Sample records for atmospheric test models

  1. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests (United States)

    Vogel, Jerald M.


    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  2. Atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garger, E.; Lev, T.; Talerko, N. [Inst. of Radioecology UAAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Galeriu, D. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Garland, J. [Consultant (United Kingdom); Hoffman, O.; Nair, S.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, C. [Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mueller, H. [GSF - Inst. fuer Strahlenschultz, Neuherberg (Germany); Kryshev, A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)


    Resuspension can be an important secondary source of contamination after a release has stopped, as well as a source of contamination for people and areas not exposed to the original release. The inhalation of resuspended radionuclides contributes to the overall dose received by exposed individuals. Based on measurements collected after the Chernobyl accident, Scenario R was developed to provide an opportunity to test existing mathematical models of contamination resuspension. In particular, this scenario provided the opportunity to examine data and test models for atmospheric resuspension of radionuclides at several different locations from the release, to investigate resuspension processes on both local and regional scales, and to investigate the importance of seasonal variations of these processes. Participants in the test exercise were provided with information for three different types of locations: (1) within the 30-km zone, where local resuspension processes are expected to dominate; (2) a large urban location (Kiev) 120 km from the release site, where vehicular traffic is expected to be the dominant mechanism for resuspension; and (3) an agricultural area 40-60 km from the release site, where highly contaminated upwind 'hot spots' are expected to be important. Input information included characteristics of the ground contamination around specific sites, climatological data for the sites, characteristics of the terrain and topography, and locations of the sampling sites. Participants were requested to predict the average (quarterly and yearly) concentrations of 137 Cs in air at specified locations due to resuspension of Chernobyl fallout; predictions for 90 Sr and 239 + 240 Pu were also requested for one location and time point. Predictions for specified resuspension factors and rates were also requested. Most participants used empirical models for the resuspension factor as a function of time K(t), as opposed to process-based models. While many of

  3. Testing and Modeling of the Mars Atmospheric Processing Module (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Hintze, Paul; Meier, Anne; Petersen, Elspeth M.; Bayliss, Jon; Gomez Cano, Ricardo; Formoso, Rene; Shah, Malay; Berg, Jared; Vu, Bruce; hide


    Here we report further progress in the development of the MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The APM is designed to demonstrate in situ resource utilization (ISRU) of the Martian atmosphere, which primarily consists of carbon dioxide (CO2). The APM is part of a larger project with the overall goal of collecting and utilizing CO2 found in the atmosphere and water in the regolith of Mars to produce methane and oxygen to be used as rocket propellant, eliminating the need to import those to Mars for human missions, thus significantly reducing costs. The initial focus of NASA's new ISRU Project is modeling of key ISRU components, such as the CO2 Freezers and the Sabatier reactor of the APM. We have designed models of those components and verified the models with the APM by gathering additional data for the Sabatier reactor. Future efforts will be focused on simultaneous operations of the APM and other MARCO POLO-Mars Pathfinder modules.

  4. A methodology for the design and testing of atmospheric boundary layer models for wind energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sanz Rodrigo


    Full Text Available The GEWEX Atmospheric Boundary Layer Studies (GABLS 1, 2 and 3 are used to develop a methodology for the design and testing of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS atmospheric boundary layer (ABL models for wind energy applications. The first two GABLS cases are based on idealized boundary conditions and are suitable for verification purposes by comparing with results from higher-fidelity models based on large-eddy simulation. Results from three single-column RANS models, of 1st, 1.5th and 2nd turbulence closure order, show high consistency in predicting the mean flow. The third GABLS case is suitable for the study of these ABL models under realistic forcing such that validation versus observations from the Cabauw meteorological tower are possible. The case consists on a diurnal cycle that leads to a nocturnal low-level jet and addresses fundamental questions related to the definition of the large-scale forcing, the interaction of the ABL with the surface and the evaluation of model results with observations. The simulations are evaluated in terms of surface-layer fluxes and wind energy quantities of interest: rotor equivalent wind speed, hub-height wind direction, wind speed shear and wind direction veer. The characterization of mesoscale forcing is based on spatially and temporally averaged momentum budget terms from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF simulations. These mesoscale tendencies are used to drive single-column models, which were verified previously in the first two GABLS cases, to first demonstrate that they can produce similar wind profile characteristics to the WRF simulations even though the physics are more simplified. The added value of incorporating different forcing mechanisms into microscale models is quantified by systematically removing forcing terms in the momentum and heat equations. This mesoscale-to-microscale modeling approach is affected, to a large extent, by the input uncertainties of the mesoscale

  5. Tests on the reliability of atmospheric reanalysis models in the context of Earth rotation (United States)

    Schindelegger, M.; Böhm, J.; Salstein, D. A.


    A valuable but somewhat less discussed complement to the plain quantification of geophysical and specifically atmospheric excitation of Earth rotation is the reliability assessment of the underlying models and the quantities calculated from them. In this study, we assess the validity of present-day atmospheric reanalysis models by numerical verification of the three-dimensional atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) budget equation, which requires that the total torque acting on the atmosphere exactly balances the time derivative of AAM. The thoroughly consistent analysis utilizes two novel, five-year records of AAM and atmospheric torques, as computed from the 3-hourly output of ERA-Interim of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range-Weather Forecasts) and MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications) of NASA's GMAO (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office). We detail the AAM budget validation from the semi-diurnal band up to seasonal periodicities and address both equatorial and axial components. At most frequencies, the equivalence of torques and AAM derivatives is well established. Large discrepancies however are found in particular at high frequencies in the axial direction; we investigate their subtleties in more detail. An additional, successful term-to-term comparison of both AAM and torque terms provides another endorsement for using atmospheric interaction torques as a measure complementary to angular momentum in Earth rotation studies.

  6. Coupling advection and chemical kinetics in a global atmospheric test model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Spee (Edwin)


    textabstractIn this paper we consider the numerical difficulties that arise when horizontal advection is coupled with chemistry on a sphere, using operator splitting. From a numerical point of view, these two processes are the most difficult parts of an atmospheric model for global studies. The

  7. Atmospheric Transport Modeling Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzola, Carl A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, Aiken, SC (United States); Addis, Robert P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)


    The purpose of this publication is to provide DOE and other federal agency emergency managers with an in-depth compilation and description of atmospheric dispersion models available to DOE and other Federal sites.

  8. Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling. (United States)

    De Meutter, Pieter; Camps, Johan; Delcloo, Andy; Termonia, Piet


    On 6 January 2016, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea announced to have conducted its fourth nuclear test. Analysis of the corresponding seismic waves from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site showed indeed that an underground man-made explosion took place, although the nuclear origin of the explosion needs confirmation. Seven weeks after the announced nuclear test, radioactive xenon was observed in Japan by a noble gas measurement station of the International Monitoring System. In this paper, atmospheric transport modelling is used to show that the measured radioactive xenon is compatible with a delayed release from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site. An uncertainty quantification on the modelling results is given by using the ensemble method. The latter is important for policy makers and helps advance data fusion, where different nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty monitoring techniques are combined.

  9. Hybrid advection scheme for 3-dimensional atmospheric models. Testing and application for a study of NO{sub x} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.A.; Rozanov, E.V. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schlesinger, M.E.; Andronova, N.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences


    The problems of ozone depletion, climate change and atmospheric pollution strongly depend on the processes of production, destruction and transport of chemical species. A hybrid transport scheme was developed, consisting of the semi-Lagrangian scheme for horizontal advection and the Prather scheme for vertical transport, which have been used for the Atmospheric Chemical Transport model to calculate the distributions of different chemical species. The performance of the new hybrid scheme has been evaluated in comparison with other transport schemes on the basis of specially designed tests. The seasonal cycle of the distribution of N{sub 2}O simulated by the model, as well as the dispersion of NO{sub x} exhausted from subsonic aircraft, are in a good agreement with published data. (author) 8 refs.

  10. Atmosphere in a Test Tube (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Pace, E.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Piccioni, G.; Billi, D.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; Coccola, L.; Erculiani, M. S.; Fedel, M.; Galletta, G.; Giro, E.; La Rocca, N.; Morosinotto, T.; Poletto, L.; Schierano, D.; Stefani, S.

    The ancestor philosophers' dream of thousand of new world is finally realised: more than 1800 extrasolar planets have been discovered in the neighborhood of our Sun. Most of them are very different from those we used to know in our Solar System. Others orbit the Habitable Zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Space missions, as JWST and the very recently proposed ARIEL, or ground based instruments, like SPHERE@VLT, GPI@GEMINI and EPICS@ELT, have been proposed and built to measure the atmospheric transmission, reflection and emission spectra over a wide wavelength range of these new worlds. In order to interpret the spectra coming out by this new instrumentation, it is important to know in detail the optical characteristics of gases in the typical physical conditions of the planetary atmospheres and how those characteristics could be affected by radiation driven photochemical and bio-chemical reaction. Insights in this direction can be achieved from laboratory studies of simulated planetary atmosphere of different pressure and temperature conditions under the effects of radiation sources, used as proxies of different bands of the stellar emission. ''Atmosphere in a Test Tube'' is a collaboration among several Italian astronomical, biological and engineering institutes in order to share their experiencece in performing laboratory experiments on several items concerning extrasolar planet atmospheres.

  11. A Condensation-coalescence Cloud Model for Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Formulation and Test Applications to Terrestrial and Jovian Clouds (United States)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi


    A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation-coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.

  12. In vitro efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma on S. sanguinis biofilms in comparison of two test models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorynia, Susanne


    Full Text Available [english] Dental plaque critically affects the etiology of caries, periodontitis and periimplantitis. The mechanical removal of plaque can only be performed partially due to limited accessibility. Therefore, plaque still represents one of the major therapeutic challenges. Even though antiseptic mouth rinses reduce the extent of biofilm temporarily, plaque removal remains incomplete and continuous usage can even result in side effects. Here we tested argon plasma produced by kinpen09 as one option to inactivate microorganisms and to eliminate plaque. biofilms cultivated in either the European Biofilm Reactor (EUREBI or in 24 well plates were treated with argon plasma. In both test systems a homogeneous, good analyzable and stable biofilm was produced on the surface of titan plates within 72 h (>6,9 log CFU/ml. Despite the significantly more powerful biofilm production in EUREBI, the difference of 0.4 log CFU/ml between EUREBI and the 24 well plates was practically not relevant. For that reason both test models were equally qualified for the analysis of efficacy of cold atmospheric pressure plasma. We demonstrate a significant reduction of the biofilm compared to the control in both test models. After plasma application of 180 s the biofilm produced in EUREBI or in 24 well plates was decreased by 0.6 log CFU/ml or 0.5 log CFU/ml, respectively. In comparison to recently published studies analyzing the efficacy of kinpen09, produces a hardly removable biofilm. Future investigations using reduced distances between plasma source and biofilm, various compositions of plasma and alternative plasma sources will contribute to further optimization of the efficacy against biofilms.

  13. Atmospheric Transport Modelling assessing radionuclide detection chances after the nuclear test announced by the DPRK in January 2016 (United States)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars


    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions. The International Monitoring System (IMS) is in place and at about 90% complete to verify compliance with the CTBT. The stations of the waveform technologies are capable to detect seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasonic signals for detection, localization, and characterization of explosions. The seismic signals of the DPRK event on 6 January 2016 were detected by many seismic stations around the globe and allow for localization of the event and identification as explosion (see poster by G. Hartmann et al.). However, the direct evidence for a nuclear explosion is only possible through the detection of nuclear fission products which may be released. For that 80 Radionuclide (RN) Stations are part of the designed IMS, about 60 are already operational. All RN stations are highly sensitive for tiny traces of particulate radionuclides in large volume air samplers. There are 40 of the RN stations designated to be equipped with noble gas systems detecting traces of radioactive xenon isotopes which are more likely to escape from an underground test cavity than particulates. Already 30 of the noble gas systems are operational. Atmospheric Transport Modelling supports the interpretation of radionuclide detections (and as appropriate non-detections) by connecting the activity concentration measurements with potential source locations and release times. In our study forecasts with the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model HYSPLIT (NOAA) and GFS (NCEP) meteorological data are considered to assess the plume propagation patterns for hypothetical releases at the known DPRK nuclear test site. The results show a considerable sensitivity of the IMS station RN 38 Takasaki (Japan) to a potential radionuclide release at the test site in the days and weeks following the explosion in January 2016. In addition, backtracking simulations with ECMWF analysis data in 0.2° horizontal resolution are

  14. Statistical atmospheric inversion of local gas emissions by coupling the tracer release technique and local-scale transport modelling: a test case with controlled methane emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ars


    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept for estimating the pollutant emission rates of a site and its main facilities using a series of atmospheric measurements across the pollutant plumes. This concept combines the tracer release method, local-scale atmospheric transport modelling and a statistical atmospheric inversion approach. The conversion between the controlled emission and the measured atmospheric concentrations of the released tracer across the plume places valuable constraints on the atmospheric transport. This is used to optimise the configuration of the transport model parameters and the model uncertainty statistics in the inversion system. The emission rates of all sources are then inverted to optimise the match between the concentrations simulated with the transport model and the pollutants' measured atmospheric concentrations, accounting for the transport model uncertainty. In principle, by using atmospheric transport modelling, this concept does not strongly rely on the good colocation between the tracer and pollutant sources and can be used to monitor multiple sources within a single site, unlike the classical tracer release technique. The statistical inversion framework and the use of the tracer data for the configuration of the transport and inversion modelling systems should ensure that the transport modelling errors are correctly handled in the source estimation. The potential of this new concept is evaluated with a relatively simple practical implementation based on a Gaussian plume model and a series of inversions of controlled methane point sources using acetylene as a tracer gas. The experimental conditions are chosen so that they are suitable for the use of a Gaussian plume model to simulate the atmospheric transport. In these experiments, different configurations of methane and acetylene point source locations are tested to assess the efficiency of the method in comparison to the classic tracer release technique in coping

  15. Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.

  16. Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distributions of Weather Data Transponders III. Horizontal Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenkamp, C.R.; Grossman, A.


    A network of small balloon-borne transponders which gather very high resolution wind and temperature data for use by modern numerical weather predication models has been proposed to improve the reliability of long-range weather forecasts. The global distribution of an array of such transponders is simulated using LLNL's atmospheric parcel transport model (GRANTOUR) with winds supplied by two different general circulation models. An initial study used winds from CCM3 with a horizontal resolution of about 3 degrees in latitude and longitude, and a second study used winds from NOGAPS with a 0.75 degree horizontal resolution. Results from both simulations show that reasonable global coverage can be attained by releasing balloons from an appropriate set of launch sites.

  17. Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (United States)

    Schultz, Colin


    Like watching a balloon borne by the breeze, a Lagrangian model tracks a parcel of air as it flows through the atmosphere. Whether running forward or backward in time, Lagrangian models offer a powerful tool for tracking and understanding the fates, or origins, of atmospheric flows. In the AGU monograph Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere, editors John Lin, Dominik Brunner, Christoph Gerbig, Andreas Stohl, Ashok Luhar, and Peter Webley explore the nuances of the modeling technique. In this interview Eos talks to Lin about the growing importance of Lagrangian modeling as the world settles on climate change mitigation strategies, the societal value of operational modeling, and how recent advances are making it possible to run these complex calculations at home.

  18. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  19. Modelling land surface - atmosphere interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Højmark

    related to inaccurate land surface modelling, e.g. enhanced warm bias in warm dry summer months. Coupling the regional climate model to a hydrological model shows the potential of improving the surface flux simulations in dry periods and the 2 m air temperature in general. In the dry periods......The study is investigates modelling of land surface – atmosphere interactions in context of fully coupled climatehydrological model. With a special focus of under what condition a fully coupled model system is needed. Regional climate model inter-comparison projects as ENSEMBLES have shown bias...

  20. Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik


    A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance......, a correct spectral shape, and non-Gaussian statistics, is selected in order to evaluate the model turbulence. An actual turbulence record is analyzed in detail providing both a standard for comparison and input statistics for the generalized spectral analysis, which in turn produces a set of orthonormal....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence....

  1. Worldwide dispersion and deposition of radionuclides produced in atmospheric tests. (United States)

    Bennett, Burton G


    Radionuclides produced in atmospheric nuclear tests were widely dispersed in the global environment. From the many measurements of the concentrations in air and the deposition amounts, much was learned of atmospheric circulation and environmental processes. Based on these results and the reported fission and total yields of individual tests, it has been possible to devise an empirical model of the movement and residence times of particles in the various atmospheric regions. This model, applied to all atmospheric weapons tests, allows extensive calculations of air concentrations and deposition amounts for the entire range of radionuclides produced throughout the testing period. Especially for the shorter-lived fission radionuclides, for which measurement results at the time of the tests are less extensive, a more complete picture of levels and isotope ratios can be obtained, forming a basis for improved dose estimations. The contributions to worldwide fallout can be inferred from individual tests, from tests at specific sites, or by specific countries. Progress was also made in understanding the global hydrological and carbon cycles from the tritium and 14C measurements. A review of the global measurements and modeling results is presented in this paper. In the future, if injections of materials into the atmosphere occur, their anticipated motions and fates can be predicted from the knowledge gained from the fallout experience.

  2. Testing the importance of accurate meteorological input fields and parameterizations in atmospheric transport modelling using DREAM - Validation against ETEX-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, J.; Bastrup-Birk, A.; Christensen, J.H.


    A tracer model, the DREAM, which is based on a combination of a near-range Lagrangian model and a long-range Eulerian model, has been developed. The meteorological meso-scale model, MM5V1, is implemented as a meteorological driver for the tracer model. The model system is used for studying...

  3. Testing the importance of accurate meteorological input fields and parameterizations in atmospheric transport modelling using dream - validation against ETEX-1 (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Bastrup-birk, Annemarie; Christensen, Jesper H.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Thykier-Nielsen, Søren; Zlatev, Zahari

    A tracer model, the DREAM, which is based on a combination of a near-range Lagrangian model and a long-range Eulerian model, has been developed. The meteorological meso-scale model, MM5V1, is implemented as a meteorological driver for the tracer model. The model system is used for studying transport and dispersion of air pollutants caused by a single but strong source as, e.g. an accidental release from a nuclear power plant. The model system including the coupling of the Lagrangian model with the Eulerian model are described. Various simple and comprehensive parameterizations of the mixing height, the vertical dispersion, and different meterological input data have been implemented in the combined tracer model, and the model results have been validated against measurements from the ETEX-1 release. Several different statistical parameters have been used to estimate the differences between the parameterizations and meterological input data in order to find the best performing solution.

  4. Assessment of the announced North Korean nuclear test using long-range atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling


    Meutter, Pieter; Camps, Johan; Delcloo, Andy; Termonia, Piet


    On 6 January 2016, the Democratic People?s Republic of Korea announced to have conducted its fourth nuclear test. Analysis of the corresponding seismic waves from the Punggye-ri nuclear test site showed indeed that an underground man-made explosion took place, although the nuclear origin of the explosion needs confirmation. Seven weeks after the announced nuclear test, radioactive xenon was observed in Japan by a noble gas measurement station of the International Monitoring System. In this pa...

  5. An evaluation with the Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) of which land-surface parameters are of greatest importance in atmospheric modeling (United States)

    Collins, Dan C.; Avissar, Roni


    Land-surface parameterizations based on a statistical-dynamical have been suggested recently to improve the representation of the surface forcing from heterogeneous land in atmospheric models. With this approach, land-surface characteristics are prescribed by probability density functions (PDFs) rather than single 'representative' values as in 'big-leaf' parameterizations. Yet the use of many PDFs results in an increased computational burden and requires the complex problem of representing covariances between PDFs to be addressed. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of a land-surface parameterization for atmospheric modeling was performed to evaluate the surface parameters most important to the variability of surface heat fluxes. The Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST) used for this analysis determines the relative contribution of individual input parameters to the variance of energy fluxes resulting from a heterogeneous surface. By simultaneously varying all parameters according to their individual probability density functions, the number of computations needed is very much reduced by this technique. This analysis demonstrates that most of the variability of surface heat fluxes may be described by the distributions of relative stomatal conductance and surface roughness. Thus, the statistical-dynamical approach may be simplified by the use of only these two probability density functions.

