and mainly consist of aluminum nitride with little aluminum oxynitride, while metallic aluminum component appears in the films deposited at the ion/atom arrival ratio of 1.4. When the ion/atom arrival ratio is not less than 1.8, films are smooth, high transmitting and dense. The films prepared with high ion/atom arrival ratio (≥1.8) display the characteristic of a dielectric. The films deposited at the ion/atom arrival ratio of 1.4 are coarse, opaque and show characteristic of cermet.

  15. Characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Duck-Lae; Kim, Byung-Tai

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of a laser beam produced by using thermal lensing effect compensation in a fiber-coupled laser-diode Nd:YAG ceramic laser were investigated. The thermal lensing effect was compensated for by using a compensator, which was 25 mm away from the laser rod, with a focal length of 30 mm and an effective clear aperture of 22 mm. Using a compensator, the divergence and the beam propagation factor M 2 of the output beam were 5.5 mrad and 2.4, respectively, under a pump power of 12W. The high-frequency components in the compensated laser beam were removed.

  16. Effects of ion beam treatment on atomic and macroscopic adhesion of copper to different polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaporojtchenko, V.; Zekonyte, J.; Faupel, F.

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy ion irradiation of polymer induces different phenomena in the near surface layer, which effect strongly the metal-polymer interface formation and promotes adhesion of polymers to metals. Low-energy argon and oxygen ion beams were used to alter the chemical and physical properties of different polymers (PS (polystyrene), PαMS (poly(α-methylstyrene), BPA-PC (bisphenol-A-polycarbonate) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)), in order to understand the adhesion phenomena between a deposited Cu layer and the polymers. The resulting changes were investigated by various techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, measurements of the metal condensation coefficient and a new technique to measure cross-linking at the polymer surface. Two types of practical adhesion strengths of Cu-polymer systems, measured using 90 o peel tests, were observed: (i) peel strength increased at low ion fluences, reached a maximum and then decreased after prolonged treatment and (ii) no improvement in the peel strength on treated polymer surfaces was recorded. The improvement in the metal-polymer adhesion in the ion fluence range of 10 13 -10 15 cm -2 is attributed to the creation of a large density of new adsorption sites resulting in a larger contact area and incorporation of chemically active groups that lead to increased interaction between metal and polymer by metal-oxygen-polymer species formation. XPS analysis of peeled-off surfaces showed that in most cases the failure location changed from interfacial for untreated polymers to cohesive failure in the polymer for treated surfaces. These observations and measurements of the metal condensation coefficients suggest that bonding is improved at the metal-polymer interface for all metal-polymer systems. However, the decrease in the peel strength at high ion fluences is attributed to the formation of a weak boundary layer in polymers. The correlation between sputter rate of polymers and altering in the peel strength for

  17. The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

  18. Producing acoustic 'Frozen Waves': simulated experiments with diffraction/attenuation resistant beams in lossy media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego-Borges, José L; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo; Costa, Eduardo Tavares

    2014-08-01

    The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have raised significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction -self-healing- property (after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's); while the FWs, a sub-class of LWs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the longitudinal field intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0⩽z⩽L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate, by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with the frequency of f0=1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present results of FWs for distances up to L=80 mm, in attenuating media with absorption coefficient α in the range 70⩽α⩽170 dB/m. Such simulated FW fields are constructed by using a procedure developed by us, via appropriate finite superpositions of monochromatic ultrasonic Bessel beams. We pay due attention to the selection of the FW parameters, constrained by the rather tight restrictions imposed by experimental Acoustics, as well as to some practical implications of the transducer design. The energy localization properties of the Frozen Waves can find application even in many medical apparatus, such as bistouries or acoustic tweezers, as well as for treatment of diseased tissues (in particular, for the destruction of tumor cells, without affecting the surrounding tissues; also for kidney stone shuttering, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation of Dextran Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 13146 using Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Tack; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Dextrans make up a family of glucans that have contiguous alpha-1.6 glucose linkages. Differences in the different dextrans in volve the types, amount, length, and arrangements of the arrangements of the branch chains. The principle type of branch linkages found are alpha-1.3, but alpha-1.2 and-1.4 branch linkages have been also observed. In recent days. dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longeveity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weigh of Μ w 10,000 to 100,000 have been applied for development of new type of drug delivery agent. Such a size of dextrans have been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, this objective of this research is to evaluate the characterization of branched degraded by a electron beam radiation. L. mesenteroides ATCC 13146 was cultured on te agar slant medium with the composition of 3.0 g K 2 HPO 4 , 0.01 g FeSO 4 . H 2 O, 0.01 g MnSO 4 . 7H 2 O, 0.01 g NaCl, 0.05 g CaCl 2 , 0.5g yeast extract, 15 g agar and 30 g sucrose per liter deionized water. Medium pH was adjusted to 6.0 prior to sterilization. Dextran production was conducted in a fermentor a working volume of 5 1 by using 18% sucrose under optimum pH condition. The inoculum was 2% of the working volume. Fermentation conditions are 28 C, 100 rpm agitation, and 1 vvm of aeration. The fermentation process continued until sucrose was consumed completely. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic accelerator. The irradiation doses ranged between 30 kGy to 80 kGy. After irradiation, processed dextran showed still a large of branched form. The degradation degree was increased as radiation intensity. The average molecular weight

  20. Cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Poliana Carolina; Junior, Dario Santos; Tomazelli, Andrea Cristina; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Berndt, Harald; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2004-01-01

    A simple method for cadmium and lead determination in foods by beam injection flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (BIFF-AAS) was proposed. Food slurries were prepared by transferring an exact amount of cryogenic-ground homogenized material (50-100 mg) to centrifuge tubes, followed by addition of 5 ml (up to 2.8 mol l -1 ) nitric acid solution and sonication in an ultrasonic bath during 5-10 min. Thereafter, slurries were diluted with water to 10 ml, centrifuged during 5 min at 5400 rpm and 400 μl aliquot of the supernatant was analyzed by BIFF-AAS. The detection limits based on peak height measurements were 0.03 μg g -1 Cd and 1.6 μg g -1 Pb for 2% (m/v) slurry (200 mg/10 ml). For method validation, the certified reference materials Pig Kidney (BCR 186) and Rice Flour (NIES 10) were used. Quantitative cadmium and lead recoveries were obtained and no statistical differences were found at 95% level by applying the t-test

  1. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of CR II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. the plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. the light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 sto 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0. 2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sn alloys. to avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000 K), electron densities (∼∼ 10''16 cm ''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained. (Author) 56 refs

  2. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-09-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. The plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. The light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 to 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0.2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sb alloys. To avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000K), electron densities (approx 10 ''16 cm''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained

  3. Innovative approach to produce submicron drug particles by vibrational atomization spray drying: influence of the type of solvent and surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durli, T L; Dimer, F A; Fontana, M C; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Guterres, S S

    2014-08-01

    Spray drying is a technique used to produce solid particles from liquid solutions, emulsions or suspensions. Buchi Labortechnik developed the latest generation of spray dryers, Nano Spray Dryer B-90. This study aims to obtain, directly, submicron drug particles from an organic solution, employing this equipment and using dexamethasone as a model drug. In addition, we evaluated the influence of both the type of solvent and surfactant on the properties of the powders using a 3(2) full factorial analysis. The particles were obtained with high yields (above 60%), low water content (below 2%) and high drug content (above 80%). The surface tension and the viscosity were strongly influenced by the type of solvent. The highest powder yields were obtained for the highest surface tension and the lowest viscosity of the drug solutions. The use of ionic surfactants led to higher process yields. The laser diffraction technique revealed that the particles deagglomerate into small ones with submicrometric size, (around 1 µm) that was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between the raw materials in the spray-dried powders was verified by calorimetric analysis. Thus, it was possible to obtain dexamethasone submicrometric particles by vibrational atomization from organic solution.