  6. Stochastic models for atmospheric dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager


    Simple stochastic differential equation models have been applied by several researchers to describe the dispersion of tracer particles in the planetary atmospheric boundary layer and to form the basis for computer simulations of particle paths. To obtain the drift coefficient, empirical vertical...... velocity distributions that depend on height above the ground both with respect to standard deviation and skewness are substituted into the stationary Fokker/Planck equation. The particle position distribution is taken to be uniform *the well/mixed condition( and also a given dispersion coefficient...

  7. Frontiers in Atmospheric Chemistry Modelling (United States)

    Colette, Augustin; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Meleux, Frederik; Rouïl, Laurence


    The first pan-European kilometre-scale atmospheric chemistry simulation is introduced. The continental-scale air pollution episode of January 2009 is modelled with the CHIMERE offline chemistry-transport model with a massive grid of 2 million horizontal points, performed on 2000 CPU of a high performance computing system hosted by the Research and Technology Computing Center at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CCRT/CEA). Besides the technical challenge, which demonstrated the robustness of the selected air quality model, we discuss the added value in terms of air pollution modelling and decision support. The comparison with in-situ observations shows that model biases are significantly improved despite some spurious added spatial variability attributed to shortcomings in the emission downscaling process and coarse resolution of the meteorological fields. The increased spatial resolution is clearly beneficial for the detection of exceedances and exposure modelling. We reveal small scale air pollution patterns that highlight the contribution of city plumes to background air pollution levels. Up to a factor 5 underestimation of the fraction of population exposed to detrimental levels of pollution can be obtained with a coarse simulation if subgrid scale correction such as urban increments are ignored. This experiment opens new perspectives for environmental decision making. After two decades of efforts to reduce air pollutant emissions across Europe, the challenge is now to find the optimal trade-off between national and local air quality management strategies. While the first approach is based on sectoral strategies and energy policies, the later builds upon new alternatives such as urban development. The strategies, the decision pathways and the involvement of individual citizen differ, and a compromise based on cost and efficiency must be found. We illustrated how high performance computing in atmospheric science can contribute to this

  8. How displaced migratory birds could use volatile atmospheric compounds to find their migratory corridor? A test using a particle dispersion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Safi


    Full Text Available Olfaction represents an important sensory modality for navigation of both homing pigeons and wild birds. Experimental evidence in homing pigeons showed that airborne volatile compounds carried by the winds at the home area are learned in association with wind directions. When displaced, pigeons obtain information on the direction of their displacement using local odours at the release site. Recently, the role of olfactory cues in navigation has been reported also for wild birds during migration. However, the question whether wild birds develop an olfactory navigational map similar to that described in homing pigeons or, alternatively, exploit the distribution of volatile compounds in different manners for reaching the goal is still an open question. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we evaluate the possibilities of reconstructing spatio-temporally explicit aerosol dispersion at large spatial scales using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. By combining atmospheric information with particle dispersion models, atmospheric scientists predict the dispersion of pollutants for example, after nuclear fallouts or volcanic eruptions or wildfires, or in retrospect reconstruct the origin of emissions such as aerosols. Using simple assumptions, we reconstructed the putative origin of aerosols traveling to the location of migrating birds. We use the model to test whether the putative odour plume could have originated from an important stopover site. If the migrating birds knew this site and the associated plume from previous journeys, the odour could contribut to the reorientation towards the migratory corridor, as suggested for the model scenario in displaced Lesser black-backed gulls migrating from Northern Europe into Africa.

  9. Observations and Modeling of Atmospheric Radiance Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wintersteiner, Peter


    The overall purpose of the work that we have undertaken is to provide new capabilities for observing and modeling structured radiance in the atmosphere, particularly the non-LTE regions of the atmosphere...

  10. Accurate Laser Measurements of the Water Vapor Self-Continuum Absorption in Four Near Infrared Atmospheric Windows. a Test of the MT_CKD Model. (United States)

    Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mondelain, Didier; Romanini, Daniele; Lechevallier, Loïc; Vasilchenko, Semyon


    The semi empirical MT_CKD model of the absorption continuum of water vapor is widely used in atmospheric radiative transfer codes of the atmosphere of Earth and exoplanets but lacks of experimental validation in the atmospheric windows. Recent laboratory measurements by Fourier transform Spectroscopy have led to self-continuum cross-sections much larger than the MT_CKD values in the near infrared transparency windows. In the present work, we report on accurate water vapor absorption continuum measurements by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) at selected spectral points of the transparency windows centered around 4.0, 2.1 and 1.25 μm. The temperature dependence of the absorption continuum at 4.38 μm and 3.32 μm is measured in the 23-39 °C range. The self-continuum water vapor absorption is derived either from the baseline variation of spectra recorded for a series of pressure values over a small spectral interval or from baseline monitoring at fixed laser frequency, during pressure ramps. In order to avoid possible bias approaching the water saturation pressure, the maximum pressure value was limited to about 16 Torr, corresponding to a 75% humidity rate. After subtraction of the local water monomer lines contribution, self-continuum cross-sections, C_{S}, were determined with a few % accuracy from the pressure squared dependence of the spectra base line level. Together with our previous CRDS and OF-CEAS measurements in the 2.1 and 1.6 μm windows, the derived water vapor self-continuum provides a unique set of water vapor self-continuum cross-sections for a test of the MT_CKD model in four transparency windows. Although showing some important deviations of the absolute values (up to a factor of 4 at the center of the 2.1 μm window), our accurate measurements validate the overall frequency dependence of the MT_CKD2.8 model.

  11. Test of Lorentz Invariance with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Wendell, R A; Yokozawa, T; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; McLachlan, T; Nishimura, Y; Richard, E; Okumura, K; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Gustafson, J; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Berkman, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Carminati, G; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Weatherly, P; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Akiri, T; Himmel, A; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Bronner, C; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Tateishi, K; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Mijakowski, P; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Yanagisawa, C; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Yamaguchi, R; Yano, T; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Suda, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Konaka, A; Wilking, M J; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Wilkes, R J


    A search for neutrino oscillations induced by Lorentz violation has been performed using 4,438 live-days of Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The Lorentz violation is included in addition to standard three-flavor oscillations using the non-perturbative Standard Model Extension (SME), allowing the use of the full range of neutrino path lengths, ranging from 15 to 12,800 km, and energies ranging from 100 MeV to more than 100 TeV in the search. No evidence of Lorentz violation was observed, so limits are set on the renormalizable isotropic SME coefficients in the $e\\mu$, $\\mu\\tau$, and $e\\tau$ sectors, improving the existing limits by up to seven orders of magnitude and setting limits for the first time in the neutrino $\\mu\\tau$ sector of the SME.

  12. Atmospheric muon simulation using the FLUKA MC Model

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Muraro, S; Sala, P R


    The FLUKA code has been used to reproduce experimental data concerning muon fluxes in atmosphere in a wide energy range with the aim of testing the performance of this Monte Carlo model in predicting secondary cosmic ray spectra in atmosphere. Here new results are presented, concerning in particular the cases of BESS and L3+C experiments.

  13. Atmospheric muon simulation using the FLUKA MC Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistoni, G. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)], E-mail:; Ferrari, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Muraro, S.; Sala, P.R. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)


    The FLUKA code has been used to reproduce experimental data concerning muon fluxes in atmosphere in a wide energy range with the aim of testing the performance of this Monte Carlo model in predicting secondary cosmic ray spectra in atmosphere. Here new results are presented, concerning in particular the cases of BESS and L3+C experiments.

  14. Modeling the effects of atmospheric emissions on groundwater composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Theresa Jean [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    A composite model of atmospheric, unsaturated and groundwater transport is developed to evaluate the processes determining the distribution of atmospherically derived contaminants in groundwater systems and to test the sensitivity of simulated contaminant concentrations to input parameters and model linkages. One application is to screen specific atmospheric emissions for their potential in determining groundwater age. Temporal changes in atmospheric emissions could provide a recognizable pattern in the groundwater system. The model also provides a way for quantifying the significance of uncertainties in the tracer source term and transport parameters on the contaminant distribution in the groundwater system, an essential step in using the distribution of contaminants from local, point source atmospheric emissions to examine conceptual models of groundwater flow and transport.

  15. A 3D model of Pluto's atmosphere (United States)

    Vangvichith, M.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.


    For the first time, we have built a GCM of Pluto's atmosphere, adapted from the model of Triton's, recently developed[9] . In fact, Pluto and Triton have a lot of similarities (atmospheric, orbital). This GCM will allow to better understand the complex mechanism of the planet and to study the variation of the thermal profile during time.

  16. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)


    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  17. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.


    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those

  18. Studying urban land-atmospheric interactions by coupling an urban canopy model with a single column atmospheric models (United States)

    Song, J.; Wang, Z.


    Studying urban land-atmospheric interactions by coupling an urban canopy model with a single column atmospheric models Jiyun Song and Zhi-Hua Wang School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University, PO Box 875306, Tempe, AZ 85287-5306 Landuse landcover changes in urban area will modify surface energy budgets, turbulent fluxes as well as dynamic and thermodynamic structures of the overlying atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In order to study urban land-atmospheric interactions, we coupled a single column atmospheric model (SCM) to a cutting-edge single layer urban canopy model (SLUCM). Modification of surface parameters such as the fraction of vegetation and engineered pavements, thermal properties of building and pavement materials, and geometrical features of street canyon, etc. in SLUCM dictates the evolution of surface balance of energy, water and momentum. The land surface states then provide lower boundary conditions to the overlying atmosphere, which in turn modulates the modification of ABL structure as well as vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, wind speed and tracer gases. The coupled SLUCM-SCM model is tested against field measurements of surface layer fluxes as well as profiles of temperature and humidity in the mixed layer under convective conditions. After model test, SLUCM-SCM is used to simulate the effect of changing urban land surface conditions on the evolution of ABL structure and dynamics. Simulation results show that despite the prescribed atmospheric forcing, land surface states impose significant impact on the physics of the overlying vertical atmospheric layer. Overall, this numerical framework provides a useful standalone modeling tool to assess the impacts of urban land surface conditions on the local hydrometeorology through land-atmospheric interactions. It also has potentially far-reaching implications to urban ecohydrological services for cities under future expansion and climate challenges.

  19. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.


    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  20. A Mercury Model of Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Alex B. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chodash, Perry A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Procassini, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Using the particle transport code Mercury, accurate models were built of the two sources used in Operation BREN, a series of radiation experiments performed by the United States during the 1960s. In the future, these models will be used to validate Mercury’s ability to simulate atmospheric transport.

  1. Coupled atmosphere-wildland fire modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Henri Balbi


    Full Text Available Simulating the interaction between fire and atmosphere is critical to the estimation of the rate of spread of the fire. Wildfire’s convection (i.e., entire plume can modify the local meteorology throughout the atmospheric boundary layer and consequently affect the fire propagation speed and behaviour. In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences introduced by the atmospheric feedback in propagation speed and behaviour. Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events. These models have been selected because they can be run coupled and support decisions in wildfire management in France and Europe. The main originalities of this combination reside in the fact that Méso-NH is run in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES configuration and that the rate of spread model used in ForeFire provides a physical formulation to take into account the effect of wind and slope. Simulations of typical experimental configurations show that the numerical atmospheric model is able to reproduce plausible convective effects of the heat produced by the fire. Numerical results are comparable to estimated values for fire-induced winds and present behaviour similar to other existing numerical approaches.

  2. Tagging Water Sources in Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Bosilovich, M.


    Tagging of water sources in atmospheric models allows for quantitative diagnostics of how water is transported from its source region to its sink region. In this presentation, we review how this methodology is applied to global atmospheric models. We will present several applications of the methodology. In one example, the regional sources of water for the North American Monsoon system are evaluated by tagging the surface evaporation. In another example, the tagged water is used to quantify the global water cycling rate and residence time. We will also discuss the need for more research and the importance of these diagnostics in water cycle studies.

  3. BARTTest: Community-Standard Atmospheric Radiative-Transfer and Retrieval Tests (United States)

    Harrington, Joseph; Himes, Michael D.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.


    Atmospheric radiative transfer (RT) codes are used both to predict planetary and brown-dwarf spectra and in retrieval algorithms to infer atmospheric chemistry, clouds, and thermal structure from observations. Observational plans, theoretical models, and scientific results depend on the correctness of these calculations. Yet, the calculations are complex and the codes implementing them are often written without modern software-verification techniques. The community needs a suite of test calculations with analytically, numerically, or at least community-verified results. We therefore present the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Test Suite, or BARTTest. BARTTest has four categories of tests: analytically verified RT tests of simple atmospheres (single line in single layer, line blends, saturation, isothermal, multiple line-list combination, etc.), community-verified RT tests of complex atmospheres, synthetic retrieval tests on simulated data with known answers, and community-verified real-data retrieval tests.BARTTest is open-source software intended for community use and further development. It is available at We propose this test suite as a standard for verifying atmospheric RT and retrieval codes, analogous to the Held-Suarez test for general circulation models. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G, NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G, and NASA Exoplanets Research Program grant NNX17AB62G.

  4. Electrical model of cold atmospheric plasma gun (United States)

    Slutsker, Ya. Z.; Semenov, V. E.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Ryzhkov, M. A.; Felsteiner, J.; Binenbaum, Y.; Gil, Z.; Shtrichman, R.; Cohen, J. T.


    We present an analytical model of cold atmospheric plasma formed by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), which is based on the lumped and distributed elements of an equivalent electric circuit of this plasma. This model is applicable for a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses, no matter whether or not the generated plasma plume interacts with a target. The model allows quantitative estimation of the plasma plume length and the energy delivered to the plasma. Also, the results of this model can be used for the design of DBD guns which efficiently generate cold atmospheric plasma. A comparison of the results of the model with those obtained in experiments shows a fairly good agreement.

  5. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.


    Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar

  6. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.


    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  7. The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (United States)

    Boville, B. A.; Garcia, R. R.; Sassi, F.; Kinnison, D.; Roble, R. G.

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) is an upward exten- sion of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model. WACCM simulates the atmosphere from the surface to the lower thermosphere (140 km) and includes both dynamical and chemical components. The salient points of the model formulation will be summarized and several aspects of its performance will be discussed. Comparison with observations indicates that WACCM produces re- alistic temperature and zonal wind distributions. Both the mean state and interannual variability will be summarized. Temperature inversions in the midlatitude mesosphere have been reported by several authors and are also found in WACCM. These inver- sions are formed primarily by planetary wave forcing, but the background state on which they form also requires gravity wave forcing. The response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies will be examined by com- paring simulations with observed SSTs for 1950-1998 to a simulation with clima- tological annual cycle of SSTs. The response to ENSO events is found to extend though the winter stratosphere and mesosphere and a signal is also found at the sum- mer mesopause. The experimental framework allows the ENSO signal to be isolated, because no other forcings are included (e.g. solar variability and volcanic eruptions) which complicate the observational record. The temperature and wind variations asso- ciated with ENSO are large enough to generate significant perturbations in the chem- ical composition of the middle atmosphere, which will also be discussed.

  8. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction (United States)

    Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten


    Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  9. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hase


    Full Text Available Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4 emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  10. Idealized Tropical Cyclones in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Jablonowski, C.


    The paper discusses the design of idealized tropical cyclone experiments in Atmospheric General Circulation Models (GCMs). Our first goal is to suggest the evolution of an idealized tropical cyclone as a standard test case for atmospheric model developments that adds complexity to a dynamical-core and GCM test suite. In addition, we plan on using idealized cyclones as a test bed for hurricane-dust interactions in the Atlantic Ocean Basin and climate-hurricane sensitivity studies. A group of sensitivity tests will be presented using the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) 3.1. The tests are run in a so-called aqua-planet configuration that consists of an ocean-covered Earth with prescribed sea surface temperatures and radiative forcing. We utilize the CAM 3.1 Finite Volume dynamical core on a latitude-longitude grid at a half-degree horizontal resolution. The development of an idealized, initially weak warm-core vortex is investigated with varying initial parameters including vorticity, radius of maximum wind, latitude, and sea surface temperature. The evolution of the initial vortex is especially sensitive to the initial vorticity, and therefore the initial wind speed, and radius of maximum wind. This sensitivity is also related to the model resolution. Although model resolution has improved greatly over the last decade, improved resolution will still be needed to model tropical cyclones in global climate models. These sensitivity tests provide us with suitable initial parameter configurations to model tropical cyclogenesis in CAM 3.1 and other GCMs.

  11. Organic chemistry in the atmosphere. [laboratory modeling of Titan atmosphere (United States)

    Sagan, C.


    The existence of an at least moderately complex organic chemistry on Titan is stipulated based on clear evidence of methane, and at least presumptive evidence of hydrogen in its atmosphere. The ratio of methane to hydrogen is the highest of any atmosphere in the solar system. Irradiation of hydrogen/methane mixtures produces aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. A very reasonable hypothesis assumes that the red cloud cover of Titan is made of organic chemicals. Two-carbon hydrocarbons experimentally produced from irradiated mixtures of methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen bear out the possible organic chemistry of the Titanian environment.

  12. Generic atmospheric correction models for radar measurements (United States)

    Li, Zhenhong; Yu, Chen; Crippa, Paola; Penna, Nigel


    Atmospheric effects (especially the part due to tropospheric water vapour) represent one of the major error sources of repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), and limit the accuracy of InSAR derived surface displacements. The spatio-temporal variations of atmospheric water vapour make it a challenge to measure small-amplitude surface displacements with InSAR. In previous studies, several InSAR atmospheric correction models have been successfully demonstrated: (1) Ground-based correction models such as those using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and/or surface meteorological observations, (2) Space-based correction models including those involving NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and/or ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and (3) Numerical Weather Model (NWM) based corrections including those using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and/or Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. Each model has its own inherited limitations. For example, ground-based correction models are limited by the availability (and distribution) of ground observations, whilst MODIS/MERIS correction models are sensitive to the presence of clouds and there is often a time difference between space-based water vapour and radar observations. Similar to space-based correction models, NWM correction models might be impacted by the time difference between NWM and radar observations. Taking into account the inherent advantages and limitations of GNSS, MODIS and ECMWF water vapour products, we aim to develop a global and near-real-time mode InSAR atmospheric correction model. Tropospheric delays can be routinely retrieved from ground-based GNSS arrays in all-weather conditions and also in real-time. We develop an Iterative Tropospheric Decomposition (ITD) interpolation model that decouples the GNSS-estimated total tropospheric delays into (i) a stratified component highly correlated

  13. Validation of coupled atmosphere-fire behavior models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, J.E.; Reisner, J.M.; Linn, R.R.; Winterkamp, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schaub, R. [Dynamac Corp., Kennedy Space Center, FL (United States); Riggan, P.J. [Forest Service, Riverside, CA (United States)


    Recent advances in numerical modeling and computer power have made it feasible to simulate the dynamical interaction and feedback between the heat and turbulence induced by wildfires and the local atmospheric wind and temperature fields. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, the authors have developed a modeling system that includes this interaction by coupling a high resolution atmospheric dynamics model, HIGRAD, with a fire behavior model, BEHAVE, to predict the spread of wildfires. The HIGRAD/BEHAVE model is run at very high resolution to properly resolve the fire/atmosphere interaction. At present, these coupled wildfire model simulations are computationally intensive. The additional complexity of these models require sophisticated methods for assuring their reliability in real world applications. With this in mind, a substantial part of the research effort is directed at model validation. Several instrumented prescribed fires have been conducted with multi-agency support and participation from chaparral, marsh, and scrub environments in coastal areas of Florida and inland California. In this paper, the authors first describe the data required to initialize the components of the wildfire modeling system. Then they present results from one of the Florida fires, and discuss a strategy for further testing and improvement of coupled weather/wildfire models.