  4. Spectroscopic study of plasma produced with a heavy ion maxilac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, G.E.; Golubev, A.A.; Sharkov, B.Y.; Mahrt-Olt, K.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopic study of plasma produced through bombardment of the 1 x 3 mm 2 area on the surface of a solid Mg target with Kr + ions is carried out. Spectral lines of Mg I and Mg II ions were observed in the visible range (200-600 nm). The plasma parameters N e 1.4·10 17 cm -3 and T e = 0.8 eV are calculated from electron impact broadening of the 4f-3d line of MgII and from the ratio of intensities for the 4f-3d and 4s-3p lines of Mg II. The ionic composition of the plasma is determined. The detected X-ray emission is shown to be the characteristic emission of the target. (author)

  5. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  6. Spectroscopic study of plasma produced with a heavy ion maxilac beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, G.E.; Golubev, A.A.; Sharkov, B.Y. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki); Bryunetkin, B.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Faenov, A.Y. (Nauchno-Proizvostvennoe Ob' ' edinenie VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)); Mahrt-Olt, K.; Hoffmann, D.H.H. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopic study of plasma produced through bombardment of the 1 x 3 mm[sup 2] area on the surface of a solid Mg target with Kr[sup +] ions is carried out. Spectral lines of Mg I and Mg II ions were observed in the visible range (200-600 nm). The plasma parameters N[sub e] 1.4[center dot]10[sup 17] cm [sup -3] and T[sub e] = 0.8 eV are calculated from electron impact broadening of the 4f-3d line of MgII and from the ratio of intensities for the 4f-3d and 4s-3p lines of Mg II. The ionic composition of the plasma is determined. The detected X-ray emission is shown to be the characteristic emission of the target. (author).

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Fe-V-Si aluminum alloy produced by electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shaobo; Zheng, Lijing, E-mail: zhenglijing@buaa.edu.cn; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Hu

    2016-04-06

    Atomized, pre-alloyed Al-8.5Fe-1.3V-1.7Si (wt%) powder was used to fabricate solid components by electron beam melting (EBM). The residual porosity, chemical composition, microstructure and mechanical properties have been investigated. Results show that the relative density of as-built alloy under the optimized processing parameters was 98.2%. Compare to the initial alloy powder, the EBM parts demonstrated a restricted aluminum loss (~1 wt%) and a quite low oxygen pickup. The microstructure of the deposits was non-uniform. The fusion zone and heat affected zone exhibited a large number of fine spherical Al{sub 12}(Fe,V){sub 3}Si particles (30–110 nm) distributed uniformly in the α-Al matrix. Some coarser Fe- and V-riched rectangle-like Al{sub m}Fe phase (m=4.0–4.4) with 100–400 nm in size was precipitated in the melting boundary zone. The microhardness of the EBM samples was 153 HV in average. The average ultimate tensile strength (UTS) reached 438 MPa with the elongation of 12%. A ductile fracture mode of the tensile specimens was also revealed.

  8. Contribution to the theoretical study of a high power microwave radiation produced by a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellem, F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of microwave radiation produced by relativistic electron beams. The vircator (virtual cathode oscillator) is a powerful microwave source based on this principle. This device is described but the complexity of the physical processes involved makes computer simulation necessary before proposing a simplified model. The existent M2V code has been useful to simulate the behaviour of a vircator but the representation of some phenomena such as hot points, the interaction of waves with particles lacks reliability. A new code CODEX has been written, it can solve Maxwell equations on a double mesh system by a finite difference method. The electric and magnetic fields are directly computed from the scalar and vectorial potentials. This new code has been satisfactorily tested on 3 configurations: the bursting of an electron beam in vacuum, the evolution of electromagnetic fields in diode and the propagation of waves in a wave tube. CODEX has been able to simulate the behaviour of a vircator, the frequency and power are well predicted and some contributions to the problem of origin of microwave production have been made. It seems that the virtual cathode is not directly involved in the microwave production. (A.C.)

  9. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 ,11.5 ,19.6 ,27 , and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p , and p ¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y |<0.1 ) results for multiplicity densities d N /d y , average transverse momenta 〈pT〉 , and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

  10. Characterization of aerosols produced in cutting steel components and concrete structures by means of a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Melandri, C.; Zaiacomo, T. de; Lombard, C.C.; Formignani, M.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of cutting based on the use of a laser beam is studied as a possible method in nuclear plant dismantling (OECD, 1982). The technique implies a relevant problem of contamination due to high aerosol production. Tests have been carried out to characterize the aerosol produced in cutting steel and concrete in terms of size spectrum, electric charge and chemical composition in comparison with bulk material composition. The high temperature value locally reached in the cutting zone causes material vaporization with emission of very fine primary particles. In such conditions aerosol coagulation is very fast (it occurs in less than 1s) and leads to aggregates. Research has been aimed at finding the characteristics of the aerosol removable from the cutting zone by ventilation and evaluating the morphology of the particles that diffuse at approximately 50 cm from the generation point, or settle on the cutting-box base. (author)

  11. Ionization of a cesium atom by an absorption process involving two photons from a laser beam; Ionisation d'un atome de cesium par un processus d'absorption a deux photons issus d'un faisceau laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontier, Y.; Trahin, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The expression giving the ionisation cross-section of an atom, by an absorption process involving two photons produced from a laser beam, is derived. The non-relativistic case is considered and the dipolar approximation used. The summation over the intermediate states is carried out rigorously by means of a special technique which is described in detail. A method is presented which makes it possible to obtain the numerical solution. (authors) [French] La formule donnant la section efficace d'ionisation d'un atome, par un processus d'absorption mettant en jeu deux photons issus d'un faiseau Laser, est etablie. On se place dans le cas non relativiste et Pon utilise l'approximation dipolaire. La sommation sur les etats intermediaires est effectuee rigoureusement au moyen d'une technique particuliere qui est decrite en detail. On expose une methode permettant d'obtenir la solution numerique. (auteurs)

  12. Report of cooperative research programs in the field of ion-beam breeding between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Bilateral cooperative research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Zaiton; Oono, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes Bilateral Cooperative Research between Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (a representative of the Government of Malaysia) implemented from 2002 to 2012 under 'THE IMPLEMENTING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA AND THE JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY ON THE RESEARCH COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIATION PROCESSING'. The research activities in two Cooperative Research Programs, 'Mutation Induction of Orchid Plants by Ion Beams' and 'Generating New Ornamental Plant Varieties Using Ion Beams' performed 2002-2007 and 2007-2012, respectively, are contained. The lists of steering committee meetings, irradiation experiments, and publications/presentations of each program are also attached in the Appendixes. (author)

  13. Hyperfine structure investigation of the first excited state 4Isub(13/2) (5,418-1) in Holmium-165 by the atomic beam resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldenhoven, R.

    1976-01-01

    By the method of atomic beam resonance the hyperfine structure of the first excited state 4 Isub(13/2) (5418 cm -1 ) of 165 Holmium was studied for the first time. Using a suitable ΔF = 0 transition, the gsub(J)-factor was measured. After a determination of estimates for the hyperfine constants A and B from two suitably chosen ΔF = 0 transitions, the hyperfine splittings have been measured. (orig./WL) [de

  14. Helium Atom Scattering from C2H6, F2HCCH3, F3CCH2F and C2F6 in Crossed Molecular Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Markus; Seidel, Wolfhart

    1997-10-01

    Rotationally unresolved differential cross sections were measured in crossed molecular beam experiments by scattering Helium atoms from Ethane, 1,1-Difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane and Hexafluoroethane. The damping of observed diffraction oscillations was used to extract anisotropic interaction potentials for these scattering systems applying the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Binary macroscopic parameters such as second heterogeneous virial coefficients and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity were computed from these potentials and compared to results from macroscopic experiments.

  15. Peculiarities of using mixed deuterium and tritium ion beams of complicated atomic-molecular composition for fast neutron generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kir'yanov, G.I.; Syromukov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    The neutron yield is calculated depending on deuterium and tritium beam parameters as well as on the target parameters. Cases of target presaturation with hydrogen nuclides and of target stuffing with the ion beam in the process of the system functioning are discussed. It is shown that the neutron yield is approximately three times more in the case with a pure beam compared to the case with a niked beam

  16. 2D imaging X-ray diagnostic for measuring the current density distribution in a wide-area electron beam produced in a multiaperture diode with plasma cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkuchekov, V.; Kandaurov, I.; Trunev, Y.

    2018-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive X-ray diagnostic tool was designed for measuring the cross-sectional current density distribution in a low-relativistic pulsed electron beam produced in a source based on an arc-discharge plasma cathode and multiaperture diode-type electron optical system. The beam parameters were as follows: Uacc = 50–110 kV, Ibeam = 20–100 A, τbeam = 0.1–0.3 ms. The beam effective diameter was ca. 7 cm. Based on a pinhole camera, the diagnostic allows one to obtain a 2D profile of electron beam flux distribution on a flat metal target in a single shot. The linearity of the diagnostic system response to the electron flux density was established experimentally. Spatial resolution of the diagnostic was also estimated in special test experiments. The optimal choice of the main components of the diagnostic technique is discussed.

  17. Hydrogen-Induced Phase Transformation and Microstructure Evolution for Ti-6Al-4V Parts Produced by Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pushilina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 μm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α″ and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content.

  18. Application of the backscattering of an atomic beam of thermal energy to the study of the vibrational properties of metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapujoulade, J.; Lejay, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Vibrational properties of metal surfaces (surface phonons, surface Debye temperatures) are less known than bulk ones since common investigation methods (neutron, X-rays) are not sensitive to surface properties. A study of the backscattering of an atomic beam may give surface specific informations. The backscattering of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar) from a clean copper single crystal ((100) face) was experimentally studied. The experimental set-up allows to measure the space repartition well as the velocity distribution of the scattered atoms. If the collisions is purely elastic an analysis of the thermal dependence of the specular peak by means of the Debye Waller formula will give the mean square displacements of surface atoms. It is shown however that this simple case is not fulfilled with helium in ordinary beam or solid temperatures. If the collision is inelastic, but dominated by single phonon transfers (as it seems to be the case for helium) information should to get about the phonon dispersion relation of surface atoms. When many-phonon collision occur (Ne and Ar) the analysis is more difficult. A comparison of the experimental result with an approximate calculation of G. Armand is given [fr

  19. Transfer-free synthesis of graphene-like atomically thin carbon films on SiC by ion beam mixing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Fenghua; Wang, Jinbin; Fu, Dejun

    2018-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the synthesis of graphene directly on SiC substrates at 900 °C using ion beam mixing technique with energetic carbon cluster ions on Ni/SiC structures. The thickness of 7-8 nm Ni films was evaporated on the SiC substrates, followed by C cluster ion bombarding. Carbon cluster ions C4 were bombarded at 16 keV with the dosage of 4 × 1016 atoms/cm2. After thermal annealing process Ni silicides were formed, whereas C atoms either from the decomposition of the SiC substrates or the implanted contributes to the graphene synthesis by segregating and precipitating process. The limited solubility of carbon atoms in silicides, involving SiC, Ni2Si, Ni5Si2, Ni3Si, resulted in diffusion and precipitation of carbon atoms to form graphene on top of Ni and the interface of Ni/SiC. The ion beam mixing technique provides an attractive production method of a transfer-free graphene growth on SiC and be compatible with current device fabrication.

  20. Status of positron beams for dark photons experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High energy positron beams are an important tool for fixed-target experiments searching for new particles produced in the annihilation on atomic electrons of a target. The status of existing or planned infrastructures is reviewed.

  1. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  2. Characterization of an Additive Manufactured TiAl Alloy-Steel Joint Produced by Electron Beam Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Gloria; Baudana, Giorgio; Marchese, Giulio; Lorusso, Massimo; Lombardi, Mariangela; Ugues, Daniele; Fino, Paolo; Biamino, Sara

    2018-01-17

    In this work, the characterization of the assembly of a steel shaft into a γ-TiAl part for turbocharger application, obtained using Electron Beam Welding (EBW) technology with a Ni-based filler, was carried out. The Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si (at %) alloy part was produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM). This additive manufacturing technology allows the production of a lightweight part with complex shapes. The replacement of Nickel-based superalloys with TiAl alloys in turbocharger automotive applications will lead to an improvement of the engine performance and a substantial reduction in fuel consumption and emission. The welding process allows a promising joint to be obtained, not affecting the TiAl microstructure. Nevertheless, it causes the formation of diffusive layers between the Ni-based filler and both steel and TiAl, with the latter side being characterized by a very complex microstructure, which was fully characterized in this paper by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. The diffusive interface has a thickness of about 6 µm, and it is composed of several layers. Specifically, from the TiAl alloy side, we find a layer of Ti₃Al followed by Al₃NiTi₂ and AlNi₂Ti. Subsequently Ni becomes more predominant, with a first layer characterized by abundant carbide/boride precipitation, and a second layer characterized by Si-enrichment. Then, the chemical composition of the Ni-based filler is gradually reached.

  3. Characterization of an Additive Manufactured TiAl Alloy—Steel Joint Produced by Electron Beam Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Basile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization of the assembly of a steel shaft into a γ-TiAl part for turbocharger application, obtained using Electron Beam Welding (EBW technology with a Ni-based filler, was carried out. The Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si (at % alloy part was produced by Electron Beam Melting (EBM. This additive manufacturing technology allows the production of a lightweight part with complex shapes. The replacement of Nickel-based superalloys with TiAl alloys in turbocharger automotive applications will lead to an improvement of the engine performance and a substantial reduction in fuel consumption and emission. The welding process allows a promising joint to be obtained, not affecting the TiAl microstructure. Nevertheless, it causes the formation of diffusive layers between the Ni-based filler and both steel and TiAl, with the latter side being characterized by a very complex microstructure, which was fully characterized in this paper by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. The diffusive interface has a thickness of about 6 µm, and it is composed of several layers. Specifically, from the TiAl alloy side, we find a layer of Ti3Al followed by Al3NiTi2 and AlNi2Ti. Subsequently Ni becomes more predominant, with a first layer characterized by abundant carbide/boride precipitation, and a second layer characterized by Si-enrichment. Then, the chemical composition of the Ni-based filler is gradually reached.