  14. Systematic evaluation of atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE (United States)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Mailler, Sylvain; Siour, Guillaume; Couvidat, Florian; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Turquety, Solene


    Regional-scale atmospheric chemistry-transport models (CTM) are used to develop air quality regulatory measures, to support environmentally sensitive decisions in the industry, and to address variety of scientific questions involving the atmospheric composition. Model performance evaluation with measurement data is critical to understand their limits and the degree of confidence in model results. CHIMERE CTM ( is a French national tool for operational forecast and decision support and is widely used in the international research community in various areas of atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate, and environment ( This work presents the model evaluation framework applied systematically to the new CHIMERE CTM versions in the course of the continuous model development. The framework uses three of the four CTM evaluation types identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS): operational, diagnostic, and dynamic. It allows to compare the overall model performance in subsequent model versions (operational evaluation), identify specific processes and/or model inputs that could be improved (diagnostic evaluation), and test the model sensitivity to the changes in air quality, such as emission reductions and meteorological events (dynamic evaluation). The observation datasets currently used for the evaluation are: EMEP (surface concentrations), AERONET (optical depths), and WOUDC (ozone sounding profiles). The framework is implemented as an automated processing chain and allows interactive exploration of the results via a web interface.

  15. Loglinear Rasch model tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Hendrikus


    Existing statistical tests for the fit of the Rasch model have been criticized, because they are only sensitive to specific violations of its assumptions. Contingency table methods using loglinear models have been used to test various psychometric models. In this paper, the assumptions of the Rasch

  16. Inverse modeling of the ocean and atmosphere [Book Review (United States)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris

    Two hundred years ago, when Carl Friedrich Gauss was a youth of 17, he developed the method of least squares, which he would later apply with great success to geodesic and astronomical measurements. Today the method of least squares and the related statistical concepts of linear regression and maximum likelihood form the basis of inverse theory—the set of methods that is used in a wide variety of scientific and technical fields to analyze data and to extract quantitative inferences about the physical world. Andrew Bennett's Inverse Modeling of the Ocean and Atmosphere discusses the application of inverse theory to time-dependent models of the oceanic and atmospheric circulations; the objective is to calibrate empirical model parameters, to estimate initial and boundary conditions, and to test statistical hypotheses.

  17. Comparing the Degree of Land-Atmosphere Interaction in Four Atmospheric General Circulation Models (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Ijpelaar, Ruben; Tyahla, Lori; Cox, Peter; Suarez, Max J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)


    Land-atmosphere feedback, by which (for example) precipitation-induced moisture anomalies at the land surface affect the overlying atmosphere and thereby the subsequent generation of precipitation, has been examined and quantified with many atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Generally missing from such studies, however, is an indication of the extent to which the simulated feedback strength is model dependent. Four modeling groups have recently performed a highly controlled numerical experiment that allows an objective inter-model comparison of land-atmosphere feedback strength. The experiment essentially consists of an ensemble of simulations in which each member simulation artificially maintains the same time series of surface prognostic variables. Differences in atmospheric behavior between the ensemble members then indicates the degree to which the state of the land surface controls atmospheric processes in that model. A comparison of the four sets of experimental results shows that feedback strength does indeed vary significantly between the AGCMs.

  18. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.


    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  19. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.


    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  20. Sensitivity model study of regional mercury dispersion in the atmosphere (United States)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; Bieser, Johannes; Carbone, Francesco; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Matthias, Volker; Travnikov, Oleg; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola


    Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg reaches marine ecosystems, where it can be methylated and enter the base of food chain. The deposition, transport and chemical interactions of atmospheric Hg have been simulated over Europe for the year 2013 in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, performing 14 different model sensitivity tests using two high-resolution three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs), varying the anthropogenic emission datasets, atmospheric Br input fields, Hg oxidation schemes and modelling domain boundary condition input. Sensitivity simulation results were compared with observations from 28 monitoring sites in Europe to assess model performance and particularly to analyse the influence of anthropogenic emission speciation and the Hg0(g) atmospheric oxidation mechanism. The contribution of anthropogenic Hg emissions, their speciation and vertical distribution are crucial to the simulated concentration and deposition fields, as is also the choice of Hg0(g) oxidation pathway. The areas most sensitive to changes in Hg emission speciation and the emission vertical distribution are those near major sources, but also the Aegean and the Black seas, the English Channel, the Skagerrak Strait and the northern German coast. Considerable influence was found also evident over the Mediterranean, the North Sea and Baltic Sea and some influence is seen over continental Europe, while this difference is least over the north-western part of the modelling domain, which includes the Norwegian Sea and Iceland. The Br oxidation pathway produces more HgII(g) in the lower model levels, but overall wet deposition is lower in comparison to the simulations which employ an O3 / OH oxidation mechanism. The necessity to perform continuous measurements of speciated Hg and to investigate the local impacts of Hg emissions and deposition, as well as interactions dependent on land use and vegetation, forests, peat

  1. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.


    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  2. Coupled Photochemical and Condensation Model for the Venus Atmosphere (United States)

    Bierson, Carver; Zhang, Xi; Mendonca, Joao; Liang, Mao-Chang


    Ground based and Venus Express observations have provided a wealth of information on the vertical and latitudinal distribution of many chemical species in the Venus atmosphere [1,2]. Previous 1D models have focused on the chemistry of either the lower [3] or middle atmosphere [4,5]. Photochemical models focusing on the sulfur gas chemistry have also been independent from models of the sulfuric acid haze and cloud formation [6,7]. In recent years sulfur-bearing particles have become important candidates for the observed SO2 inversion above 80 km [5]. To test this hypothesis it is import to create a self-consistent model that includes photochemistry, transport, and cloud condensation.In this work we extend the domain of the 1D chemistry model of Zhang et al. (2012) [5] to encompass the region between the surface to 110 km. This model includes a simple sulfuric acid condensation scheme with gravitational settling. It simultaneously solves for the chemistry and condensation allowing for self-consistent cloud formation. We compare the resulting chemical distributions to observations at all altitudes. We have also validated our model cloud mass against pioneer Venus observations [8]. This updated full atmosphere chemistry model is also being applied in our 2D solver (altitude and altitude). With this 2D model we can model how the latitudinal distribution of chemical species depends on the meridional circulation. This allows us to use the existing chemical observations to place constraints on Venus GCMs [9-11].References: [1] Arney et al., JGR:Planets, 2014 [2] Vandaele et al., Icarus 2017 (pt. 1 & 2) [3] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2007 [4] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2012 [5] Zhang et al., Icarus 2012 [6] Gao et al., Icarus, 2014 [7] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2015 [8] Knollenberg and Hunten, JGR:Space Physics, 1980 [9] Lee et al., JGR:Planets, 2007 [10] Lebonnois et al., Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus, 2013 [11] Mendoncca and Read, Planetary and Space Science, 2016

  3. Radiative and temperature effects of aerosol simulated by the COSMO-Ru model for different atmospheric conditions and their testing against ground-based measurements and accurate RT simulations (United States)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Poliukhov, Alexei; Shatunova, Marina; Rivin, Gdali; Becker, Ralf; Muskatel, Harel; Blahak, Ulrich; Kinne, Stefan; Tarasova, Tatiana


    We use the operational Russian COSMO-Ru weather forecast model (Ritter and and Geleyn, 1991) with different aerosol input data for the evaluation of radiative and temperature effects of aerosol in different atmospheric conditions. Various aerosol datasets were utilized including Tegen climatology (Tegen et al., 1997), updated Macv2 climatology (Kinne et al., 2013), Tanre climatology (Tanre et al., 1984) as well as the MACC data (Morcrette et al., 2009). For clear sky conditions we compare the radiative effects from the COSMO-Ru model over Moscow (55.7N, 37.5E) and Lindenberg/Falkenberg sites (52.2N, 14.1E) with the results obtained using long-term aerosol measurements. Additional tests of the COSMO RT code were performed against (FC05)-SW model (Tarasova T.A. and Fomin B.A., 2007). The overestimation of about 5-8% of COSMO RT code was obtained. The study of aerosol effect on temperature at 2 meters has revealed the sensitivity of about 0.7-1.1 degree C per 100 W/m2 change in shortwave net radiation due to aerosol variations. We also discuss the radiative impact of urban aerosol properties according to the long-term AERONET measurements in Moscow and Moscow suburb as well as long-term aerosol trends over Moscow from the measurements and Macv2 dataset. References: Kinne, S., O'Donnel D., Stier P., et al., J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 704-740, 2013. Morcrette J.-J.,O. Boucher, L. Jones, eet al, J.GEOPHYS. RES.,VOL. 114, D06206, doi:10.1029/2008JD011235, 2009. Ritter, B. and Geleyn, J., Monthly Weather Review, 120, 303-325, 1992. Tanre, D., Geleyn, J., and Slingo, J., A. Deepak Publ., Hampton, Virginia, 133-177, 1984. Tarasova, T., and Fomin, B., Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 24, 1157-1162, 2007. Tegen, I., Hollrig, P., Chin, M., et al., Journal of Geophysical Research- Atmospheres, 102, 23895-23915, 1997.

  4. Acoustic Model Testing Chronology (United States)

    Nesman, Tom


    Scale models have been used for decades to replicate liftoff environments and in particular acoustics for launch vehicles. It is assumed, and analyses supports, that the key characteristics of noise generation, propagation, and measurement can be scaled. Over time significant insight was gained not just towards understanding the effects of thruster details, pad geometry, and sound mitigation but also to the physical processes involved. An overview of a selected set of scale model tests are compiled here to illustrate the variety of configurations that have been tested and the fundamental knowledge gained. The selected scale model tests are presented chronologically.

  5. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)


    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  6. Multi-scale atmospheric composition modelling for the Balkan region (United States)

    Ganev, Kostadin; Syrakov, Dimiter; Todorova, Angelina; Prodanova, Maria; Atanasov, Emanouil; Gurov, Todor; Karaivanova, Aneta; Miloshev, Nikolai; Gadzhev, Georgi; Jordanov, Georgi


    emissions by using the SMOKE abilities is developed; Model validation tests for episodes of very high PM10 concentrations over Germany in February and March of 2003. 3.) Extensive numerical simulations on regional (Balkan Peninsula) and local (Bulgaria) scales are performed aiming at: - better understanding and quantifying of the role of different processes and scales - evaluation of different sources (countries and/or SNAP categories) contribution to air pollution formation on local to regional scales Conclusions and Future Work: The present work is an attempt to development of an integrated view of the atmospheric composition formation at different spatial and temporal scales. It is also envisaged some studies to be carried out aiming at assessment of climate change impact on air pollution levels in Bulgaria. A natural sequel of the present work will be the creation of Bulgarian national chemical weather forecasting and information system.

  7. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)


    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  8. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 2: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Van Norman, John W.


    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of aerodynamic decelerator technologies developed by the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology demonstration project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large-mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and supersonic parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The purpose of this test was to validate the test architecture for future tests. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. The Supersonic Disksail parachute developed a tear during deployment. The second flight test occurred on June 8th, 2015, and incorporated a Supersonic Ringsail parachute which was redesigned based on data from the first flight. Again, the inflatable decelerator functioned as predicted but the parachute was damaged during deployment. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, main motor thrust, atmosphere, and aerodynamics.

  9. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) (United States)


    ARL-TR-8155 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model... Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) by Clayton Walker and Gail Vaucher Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2017 June 28 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ROTC Internship

  10. Standard test method for using atmospheric pressure rotating cage

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a generally accepted procedure to conduct the rotating cage (RC) experiment under atmospheric pressure. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. First Human Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology (United States)

    Lin, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey


    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS). In two previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center (JSC) testing of the technology in a representative environment with simulated human metabolic loads. The next step in developmental testing at JSC was to replace the simulated humans with real humans; this testing was conducted in the spring of 2008. This first instance of human testing of a new Orion ARS technology included several cases in a sealed Orion-equivalent free volume and three cases using emergency breathing masks connected directly to the ARS loop. Significant test results presented in this paper include comparisons between the standard metabolic rates for CO2 and water vapor production published in Orion requirements documents and real-world rate ranges observed with human test subjects. Also included are qualitative assessments of process flow rate and closed-loop pressure-cycling tolerability while using the emergency masks. Recommendations for modifications to the Orion ARS design and operation, based on the test results, conclude the paper.

  12. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test: Trajectory, Atmosphere, and Aerodynamics Reconstruction (United States)

    Kutty, Prasad; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Blood, Eric M.; O'Farrell, Clara; Ginn, Jason M.; Shoenenberger, Mark; Dutta, Soumyo


    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test is a full-scale flight test of a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator, which is part of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator technology development project. The purpose of the project is to develop and mature aerodynamic decelerator technologies for landing large mass payloads on the surface of Mars. The technologies include a Supersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator and Supersonic Parachutes. The first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test occurred on June 28th, 2014 at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. This test was used to validate the test architecture for future missions. The flight was a success and, in addition, was able to acquire data on the aerodynamic performance of the supersonic inflatable decelerator. This paper describes the instrumentation, analysis techniques, and acquired flight test data utilized to reconstruct the vehicle trajectory, atmosphere, and aerodynamics. The results of the reconstruction show significantly higher lofting of the trajectory, which can partially be explained by off-nominal booster motor performance. The reconstructed vehicle force and moment coefficients fall well within pre-flight predictions. A parameter identification analysis indicates that the vehicle displayed greater aerodynamic static stability than seen in pre-flight computational predictions and ballistic range tests.

  13. Testing of the VENUS 4.12, DPMJET 2.55, QGSJET II-03 and SIBYLL 2.3 hadronic interaction models via help of the atmospheric vertical muon spectra (United States)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Lukyashin, A. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.


    Uncertainties of the model energy spectra of the most energetic secondary π± -mesons (and K± -mesons) are discussed. Computer simulations of the partial energy spectra of the atmospheric vertical muons induced by primary cosmic particles with various fixed energies in interval 102 -107 GeV in terms of the VENUS 4.12, DPMJET 2.55, QGSJET II-03 and SIBYLL 2.3 models had been carried out with help of CORSIKA package. These partial spectra should be convoluted with the contemporary spectra of the primary cosmic particles. Results of simulations are compared with the contemporary atmospheric vertical muon flux data. Comparison shows that all models underestimate production of secondary π± -mesons (and K± -mesons) by factor of ˜ 2 at the most high energies. This underestimation induces more rapid development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere and results in uncertainties in estimates of energy and composition of the primary cosmic particles.

  14. Multi-model study of mercury dispersion in the atmosphere: atmospheric processes and model evaluation (United States)

    Travnikov, Oleg; Angot, Hélène; Artaxo, Paulo; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Bieser, Johannes; D'Amore, Francesco; Dastoor, Ashu; De Simone, Francesco; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Dommergue, Aurélien; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Feng, Xin Bin; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Magand, Olivier; Martin, Lynwill; Matthias, Volker; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Pirrone, Nicola; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Read, Katie Alana; Ryjkov, Andrei; Selin, Noelle E.; Sena, Fabrizio; Song, Shaojie; Sprovieri, Francesca; Wip, Dennis; Wängberg, Ingvar; Yang, Xin


    Current understanding of mercury (Hg) behavior in the atmosphere contains significant gaps. Some key characteristics of Hg processes, including anthropogenic and geogenic emissions, atmospheric chemistry, and air-surface exchange, are still poorly known. This study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measured data from ground-based sites and simulation results from chemical transport models. A variety of long-term measurements of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and reactive Hg (RM) concentration as well as Hg wet deposition flux have been compiled from different global and regional monitoring networks. Four contemporary global-scale transport models for Hg were used, both in their state-of-the-art configurations and for a number of numerical experiments to evaluate particular processes. Results of the model simulations were evaluated against measurements. As follows from the analysis, the interhemispheric GEM gradient is largely formed by the prevailing spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions in the Northern Hemisphere. The contributions of natural and secondary emissions enhance the south-to-north gradient, but their effect is less significant. Atmospheric chemistry has a limited effect on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of GEM concentration in surface air. In contrast, RM air concentration and wet deposition are largely defined by oxidation chemistry. The Br oxidation mechanism can reproduce successfully the observed seasonal variation of the RM / GEM ratio in the near-surface layer, but it predicts a wet deposition maximum in spring instead of in summer as observed at monitoring sites in North America and Europe. Model runs with OH chemistry correctly simulate both the periods of maximum and minimum values and the amplitude of observed seasonal variation but shift the maximum RM / GEM ratios from spring to summer. O3 chemistry does not predict significant seasonal variation of Hg

  15. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling. (United States)

    Düben, Peter D; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V; Palmer, T N


    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

  16. Atomic hydrogen distribution. [in Titan atmospheric model (United States)

    Tabarie, N.


    Several possible H2 vertical distributions in Titan's atmosphere are considered with the constraint of 5 km-A a total quantity. Approximative calculations show that hydrogen distribution is quite sensitive to two other parameters of Titan's atmosphere: the temperature and the presence of other constituents. The escape fluxes of H and H2 are also estimated as well as the consequent distributions trapped in the Saturnian system.

  17. Atmospheric Modeling Using Accelerometer Data During Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) Flight Operations (United States)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Lugo, Rafael A.; Baird, Darren T.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Bougher, Stephen W.; Zurek, Richard M.


    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft is a NASA orbiter designed to explore the Mars upper atmosphere, typically from 140 to 160 km altitude. In addition to the nominal science mission, MAVEN has performed several Deep Dip campaigns in which the orbit's closest point of approach, also called periapsis, was lowered to an altitude range of 115 to 135 km. MAVEN accelerometer data were used during mission operations to estimate atmospheric parameters such as density, scale height, along-track gradients, and wave structures. Density and scale height estimates were compared against those obtained from the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model and used to aid the MAVEN navigation team in planning maneuvers to raise and lower periapsis during Deep Dip operations. This paper describes the processes used to reconstruct atmosphere parameters from accelerometers data and presents the results of their comparison to model and navigation-derived values.

  18. Mesoscale, Sources and Models: Sources for Nitrogen in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, O.


    Projektet Mesoscales, Sources and Models: Sources for Nitrogen in the Atmosphere er opdelt i 3 delprojekter: Sources - farmland, Sources - sea og Sources - biogenic nitrogen.......Projektet Mesoscales, Sources and Models: Sources for Nitrogen in the Atmosphere er opdelt i 3 delprojekter: Sources - farmland, Sources - sea og Sources - biogenic nitrogen....

  19. Model-Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Brinksma, Hendrik; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Broy, M.; Leuxner, C.; Hoare, C.A.R.

    This paper provides a comprehensive introduction to a framework for formal testing using labelled transition systems, based on an extension and reformulation of the ioco theory introduced by Tretmans. We introduce the underlying models needed to specify the requirements, and formalise the notion of

  20. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  1. Proposed reference models for atomic oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere (United States)

    Llewellyn, E. J.; Mcdade, I. C.; Lockerbie, M. D.


    A provisional Atomic Oxygen Reference model was derived from average monthly ozone profiles and the MSIS-86 reference model atmosphere. The concentrations are presented in tabular form for the altitude range 40 to 130 km.

  2. Challenges in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko; Black, Tom


    ") with significant amplitudes can develop. Due to their large scales, that are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Having in mind the sensitivity of extended deterministic forecasts to small disturbances, we may need global non-hydrostatic models sooner than we think. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) that is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as a part of the new NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) will be discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable. The model formulation has been successfully tested on various scales. A global forecasting system based on the NMMB has been run in order to test and tune the model. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models. The computational efficiency of the global NMMB on parallel computers is good.

  3. Ozone transmittance in a model atmosphere at Ikeja, Lagos state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation of ozone transmittance with height in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6m absorption band was studied using Goody's model atmosphere, with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different altitudes (0-22 km) for the month of ...