  4. Electron beam inactivation of Tulane virus on fresh produce, and mechanism of inactivation of human norovirus surrogates by electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predmore, Ashley; Sanglay, Gabriel C; DiCaprio, Erin; Li, Jianrong; Uribe, R M; Lee, Ken

    2015-04-02

    Ionizing radiation, whether by electron beams or gamma rays, is a non-thermal processing technique used to improve the microbial safety and shelf-life of many different food products. This technology is highly effective against bacterial pathogens, but data on its effect against foodborne viruses is limited. A mechanism of viral inactivation has been proposed with gamma irradiation, but no published study discloses a mechanism for electron beam (e-beam). This study had three distinct goals: 1) evaluate the sensitivity of a human norovirus surrogate, Tulane virus (TV), to e-beam irradiation in foods, 2) compare the difference in sensitivity of TV and murine norovirus (MNV-1) to e-beam irradiation, and 3) determine the mechanism of inactivation of these two viruses by e-beam irradiation. TV was reduced from 7 log10 units to undetectable levels at target doses of 16 kGy or higher in two food matrices (strawberries and lettuce). MNV-1 was more resistant to e-beam treatment than TV. At target doses of 4 kGy, e-beam provided a 1.6 and 1.2 log reduction of MNV-1 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), compared to a 1.5 and 1.8 log reduction of TV in PBS and Opti-MEM, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that increased e-beam doses negatively affected the structure of both viruses. Analysis of viral proteins by SDS-PAGE found that irradiation also degraded viral proteins. Using RT-PCR, irradiation was shown to degrade viral genomic RNA. This suggests that the mechanism of inactivation of e-beam was likely the same as gamma irradiation as the damage to viral constituents led to inactivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular beam scattering experiments on the abstraction and exchange reactions of deuterium atoms with the hydrogen halides HCl, HBr, and HI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.; Rusin, L.Y.; Toennies, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Molecular beam scattering experiments have been carried out on the abstraction and exchange reactions of deuterium atoms (T=2600 K) with the hydrogen halides HX(T=300 K) in the range of scattering angles: 0 0 0 (theta/sub cm/=0 0 is the direction of the incident D-atom beam). The apparatus employed a very sensitive electron bombardment detector with a sufficiently low H 2 background to make possible the measurement of differential cross sections of about 0.1 A 2 /sr for reactively scattered HD and H and nonreactively scattered D-atoms. The measured HD signal can be largely attributed to various background sources and only serves to establish a rough upper limit on the abstraction cross section in the angular range investigated. The H-atom signal was more intense. The observed angular distribution was forward peaked, and is attributed to the exchange reaction. The nonreactively scattered D-atom signal was used in conjunction with a recently reported effective spherically symmetric potential to provide an absolute calibration of the detector sensitivity. The measured integral cross sections for the exchange reactions are 2.3 A 2 (D+HCl), 1.3 A 2 (D+HBr) and 1.6 A 2 (D+HI) with an estimated error of about +- 30%. The absolute cross sections and the H-atom angular distributions are consistent with the DX distributions measured by McDonald and Herschbach. Both experimental angular distributions are considerably narrower than those predicted by the recent classical trajectory calculations of Raff, Suzukawa, and Thompson. The implications of the new data for the activation energies for the exchange reactions are discussed

  6. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse

    1998-01-01

    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 0 production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e + e - pair creation near a nucleus with the e + being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure

  7. Collisional destruction of fast hydrogen Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new modulated electric field technique was developed to study Rydberg atom destruction processes in a fast beam. The process of destruction of a band of Rydberg atom destruction of a band of Rydberg atoms through the combined processes of ionization, excitation, and deexcitation was studied for collisions with gas targets. Rydberg atoms of hydrogen were formed by electron capture, and detected by field ionization. The modulated field technique described proved to be an effective technique for producing a large signal for accurate cross section measurements. The independent particle model for Rydberg atom destruction processes was found to hold well for collisions with molecular nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide. The resonances in the cross sections for the free electron scattering with these targets were found to also occur in Rydberg destruction. Suggestions for future investigations of Rydberg atom collision processes in the fast beam regime are given

  8. RI beam factory project at RIKEN

    CERN Document Server

    Motobayashi, T

    2003-01-01

    Construction of the RI beam factory project in the first phase has started. The aim of the project is to provide intense radio-isotopes (RI) beams at energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon in a wide range of atomic masses. These beams will be produced by the projectile fragmentation of primary beams accelerated by a cascade of the existing ring cyclotron and a series of new ring cyclotrons. Improvements of the existing facility made for the new cyclotron complex have extended the energy range of available beams, which already opened new domains of study.

  9. Installation And Test Of Electron Beam Generation System To Produce Far-Infrared Radiation And X-Ray Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Jinamoon, Witoon; Khangrang, Nopadon; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W.; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Chitrlada, Thongbai; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-10-01

    SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, aims to establish a facility to generate femtosecond electron beams. This electron beam can be used to generate high intensity far-infrared radiation and ultra-short X-ray pulses. The main components of the system are a 3 MeV RF electron gun with a thermionic cathode, an a-magnet as a bunch compressor, and post acceleration 15-20 MeV by a linear accelerator (linac). Between the main components, there are focusing quadrupole magnets and steering magnets to maintain the electron beam within a high vacuum tube. At the end of the beam transport line, a dipole magnet has been installed to function as a beam dump and an energy spectrometer. After the installation and testing of individual major components were completed, we have been investigating the generation of the electron beam, intense far- infrared radiation and ultra short X-ray pulses

  10. Coherent bremsstrahlung in crystals as a tool for producing high energy photon beams to be used in photoproduction experiments at CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Bologna, G; Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Celani, F; Falcioni, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1983-01-01

    We recall the properties of coherent bremsstrahlung of high energy electrons in single crystals and show that a suitably oriented diamond crystal can produce a high energy bremsstrahlung beam whose quasimonochromatic spectral composition may be exploited for increasing the production rate in a photoproduction experiment at hundreds of GeV. A careful analysis of the required angular resolutions is performed. It turns out that the standard deviation of the electron beam angular divergence in one plane should be less than 0.3 mrad, for a beam energy of 150 GeV. The standard deviation in the perpendicular plane is not critical. In this situation the photoproduction rate in a typical case is increased by a factor of about 3 with respect to the conventional bremsstrahlung beam.

  11. Improving surface smoothness and photoluminescence of CdTe(1 1 1)A on Si(1 1 1) substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy using Mn atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jyh-Shyang; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chang-Wei; Dai, Zi-Yuan; Tong, Shih-Chang; Yang, Chu-Shou; Wu, Chih-Hung; Yuan, Chi-Tsu; Shen, Ji-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CdTe(1 1 1)A epilayers were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. • We report an enhanced growth using Mn atoms. • The significant improvements in surface quality and optical properties were found. - Abstract: This work demonstrates an improvement of the molecular beam epitaxial growth of CdTe(1 1 1)A epilayer on Si(1 1 1) substrates using Mn atoms. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns show that the involvement of some Mn atoms in the growth of CdTe(1 1 1)A is even more effective than the use of a buffer layer with a smooth surface for forming good CdTe(1 1 1)A epilayers. 10 K Photoluminescence spectra show that the incorporation of only 2% Mn significantly reduced the intensity of defect-related emissions and considerably increased the integral intensity of exciton-related emissions by a large factor of about 400

  12. Atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities in atomic physics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are described. Topics covered include: experiments on stored ions; test for parity violation in neutral weak currents; energy conservation and astrophysics; atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic and molecular detectors; theoretical studies of quantum electrodynamics and high-z ions; atomic beam magnetic resonance; radiative decay from the 2 3 Po, 2 levels of helium-like argon; quenching of the metastable 2S/sub 1/2/ state of hydrogen-like argon in an external electric field; and lifetime of the 2 3 Po level of helium-like krypton