  4. UV- Radiation Absorption by Ozone in a Model Atmosphere using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UV- radiation absorption is studied through variation of ozone transmittance with altitude in the atmosphere for radiation in the 9.6μm absorption band using Goody's model atmosphere with cubic spline interpolation technique to improve the quality of the curve. The data comprising of pressure and temperature at different ...

  5. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario....... In MUD, corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion are computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns are derived....

  6. Historical overview of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and estimates of fallout in the continental United States. (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bennett, Burton G


    From 1945 to 1980, over 500 weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere at a number of locations around the world. These tests resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. Local, intermediate, and global fallout deposition densities downwind from test sites depended on the heights of bursts, the yields, and the half-lives and volatilities of the particular fission or activation products, as well as on the meteorological conditions. A number of national and international monitoring programs were established to trace the fallout through the atmosphere and biosphere. These programs included continuous monitoring of ground-level air, exposure rates, and deposition as well as periodic sampling of food, bone, water, soil, and stratospheric air. Although data for specific high-yield tests are still classified, the fission and fusion yields of the various tests and test series have been estimated and from this information the quantities of specific fission and activation products released into the atmosphere have been determined. The geographic and temporal variations in the fallout deposition of specific radionuclides based on both actual measurements and model calculations are discussed in this paper. A feasibility study to estimate the deposition density (deposition per unit area) of particular radionuclides from both Nevada Test Site and "global" fallout on a county-by-county scale for the continental United States is described. These deposition estimates provide a basis for reconstructing population exposure and dose. They support the feasibility of a more detailed evaluation of the population doses that resulted from fallout from atmospheric tests to document the experience fully and to report results more systematically and completely to the world community. The impact of weapons fallout will continue to be felt for years to come since a contaminant baseline has been imposed on the ambient radiation environment that

  7. Computational Challenges of 3D Radiative Transfer in Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Jakub, Fabian; Bernhard, Mayer


    The computation of radiative heating and cooling rates is one of the most expensive components in todays atmospheric models. The high computational cost stems not only from the laborious integration over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum but also from the fact that solving the integro-differential radiative transfer equation for monochromatic light is already rather involved. This lead to the advent of numerous approximations and parameterizations to reduce the cost of the solver. One of the most prominent one is the so called independent pixel approximations (IPA) where horizontal energy transfer is neglected whatsoever and radiation may only propagate in the vertical direction (1D). Recent studies implicate that the IPA introduces significant errors in high resolution simulations and affects the evolution and development of convective systems. However, using fully 3D solvers such as for example MonteCarlo methods is not even on state of the art supercomputers feasible. The parallelization of atmospheric models is often realized by a horizontal domain decomposition, and hence, horizontal transfer of energy necessitates communication. E.g. a cloud's shadow at a low zenith angle will cast a long shadow and potentially needs to communication through a multitude of processors. Especially light in the solar spectral range may travel long distances through the atmosphere. Concerning highly parallel simulations, it is vital that 3D radiative transfer solvers put a special emphasis on parallel scalability. We will present an introduction to intricacies computing 3D radiative heating and cooling rates as well as report on the parallel performance of the TenStream solver. The TenStream is a 3D radiative transfer solver using the PETSc framework to iteratively solve a set of partial differential equation. We investigate two matrix preconditioners, (a) geometric algebraic multigrid preconditioning(MG+GAMG) and (b) block Jacobi incomplete LU (ILU) factorization. The

  8. ATTILA - Atmospheric Tracer Transport In a Langrangian Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmeier, C.; Sausen, R.


    The Lagrangian model ATTILA (atmospheric tracer transport in a Lagrangian model) has been developed to treat the global-scale transport of passive trace species in the atmosphere within the framework of a general circulation model (GCM). ATTILA runs online within the GCM ECHAM4 and uses the GCM produced wind field to advect the centrois of 80.000 to 180.000 constant mass air parcels into which the model atmosphere is divided. Each trace constituent is thereby represented by a mass mixing ratio in each parcel. ATTILA contains state-of-the-art parameterizations of convection, turbulent boundary layer mixing, and interparcel transport and provides an algorithm to map the tracer concentrations from the trajectories to the ECHAM model grid. We use two experiments to evaluate the transport characteristics of ATTILA against observations and the standard semiLagrangian transport scheme of ECHAM. In the first experiment we simulate the distribution of the short-lived tracer Radon ({sup 222}Rn) in order to examine fast vertical transport over continents, and long-range transport from the continents to remote areas. In the second experiment, we simulate the distribution of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) that was injected into the northern stratosphere during the nuclear weapon tests in the early 60ties, in order to examine upper tropospheric and stratospheric transport characteristics. ATTILA compares well to the observations and in many respects to the semiLagrangian scheme. However, contrary to the semiLagrangian scheme, ATTILA shows a greatly reduced meridional transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and a reduced downward flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere, especially in midlatitudes. Since both transport schemes use the same model meteorology, we conclude that the often cited enhanced meridional transport and overestimated downward flux in ECHAM as described above is rather due to the numerical properties of the semiLagrangian scheme than due to an

  9. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.


    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  10. Ensemble data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Raeder, K.; Anderson, J. L.; Liu, H.-L.


    We present results pertaining to the assimilation of real lower, middle, and upper atmosphere observations in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) ensemble adjustment Kalman filter. The ability to assimilate lower atmosphere observations of aircraft and radiosonde temperature and winds, satellite drift winds, and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate refractivity along with middle/upper atmosphere temperature observations from SABER and Aura MLS is demonstrated. The WACCM+DART data assimilation system is shown to be able to reproduce the salient features, and variability, of the troposphere present in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Re-Analysis. In the mesosphere, the fit of WACCM+DART to observations is found to be slightly worse when only lower atmosphere observations are assimilated compared to a control experiment that is reflective of the model climatological variability. This differs from previous results which found that assimilation of lower atmosphere observations improves the fit to mesospheric observations. This discrepancy is attributed to the fact that due to the gravity wave drag parameterizations, the model climatology differs significantly from the observations in the mesosphere, and this is not corrected by the assimilation of lower atmosphere observations. The fit of WACCM+DART to mesospheric observations is, however, significantly improved compared to the control experiment when middle/upper atmosphere observations are assimilated. We find that assimilating SABER observations reduces the root-mean-square error and bias of WACCM+DART relative to the independent Aura MLS observations by ˜50%, demonstrating that assimilation of middle/upper atmosphere observations is essential for accurate specification of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region in WACCM+DART. Last, we demonstrate that

  11. Atmospheric Measurements for Flight Test at NASAs Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center (United States)

    Teets, Edward H.


    Information enclosed is to be shared with students of Atmospheric Sciences, Engineering and High School STEM programs. Information will show the relationship between atmospheric Sciences and aeronautical flight testing.

  12. On the construction of a regional atmospheric climate model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J. H.; Van Meijgaard, E.


    A Regional Atmospheric Climate Model which combines the physical parameterization package of the General Circulation or Climate Model (ECHAM) used at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the dynamics package of the Nordic - Dutch - Irish Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), has been...... developed. The necessary changes applied to both model packages in order to obtain a working code are described. -from Authors...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Catling, David C., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310 (United States)


    We present an analytic one-dimensional radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres. Our model assumes that thermal radiative transfer is gray and can be represented by the two-stream approximation. Model atmospheres are assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, with a power-law scaling between the atmospheric pressure and the gray thermal optical depth. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce simple, analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric-pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. We explore the general behaviors of our model. These investigations encompass (1) worlds where atmospheric attenuation of sunlight is weak, which we show tend to have relatively high radiative-convective boundaries; (2) worlds with some attenuation of sunlight throughout the atmosphere, which we show can produce either shallow or deep radiative-convective boundaries, depending on the strength of sunlight attenuation; and (3) strongly irradiated giant planets (including hot Jupiters), where we explore the conditions under which these worlds acquire detached convective regions in their mid-tropospheres. Finally, we validate our model and demonstrate its utility through comparisons to the average observed thermal structure of Venus, Jupiter, and Titan, and by comparing computed flux profiles to more complex models.

  14. GrayStarServer: Stellar atmospheric modeling and spectrum synthesis (United States)

    Short, C. Ian


    GrayStarServer is a stellar atmospheric modeling and spectrum synthesis code of pedagogical accuracy that is accessible in any web browser on commonplace computational devices and that runs on a timescale of a few seconds.

  15. Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model Status and Planned Updates (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Dwyer Cianciolo, A. M.


    Details the current status of Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Venus-GRAM). Provides new sources of data and upgrades that need to be incorporated to maintain credibility and identifies options and features that could increase capability.

  16. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Guam (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Guam at...

  17. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Samoa (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Workman, Jared, E-mail:, E-mail: [Colorado Mesa University, 1260 Kennedy Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 (United States)


    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  19. Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine


    The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.

  20. Atmospheric correction for superconducting gravimeters based on operational weather models (United States)

    Karbon, M.; Boehm, J.; Meurers, B.; Schuh, H.


    Atmospheric pressure fluctuations are a major source of noise in precise gravimetric measurements and must be corrected carefully. This is usually done by using the local air pressure, which reduces up to 90-95 % of the atmospheric signal. However, modern superconducting gravimeters require an even better atmospheric correction if small signals are to be identified. For this task the use of 3-dimensional modeling of atmospheric mass attraction based on operational numerical weather models has shown promising results. Similar strategies are realized and applied successfully for de -aliasing measurements of satellite gravity missions, such as GRACE and GOCE. For example, within the project GGOS Atmosphere at the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics of TU Vienna a service was established providing atmospheric gravity corrections in form of global spherical harmonic coefficients (AGC). In this study we show that these products, originally dedicated to correct the gravity mission data, can also be used to correct the atmospheric effects on superconducting gravimeters (SG), i.e., the global contribution of the effect is obtained directly from the AGC. Furthermore, it will be examined if the additional effort of implementing high resolution regional models as well as analytical models in the near field is justified. The Conrad Observatory near Vienna is taken as example station for the SG corrections.

  1. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide (United States)

    Justh, H. L.


    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  2. Developing Tighter Constraints on Exoplanet Biosignatures by Modeling Atmospheric Haze (United States)

    Felton, Ryan; Neveu, Marc; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Desch, Steven; Arney, Giada


    As we increase our capacity to resolve the atmospheric composition of exoplanets, we must continue to refine our ability to distinguish true biosignatures from false positives in order to ultimately distinguish a life-bearing from a lifeless planet. Of the possible true and false biosignatures, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are of interest, because on Earth geological and biological processes can produce them on large scales. To identify a biotic, Earth-like exoplanet, we must understand how these biosignatures shape their atmospheres. High atmospheric abundances of CH4 produce photochemical organic haze, which dramatically alters the photochemistry, climate, and spectrum of a planet. Arney et al. (2017) have suggested that haze-bearing atmospheres rich in CO2 may be a type of biosignature because the CH4 flux required to produce the haze is similar to the amount of biogenic CH4 on modern Earth. Atmospheric CH4 and CO2 both affect haze-formation photochemistry, and the potential for hazes to form in Earth-like atmospheres at abiotic concentrations of these gases has not been well studied. We will explore a wide range of parameter space of abiotic concentration levels of these gases to determine what spectral signatures are possible from abiotic environments and look for measurable differences between abiotic and biotic atmospheres. We use a 1D photochemical model with an upgraded haze production mechanism to compare Archean and modern Earth atmospheres to abiotic versions while varying atmospheric CH4 and CO2 levels and atmospheric pressure. We will vary CO2 from a trace gas to an amount such that it dominates atmospheric chemistry. For CH4, there is uncertainty regarding the amount of abiotic CH4 that comes from serpentinizing systems. To address this uncertainty, we will model three cases: 1) assume all CH4 comes from photochemistry; 2) use estimates of modern-day serpentinizing fluxes, assuming they are purely abiotic; and 3) assume serpentinizing

  3. Evaluation protocol for the WIND system atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.


    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during a accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven computer based system called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. In an effort to establish more formal quality assurance procedures for the WIND system atmospheric codes, a software evaluation protocol is being developed. An evaluation protocol is necessary to determine how well they may perform in emergency response (real-time) situations. The evaluation of high-impact software must be conducted in accordance with WSRC QA Manual, 1Q, QAP 20-1. This report will describe the method that will be used to evaluate the atmospheric models. The evaluation will determine the effectiveness of the atmospheric models in emergency response situations, which is not necessarily the same procedure used for research purposes. The format of the evaluation plan will provide guidance for the evaluation of atmospheric models that may be added to the WIND system in the future. The evaluation plan is designed to provide the user with information about the WIND system atmospheric models that is necessary for emergency response situations.

  4. Evaluation protocol for the WIND system atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J.D.


    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during a accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven computer based system called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. In an effort to establish more formal quality assurance procedures for the WIND system atmospheric codes, a software evaluation protocol is being developed. An evaluation protocol is necessary to determine how well they may perform in emergency response (real-time) situations. The evaluation of high-impact software must be conducted in accordance with WSRC QA Manual, 1Q, QAP 20-1. This report will describe the method that will be used to evaluate the atmospheric models. The evaluation will determine the effectiveness of the atmospheric models in emergency response situations, which is not necessarily the same procedure used for research purposes. The format of the evaluation plan will provide guidance for the evaluation of atmospheric models that may be added to the WIND system in the future. The evaluation plan is designed to provide the user with information about the WIND system atmospheric models that is necessary for emergency response situations.

  5. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman


    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  6. A global atmospheric model of meteoric iron

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Wuhu; Marsh, Daniel R; Chipperfield, Martyn P; Janches, Diego; Höffner, Josef; Yi, Fan; Plane, John M. C


    .... The meteoric input function (MIF), which describes the injection of Fe as a function of height, latitude, and day, is precalculated from an astronomical model coupled to a chemical meteoric ablation model (CABMOD...

  7. Sonora: A New Generation Model Atmosphere Grid for Brown Dwarfs and Young Extrasolar Giant Planets (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Morley, Caroline; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Freedman, Richard; Visscher, Channon


    Brown dwarf and giant planet atmospheric structure and composition has been studied both by forward models and, increasingly so, by retrieval methods. While indisputably informative, retrieval methods are of greatest value when judged in the context of grid model predictions. Meanwhile retrieval models can test the assumptions inherent in the forward modeling procedure. In order to provide a new, systematic survey of brown dwarf atmospheric structure, emergent spectra, and evolution, we have constructed a new grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres. We ultimately aim for our grid to span substantial ranges of atmospheric metallilcity, C/O ratios, cloud properties, atmospheric mixing, and other parameters. Spectra predicted by our modeling grid can be compared to both observations and retrieval results to aid in the interpretation and planning of future telescopic observations. We thus present Sonora, a new generation of substellar atmosphere models, appropriate for application to studies of L, T, and Y-type brown dwarfs and young extrasolar giant planets. The models describe the expected temperature-pressure profile and emergent spectra of an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium for ranges of effective temperatures and gravities encompassing 200 less than or equal to T(sub eff) less than or equal to 2400 K and 2.5 less than or equal to log g less than or equal to 5.5. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology, enumerate various updates since our group's previous models, and present our initial tranche of models for cloudless, solar metallicity, and solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio, chemical equilibrium atmospheres. These models will be available online and will be updated as opacities and cloud modeling methods continue to improve.

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion Model Validation in Low Wind Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Patrick


    Atmospheric plume dispersion models are used for a variety of purposes including emergency planning and response to hazardous material releases, determining force protection actions in the event of a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) attack and for locating sources of pollution. This study provides a review of previous studies that examine the accuracy of atmospheric plume dispersion models for chemical releases. It considers the principles used to derive air dispersion plume models and looks at three specific models currently in use: Aerial Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Emergency Prediction Information Code (EPIcode) and Second Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF). Results from this study indicate over-prediction bias by the EPIcode and SCIPUFF models and under-prediction bias by the ALOHA model. The experiment parameters were for near field dispersion (less than 100 meters) in low wind speed conditions (less than 2 meters per second).

  9. Southeast Atmosphere Studies: learning from model-observation syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao


    Full Text Available Concentrations of atmospheric trace species in the United States have changed dramatically over the past several decades in response to pollution control strategies, shifts in domestic energy policy and economics, and economic development (and resulting emission changes elsewhere in the world. Reliable projections of the future atmosphere require models to not only accurately describe current atmospheric concentrations, but to do so by representing chemical, physical and biological processes with conceptual and quantitative fidelity. Only through incorporation of the processes controlling emissions and chemical mechanisms that represent the key transformations among reactive molecules can models reliably project the impacts of future policy, energy and climate scenarios. Efforts to properly identify and implement the fundamental and controlling mechanisms in atmospheric models benefit from intensive observation periods, during which collocated measurements of diverse, speciated chemicals in both the gas and condensed phases are obtained. The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS, including SENEX, SOAS, NOMADSS and SEAC4RS conducted during the summer of 2013 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the atmospheric modeling community to come together to evaluate, diagnose and improve the representation of fundamental climate and air quality processes in models of varying temporal and spatial scales.This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models. The effort focused primarily on model representation of fundamental atmospheric processes that are essential to the formation of ozone, secondary organic aerosol (SOA and other trace species in the troposphere, with the ultimate goal of understanding the radiative impacts of these species in the southeast and

  10. Measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars using model atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleimanov, V.F. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Poutanen, J. [University of Turku, Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Piikkioe (Finland); KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Klochkov, D.; Werner, K. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany)


    Model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are nowadays widely used to fit the observed thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars. This fitting is the key element in the method of the neutron star radius determination. Here, we present the basic assumptions used for the neutron star atmosphere modeling as well as the main qualitative features of the stellar atmospheres leading to the deviations of the emergent model spectrum from blackbody. We describe the properties of two of our model atmosphere grids: i) pure carbon atmospheres for relatively cool neutron stars (1-4MK) and ii) hot atmospheres with Compton scattering taken into account. The results obtained by applying these grids to model the X-ray spectra of the central compact object in supernova remnant HESS 1731-347, and two X-ray bursting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1724-307 and 4U 1608-52, are presented. Possible systematic uncertainties associated with the obtained neutron star radii are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Information Flow in an Atmospheric Model and Data Assimilation (United States)

    Yoon, Young-noh


    Weather forecasting consists of two processes, model integration and analysis (data assimilation). During the model integration, the state estimate produced by the analysis evolves to the next cycle time according to the atmospheric model to become the background estimate. The analysis then produces a new state estimate by combining the background…

  12. Applying a mesoscale atmospheric model to Svalbard glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claremar, B.; Obleitner, F.; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; Pohjola, V.; Waxegard, A.; Karner, F.; Rutgersson, A.


    The mesoscale atmospheric model WRF is used over three Svalbard glaciers. The simulations are done with a setup of the model corresponding to the state-of-the-art model for polar conditions, Polar WRF, and it was validated using surface observations. The ERA-Interim reanalysis was used for boundary

  13. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.


    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  14. South African seasonal rainfall prediction performance by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA


    Full Text Available Evidence is presented that coupled ocean-atmosphere models can already outscore computationally less expensive atmospheric models. However, if the atmospheric models are forced with highly skillful SST predictions, they may still be a very strong...

  15. Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms (United States)

    de la Cruz, Raúl; Folch, Arnau; Farré, Pau; Cabezas, Javier; Navarro, Nacho; Cela, José María


    The performance and scalability of atmospheric transport models on high performance computing environments is often far from optimal for multiple reasons including, for example, sequential input and output, synchronous communications, work unbalance, memory access latency or lack of task overlapping. We investigate how different software optimizations and porting to non general-purpose hardware architectures improve code scalability and execution times considering, as an example, the FALL3D volcanic ash transport model. To this purpose, we implement the FALL3D model equations in the WARIS framework, a software designed from scratch to solve in a parallel and efficient way different geoscience problems on a wide variety of architectures. In addition, we consider further improvements in WARIS such as hybrid MPI-OMP parallelization, spatial blocking, auto-tuning and thread affinity. Considering all these aspects together, the FALL3D execution times for a realistic test case running on general-purpose cluster architectures (Intel Sandy Bridge) decrease by a factor between 7 and 40 depending on the grid resolution. Finally, we port the application to Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) and NVIDIA GPUs (CUDA) accelerator-based architectures and compare performance, cost and power consumption on all the architectures. Implications on time-constrained operational model configurations are discussed.

  16. Atmospheric Athena: 3D Atmospheric escape model with ionizing radiative transfer (United States)

    Tripathi, Anjali; Krumholz, Mark R.


    Atmospheric Athena simulates hydrodynamic escape from close-in giant planets in 3D. It uses the Athena hydrodynamics code (ascl:1010.014) with a new ionizing radiative transfer implementation to self-consistently model photoionization driven winds from the planet. The code is fully compatible with static mesh refinement and MPI parallelization and can handle arbitrary planet potentials and stellar initial conditions.

  17. AMORE: Atmospheric Modeling Of Radiation Experiment (United States)

    Slusser, J.; Harrison, L.; Gao, W.


    The purpose of this talk is to present a comparison of modeled and measured clear-sky erythemal UV irradiances. Are the various models in reasonable agreement with the various measurements? Measurements were made with the USDA Reference Spectroradiometer, New Zealand's NIWA Spectroradiometer, a USEPA Brewer, and a Yankee UV-RSS. Modeling groups were given a list of clear days between June 5 and August 5, 2001. The average measured morning and afternoon aerosol optical depths at 368 nm and 332 nm were measured with a UV-MFRSR. The estimated wavelength independent aerosol asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo, surface pressure and albedo, total column ozone, extraterrestrial solar spectrum, erythemal weighting function were supplied. Modeling groups submitted erythemally weight irradiances for every half hour. Comparisons of measurements to models showed good ageement to within 10% for SZAs out to 60 degrees. Reasons for discrepancies will be discussed.

  18. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation (United States)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.


    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  19. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  20. An Analytic Radiative-Convective Model for Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Robinson, T. D.; Catling, D. C.


    A fundamental aspect of planetary atmospheres is the vertical thermal structure. Simple one-dimensional (vertical) models can provide reasonable estimates of a planet's global-mean temperature profile while providing insights into the physics behind the thermal profile of an atmosphere. The best basic models are those that incorporate the minimum amount of complexity while still remaining general enough to provide intuitive understanding. Here, we present an analytic 1-D radiative-convective model of the thermal structure of planetary atmospheres [1]. We assume that thermal radiative transfer is gray, and we include two shortwave channels for absorbed solar (or stellar) light so that the model can compute realistic stratospheric temperature inversions. A convective profile is placed at the base of the portion of the atmosphere that is in radiative equilibrium, and the model ensures that both the temperature profile and the upwelling flux profile are continuous across the radiation-convection boundary. The convective portions of our models are taken to follow adiabats that account for condensation of volatiles through a scaling parameter to the dry adiabat. By combining these assumptions, we produce analytic expressions that allow calculations of the atmospheric pressure-temperature profile, as well as expressions for the profiles of thermal radiative flux and convective flux. The utility, validity, and generality of our model are demonstrated by applying it to a disparate range of worlds, including Jupiter, Venus, and Titan. Our model can be used to explain general observed phenomena in the Solar System [2], and we explore the behaviors of variants of our model, showing its ability to provide clear insights. Given the wealth of new problems posed by exoplanets, development of an analytic model with few parameters is likely to be useful for future application to such worlds, for which only limited data will be known. Our model can be used to help interpret

  1. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits (United States)

    Kopasakis, George


    Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  2. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit (United States)

    Kopasakis, George (Inventor)


    An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.

  3. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures. (United States)

    Stüeken, E E; Kipp, M A; Koehler, M C; Schwieterman, E W; Johnson, B; Buick, R


    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere. Key Words: Biosignatures-Early Earth-Planetary atmospheres. Astrobiology 16, 949-963.

  4. Internal atmospheric noise characteristics in twentieth century coupled atmosphere-ocean model simulations (United States)

    Colfescu, Ioana; Schneider, Edwin K.


    The statistical characteristics of the atmospheric internal variability (hereafter internal atmospheric noise) for surface pressure (PS) in twentieth century simulations of a coupled general circulation model are documented. The atmospheric noise is determined from daily post-industrial (1871-1998) Community Climate System Model 3 simulations by removing the SST and externally forced responses from the total fields. The forced responses are found from atmosphere-only simulations forced by the SST and external forcing of the coupled runs. However, we do not address the influence of the SST variability on the synoptic scale high frequency weather noise.The spatial patterns of the main seasonal modes of atmospheric noise variability are found for boreal winter and summer from empirical orthogonal function analyses performed globally and for various regions, including the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, and the equatorial Pacific. The temporal characteristics of the modes are illustrated by power spectra and probability density functions (PDF) of the principal components (PC). Our findings show that, for two different realizations of noise, the variability is dominated by large scale spatial structures of the atmospheric noise that resemble observed patterns, and that their relative amplitudes in the CGCM and AGCM simulations are very similar. The regional expression of the dominant global mode, a seasonally dependent AO-like or AAO-like pattern is also found in the regional analyses, with similar time dependence. The PCs in the CGCM and the corresponding SST forced AGCM simulations are uncorrelated, but the spectra and PDFs of the CGCM and AGCM PCs are similar.The temporal structures of the noise PCs are white at timescales larger than few months, so that these modes can be thought of as stochastic forcings (in time) for the climate system. The PDFs of the noise PCs are not statistically distinguishable from Gaussian distributions with the same standard deviation

  5. Proposed ozone reference models for the middle atmosphere (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.


    Since the publication of the last COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA 72), large amounts of ozone data acquired from satellites have become available in addition to increasing quantities of rocketsonde, balloonsonde, Dobson, M83, and Umkehr measurements. From the available archived satellite data, models are developed for the new CIRA using 5 satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 SBUV and LIMS, AEM-2 SAGE, and SME IR and UVS) of the monthly latitudinal and altitudinal variations in the ozone mixing ratio in the middle atmosphere. Standard deviations and interannual variations are also quantified. The satellite models are shown to agree well with a previous reference model based on rocket and balloon measurements.

  6. SPAM: Source Peeling and Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Intema, Huib T.


    SPAM is a extension to AIPS for reducing high-resolution, low-frequency radio interferometric observations. Direction-dependent ionospheric calibration and image-plane ripple suppression are among the features that help to make high-quality sub-GHz images. Data reductions are captured in well-tested Python scripts that execute AIPS tasks directly (mostly during initial data reduction steps), call high-level functions that make multiple AIPS or ParselTongue calls, and require few manual operations.

  7. Uncertainty modelling of atmospheric dispersion by stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The parameters associated to a environmental dispersion model may include different kinds of variability, imprecision and uncertainty. More often, it is seen that available information is interpreted in probabilistic sense. Probability theory is a well-established theory to measure such kind of variability. However, not all ...

  8. Coupled Atmospheric Chemistry Schemes for Modeling Regional and Global Atmospheric Chemistry (United States)

    Saunders, E.; Stockwell, W. R.


    Atmospheric chemistry models require chemical reaction mechanisms to simulate the production of air pollution. GACM (Global Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism) is intended for use in global scale atmospheric chemistry models to provide chemical boundary conditions for regional scale simulations by models such as CMAQ. GACM includes additional chemistry for marine environments while reducing its treatment of the chemistry needed for highly polluted urban regions. This keeps GACM's size small enough to allow it to be used efficiently in global models. GACM's chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is highly compatible with the VOC chemistry in RACM2 allowing a global model with GACM to provide VOC boundary conditions to a regional scale model with RACM2 with reduced error. The GACM-RACM2 system of mechanisms should yield more accurate forecasts by regional air quality models such as CMAQ. Chemical box models coupled with the regional and global atmospheric chemistry mechanisms (RACM2 & GACM) will be used to make simulations of tropospheric ozone, nitric oxides, and volatile organic compounds that are produced in regional and global domains. The simulations will focus on the Los Angeles' South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) where the Pacific Ocean meets a highly polluted urban area. These two mechanisms will be compared on the basis of simulated ozone concentrations over this marine-urban region. Simulations made with the more established RACM2 will be compared with simulations made with the newer GACM. In addition WRF-Chem will be used to simulate how RACM2 will produce regional simulations of tropospheric ozone and NOx, which can be further, analyzed for air quality impacts. Both the regional and global model in WRF-Chem will be used to predict how the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides change over land and ocean. The air quality model simulation results will be applied to EPA's BenMAP-CE (Environmental Benefits Mapping & Analysis Program-Community Edition

  9. Thermosphere Extension of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (United States)


    for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. [40] Robert Lysak thanks the reviewers for their assistance in evaluating...F. Muller, L. K. Emmons , and M. A. Carroll (1998), MOZART: A global chemical transport model for ozone and related chemical tracers: 2. Model results

  10. Atmospheric modelling for seasonal prediction at the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA


    Full Text Available by observed monthly sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice fields. The AGCM is the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM) administered by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Since the model is forced with observed rather than predicted...

  11. Upper Atmosphere Neutral and Plasma Density Modeling (United States)


    Semidiurnal density amplitude vs. height and latitude at 429N. 15 Figure 2. Percent density variation vs. height and local time over the equator during...March. 16 Figure 3. Semidiurnal (top) and diurnal (bottom) density variations as a function of height near the equator , for the 1979 Kwajalein...M.W., Klobuchar , J.A. and Doherty, P.H. Evaluation of six iono- spheric models as predictors of total electron content, Radio Science, 26, p. 1007, 1991

  12. Box models for the evolution of atmospheric oxygen: an update (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.


    A simple 3-box model of the atmosphere/ocean system is used to describe the various stages in the evolution of atmospheric oxygen. In Stage I, which probably lasted until redbeds began to form about 2.0 Ga ago, the Earth's surface environment was generally devoid of free O2, except possibly in localized regions of high productivity in the surface ocean. In Stage II, which may have lasted for less than 150 Ma, the atmosphere and surface ocean were oxidizing, while the deep ocean remained anoxic. In Stage III, which commenced with the disappearance of banded iron formations around 1.85 Ga ago and has lasted until the present, all three surface reservoirs contained appreciable amounts of free O2. Recent and not-so-recent controversies regarding the abundance of oxygen in the Archean atmosphere are identified and discussed. The rate of O2 increase during the Middle and Late Proterozoic is identified as another outstanding question.

  13. GEOS Atmospheric Model: Challenges at Exascale (United States)

    Putman, William M.; Suarez, Max J.


    The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model at NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) is used to simulate the multi-scale variability of the Earth's weather and climate, and is used primarily to assimilate conventional and satellite-based observations for weather forecasting and reanalysis. In addition, assimilations coupled to an ocean model are used for longer-term forecasting (e.g., El Nino) on seasonal to interannual times-scales. The GMAO's research activities, including system development, focus on numerous time and space scales, as detailed on the GMAO website, where they are tabbed under five major themes: Weather Analysis and Prediction; Seasonal-Decadal Analysis and Prediction; Reanalysis; Global Mesoscale Modeling, and Observing System Science. A brief description of the GEOS systems can also be found at the GMAO website. GEOS executes as a collection of earth system components connected through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF layer is supplemented with the MAPL (Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction Layer) software toolkit developed at the GMAO, which facilitates the organization of the computational components into a hierarchical architecture. GEOS systems run in parallel using a horizontal decomposition of the Earth's sphere into processing elements (PEs). Communication between PEs is primarily through a message passing framework, using the message passing interface (MPI), and through explicit use of node-level shared memory access via the SHMEM (Symmetric Hierarchical Memory access) protocol. Production GEOS weather prediction systems currently run at 12.5-kilometer horizontal resolution with 72 vertical levels decomposed into PEs associated with 5,400 MPI processes. Research GEOS systems run at resolutions as fine as 1.5 kilometers globally using as many as 30,000 MPI processes. Looking forward, these systems can be expected to see a 2 times increase in horizontal resolution every two to three years, as well as

  14. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  15. Self-consistent atmosphere modeling with cloud formation for low-mass stars and exoplanets (United States)

    Juncher, Diana; Jørgensen, Uffe G.; Helling, Christiane


    Context. Low-mass stars and extrasolar planets have ultra-cool atmospheres where a rich chemistry occurs and clouds form. The increasing amount of spectroscopic observations for extrasolar planets requires self-consistent model atmosphere simulations to consistently include the formation processes that determine cloud formation and their feedback onto the atmosphere. Aims: Our aim is to complement the MARCS model atmosphere suit with simulations applicable to low-mass stars and exoplanets in preparation of E-ELT, JWST, PLATO and other upcoming facilities. Methods: The MARCS code calculates stellar atmosphere models, providing self-consistent solutions of the radiative transfer and the atmospheric structure and chemistry. We combine MARCS with a kinetic model that describes cloud formation in ultra-cool atmospheres (seed formation, growth/evaporation, gravitational settling, convective mixing, element depletion). Results: We present a small grid of self-consistently calculated atmosphere models for Teff = 2000-3000 K with solar initial abundances and log (g) = 4.5. Cloud formation in stellar and sub-stellar atmospheres appears for Teff < 2700 K and has a significant effect on the structure and the spectrum of the atmosphere for Teff < 2400 K. We have compared the synthetic spectra of our models with observed spectra and found that they fit the spectra of mid- to late-type M-dwarfs and early-type L-dwarfs well. The geometrical extension of the atmospheres (at τ = 1) changes with wavelength resulting in a flux variation of 10%. This translates into a change in geometrical extension of the atmosphere of about 50 km, which is the quantitative basis for exoplanetary transit spectroscopy. We also test DRIFT-MARCS for an example exoplanet and demonstrate that our simulations reproduce the Spitzer observations for WASP-19b rather well for Teff = 2600 K, log (g) = 3.2 and solar abundances. Our model points at an exoplanet with a deep cloud-free atmosphere with a substantial

  16. Stochastic Parametrisations and Regime Behaviour of Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim


    The presence of regimes is a characteristic of non-linear, chaotic systems (Lorenz, 2006). In the atmosphere, regimes emerge as familiar circulation patterns such as the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Scandinavian Blocking events. In recent years there has been much interest in the problem of identifying and studying atmospheric regimes (Solomon et al, 2007). In particular, how do these regimes respond to an external forcing such as anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions? The importance of regimes in observed trends over the past 50-100 years indicates that in order to predict anthropogenic climate change, our climate models must be able to represent accurately natural circulation regimes, their statistics and variability. It is well established that representing model uncertainty as well as initial condition uncertainty is important for reliable weather forecasts (Palmer, 2001). In particular, stochastic parametrisation schemes have been shown to improve the skill of weather forecast models (e.g. Berner et al., 2009; Frenkel et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2009). It is possible that including stochastic physics as a representation of model uncertainty could also be beneficial in climate modelling, enabling the simulator to explore larger regions of the climate attractor including other flow regimes. An alternative representation of model uncertainty is a perturbed parameter scheme, whereby physical parameters in subgrid parametrisation schemes are perturbed about their optimal value. Perturbing parameters gives a greater control over the ensemble than multi-model or multiparametrisation ensembles, and has been used as a representation of model uncertainty in climate prediction (Stainforth et al., 2005; Rougier et al., 2009). We investigate the effect of including representations of model uncertainty on the regime behaviour of a simulator. A simple chaotic model of the atmosphere, the Lorenz '96 system, is used to study

  17. Towards a Global Unified Model of Europa's Tenuous Atmosphere (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Cassidy, Tim A.; Shematovich, Valery I.; Milillo, Anna; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Roth, Lorenz; Galli, André; Rubin, Martin; Blöcker, Aljona; Brandt, Pontus C.; Crary, Frank; Dandouras, Iannis; Jia, Xianzhe; Grassi, Davide; Hartogh, Paul; Lucchetti, Alice; McGrath, Melissa; Mangano, Valeria; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Paranicas, Chris; Radioti, Aikaterini; Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Teolis, Ben


    Despite the numerous modeling efforts of the past, our knowledge on the radiation-induced physical and chemical processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere and on the exchange of material between the moon's surface and Jupiter's magnetosphere remains limited. In lack of an adequate number of in situ observations, the existence of a wide variety of models based on different scenarios and considerations has resulted in a fragmentary understanding of the interactions of the magnetospheric ion population with both the moon's icy surface and neutral gas envelope. Models show large discrepancy in the source and loss rates of the different constituents as well as in the determination of the spatial distribution of the atmosphere and its variation with time. The existence of several models based on very different approaches highlights the need of a detailed comparison among them with the final goal of developing a unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere. The availability to the science community of such a model could be of particular interest in view of the planning of the future mission observations (e.g., ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, and NASA's Europa Clipper mission). We review the existing models of Europa's tenuous atmosphere and discuss each of their derived characteristics of the neutral environment. We also discuss discrepancies among different models and the assumptions of the plasma environment in the vicinity of Europa. A summary of the existing observations of both the neutral and the plasma environments at Europa is also presented. The characteristics of a global unified model of the tenuous atmosphere are, then, discussed. Finally, we identify needed future experimental work in laboratories and propose some suitable observation strategies for upcoming missions.

  18. Modeling Atmospheric Emission for CMB Ground-based Observations (United States)

    Errard, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Elleflot, T.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Feeney, S.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takakura, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Whitehorn, N.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.


    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  19. Applying Atmospheric Measurements to Constrain Parameters of Terrestrial Source Models (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Kasischke, E. S.; Allen, D. J.


    Quantitative inversions of atmospheric measurements have been widely applied to constrain atmospheric budgets of a range of trace gases. Experiments of this type have revealed persistent discrepancies between 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' estimates of source magnitudes. The most common atmospheric inversion uses the absolute magnitude as the sole parameter for each source, and returns the optimal value of that parameter. In order for atmospheric measurements to be useful for improving 'bottom-up' models of terrestrial sources, information about other properties of the sources must be extracted. As the density and quality of atmospheric trace gas measurements improve, examination of higher-order properties of trace gas sources should become possible. Our model of boreal forest fire emissions is parameterized to permit flexible examination of the key uncertainties in this source. Using output from this model together with the UM CTM, we examined the sensitivity of CO concentration measurements made by the MOPITT instrument to various uncertainties in the boreal source: geographic distribution of burned area, fire type (crown fires vs. surface fires), and fuel consumption in above-ground and ground-layer fuels. Our results indicate that carefully designed inversion experiments have the potential to help constrain not only the absolute magnitudes of terrestrial sources, but also the key uncertainties associated with 'bottom-up' estimates of those sources.

  20. Modeling pN2 through Geological Time: Implications for Planetary Climates and Atmospheric Biosignatures (United States)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Kipp, M. A.; Koehler, M. C.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Johnson, B.; Buick, R.


    Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean - presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure. Parameters for our model are constrained by observations of modern Earth and reconstructions of biomass burial and oxidative weathering in deep time. A 1-D climate model was used to model potential effects on atmospheric climate. In a second set of tests, we perturbed our box model to investigate which parameters have the greatest impact on the evolution of atmospheric pN2 and consider possible implications for nitrogen cycling on other planets. Our results suggest that (a) a high rate of biomass burial would have been needed in the Archean to draw down atmospheric pN2 to less than half modern levels, (b) the resulting effect on temperature could probably have been compensated by increasing solar luminosity and a mild increase in pCO2, and (c) atmospheric oxygenation could have initiated a stepwise pN2 rebound through oxidative weathering. In general, life appears to be necessary for significant atmospheric pN2 swings on Earth-like planets. Our results further support the idea that an exoplanetary atmosphere rich in both N2 and O2 is a signature of an oxygen-producing biosphere.