  13. Studies on production of metastable core-excited atoms by laser-produced x-rays. Final report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Young, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    The overall objective of the work on this program was to study methods for production of core-excited metastable atoms by laser-generated x-rays. We are interested in the spectroscopy of these levels, their autoionizing and radiative rates, and their metastability in the presence of hot electrons and ions. The concept of using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma to excite large densities of energetic excited levels in atoms and ions has been thoroughly experimentally investigated using modest, 100 mJ, plasma-producing lasers. One of the objectives of this work was to verify that these techniques could be scaled up to higher energies, such as 20 J. Thus a major effort this year has been devoted to the design and construction of the high energy (20 J) 1064 nm plasma-forming laser system and the tunable probe/transfer laser

  14. Novel uses of a wide beam saddle field ion source for producing targets used in nuclear physics experiments at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The wide beam ion sputter source has several unique characteristics which make it very useful for producing, reducing the thickness or cleaning the surface of targets needed for nuclear physics experiments. A discussion of these techniques as well as the sputter source characteristics will be given. Sputter yields obtained utilizing the source are presented for a variety of materials common to nuclear target production

  15. Bone ingrowth potential of electron beam and selective laser melting produced trabecular-like implant surfaces with and without a biomimetic coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, J.E.; Hannink, G.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The bone ingrowth potential of trabecular-like implant surfaces produced by either selective laser melting (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM), with or without a biomimetic calciumphosphate coating, was examined in goats. For histological analysis and histomorphometry of bone ingrowth depth and

  16. Modulation of controlled-not gate using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a nonlinear atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, YuanYuan; Zhang, YunZhe

    2018-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a controlled-not gate with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a degenerate four-wave mixing process via a photonic band gap structure satisfying the phase-matching condition. By employing the different topological charges of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam as a qubit in this nonlinear process, the controlled-not gate with OAM can be realized. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of the controlled-not gate, which can be modulated by the frequency and the power of the incident beam, i.e., under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions. The study results are useful for applications in quantum communication and information storage.

  17. Novel Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores with excellent magnetic properties produced using gas-atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang; Xie, Lei; Liu, Min; Li, Qiang; Dong, Yaqiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xin-Min; Inoue, Akihisa

    2018-04-01

    FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline powder cores (NPCs) with excellent magnetic properties were fabricated by cold-compaction of the gas-atomized amorphous powder. Upon annealing at the optimum temperature, the NPCs showed excellent magnetic properties, including high initial permeability of 88, high frequency stability up to 1 MHz with a constant value of 85, low core loss of 265 mW/cm3 at 100 kHz for Bm = 0.05 T, and superior DC-bias permeability of 60% at a bias field of 100 Oe. The excellent magnetic properties of the present NPCs could be attributed to the ultrafine α-Fe(Si) phase precipitated in the amorphous matrix and the use of gas-atomized powder coated with a uniform insulation layer.

  18. Diagnostics of Carbon Nanotube Formation in a Laser Produced Plume: An Investigation of the Metal Catalyst by Laser Ablation Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBoer, Gary; Scott, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, elongated molecular tubes with diameters of nanometers and lengths in microns, hold great promise for material science. Hopes for super strong light-weight material to be used in spacecraft design is the driving force behind nanotube work at JSC. The molecular nature of these materials requires the appropriate tools for investigation of their structure, properties, and formation. The mechanism of nanotube formation is of particular interest because it may hold keys to controlling the formation of different types of nanotubes and allow them to be produced in much greater quantities at less cost than is currently available. This summer's work involved the interpretation of data taken last summer and analyzed over the academic year. The work involved diagnostic studies of carbon nanotube formation processes occurring in a laser-produced plume. Laser ablation of metal doped graphite to produce a plasma plume in which carbon nanotubes self assemble is one method of making carbon nanotube. The laser ablation method is amenable to applying the techniques of laser spectroscopy, a powerful tool for probing the energies and dynamics of atomic and molecular species. The experimental work performed last summer involved probing one of the metal catalysts, nickel, by laser induced fluorescence. The nickel atom was studied as a function of oven temperature, probe laser wavelength, time after ablation, and position in the laser produced plume. This data along with previously obtained data on carbon was analyzed over the academic year. Interpretations of the data were developed this summer along with discussions of future work. The temperature of the oven in which the target is ablated greatly influences the amount of material ablated and the propagation of the plume. The ablation conditions and the time scale of atomic and molecular lifetimes suggest that initial ablation of the metal doped carbon target results in atomic and small molecular species. The metal

  19. Study of X-Ray and $\\gamma$-Ray Spectra from Antiprotonic Atoms at the Slowly Extracted Antiproton Beam of LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will study the X-ray spectra of antiprotonic atoms and the $\\gamma$ spectra of residual nuclei after the antiproton absorption. We intend to begin with measurements on selected isotopically pure targets. Strong interaction effects, the antiproton absorption and the atomic cascade are analysed through the measurement of energies, lineshapes, relative and absolute intensities of all observable lines. The experiments are continued to determine st in resolved fine structure levels and in different isotopes of the same element. Coincidence techniques may be applied. All components of the experimental set-up are already existing from previous experiments and we could begin the measurements with any slowly extracted beam of low energy at LEAR.

  20. Dosimetry and monitoring of thin X-ray beam produced by linear particle accelerator, for application in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    The dosimetry and monitoring characteristics of thin X-ray beams, and the application of 4MeV linear particle accelerator to radiosurgery are studied. An addition collimation system, consisted of 3 lead collimators, which allows to obtain thin beams of 6,10 and 15 mm of diameter, was fabricated. The stereo taxic system, together with modifications in dispositives, provide the accuracy required in volum-targed location. The dosimetric informations were determined with silicon detector inserted into water simulator. The isodose curves for each beam, and total isodoses simulating the treatment were established using radiographic emulsions in conditions which reproduce real circunstances of pacient irradiation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Chemical behaviour of a few atoms of rutherfordium (Rf, Z= 104) and of dubnium (Db, Z= 105) produced at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Le Naour, C.; Brillard, L.; Monroy Guzman, F.; Le Du, J.F.; Servajean, V.

    1998-01-01

    The isotopes 261 Rf and 262 Db were produced by irradiation of a 248 Cm target with respectively 18 O and 19 F ions, at the MP Tandem accelerator of Orsay (France). These isotopes were isolated in HF medium, using he RACHEL setup. Moreover, the radioisotope 262 DB was produced by a nuclear reaction. (authors)

  2. Interferometry with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmcke, J.; Riehle, F.; Witte, A.; Kisters, T.

    1992-01-01

    Physics and experimental results of atom interferometry are reviewed and several realizations of atom interferometers are summarized. As a typical example of an atom interferometer utilizing the internal degrees of freedom of the atom, we discuss the separated field excitation of a calcium atomic beam using four traveling laser fields and demonstrate the Sagnac effect in a rotating interferometer. The sensitivity of this interferometer can be largely increased by use of slow atoms with narrow velocity distribution. We therefore furthermore report on the preparation of a laser cooled and deflected calcium atomic beam. (orig.)

  3. Antimatter atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In january 1996, CERN broadcasted the information of the creation of nine anti-hydrogen atoms, observed through disintegration products. The experimental facility was CERN LEAR ring. An antiproton beam scattered a xenon jet, and the resulting antimatter was first selected by its insensitivity to beam bending magnets. Their disintegration was detected in thin NaI detectors, in which the anti-atoms are at once deprived from their positron. Then, magnetic and time-of-flight spectrometers are used. (D.L.)