  1. Model Atmospheres and Transit Spectra for Hot Rocky Planets (United States)

    Lupu, Roxana

    We propose to build a versatile set of self-consistent atmospheric models for hot rocky exoplanets and use them to predict their transit and eclipse spectra. Hot rocky exoplanets will form the majority of small planets in close-in orbits to be discovered by the TESS and Kepler K2 missions, and offer the best opportunity for characterization with current and future instruments. We will use fully non-grey radiative-convective atmospheric structure codes with cloud formation and vertical mixing, combined with a self-consistent treatment of gas chemistry above the magma ocean. Being in equilibrium with the surface, the vaporized rock material can be a good tracer of the bulk composition of the planet. We will derive the atmospheric structure and escape rates considering both volatile-free and volatile bearing compositions, which reflect the diversity of hot rocky planet atmospheres. Our models will inform follow- up observations with JWST and ground-based instruments, aid the interpretation of transit and eclipse spectra, and provide a better understanding of volatile loss in these atmospheres. Such results will help refine our picture of rocky planet formation and evolution. Planets in ultra-short period (USP) orbits are a special class of hot rocky exoplanets. As shown by Kepler, these planets are generally smaller than 2 Earth radii, suggesting that they are likely to be rocky and could have lost their volatiles through photo-evaporation. Being close to their host stars, these planets are ultra-hot, with estimated temperatures of 1000-3000 K. A number of USP planets have been already discovered (e.g. Kepler-78 b, CoRoT-7 b, Kepler-10 b), and this number is expected to grow by confirming additional planet candidates. The characterization of planets on ultra-short orbits is advantageous due to the larger number of observable transits, and the larger transit signal in the case of an evaporating atmosphere. Much advance has been made in understanding and characterizing

  2. Fractional Order Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence - A More Accurate Modeling Methodology for Aero Vehicles (United States)

    Kopasakis, George


    The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.

  3. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  4. A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Wave Modeling System (United States)

    Allard, R. A.; Smith, T.; Rogers, W. E.; Jensen, T. G.; Chu, P.; Campbell, T. J.


    A growing interest in the impacts that large and small scale ocean and atmospheric events (El Niño, hurricanes, etc.) have on weather forecasting has led to the coupling of atmospheric, ocean circulation and ocean wave models. The Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS™ ) consists of the Navy's atmospheric model coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the wave models SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and WAVEWATCH III (WW3™). In a fully coupled mode, COAMPS, NCOM, and SWAN (or WW3) may be integrated concurrently so that currents and water levels, wave-induced stress, bottom drag, Stokes drift current, precipitation, and surface fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum are exchanged across the air-wave-sea interface. This coupling is facilitated through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). The ESMF version of COAMPS is being transitioned to operational production centers at the Naval Oceanographic Office and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center. Highlights from validation studies for the Florida Straits, Hurricane Ivan and the Adriatic Sea will be presented. COAMPS® is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.

  5. Models of the Solar Atmospheric Response to Flare Heating (United States)

    Allred, Joel


    I will present models of the solar atmospheric response to flare heating. The models solve the equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics with an electron beam added as a flare energy source term. Radiative transfer is solved in detail for many important optically thick hydrogen and helium transitions and numerous optically thin EUV lines making the models ideally suited to study the emission that is produced during flares. I will pay special attention to understanding key EUV lines as well the mechanism for white light production. I will also present preliminary results of how the model solar atmosphere responds to Fletcher & Hudson type flare heating. I will compare this with the results from flare simulations using the standard thick target model.

  6. An Overview of Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Quality Modeling (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.


    This presentation will include my personal research experience and an overview of atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling to the participants of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP 2017). The presentation will also provide examples on ways to apply airborne observations for chemical transport (CTM) and air quality (AQ) model evaluation. CTM and AQ models are important tools in understanding tropospheric-stratospheric composition, atmospheric chemistry processes, meteorology, and air quality. This presentation will focus on how NASA scientist currently apply CTM and AQ models to better understand these topics. Finally, the importance of airborne observation in evaluating these topics and how in situ and remote sensing observations can be used to evaluate and improve CTM and AQ model predictions will be highlighted.

  7. Testing and validating environmental models (United States)

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.


    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  8. Using observations to evaluate biosphere-atmosphere interactions in models (United States)

    Green, Julia; Konings, Alexandra G.; Alemohammad, Seyed H.; Gentine, Pierre


    Biosphere-atmosphere interactions influence the hydrologic cycle by altering climate and weather patterns (Charney, 1975; Koster et al., 2006; Seneviratne et al., 2006), contributing up to 30% of precipitation and radiation variability in certain regions (Green et al., 2017). They have been shown to contribute to the persistence of drought in Europe (Seneviratne et al., 2006), as well as to increase rainfall in the Amazon (Spracklen et al., 2012). Thus, a true representation of these feedbacks in Earth System Models (ESMs) is crucial for accurate forecasting and planning. However, it has been difficult to validate the performance of ESMs since often-times surface and atmospheric flux data are scarce and/or difficult to observe. In this study, we use the results of a new global observational study (using remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence to represent the biosphere flux) (Green et al., 2017) to determine how well a suite of 13 ESMs capture biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. We perform a Conditional Multivariate Granger Causality analysis in the frequency domain with radiation, precipitation and temperature as atmospheric inputs and GPP as the biospheric input. Performing the analysis in the frequency domain allows for separation of feedbacks at different time-scales (subseasonal, seasonal or interannual). Our findings can be used to determine whether there is agreement between models, as well as, to pinpoint regions or time-scales of model bias or inaccuracy, which will provide insight on potential improvement. We demonstrate that in addition to the well-known problem of convective parameterization over land in models, the main issue in representing feedbacks between the land and the atmosphere is due to the misrepresentation of water stress. These results provide a direct quantitative assessment of feedbacks in models and how to improve them. References: Charney, J.G. Dynamics of deserts and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological

  9. The NASA MSFC Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2007 Version (United States)

    Leslie, F.W.; Justus, C.G.


    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability, and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes) as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. A unique feature of GRAM is that, addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations in these atmospheric parameters (e.g. fluctuations due to turbulence and other atmospheric perturbation phenomena). A summary comparing GRAM features to characteristics and features of other reference or standard atmospheric models, can be found Guide to Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models. The original GRAM has undergone a series of improvements over the years with recent additions and changes. The software program is called Earth-GRAM2007 to distinguish it from similar programs for other bodies (e.g. Mars, Venus, Neptune, and Titan). However, in order to make this Technical Memorandum (TM) more readable, the software will be referred to simply as GRAM07 or GRAM unless additional clarity is needed. Section 1 provides an overview of the basic features of GRAM07 including the newly added features. Section 2 provides a more detailed description of GRAM07 and how the model output generated. Section 3 presents sample results. Appendices A and B describe the Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) data and the Global Gridded Air Statistics (GGUAS) database. Appendix C provides instructions for compiling and running GRAM07. Appendix D gives a description of the required NAMELIST format input. Appendix E gives sample output. Appendix F provides a list of available

  10. School on MathematicallNumerical Modelling in Earth, Atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As a part of the interactive course, each candidate is expected to make a 30 min presentation on his/her perceptions and expectations. The application, together with ... mathematical physics will be assumed. The topics of lectures include: Atmosphere and Ocean General. Circulation Models as applied to the study of climate ...

  11. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey


    We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  12. Modeling atmospheric effects - an assessment of the problems (United States)

    Douglas G. Fox


    Our ability to simulate atmospheric processes that affect the life cycle of pollution is reviewed. The transport process is considered on three scales (a) the near-source or single-plume dispersion problem, (b) the multiple-source dispersion problem, and (c) the long-range transport. Modeling the first of these is shown to be well within the capability of generally...

  13. Laboratory and modelling studies on the atmospheric stability of levoglucosan (United States)

    Tilgner, Andreas; Hoffmann, Dirk; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Herrmann, Hartmut


    Aerosol particles are known to influence important atmospheric processes such as cloud formation and the solar radiation budget. Therefore, much effort is spend to characterise and locate the sources of atmospheric particles. Source apportionment studies using molecular tracer compounds are a common approach to distinguish between different sources. The anhydromonosaccharide levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is an widely used and very specific tracer compound for particle emissions from natural and anthropogenic biomass combustion processes. Levoglucosan is formed in large quantities during the pyrolysis of cellulose at temperatures above 300° C. Even if levoglucosan is widely used in source apportionment studies only few studies investigated the atmospheric stability of this tracer compound so far. Furthermore, oxidation processes by free radicals in aqueous particles are not yet considered as a potential sink reaction for this highly water soluble compound. Therefore, detailed kinetic studies on the reactivity of levoglucosan towards three important atmospheric free radicals (OH, NO3 and SO4-) in aqueous solutions were performed for the first time using the laser flash photolysis technique. Laboratory studies on the stability of levoglucosan were done both in the presence and absence of other water soluble reaction partners. The results obtained in the different experiments will be presented, compared and discussed. Furthermore, the experimental data were implemented into the parcel model SPACCIM (Spectral Aerosol Cloud Chemistry Interaction Model; Wolke et al., 2005) in order to study the degradation fluxes of levoglucosan in cloud droplets and aqueous particles considering a detailed microphysics and multiphase chemistry. The model calculations, performed under different conditions (summer, winter, with cloud passages, without cloud passages, different relative humidity and iron contents), show that levoglucosan can be oxidised readily by OH

  14. Improved atmospheric 3D BSDF model in earthlike exoplanet using ray-tracing based method (United States)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Seong, Sehyun


    The studies on planetary radiative transfer computation have become important elements to disk-averaged spectral characterization of potential exoplanets. In this paper, we report an improved ray-tracing based atmospheric simulation model as a part of 3-D earth-like planet model with 3 principle sub-components i.e. land, sea and atmosphere. Any changes in ray paths and their characteristics such as radiative power and direction are computed as they experience reflection, refraction, transmission, absorption and scattering. Improved atmospheric BSDF algorithms uses Q.Liu's combined Rayleigh and aerosol Henrey-Greenstein scattering phase function. The input cloud-free atmosphere model consists of 48 layers with vertical absorption profiles and a scattering layer with their input characteristics using the GIOVANNI database. Total Solar Irradiance data are obtained from Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission. Using aerosol scattering computation, we first tested the atmospheric scattering effects with imaging simulation with HRIV, EPOXI. Then we examined the computational validity of atmospheric model with the measurements of global, direct and diffuse radiation taken from NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)s pyranometers and pyrheliometers on a ground station for cases of single incident angle and for simultaneous multiple incident angles of the solar beam.

  15. Assessment of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations of winter northern hemisphere atmospheric blocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vial, Jessica; Osborn, Tim J. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom)


    An assessment of six coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) is undertaken in order to evaluate their ability in simulating winter atmospheric blocking highs in the northern hemisphere. The poor representation of atmospheric blocking in climate models is a long-standing problem (e.g. D'Andrea et al. in Clim Dyn 4:385-407, 1998), and despite considerable effort in model development, there is only a moderate improvement in blocking simulation. A modified version of the Tibaldi and Molteni (in Tellus A 42:343-365, 1990) blocking index is applied to daily averaged 500 hPa geopotential fields, from the ERA-40 reanalysis and as simulated by the climate models, during the winter periods from 1957 to 1999. The two preferred regions of blocking development, in the Euro-Atlantic and North Pacific, are relatively well captured by most of the models. However, the prominent error in blocking simulations consists of an underestimation of the total frequency of blocking episodes over both regions. A more detailed analysis revealed that this error was due to an insufficient number of medium spells and long-lasting episodes, and a shift in blocking lifetime distributions towards shorter blocks in the Euro-Atlantic sector. In the Pacific, results are more diverse; the models are equally likely to overestimate or underestimate the frequency at different spell lengths. Blocking spatial signatures are relatively well simulated in the Euro-Atlantic sector, while errors in the intensity and geographical location of the blocks emerge in the Pacific. The impact of models' systematic errors on blocking simulation has also been analysed. The time-mean atmospheric circulation biases affect the frequency of blocking episodes, and the maximum event duration in the Euro-Atlantic region, while they sometimes cause geographical mislocations in the Pacific sector. The analysis of the systematic error in time-variability has revealed a negative relationship between the

  16. Modelling atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, D.; Smolander, S.; Sogachev, Andrey


    OH sink, and in our opinion, the reason for missing OH-reactivity is due to unmeasured unknown BVOCs, and limitations in our knowledge of atmospheric chemistry including uncertainties in rate constants. Furthermore, we found that the OH-reactivity correlates with both organic and inorganic compounds......We have modelled the total atmospheric OH-reactivity in a boreal forest and investigated the individual contributions from gas phase inorganic species, isoprene, monoterpenes, and methane along with other important VOCs. Daily and seasonal variation in OH-reactivity for the year 2008 was examined...

  17. Modeling atmospheric effects of the September 1859 Solar Flare


    Thomas, Brian; Jackman, Charles,; Melott, Adrian


    We have modeled atmospheric effects, especially ozone depletion, due to a solar proton event which probably accompanied the extreme magnetic storm of 1-2 September 1859. We use an inferred proton fluence for this event as estimated from nitrate levels in Greenland ice cores. We present results showing production of odd nitrogen compounds and their impact on ozone. We also compute rainout of nitrate in our model and compare to values from ice core data.

  18. Improving 1D Stellar Models with 3D Atmospheres (United States)

    Rørsted Mosumgaard, Jakob; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Weiss, Achim; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Trampedach, Regner


    Stellar evolution codes play a major role in present-day astrophysics, yet they share common issues. In this work we seek to remedy some of those by the use of results from realistic and highly detailed 3D hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres. We have implemented a new temperature stratification extracted directly from the 3D simulations into the Garching Stellar Evolution Code to replace the simplified atmosphere normally used. Secondly, we have implemented the use of a variable mixing-length parameter, which changes as a function of the stellar surface gravity and temperature - also derived from the 3D simulations. Furthermore, to make our models consistent, we have calculated new opacity tables to match the atmospheric simulations. Here, we present the modified code and initial results on stellar evolution using it.

  19. A review of toxicity models for realistic atmospheric applications (United States)

    Gunatilaka, Ajith; Skvortsov, Alex; Gailis, Ralph


    There are many applications that need to study human health effects caused by exposure to toxic chemicals. Risk analysis for industrial sites, study of population health impacts of atmospheric pollutants, and operations research for assessing the potential impacts of chemical releases in military contexts are some examples. Because of safety risks and the high cost of field trials involving hazardous chemical releases, computer simulations are widely used for such studies. Modelling of atmospheric transport and dispersion of chemicals released into the atmosphere to determine the toxic chemical concentrations to which individuals will be exposed is one main component of these simulations, and there are well established atmospheric dispersion models for this purpose. Estimating the human health effects caused by the exposure to these predicted toxic chemical concentrations is the other main component. A number of different toxicity models for assessing the health effects of toxic chemical exposure are found in the literature. Because these different models have been developed based on different assumptions about the plume characteristics, chemical properties, and physiological response, there is a need to review and compare these models to understand their applicability. This paper reviews several toxicity models described in the literature. The paper also presents results of applying different toxicity models to simulated concentration time series data. These results show that the use of ensemble mean concentrations, which are what atmospheric dispersion models typically provide, to estimate human health effects of exposure to hazardous chemical releases may underestimate their impact when toxic exponent, n, of the chemical is greater than one; the opposite phenomenon appears to hold when n biological recovery processes may predict greater toxicity than the explicitly parameterised models. Despite the wide variety of models of varying degrees of complexity that is

  20. Simulating carbon exchange using a regional atmospheric model coupled to an advanced land-surface model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Ter Maat


    Full Text Available This paper is a case study to investigate what the main controlling factors are that determine atmospheric carbon dioxide content for a region in the centre of The Netherlands. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS, coupled with a land surface scheme simulating carbon, heat and momentum fluxes (SWAPS-C, and including also submodels for urban and marine fluxes, which in principle should include the dominant mechanisms and should be able to capture the relevant dynamics of the system. To validate the model, observations are used that were taken during an intensive observational campaign in central Netherlands in summer 2002. These include flux-tower observations and aircraft observations of vertical profiles and spatial fluxes of various variables.

    The simulations performed with the coupled regional model (RAMS-SWAPS-C are in good qualitative agreement with the observations. The station validation of the model demonstrates that the incoming shortwave radiation and surface fluxes of water and CO2 are well simulated. The comparison against aircraft data shows that the regional meteorology (i.e. wind, temperature is captured well by the model. Comparing spatially explicitly simulated fluxes with aircraft observed fluxes we conclude that in general latent heat fluxes are underestimated by the model compared to the observations but that the latter exhibit large variability within all flights. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate the relevance of the urban emissions of carbon dioxide for the carbon balance in this particular region. The same tests also show the relation between uncertainties in surface fluxes and those in atmospheric concentrations.

  1. Ozone reference models for CIRA. [COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (United States)

    Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.; Pitts, M. C.


    The data bases and computational techniques used in recent models of the O3 distribution in the earth atmosphere are described, summarizing the results of ongoing efforts to define an O3 reference model for incorporation into CIRA. Consideration is given to the analysis of data from satellite instruments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, TOMS, and SBUV; SME UVS and IR; and AE-2 SAGE) to construct models of total column O3 and vertical O3 structure. The satellite-based model predictions are then compared with balloon, rocket, and umkehr measurements in extensive graphs: good agreement is demonstrated both among the satellite data sets and between satellite and nonsatellite data sets.

  2. Charter for the ARM Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advisory Group, ARM Atmospheric Modeling


    The Atmospheric Modeling Advisory Group of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is guided by the following: 1. The group will provide feedback on the overall project plan including input on how to address priorities and trade-offs in the modeling and analysis workflow, making sure the modeling follows general best practices, and reviewing the recommendations provided to ARM for the workflow implementation. 2. The group will consist of approximately 6 members plus the PI and co-PI of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) pilot project. The ARM Technical Director, or his designee, serves as an ex-officio member. This size is chosen based on the ability to efficiently conduct teleconferences and to span the general needs for input to the LASSO pilot project.

  3. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... of meteorological forecasts is produced from which uncertainties in the various meteorological parameters are estimated, e.g. probabilities for rain. Corresponding ensembles of atmospheric dispersion can now be computed from which uncertainties of predicted radionuclide concentration and deposition patterns can...

  4. Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Test of a Flare-type Membrane Aeroshell for Atmospheric Entry Capsules (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Koyama, Masashi; Kimura, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kojiro; Abe, Takashi; Koichi Hayashi, A.

    A flexible aeroshell for atmospheric entry vehicles has attracted attention as an innovative space transportation system. In this study, hypersonic wind tunnel tests were carried out to investigate the behavior, aerodynamic characteristics and aerodynamic heating environment in hypersonic flow for a previously developed capsule-type vehicle with a flare-type membrane aeroshell made of ZYLON textile sustained by a rigid torus frame. Two different models with different flare angles (45º and 60º) were tested to experimentally clarify the effect of flare angle. Results indicate that flare angle of aeroshell has significant and complicate effect on flow field and aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flow at Mach 9.45 and the flare angle is very important parameter for vehicle design with the flare-type membrane aeroshell.