  4. Device for irradiation of a target surface by a variable electron beam, especially electron beam generator, in order to produce semiconductor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    For the lithographic device there is used a field emission source for thermal ions with a tungsten cathode and a zirconium top as an electron gain. For production of IC chips the electron beam of 1000 A/cm 2 can be focused on a mask template, mounted on a x/Y table, by means of a system of lenses. The electromagnetic focusing device with a small aberration coefficient is designed in such a way that there is obtained a large focal length on the image side as compared to the focal length on the object side. Thereby a small angular deflection of the beam in the focusing device causes a large deflection at the target. The control is performed by a processor. (RW) [de

  5. Diode laser probe of CO2 vibrational excitation produced by collisions with hot deuterium atoms from the 193 nm excimer laser photolysis D2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, J.A.; Cai, J.Y.; Flynn, G.W.; Weston, R.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The 193 nm excimer laser photolysis of D 2 S in D 2 S/CO 2 mixtures produces fast deuterium atoms (E/sub TR/approx.2.2 eV) which vibrationally excite CO 2 molecules via inelastic translation--vibration/rotation (T--V/R) energy exchange processes. A high resolution (10 -3 cm -1 ) cw diode laser probe was used to monitor the excitation of ν 3 (antisymmetric stretch) and ν 2 (bend) vibrations in CO 2 . The present results are compared with previous experiments involving hot hydrogen atom excitation of CO 2 in H 2 S/CO 2 mixtures as well as with theoretical calculations of the excitation probability. The probability for excitation of a ν 3 quantum in CO 2 is about 1%--2% per gas kinetic D/CO 2 collision. Bending (ν 2 ) quanta are produced about eight times more efficiently than antisymmetric stretching (ν 3 ) quanta. The thermalization rate for cooling hot D atoms below the threshold for production of a ν 3 vibrational quantum corresponds to less than 2 D*/D 2 S collisions or 15 D*/CO 2 collisions

  6. Atom-surface potentials and atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babb, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Long-range atom-surface potentials characterize the physics of many actual systems and are now measurable spectroscopically in deflection of atomic beams in cavities or in reflection of atoms in atomic fountains. For a ground state, spherically symmetric atom the potential varies as -1/R 3 near the wall, where R is the atom-surface distance. For asymptotically large distances the potential is weaker and goes as -1/R 4 due to retardation arising from the finite speed of light. This diminished interaction can also be interpreted as a Casimir effect. The possibility of measuring atom-surface potentials using atomic interferometry is explored. The particular cases studied are the interactions of a ground-state alkali-metal atom and a dielectric or a conducting wall. Accurate descriptions of atom-surface potentials in theories of evanescent-wave atomic mirrors and evanescent wave-guided atoms are also discussed. (author)

  7. Ultrahigh-sensitive detection of molecules produced in catalytic reactions by uni-atomic-composition bi-element clusters supported on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumatsu, H; Fukui, N

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring catalytic activities of uni-atomic-composition bi-element clusters supported on a solid substrate. The cluster sample is prepared by irradiating a cluster-ion beam having the uni-atomic composition onto the substrate on a soft-landing condition in an ultra-high vacuum. The catalytic activity is measured by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) mass analysis. Molecules at a density as low as 3 cm −3 have been detected with an ultrahigh-sensitive TPD mass spectrometer consisting of a cylindrical electron gun, a quadrupole mass filter and a micro-channel-plate ion-detector. The high reproducibility has been achieved by careful calibration of the TPD mass spectrometer. As a benchmark example, thermal oxidation of CO catalysed on Pt 30 disks supported on a silicon surface was studied. The CO 2 products have been successfully observed at the Pt 30 density as low as 3 × 10 12 clusters in a circular area of 8 mm in diameter at the ramping rate of the sample temperature as low as 0.3 K s −1 .

  8. Note: Determination of torsional spring constant of atomic force microscopy cantilevers: Combining normal spring constant and classical beam theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Asencio, R.; Thormann, Esben; Rutland, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the calculation of torsional spring constants for AFM cantilevers based on the combination of the normal spring constant and plate/beam theory. It is easy to apply and allow the determination of torsional constants for stiff cantilevers where the thermal power s...... spectrum is difficult to obtain due to the high resonance frequency and low signal/noise ratio. The applicability is shown to be general and this simple approach can thus be used to obtain torsional constants for any beam shaped cantilever. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC....

  9. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  10. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  11. Research on spherically converging ion-beam fusion neutron source for the fundamental research of atomic energy. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-050. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2002-03-01

    Potential well formation due to space charge associated with spherically converging ion beams plays a key and essential role in the beam-beam colliding fusion, which is the major mechanism of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) devices. Many theoretical results so far predicted strongly localized potential well formation, and actually for the past 30 years, many experiments were dedicated to clarify this mechanism, but neither could provide definitive evidence. In this study, we succeeded for the first time in the world in observing the double-well potential profile by use of the laser-induced fluorescence method that makes use of Stark effects, which put a period to the controverse for 30 years on the existence of the double-well potential profile. Furthermore, aiming at demonstrating a numerical prediction of a strongly nonlinear dependence of the fusion reaction rate on the discharge current on negligence of the charge exchange processes, triple-grid auxiliary system was introduced in order to reduce the operating gas pressure, with a successful result of reducing the pressure down to 1/5 of the conventional one required for glow discharge with single-grid system. Also, we measured accelerated atoms' kinetic energies through Doppler shift spectroscopy, and found the maximum energy increases proportionally to the applied voltage, which implies an enhancement of the fusion reaction cross-section with an increasing applied voltage in the near future. (author)

  12. A measurement of the absolute neutron beam polarization produced by an optically pumped 3He neutron spin filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, D.R.; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.E.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Espy, M.A.; Haseyama, T.; Jones, G.; Keith, C.D.; Knudson, J.; Leuschner, M.B.; Masaike, A.; Masuda, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Penttilae, S.I.; Pomeroy, V.R.; Smith, D.A.; Snow, W.M.; Szymanski, J.J.; Stephenson, S.L.; Thompson, A.K.; Yuan, V.

    2002-01-01

    The capability of performing accurate absolute measurements of neutron beam polarization opens a number of exciting opportunities in fundamental neutron physics and in neutron scattering. At the LANSCE pulsed neutron source we have measured the neutron beam polarization with an absolute accuracy of 0.3% in the neutron energy range from 40 meV to 10 eV using an optically pumped polarized 3 He spin filter and a relative transmission measurement technique. 3 He was polarized using the Rb spin-exchange method. We describe the measurement technique, present our results, and discuss some of the systematic effects associated with the method

  13. The production of collimated beams of o-Ps atoms using charge exchange in positron-gas collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laricchia, G.; Charlton, M.; Davies, S.A.; Beling, C.D.; Griffith, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Using positron-gas collisions in a short scattering cell it is demonstrated that, at certain impact energies, approximately 4% of the scattered positrons can be detected as o-Ps atoms collimated in a 6 0 cone about the incident positron direction. (author)

  14. Preliminary studies on fragmentation in tissue-equivalent material produced by 55 MeV/u 40Ar17+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Bingrong; Wei Zengquan; Duan Limin; Zhang Baoguo; Li Songlin; Yin Xu; Zhu Yongtai; Li Wenjian; Li Qiang; Yuan Shibin

    2002-01-01

    By using a 55 MeV/u 40 Ar 17+ beam produced by HIRFL, the distribution of fragments in 1.5 mm lucite on three different directions were measured at the radiobiology terminal. Feasibilities of the phoswich detector composed of fast plastic scintillator and CsI(Tl) detectors for determination of angular distribution of fragments in tissue-equivalent materials were investigated. The results obtained were satisfactory

  15. Effect of laser beam focus position on ion emission from plasmas produced by picosecond and sub-nanosecond laser pulses from solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Vankov, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2001), s. 791-798 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2 P03B 082 19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * laser beam focus position influence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2001

  16. Setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste produced in Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    JNES investigated the appropriateness of a view of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. on cesium residual content and the radioactivity measurement precision regarding the molten solidified (with lowered inorganic salt used) radioactive wastes which were produced from Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No. 2 Power Stations. Based on the written performance report from the request and past disposal confirmation experience, a view of the JNFC is confirmed as appropriate that setting of 15% cesium residual ratio for molten solidified with volume ratio larger than 4% and less than 10% cases. (S. Ohno)

  17. Methods for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film for solid state electrolytes and protective electrode coatings for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Meng, Xiangbo

    2018-03-13

    A method for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film configured for use in an anode, cathode, or solid state electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery or a lithium-sulfur battery. The method includes repeating a cycle for a predetermined number of times in an inert atmosphere. The cycle includes exposing a substrate to a first precursor, purging the substrate with inert gas, exposing the substrate to a second precursor, and purging the substrate with inert gas. The film is a metal sulfide.

  18. Use of a discharge in an hollow cathode as neutral atom source for resonant ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, T.; Briand, A.; Khelifa, N.; Mauchien, P.

    1987-01-01

    The resonance ionization mass spectrometry in our laboratory is aimed at simplification of isotope measurements of elements present in mixtures and at measurement of very small isotopes. An atomization source which produces an atomic beam collimated from a discharge in a hollow cathode has been developed. First results of this spectrometry with an uranium atomic jet are presented [fr

  19. Structure formation in atom lithography using geometric collimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, T.; Beardmore, J.P.; Fabrie, C.G.C.H.M.; van Lieshout, J.P.; Notermans, R.P.M.J.W.; Sang, R.T.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Atom lithography uses standing wave light fields as arrays of lenses to focus neutral atom beams into line patterns on a substrate. Laser cooled atom beams are commonly used, but an atom beam source with a small opening placed at a large distance from a substrate creates atom beams which are locally

  20. Dosimetry and monitoring of X-rays narrow beams produced by linear particle accelerator, for using in radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.C.F.; Vizeu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of X-rays narrow beams dosimetry and monitoring are examined, aiming the introduction of this system in brain radiosurgery. The non-protocolize detectors are used, once that the detectors used in therapy by megavoltage were projected for dosimetry with an irradiation field above 40 mm diameter. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendil, Durali; Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 μg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 μg/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  2. Surface Modification of Polystyrene with O Atoms Produced Downstream from an Ar/O2 Microwave Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Because discarded polystyrene (PS is little affected by degrading agents, PS was treated with a remote microwave (MW plasma discharge of an Ar/O2 mixture in the absence of radiation to increase wettability and introduce functional groups which make the waste more liable to degradation and useful for technological applications. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS detected decreases in the aromatic sp2 and aliphatic sp3 carbons with treatment and, initially, increases in C–O and carbonyl groups, present in the formation of ethers, epoxides, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. At longer treatment times, ester, O–C=O; carbonate-like, O–(C=O–O; and anhydride, O=C–O–C=O; moieties are observed with an overall oxygen saturation level of 23.6 ± 0.9 at% O. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM measurements detected little change in surface roughness with treatment time. Advancing water contact angle decreased by ca. 50% compared to pristine PS indicating an increase in hydrophilicity because of oxidation. Washing the treated samples in deionized water decreased the oxygen concentrations at the saturation treatment times down to 18.6 ± 1 at% O due to the washing away of a weak boundary layer.

  3. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, D.

    1997-10-01

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation ε 1 excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation ε 2 tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry (∼ 10 -6 ) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, ε 1 , ε 2 ) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  4. Cluster-assistant generation of multiply charged atomic ions in nanosecond laser ionization of seeded methyl iodide beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Kong Xianglei; Wen Lihua; Liang Feng; Pei Kemei; Wang Bin; Li Haiyang

    2005-01-01

    The photoionization of methyl iodide beam seeded in argon and helium is studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 25 ns, 532 nm Nd-YAG laser with intensities in the range of 2 x 10 10 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . Multiply charged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ with tens of eV kinetic energies have been observed when laser interacts with the middle part of the pulsed molecular beam, whose peak profiles are independent on the laser polarization directions. Strong evidences show that these ions are coming from the Coulomb explosion of multiply charged CH 3 I clusters, and laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of caged electrons plays a key role in the formation of multiply charged ions

  5. Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted from highly ionized atoms in the vacuum spark and laser-produced high power plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, P.

    1987-05-01

    The interest in atomic spectroscopy has greatly been reinforced in the last ten years. This gain of interest is directly related to the developments in different fields of research where hot plasmas are created. These fields include in particular controlled thermonuclear fusion research by means of inertial or magnetic confinement approaches and also the most recent efforts to achieve lasers in the XUV region. The present work is based on the specific contribution of the atomic spectroscopy group at the Hebrew University. The recent development of both theoretical and experimental tools allowed us to progress in the understanding of the highly ionized states of heavy elements. In this work the low-inductance vacuum-spark developed at the Hebrew University was used as the hot plasma source. The spectra were recorded in the 7-300 A range by means of a high-resolution extreme-grazing-incidence spectrometer developed at the Racah Institute by Profs. J.L. Schwob and B.S. Fraenkel. To the extend the spectroscopic studies to higher-Z atoms, the laser-produced plasma facility at Soreq Nuclear Center was used. In this work the spectra of the sixth row elements were recorded in the x-rays by means of a crystal spectrometer. All these experimental systems are briefly described in chapter one. Chapter two deals with the theoretical methods used in the present work for the atomic calculations. Chapter three deals with the spectra of elements of the fifth row emitted from the vacuum-spark in the 30-150 A range. These spectra as experimental data were used in order to test ab-initio computations along the NiI sequence 3d-nl transitions. The results of this work are presented in chapter four. Chapter five is devoted to the measurement and analysis of spectra emitted from the vacuum-spark by rare-earth elements. (author)

  6. Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency's Advisory Group meeting on ''Quality control of cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ruiz, H.; Marcus, C.S.; Pike, V.W.

    1990-01-01

    The special requirements for the preparation and quality control of cyclotron-produced tracers have been described with particular reference to the production of short-lived positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The regulatory philosophy and training aspects of implementation are considered followed by various aspects of quality of control including good production practice, chemical purity, radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity, specific activity, shelf-life and sterility and apyrogenicity. Finally some organizational aspects such as legal and regulatory aspects, supply of radiopharmaceuticals and professional liability are considered. (UK)

  7. Near threshold electron impact ionization cross section for tellurium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipev, F.F.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Kontros, J.E.; Shpenik, O.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Up today electron-impact ionization is one of the most intensively investigated processes in atomic and molecular physics [1]. These experiments however, are associated with difficulties: high temperatures and densities are required to produce atomic beams and monochromatic intensive electron beams. A crossed electron and atomic beams scattering geometry was employed to measure the ionization efficiency curve for tellurium atoms. Our electron spectrometer comprises two serially mounted hypocycloidal electron energy analyzers [2], the first being the monochromator and the second - the scattered electron analyzer. The whole spectrometer is immersed into the homogenous magnetic field. Great care was taken in selecting the value of the extracting potential at the electrode, mounted normally to the atomic beam direction. By careful choosing this potential as low as possible (∼1.4 V), its influence on the motion of the monochromatized electrons in the collision region was minimized and the full collection of the formed ions was reached. The atom beam was produced using a compact effusion source made of the stainless steel with a microchannel exit to minimise the angular divergency of the beam. The temperature of the microchannel plate was taken about 50 K higher than that of the metal vapour in the heated reservoir. This atomic beam source enabled to produce an atomic beam with the concentration of two orders of magnitude higher than that in the case of a standard effusion source. A typical value of the electron energy spread was 0.15 eV (FWHM) in the 0.1-15 eV energy range. The primary electron beam current was equal to 10 -7 A. Such values of electron energy spread and beam current for the primary electron beam passing through the collision chamber were chosen to provide identical conditions for carrying out all the measurements. The energy scale was calibrated with the accuracy of ± 0.05 eV. The measured ionization cross-section normalized to the results

  8. Magnetic trapping of cold bromine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P

    2014-01-17

    Magnetic trapping of bromine atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.