  5. Model sensitivity studies of the decrease in atmospheric carbon tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Chipperfield


    Full Text Available Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 is an ozone-depleting substance, which is controlled by the Montreal Protocol and for which the atmospheric abundance is decreasing. However, the current observed rate of this decrease is known to be slower than expected based on reported CCl4 emissions and its estimated overall atmospheric lifetime. Here we use a three-dimensional (3-D chemical transport model to investigate the impact on its predicted decay of uncertainties in the rates at which CCl4 is removed from the atmosphere by photolysis, by ocean uptake and by degradation in soils. The largest sink is atmospheric photolysis (74 % of total, but a reported 10 % uncertainty in its combined photolysis cross section and quantum yield has only a modest impact on the modelled rate of CCl4 decay. This is partly due to the limiting effect of the rate of transport of CCl4 from the main tropospheric reservoir to the stratosphere, where photolytic loss occurs. The model suggests large interannual variability in the magnitude of this stratospheric photolysis sink caused by variations in transport. The impact of uncertainty in the minor soil sink (9 % of total is also relatively small. In contrast, the model shows that uncertainty in ocean loss (17 % of total has the largest impact on modelled CCl4 decay due to its sizeable contribution to CCl4 loss and large lifetime uncertainty range (147 to 241 years. With an assumed CCl4 emission rate of 39 Gg year−1, the reference simulation with the best estimate of loss processes still underestimates the observed CCl4 (overestimates the decay over the past 2 decades but to a smaller extent than previous studies. Changes to the rate of CCl4 loss processes, in line with known uncertainties, could bring the model into agreement with in situ surface and remote-sensing measurements, as could an increase in emissions to around 47 Gg year−1. Further progress in constraining the CCl4 budget is partly limited by

  6. Modelling the mid-Pliocene Warm Period climate with the IPSL coupled model and its atmospheric component LMDZ5A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Contoux


    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental design and model results of the climate simulations of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP, ca. 3.3–3 Ma using the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace model (IPSLCM5A, in the framework of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP. We use the IPSL atmosphere ocean general circulation model (AOGCM, and its atmospheric component alone (AGCM, to simulate the climate of the mPWP. Boundary conditions such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs, topography, ice-sheet extent and vegetation are derived from the ones imposed by the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP, described in Haywood et al. (2010, 2011. We first describe the IPSL model main features, and then give a full description of the boundary conditions used for atmospheric model and coupled model experiments. The climatic outputs of the mPWP simulations are detailed and compared to the corresponding control simulations. The simulated warming relative to the control simulation is 1.94 °C in the atmospheric and 2.07 °C in the coupled model experiments. In both experiments, warming is larger at high latitudes. Mechanisms governing the simulated precipitation patterns are different in the coupled model than in the atmospheric model alone, because of the reduced gradients in imposed SSTs, which impacts the Hadley and Walker circulations. In addition, a sensitivity test to the change of land-sea mask in the atmospheric model, representing a sea-level change from present-day to 25 m higher during the mid-Pliocene, is described. We find that surface temperature differences can be large (several degrees Celsius but are restricted to the areas that were changed from ocean to land or vice versa. In terms of precipitation, impact on polar regions is minor although the change in land-sea mask is significant in these areas.

  7. Model-Based Security Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Schieferdecker


    Full Text Available Security testing aims at validating software system requirements related to security properties like confidentiality, integrity, authentication, authorization, availability, and non-repudiation. Although security testing techniques are available for many years, there has been little approaches that allow for specification of test cases at a higher level of abstraction, for enabling guidance on test identification and specification as well as for automated test generation. Model-based security testing (MBST is a relatively new field and especially dedicated to the systematic and efficient specification and documentation of security test objectives, security test cases and test suites, as well as to their automated or semi-automated generation. In particular, the combination of security modelling and test generation approaches is still a challenge in research and of high interest for industrial applications. MBST includes e.g. security functional testing, model-based fuzzing, risk- and threat-oriented testing, and the usage of security test patterns. This paper provides a survey on MBST techniques and the related models as well as samples of new methods and tools that are under development in the European ITEA2-project DIAMONDS.

  8. Computational approaches for efficiently modelling of small atmospheric clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin


    Utilizing a comprehensive test set of 205 clusters of atmospheric relevance, we investigate how different DFT functionals (M06-2X, PW91, ωB97X-D) and basis sets (6-311++G(3df,3pd), 6-31++G(d,p), 6-31+G(d)) affect the thermal contribution to the Gibbs free energy and single point energy. Reducing ...

  9. The global change research center atmospheric chemistry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Jr., Francis Perry [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)


    This work outlines the development of a new model of the chemistry of the natural atmosphere. The model is 2.5-dimensional, having spatial coordinates height, latitude, and, the half-dimension, land and ocean. The model spans both the troposphere and stratosphere, although the troposphere is emphasized and the stratosphere is simple and incomplete. The chemistry in the model includes the Ox, HOx, NOx, and methane cycles in a highly modular fashion which allows model users great flexibility in selecting simulation parameters. A detailed modeled sensitivity analysis is also presented. A key aspect of the model is its inclusion of clouds. The model uses current understanding of the distribution and optical thickness of clouds to determine the true radiation distribution in the atmosphere. As a result, detailed studies of the radiative effects of clouds on the distribution of both oxidant concentrations and trace gas removal are possible. This work presents a beginning of this study with model results and discussion of cloud effects on the hydroxyl radical.

  10. How well do environmental archives of atmospheric mercury deposition in the Arctic reproduce rates and trends depicted by atmospheric models and measurements? (United States)

    Goodsite, M E; Outridge, P M; Christensen, J H; Dastoor, A; Muir, D; Travnikov, O; Wilson, S


    This review compares the reconstruction of atmospheric Hg deposition rates and historical trends over recent decades in the Arctic, inferred from Hg profiles in natural archives such as lake and marine sediments, peat bogs and glacial firn (permanent snowpack), against those predicted by three state-of-the-art atmospheric models based on global Hg emission inventories from 1990 onwards. Model veracity was first tested against atmospheric Hg measurements. Most of the natural archive and atmospheric data came from the Canadian-Greenland sectors of the Arctic, whereas spatial coverage was poor in other regions. In general, for the Canadian-Greenland Arctic, models provided good agreement with atmospheric gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and trends measured instrumentally. However, there are few instrumented deposition data with which to test the model estimates of Hg deposition, and these data suggest models over-estimated deposition fluxes under Arctic conditions. Reconstructed GEM data from glacial firn on Greenland Summit showed the best agreement with the known decline in global Hg emissions after about 1980, and were corroborated by archived aerosol filter data from Resolute, Nunavut. The relatively stable or slowly declining firn and model GEM trends after 1990 were also corroborated by real-time instrument measurements at Alert, Nunavut, after 1995. However, Hg fluxes and trends in northern Canadian lake sediments and a southern Greenland peat bog did not exhibit good agreement with model predictions of atmospheric deposition since 1990, the Greenland firn GEM record, direct GEM measurements, or trends in global emissions since 1980. Various explanations are proposed to account for these discrepancies between atmosphere and archives, including problems with the accuracy of archive chronologies, climate-driven changes in Hg transfer rates from air to catchments, waters and subsequently into sediments, and post-depositional diagenesis in peat bogs

  11. Improvements in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model and comparisons with a global 3-D numerical model (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Chimonas, George; Cunnold, D. M.


    The status of the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) and the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (MARS-GRAM) is reviewed. The wavelike perturbations observed in the Viking 1 and 2 surface pressure data, in the Mariner 9 IR spectroscopy data, and in the Viking 1 and 2 lander entry profiles were studied and the results interpreted.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblin, P.; Amundsen, D. S.; Mourier, P.; Baraffe, I.; Chabrier, G.; Drummond, B. [Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, EX4 4QL Exeter (United Kingdom); Homeier, D. [Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Venot, O., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral types T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g., other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}-He, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH{sub 3} quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in, e.g., J–H, compared to cloudless models. This reddening can be reproduced by slightly reducing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere. We propose that this reduction of the stabilizing temperature gradient in these layers, leading to cooler structures, is due to the onset of fingering convection, triggered by the destabilizing impact of condensation of very thin dust.

  13. Coupling groundwater, vegetation and atmosphere processes: a comparison of two integrated models (United States)

    Sulis, M.; Williams, J. L.; Shrestha, P.; Maxwell, R. M.; Masbou, M.; Simmer, C.


    The correct modelling of the mutual response to and feedback between atmospheric, hydrological, and ecological processes is an important prerequisite for accurate climate/meteorological projection, environmental protection, and water management. As such, numerical models based on a detailed representation of both groundwater and atmospheric dynamics have gained increasing attention within the scientific community. In this study, we compare two integrated systems that dynamically simulate soil-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. One system is the combination of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model coupled with the three-dimensional variably saturated subsurface ParFlow model. Both sub-models are internally coupled in an explicit, operator-splitting manner via the Noah land surface scheme. The second system consists of the regional climate and weather forecast model COSMO coupled also with ParFlow but via the Community Land Model (CLM). In this second system the external OASIS coupler is used to pass relevant fluxes and state variables between these three components via the MPI parallel communications protocol. The comparison on how interactions are simulated and how different processes are integrated/coupled is carried out by selecting a set of test cases. These tests involve a flat domain with idealized initial and boundary conditions, as well as simulations over the Rur catchment in Germany based upon equilibrium initial conditions for the subsurface and realistic atmospheric conditions at the boundaries. We explore and explain the differences in model response, and we discuss the pros and cons of the two approaches by emphasizing the role played by factors such as temporal subcycling and coupling frequency between model components.

  14. Improving the Performance Scalability of the Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirin, Arthur [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worley, Patrick H [ORNL


    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), which serves as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), is the most computationally expensive CCSM component in typical configurations. On current and next-generation leadership class computing systems, the performance of CAM is tied to its parallel scalability. Improving performance scalability in CAM has been a challenge, due largely to algorithmic restrictions necessitated by the polar singularities in its latitude-longitude computational grid. Nevertheless, through a combination of exploiting additional parallelism, implementing improved communication protocols, and eliminating scalability bottlenecks, we have been able to more than double the maximum throughput rate of CAM on production platforms. We describe these improvements and present results on the Cray XT5 and IBM BG/P. The approaches taken are not specific to CAM and may inform similar scalability enhancement activities for other codes.

  15. What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?. Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres (United States)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Scholz, M.; Freytag, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Wood, P. R.; Abellan, F. J.


    Aims: This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods: We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the RSGs V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 μm) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R ~ 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results: Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the 1D pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions: The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is confirmed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks

  16. Meteorological fluid dynamics asymptotic modelling, stability and chaotic atmospheric motion

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K


    The author considers meteorology as a part of fluid dynamics. He tries to derive the properties of atmospheric flows from a rational analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, at the same time analyzing various types of initial and boundary problems. This approach to simulate nature by models from fluid dynamics will be of interest to both scientists and students of physics and theoretical meteorology.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion modeling near a roadway under calm meteorological conditions


    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Seigneur, Christian; POLO REHN, Lucie; CHANUT, Hervé; PELLAN, Yann; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; CHARRON, Aurélie; Andre, Michel


    Atmospheric pollutant dispersion near sources is typically simulated by Gaussian models because of their efficient compromise between reasonable accuracy and manageable com- putational time. However, the standard Gaussian dispersion formula applies downwind of a source under advective conditions with a well-defined wind direction and cannot calculate air pollutant concentrations under calm conditions with fluctuating wind direction and/or upwind of the emission source. Attempts have been made...

  18. Modeling Timber Supply, Fuel-Wood, and Atmospheric Carbon Mitigation


    Lyon, Kenneth S.


    There is general agreement that global warming is occurring and that the main contributor to this probably is the buildup of green house gasses, GHG, in the atmosphere. Two main contributors are the utilization of fossil fuels and the deforestation of many regions of the world. This paper examines a number of current issues related to mitigating the global warming problem through forestry. We use discrete time optimal control to model a simplified carbon cycle. The burning of fossil fuels inc...

  19. Coupled atmosphere-ocean models of Titan's past. (United States)

    McKay, C P; Pollack, J B; Lunine, J I; Courtin, R


    We have developed a coupled atmosphere and ocean model of Titan's surface. The atmospheric model is a 1-D spectrally-resolved radiative-convective model. The ocean thermodynamics are based upon solution theory. The ocean, initially composed of CH4, becomes progressively enriched in ethane over time. The partial pressures of N2 and CH4 in the atmosphere are dependent on the ocean temperature and composition. We find that the resulting system is stable against a runaway greenhouse. Accounting for the decreased solar luminosity, we find that Titan's surface temperature was about 20 K colder 4 Gyr ago. Without an ocean, but only small CH4 lakes, the temperature change is 12 K. In both cases we find that the surface of Titan may have been ice covered about 3 Gyr ago. In the lakes case condensation of N2 provides the ice, whereas in the ocean case the ocean freezes. The dominant factor influencing the evolution of Titan's surface temperature is the change in the solar constant--amplified, if an ocean is present, by the temperature dependence of the solubility of N2. Accretional heating can dramatically alter the surface temperature; a surface thermal flux of 500 erg cm-2 sec-1, representative of small levels of accretional heating, results in a approximately 20 K change in surface temperatures.

  20. The Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM): A new Generation of Earth System Model (United States)

    Walko, R. L.; Avissar, R.


    The Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM) has been developed to extend the capabilities of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to a global modeling framework. OLAM is a new model with regard to its dynamic core, grid configuration, memory structure, and numerical solution technique. Instead of the Boussinesq approximation used in RAMS, OLAM solves the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations in conservation form using finite-volume numerical operators that conserve mass, momentum, and energy to machine precision. In place of RAMS' structured multiple nested grids and hexahedral grid cells on a polar stereographic projection, OLAM uses a single unstructured grid and pentahedral (prism) grid cells (with a triangular footprint) which conform to the sphere without a coordinate transformation. OLAM's grid topology enables local mesh refinement to any degree without the need for special grid nesting algorithms; all communication between regions of different resolution is accomplished seamlessly by flux-conservative advective and diffusive transport. OLAM represents topography using a form of the volume-fraction or shaved grid cell method in which model levels are strictly horizontal, rather than terrain- following, and therefore intersect topography. Grid cell face areas, which explicitly appear in the finite volume equations and are pre-computed and stored, are reduced in proportion to any blockage by topography, thereby correctly regulating inter-cell transport and preventing advective flux normal to the ground surface. Apart from its dynamic core and grid configuration, OLAM bears a strong resemblance to RAMS. Both models share the same physical parameterizations for microphysics, land and vegetation water and energy balances, radiative transfer, and sub-grid cumulus convection. Model coding structure, I/O file formats, and methods of compiling, initializing, and executing the models are very similar or identical. Results of a variety of OLAM simulations

  1. On error detection in the dynamics part of primitive equation models. [of atmosphere (United States)

    Chao, W. C.


    Rossby-Haurwitz waves have been commonly employed as initial conditions for testing the dynamics part of global atmospheric models. Difficulties arise in connection with the primitive equation (PE) model. Chao and Geller (1982) have suggested that it would be better if normal mode solutions of the linearized primitive equations would be used as initial conditions. However, tests involving normal mode conditions are not adequate for the detection of errors in the nonlinear terms. The present investigation has the objective to review the study conducted by Chao and Geller and to provide tests for the nonlinear terms.

  2. Synergies Between Grace and Regional Atmospheric Modeling Efforts (United States)

    Kusche, J.; Springer, A.; Ohlwein, C.; Hartung, K.; Longuevergne, L.; Kollet, S. J.; Keune, J.; Dobslaw, H.; Forootan, E.; Eicker, A.


    In the meteorological community, efforts converge towards implementation of high-resolution (monitoring systems based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) cores. This is driven by requirements of improving process understanding, better representation of land surface interactions, atmospheric convection, orographic effects, and better forecasting on shorter timescales. This is relevant for the GRACE community since (1) these models may provide improved atmospheric mass separation / de-aliasing and smaller topography-induced errors, compared to global (ECMWF-Op, ERA-Interim) data, (2) they inherit high temporal resolution from NWP models, (3) parallel efforts towards improving the land surface component and coupling groundwater models; this may provide realistic hydrological mass estimates with sub-diurnal resolution, (4) parallel efforts towards re-analyses, with the aim of providing consistent time series. (5) On the other hand, GRACE can help validating models and aids in the identification of processes needing improvement. A coupled atmosphere - land surface - groundwater modelling system is currently being implemented for the European CORDEX region at 12.5 km resolution, based on the TerrSysMP platform (COSMO-EU NWP, CLM land surface and ParFlow groundwater models). We report results from Springer et al. (J. Hydromet., accept.) on validating the water cycle in COSMO-EU using GRACE and precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff data; confirming that the model does favorably at representing observations. We show that after GRACE-derived bias correction, basin-average hydrological conditions prior to 2002 can be reconstructed better than before. Next, comparing GRACE with CLM forced by EURO-CORDEX simulations allows identifying processes needing improvement in the model. Finally, we compare COSMO-EU atmospheric pressure, a proxy for mass corrections in satellite gravimetry, with ERA-Interim over Europe at timescales shorter/longer than 1 month, and spatial

  3. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D


    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  4. Attribution of recent trends in atmospheric methane using inverse modelling (United States)

    McNorton, Joe; Wilson, Chris; Gloor, Manuel; Chipperfield, Martyn


    Atmospheric methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 20% of the total direct anthropogenic radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (0.48±0.05 Wm-2), the second largest contributor after CO2. Atmospheric observations highlight two notable changes in CH4 since 2007. Firstly, the growth rate of methane increased to ˜7ppb/yr. Secondly, the CH4 13C/12C-ratio (δ13C) has become increasingly 13C-depleted. One possible explanation for both of these, is an increase in 13C-depleted CH4 emissions. This could be through increases in natural biogenic sources (e.g. wetlands), anthropogenic biogenic sources (e.g. agriculture) or a combination of both. A decrease in 13C-enriched non-biogenic emissions (e.g. biomass burning) could be an explanation for the 13C-depletion, but does not explain the CH4 increase. A reduction in the atmospheric concentration of OH, the main oxidant for atmospheric methane, could also explain both 13C-depletion and CH4 increase. We have performed a synthesis inversion using a 3-D atmospheric global chemical transport model, TOMCAT, for both CH4 and δ13C from 2005-2014. The inversion uses surface observations of both CH4 and δ13C to spatially constrain source types and possible changes to OH concentration. We will use results from this synthesis inversion to attribute the upturn in CH4 growth to specific source and sinks, and to discuss the uncertainties in this attribution.

  5. The Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: a Hierarchical Modeling Approach (United States)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P.


    numerically simulated vertical mixing rates with our analytic theory. As a result, one can use our theoretically predicted vertical mixing rates as input for one-dimensional models of cloud formation and disequilibrium chemistry in hot Jupiter atmospheres.

  6. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T.J.; Smith, N.R. [Applied Research Corp., College Station, TX (United States)


    The purpose of the project was to conduct model simulations for past and future climate change with respect to the proposed Yucca Mtn. repository. The authors report on three main topics, one of which is boundary conditions for paleo-hindcast studies. These conditions are necessary for the conduction of three to four model simulations. The boundary conditions have been prepared for future runs. The second topic is (a) comparing the atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with observations and other GCMs; and (b) development of a better precipitation data base for the Yucca Mtn. region for comparisons with models. These tasks have been completed. The third topic is preliminary assessments of future climate change. Energy balance model (EBM) simulations suggest that the greenhouse effect will likely dominate climate change at Yucca Mtn. for the next 10,000 years. The EBM study should improve rational choice of GCM CO{sub 2} scenarios for future climate change.

  7. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992 (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.


    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  8. Simulation of variability in atmospheric carbon dioxide using a global coupled Eulerian – Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Koyama


    Full Text Available This study assesses the advantages of using a coupled atmospheric-tracer transport model, comprising a global Eulerian model and a global Lagrangian particle dispersion model, to improve the reproducibility of tracer-gas variations affected by the near-field surface emissions and transport around observation sites. The ability to resolve variability in atmospheric composition on an hourly time-scale and a spatial scale of several kilometers would be beneficial for analyzing data from continuous ground-based monitoring and from upcoming space-based observations. The coupled model yields an increase in the horizontal resolution of transport and fluxes, and has been tested in regional-scale studies of atmospheric chemistry. By applying the Lagrangian component to the global domain, we extend this approach to the global scale, thereby enabling computationally efficient global inverse modeling and data assimilation. To validate the coupled model, we compare model-simulated CO2 concentrations with continuous observations at three sites: two operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA, and one operated by the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. As the goal of this study is limited to introducing the new modeling approach, we selected a transport simulation at these three sites to demonstrate how the model may perform at various geographical areas. The coupled model provides improved agreement between modeled and observed CO2 concentrations in comparison to the Eulerian model. In an area where variability in CO2 concentration is dominated by a fossil fuel signal, the correlation coefficient between modeled and observed concentrations increases by between 0.05 to 0.1 from the original values of 0.5–0.6 achieved with the Eulerian model.