  9. The usage of electron beam to produce radio isotopes through the uranium fission by γ-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    We treat the production of desirable radio isotopes due to the 238 U photo-fission by the bremsstrahlung induced in converter by an initial electron beam provided by a linear electron accelerator. We consider as well the radio isotope production through the 238 U fission by the neutrons that stem in the 238 U sample irradiated by that bremsstrahlung. The yield of the most applicable radio isotope 99 Mo is calculated. We correlate the findings acquired in the work presented with those obtained by treating the nuclear photo-neutron reaction. Menace of the plutonium contamination of an irradiated uranium sample because of the neutron capture by 238 U is considered. As we get convinced, the photo-neutron production of radio isotopes proves to be more practicable than the production by the uranium photo- and neutron-fission. Both methods are certain to be brought into action due to usage of the electron beam provided by modern linear accelerators

  10. Computed tomography for light materials using a monochromatic X-ray beam produced by parametric X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sakai, T.; Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) for light materials such as soft biological tissues was performed using a monochromatic X-ray beam provided by a parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) source at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. Using a high-efficiency flat panel detector (FPD), each projection image for CT was taken with exposure times of 5 or 10 s, and 60–360 projection images in each run were obtained with total measurement time of 5 min to 1 h. CT images were obtained from the projection images using the conventional calculation method. The typical tomograms obtained had sharp outlines, which are likely attributable to the propagation-based phase contrast.

  11. Ductility Analysis of RC Beams Considering the Concrete Confinement Effect Produced by the Shear Reinforcement: a Numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Gorla Nogueira

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a simplified numerical approach to study the influence of the confinement effect provided by transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior of RC beams in bending is proposed. A unidimensional FEM mechanical model coupled to the Mazars’ damage model to simulate concrete behavior was adopted to assess ductility curvatures at the ultimate limit state. The confinement effect was incorporated to the numerical model through a calibration process of the damage internal parameters, based on the Least Square Method and an analytical law proposed by Kent and Park (1971. Several numerical analyses were carried out considering different designs of RC beams according to a parametric study varying the neutral axis position, concrete compressive strength and the volumetric transversal reinforcement ratio. The obtained results showed the importance of the amount of transversal reinforcement on the ductility behavior, increasing the ductility factor even for the cases with inappropriate neutral axis position.

  12. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  13. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 044904. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * RHIC * Beam Energy Scan Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  14. Atom lithography of Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, te E.; Smeets, B.; van der Stam, K.M.R.; Herfst, R.W.; Straten, van der P.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Direct write atom lithography is a technique in which nearly resonant light is used to pattern an atom beam. Nanostructures are formed when the patterned beam falls onto a substrate. We have applied this lithography scheme to a ferromagnetic element, using a 372 nm laser light standing wave to

  15. Continuous magnetic trapping of laser cooled atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V.S.; Lafyatis, G.; Martin, A.G.; Raab, E.L.; Landry, J.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present here initial results of the deceleration of a thermal atomic beam from -- 1000 to -- 100 m/s. The experiment was conducted in the 1.4-m long vertical superconducting solenoid which produced the slowing field. The fluorescence of the slowed atomic beam has been studied as a function of laser frequency. Figure 2 is a 12-GHz scan showing the fluorescence at a position 150 cm from the beginning of the solenoid. The wide peak corresponds to unslowed atoms with generally the initial velocity distribution. The second, narrower, peak corresponds to slowed atoms with a velocity of -- 150 m/s. Similar spectra have been obtained for various positions along the magnetic slower and trap. These data should allow better understanding of the cooling process and will be compared to computer models

  16. Neutral beams for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in forming energetic beams of neutral hydrogen and deuterium atoms have led to a breakthrough in magnetic fusion: neutral beams are now heating plasmas to thermonuclear temperatures, here at LLL and at other laboratories. For example, in our 2XIIB experiment we have injected a 500-A-equivalent current of neutral deuterium atoms at an average energy of 18 keV, producing a dense plasma (10 14 particles/cm 3 ) at thermonuclear energy (14 keV or 160 million kelvins). Currently, LLL and LBL are developing beam energies in the 80- to 120-keV range for our upcoming MFTF experiment, for the TFTR tokamak experiment at Princeton, and for the Doublet III tokamak experiment at General Atomic. These results increase our long-range prospects of producing high-intensity beams of energies in the hundreds or even thousands of kilo-electron-volts, providing us with optimistic extrapolations for realizing power-producing fusion reactors

  17. Online time-differential perturbed angular correlation study with an 19O beam - Residence sites of oxygen atoms in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, W.; Ueno, H.; Watanabe, H.; Miyoshi, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kameda, D.; Ito, T.; Shimada, K.; Kaihara, J.; Suda, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinohara, A.; Ohkubo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The online time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method was applied to a study of the physical states of a probe 19 F, the β - decay product of 19 O (t 1/2 = 26.9 s), implanted in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The observed magnitude of the electric field gradient at the probe nucleus, |V zz | = 2.91(17) x 10 22 V m -2 , suggests that the incident 19 O atoms are stabilized at an interlayer position with point group C 3v . Exhibiting observed TDPAC spectra having a clear sample-to-detector configuration dependence, we demonstrate the applicability of the present online method with a short-lived radioactive 19 O beam

  18. Online time-differential perturbed angular correlation study with an 19O beam - Residence sites of oxygen atoms in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W.; Ueno, H.; Watanabe, H.; Miyoshi, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kameda, D.; Ito, T.; Shimada, K.; Kaihara, J.; Suda, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinohara, A.; Ohkubo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The online time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method was applied to a study of the physical states of a probe 19F, the β- decay product of 19O (t1/2 = 26.9 s), implanted in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The observed magnitude of the electric field gradient at the probe nucleus, ∣Vzz∣ = 2.91(17) × 1022 V m-2, suggests that the incident 19O atoms are stabilized at an interlayer position with point group C3v. Exhibiting observed TDPAC spectra having a clear sample-to-detector configuration dependence, we demonstrate the applicability of the present online method with a short-lived radioactive 19O beam.

  19. Comparison of specular H-atomic-beam intensity and C+ secondary-ion yield at thermally activated decrease of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaarmann, H.; Hoinkes, H.; Wilsch, H.

    1983-01-01

    The thermally activated disappearance of a carbon layer on a Ni(110) surface was investigated by the scattering of atomic hydrogen and by secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Decreasing C coverage at surface temperatures kept constant in each case at values between 650 and 750 K resulted in an exponential decrease of specular H-beam intensity as well as C + secondary-ion yield. This decrease in both cases fits first-order kinetics (presumable diffusion into the bulk) with an identical rate constant as a function of surface temperature and results finally in a preexponential frequency ν = 10/sup() 10plus-or-minus1/ s -1 and an activation energy E/sub A/ = 1.8 +- 0.2 eV

  20. Study of gamma-ray emission by proton beam interaction with injected Boron atoms for future medical imaging applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Larosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, Daniele; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F.P.; Russo, A.D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Mar (2017), s. 1-10, č. článku C03049. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Instrumentation for particle-beam therapy * spallation source targets * radioisotope production * neutrino and muon sources Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016