  9. ASAM v2.7: a compressible atmospheric model with a Cartesian cut cell approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jähn


    Full Text Available In this work, the fully compressible, three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model called All Scale Atmospheric Model (ASAM is presented. A cut cell approach is used to include obstacles and orography into the Cartesian grid. Discretization is realized by a mixture of finite differences and finite volumes and a state limiting is applied. Necessary shifting and interpolation techniques are outlined. The method can be generalized to any other orthogonal grids, e.g., a lat–long grid. A linear implicit Rosenbrock time integration scheme ensures numerical stability in the presence of fast sound waves and around small cells. Analyses of five two-dimensional benchmark test cases from the literature are carried out to show that the described method produces meaningful results with respect to conservation properties and model accuracy. The test cases are partly modified in a way that the flow field or scalars interact with cut cells. To make the model applicable for atmospheric problems, physical parameterizations like a Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model, a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme, and precipitation and surface fluxes using a sophisticated multi-layer soil model are implemented and described. Results of an idealized three-dimensional simulation are shown, where the flow field around an idealized mountain with subsequent gravity wave generation, latent heat release, orographic clouds and precipitation are modeled.

  10. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  11. Coupling atmospheric and ocean wave models for storm simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting

    This thesis studies the wind-wave interactions through the coupling between the atmospheric model and ocean surface wave models. Special attention is put on storm simulations in the North Sea for wind energy applications in the coastal zones. The two aspects, namely storm conditions and coastal...... and coastal conditions, z0 parameterization method often fails in reproducing z0 because the complexity of the sea state cannot be represented by a few selected wave parameters. Different from the parameterization method, physics-based methods take the idea that the loss of momentum and kinetic energy from...... the above mentioned challenges, a wave boundary layer model (WBLM) is implemented in the wave model SWAN as a new Sin. The WBLM Sin is based on the momentum and kinetic energy conservation. The wave-induced mean wind profile changes at all vertical levels within the wave boundary layer, and the spectral...

  12. A Coupled Atmospheric and Wave Modeling System for Storm Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Bolanos, R.


    to parametrize z0. The results are validated through QuikScat data and point measurements from an open ocean site Ekosk and a coastal, relatively shallow water site Horns Rev. It is found that the modeling system captures in general better strong wind and strong wave characteristics for open ocean condition than......This study aims at improving the simulation of wind and waves during storms in connection with wind turbine design and operations in coastal areas. For this particular purpose, we investigated the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System which couples the Weather...... for the coastal condition. With the current model setup, using high spatial resolution gives better results for strong winds both for the open ocean and coastal sites. The signicant wave height (Hm0) is very sensitive to the model resolution and bathymetry data for the coastal zone. In addition, using Janssen...

  13. Accelerated complete-linearization method for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.


    Two approaches to accelerating the method of complete linearization for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres are suggested. The first one, the so-called Kantorovich variant of the Newton-Raphson method, consists of keeping the Jacobi matrix of the system fixed, which allows us to calculate the costly matrix inversions only a few times and then keep them fixed during the subsequent computations. The second method is an application of the Ng acceleration. Both methods are extremely easy to implement with any model atmosphere code based on complete linearization. It is demonstrated that both methods, and especially their combination, yield a rapidly and globally convergent algorithm, which takes 2 to 5 times less computer time, depending on the model at hand and the required accuracy, than the ordinary complete linearization. Generally, the time gain is more significant for more complicated models. The methods were tested for a broad range of atmospheric parameters, and in all cases they exhibited similar behavior. Ng acceleration applied on the Kantorovich variant thus offers a significant improvement of the standard complete-linearization method, and may now be used for calculating relatively involved NLTE model stellar atmospheres.

  14. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections (United States)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.


    To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to ˜80 per cent shortward of 180 Å in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as ˜22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.

  16. Modeling Atmospheric Electromagnetic Field Following a Lightning Discharge (United States)

    Davydenko, S.; Mareev, E.; Sergeev, A. S.


    A numerical model describing the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of an isolated lightning discharge is developed. Both the slow transient (quasistatic) electric field caused by the Maxwell relaxation of the charge disturbance and fast transient (electromagnetic pulse) are calculated in a plane atmosphere using the FDTD method. The lightning discharge is presented as a pulse current producing a distributed charge dipole inside the thundercloud in a case of intra-cloud (IC) flash or monopole charge in a case of cloud-to-ground (CG) flash. A temporal profile of the discharge current implies an existence of the return stroke, continuous current, and its fine features like the M-component. Temporal and spatial dependences of the atmospheric electric field on the flash type (IC or CG), distance to the discharge, disturbance of the electric conductivity inside the thundercloud, altitude(s) and lateral scale(s) of the charge region(s), temporal profile of the discharge current, and velocity of the return stroke are considered. A dependence of the net electric charge transferred to the upper atmospheric layers on the parameters of IC and CG flashes is studied. It is shown that both IC and CG flashes could serve as effective sources in the global electric circuit. A retrieval of the basic discharge parameters on the results of the one- or multipoint measurements of the both electromagnetic and quasistatic electric fields is discussed.

  17. Observations and Modeling of Plasma Waves in the Solar Atmosphere (United States)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Downs, C.


    The solar atmosphere, especially the extended corona, provides rich observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and plasma waves in general. Such waves can be used as seismological tools to probe the physical conditions of the medium in which they travel, such as the coronal magnetic field and plasma parameters. Recent high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and in UV by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have opened a new chapter in understanding these waves and in utilizing them for coronal seismology. We will review such new observations of two intimately related phenomena - global EUV waves (so-called "EIT waves") associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and quasi-periodic, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains associated with flares. We will focus on the generation and propagation of global EUV waves and their interaction with coronal structures, as well as the correlation of AIA-detected fast-mode wave trains with flare pulsations seen from radio to hard X-ray wavelengths. We will also present recent MHD modeling efforts in reproducing these waves using realistic, observationally-driven simulations. We will discuss the roles of such waves in energy transport within the solar atmosphere and in their associated CME/flare eruptions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prusa, Joseph


    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the physics of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  19. Modeling the Martian Atmosphere with the LMD Global Climate Model (United States)

    Forget, F.; Millour, E.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Lebonnois, S.; Madeleine, J.-B.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Montabone, L.; Spiga, A.; Hourdin, F.; Lefevre, F.; Montmessin, F.; Lewis, S. R.; Read, P.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Gilli, G.


    The Global Climate Model developed at LMD (Paris) in collaboration with IAA (Spain), AOPP and the OU (UK) has been improved. It is used for many applications (water, dust, CO2, radon cycles, photochemistry, thermosphere, ionosphere, etc.).

  20. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas (United States)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro


    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  1. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 31: Reference models of trace species for the COSPAR international reference atmosphere (United States)

    Keating, G. M. (Editor)


    A set of preliminary reference atmosphere models of significant trace species which play important roles in controlling the chemistry, radiation budget, and circulation patterns of the atmosphere were produced. These models of trace species distributions are considered to be reference models rather than standard models; thus, it was not crucial that they be correct in an absolute sense. These reference models can serve as a means of comparison between individual observations, as a first guess in inversion algorithms, and as an approximate representation of observations for comparison to theoretical calculations.

  2. Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence Effect on Terrestrial FSO Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes


    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results in many effects causing fluctuation in the received optical power. Terrestrial laser beam communication is affected above all by scintillations. The paper deals with modeling the influence of scintillation on link performance, using the modified Rytov theory. The probability of correct signal detection in direct detection system in dependence on many parameters such as link distance, power link margin, refractive-index structure parameter, etc. is discussed and different approaches to the evaluation of scintillation effect are compared. The simulations are performed for a horizontal-path propagation of the Gaussian-beam wave.

  3. Experiments of reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data (I) (United States)

    Lin, Zhenshan; Zhu, Yanyu; Deng, Ziwang


    In this paper, we give some experimental results of our study in reconstructing discrete atmospheric dynamic models from data. After a great deal of numerical experiments, we found that the logistic map, x n + 1 = 1- μx {2/n}, could be used in monthly mean temperature prediction when it was approaching the chaotic region, and its predictive results were in reverse states to the practical data. This means that the nonlinear developing behavior of the monthly mean temperature system is bifurcating back into the critical chaotic states from the chaotic ones.

  4. Open-source Software for Exoplanet Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph


    I will present a suite of self-standing open-source tools to model and retrieve exoplanet spectra implemented for Python. These include: (1) a Bayesian-statistical package to run Levenberg-Marquardt optimization and Markov-chain Monte Carlo posterior sampling, (2) a package to compress line-transition data from HITRAN or Exomol without loss of information, (3) a package to compute partition functions for HITRAN molecules, (4) a package to compute collision-induced absorption, and (5) a package to produce radiative-transfer spectra of transit and eclipse exoplanet observations and atmospheric retrievals.

  5. Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model Status and Planned Updates (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Cianciolol, A. M. Dwyer


    The Venus Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Venus-GRAM) was originally developed in 2004 under funding from NASA's In Space Propulsion (ISP) Aerocapture Project to support mission studies at the planet. Many proposals, including NASA New Frontiers and Discovery, as well as other studies have used Venus-GRAM to design missions and assess system robustness. After Venus-GRAM's release in 2005, several missions to Venus have generated a wealth of additional atmospheric data, yet few model updates have been made to Venus-GRAM. This paper serves to address three areas: (1) to present the current status of Venus-GRAM, (2) to identify new sources of data and other upgrades that need to be incorporated to maintain Venus-GRAM credibility and (3) to identify additional Venus-GRAM options and features that could be included to increase its capability. This effort will de-pend on understanding the needs of the user community, obtaining new modeling data and establishing a dedicated funding source to support continual up-grades. This paper is intended to initiate discussion that can result in an upgraded and validated Venus-GRAM being available to future studies and NASA proposals.

  6. Modeling atmospheric deposition using a stochastic transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.L.


    An advanced stochastic transport model has been modified to include the removal mechanisms of dry and wet deposition. Time-dependent wind and turbulence fields are generated with a prognostic mesoscale numerical model and are used to advect and disperse individually released particles that are each assigned a mass. These particles are subjected to mass reduction in two ways depending on their physical location. Particles near the surface experience a decrease in mass using the concept of a dry deposition velocity, while the mass of particles located within areas of precipitation are depleted using a scavenging coefficient. Two levels of complexity are incorporated into the particle model. The simple case assumes constant values of dry deposition velocity and scavenging coefficient, while the more complex case varies the values according to meteorology, surface conditions, release material, and precipitation intensity. Instantaneous and cumulative dry and wet deposition are determined from the mass loss due to these physical mechanisms. A useful means of validating the model results is with data available from a recent accidental release of Cesium-137 from a steel-processing furnace in Algeciras, Spain in May, 1998. This paper describes the deposition modeling technique, as well as a comparison of simulated concentration and deposition with measurements taken for the Algeciras release.

  7. Reference model atmosphere calculation - The Sunspot sunspot model (United States)

    Avrett, E. H.


    A composite temperature-density model of sunspots is developed from the results of five previous modeling attempts. The model is designed to describe the region extending from the deepest photospheric layers up through the chromosphere-corona transition region. Photospheric, chromospheric, and transition region temperature distributions proposed by other authors are employed to quantity the phenomena out to 2280 km. Additional calculations yield the various line profiles, the internal properties of the region above the sunspot including the chromospheric net radiative cooling rates, and the radiative flux as a function of depth in the photosphere. Observations of the hydrogen ion flux is used to account for the net cooling in the temperature minimum region. Furthermore, the integrated radiative flux is found to be constant with depth in the photosphere.

  8. Regional sources of atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and implications for atmospheric modeling (United States)

    Luecken, D. J.; Hutzell, W. T.; Strum, M. L.; Pouliot, G. A.


    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations over the Eastern half of the United States are simulated with a 3-D air quality model to identify the most important chemical precursors under January and July conditions. We find that both aldehydes primarily result from photochemical production, although 25% or more result from direct emissions in urban areas during winter. Isoprene is the major precursor of formaldehyde in most areas during summer, contributing 20-60% of total production, with the magnitude being spatially variable. Other alkenes from anthropogenic and/or biogenic emissions dominate formaldehyde production in winter, contributing 60-85% of total formation, and are prominent contributors in summer. Alkenes, including biogenic alkenes, dominate acetaldehyde production during both seasons. These conclusions are based on the degradation of emitted VOCs described by the SAPRC07TB chemical mechanism, but even this detailed model has difficulty reproducing observed values better than a factor of 2. The substantial role of isoprene and other alkenes in aldehyde formation emphasizes that we examine and improve emission estimates of these compounds. Until we can estimate the emissions and understand the chemistry of VOC precursors to aldehyde formation with greater certainty, it will be difficult to accurately predict atmospheric concentrations of aldehydes and develop strategies to reduce their concentrations.

  9. A simple empirical model estimating atmospheric CO2 background concentrations (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Heymann, J.; Guerlet, S.; Cogan, A. J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.


    A simple empirical CO2 model (SECM) is presented to estimate column-average dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric CO2 (XCO2) as well as mixing ratio profiles. SECM is based on a simple equation depending on 17 empirical parameters, latitude, and date. The empirical parameters have been determined by least squares fitting to NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) assimilation system CarbonTracker version 2010 (CT2010). Comparisons with TCCON (total column carbon observing network) FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) measurements show that SECM XCO2 agrees quite well with reality. The synthetic XCO2 values have a standard error of 1.39 ppm and systematic station-to-station biases of 0.46 ppm. Typical column averaging kernels of the TCCON FTS, a SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY), and two GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) XCO2 retrieval algorithms have been used to assess the smoothing error introduced by using SECM profiles instead of CT2010 profiles as a priori. The additional smoothing error amounts to 0.17 ppm for a typical SCIAMACHY averaging kernel and is most times much smaller for the other instruments (e.g. 0.05 ppm for a typical TCCON FTS averaging kernel). Therefore, SECM is well-suited to provide a priori information for state of the art ground-based (FTS) and satellite-based (GOSAT, SCIAMACHY) XCO2 retrievals. Other potential applications are: (i) quick check for obvious retrieval errors (by monitoring the difference to SECM), (ii) near real time processing systems (that cannot make use of models like CT2010 operated in delayed mode), (iii) "CO2 proxy" methods for XCH4 retrievals (as correction for the XCO2 background), (iv) observing system simulation experiments especially for future satellite missions.

  10. The balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (United States)

    Popov, Alexander


    The study of turnover of carbon and oxygen is an important line of scientific investigation. This line takes on special significance in conditions of soil degradation, which leads to the excess content of carbon dioxide and, as result, decrease of oxygen in the atmosphere. The aim of this article is a statement the balance model of oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air (ratio O/C) depending on consumption and assimilation by plants of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the value of the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh). Basis of model was the following: green vascular plants are facultative heterotrophic organisms with symbiotic digestion and nutrition. According to the trophology viewpoint, the plant consumption of organic compounds broadens greatly a notion about the plant nutrition and ways of its regulation. In particular, beside the main known cycle of carbon: plant - litter - humus - carbon dioxide - plant, there is the second carbon cycle (turnover of organic compounds): plant - litter - humus - DOM - plant. The biogeochemical meaning of consumption of organic compounds by plants is that plants build the structural and functional blocks of biological macromolecules in their bodies. It provides receiving of a certain "energy payoff" by plants, which leads to increase of plant biomass by both an inclusion of allochthonous organic molecules in plant tissues, and positive effect of organic compounds on plant metabolic processes. One more of powerful ecological consequence of a heterotrophic nutrition of green plants is oxygen enrichment of atmospheric air. As the organic molecules in the second biological cycle of carbon are built in plants without considerable chemical change, the atmospheric air is enriched on that amount of oxygen, which would be required on oxidation of the organic molecules absorbed by plants, in result. It was accepted that: plant-soil system was climax, the plant community was grassy, initial contents of carbon in phytomass was accepted

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of atmospheric aerosols: 0-100% relative humidity (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari S.; Ge, Xinlei; Asato, Caitlin; Wexler, Anthony S.; Clegg, Simon L.


    Accurate models of water and solute activities in aqueous atmospheric aerosols are central to predicting aerosol size, optical properties and cloud formation. A powerful method has been recently developed (Dutcher et al. JPC 2011, 2012, 2013) for representing the thermodynamic properties of multicomponent aerosols at low and intermediate levels of RH (adjustable model parameters, allowing for a unified thermodynamic treatment for a wider range of atmospheric systems. The long-range interactions due to electrostatic screening of ions in solution are included as a mole fraction based Pitzer-Debye-Hückel (PDH) term. Equations for the Gibbs free energy, solvent and solute activity, and solute concentration are derived, yielding remarkable agreement between measured and fitted solute concentration and osmotic coefficients for solutions over the entire 0 to 100% RH range. By relating the values of the energy of sorption in each hydration layer to known short-range Coulombic electrostatic relationships governed by the size and dipole moment of the solute and solvent molecules, it may be possible to reduce the number of parameters for each solute. Modified equations for mixtures that take into account the long range PDH term will also be presented; these equations include no additional parameters.

  12. Modeling The Atmosphere In The Era Of Big Data From Extremely Wide Field-Of-View Telescopes (United States)

    Gonzalez Quiles, Junellie; Nordin, Jakob


    Surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Pan-STARRS and the Palomar Transient Factory Survey (PTF) receive large amounts of data, which need to be processed and calibrated in order to correct for various factors. One of the limiting factors in obtaining high quality data is the atmosphere, and it is therefore essential to find the appropriate calibration for the atmospheric extinction. It is to be expected that a physical atmospheric model, compared to a photometric calibration used currently by PTF, is more effective in calibrating for the atmospheric extinction due to its ability to account for rapid atmospheric fluctuation and objects of different colors. We focused on creating tools to model the atmospheric extinction for the upcoming Zwicky Transient Factory Survey (ZTF). In order to model the atmosphere, we created a program that combines input data and catalogue values, and efficiently handles them. Then, using PTF data and the SDSS catalogue, we created several models to fit the data, and tested the quality of the fits by chi-square minimization. This will allow us to optimize atmospheric extinction for the upcoming ZTF in the near future.

  13. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models


    Ádám Leelőssy; Róbert Mészáros; Attila Kovács; István Lagzi; Tibor Kovács


    Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was sim...

  14. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models


    Leelőssy, Ádám; Mészáros, Róbert; Kovács, Attila; Lagzi, István; Kovács, Tibor


    Several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale, however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated wit...

  15. ATLAS9: Model atmosphere program with opacity distribution functions (United States)

    Kurucz, Robert L.


    ATLAS9 computes model atmospheres using a fixed set of pretabulated opacities, allowing one to work on huge numbers of stars and interpolate in large grids of models to determine parameters quickly. The code works with two different sets of opacity distribution functions (ODFs), one with “big” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum and the other with 1221 “little” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum. The ODFs use a 12-step representation; the radiation field is computed starting with the highest step and working down. If a lower step does not matter because the line opacity is small relative to the continuum at all depths, all the lower steps are lumped together and not computed to save time.

  16. FinROSE - middle atmospheric chemistry transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damski, J.; Thoelix, L.; Backman, L. (Research and Development, Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (FI)); Taalas, P. (Regional and Technical Cooperation for Development Dept. World Meteorological Organization, Geneve (CH)); Kulmala, M. (Helsinki Univ. (FI). Div. of Atmospheric Sciences)


    The development and performance of a three-dimensional global middle atmospheric chemistry transport model FinROSE is described. The FinROSE chemistry transport model includes a numerical scheme for stratospheric chemistry with parameterizations for heterogeneous processing on polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) and on liquid binary aerosols together with a parameterisation of large nitric acid trihydrate particles (i.e. NAT-rocks) and PSC sedimentation. The total number of trace species in the model is 34 and the total number of gas-phase reactions, photodissociation processes and heterogeneous reactions is about 150. The model is forced by external wind and temperature fields. The simulations are normally performed in a 5 deg x 10 deg (lat. x long.) grid from the surface up to around 0.1 hPa, with a vertical resolution of ca. 1.5 km in the stratosphere. Long-term simulations (40 to 50 years) have been done using winds and temperatures from ECMWF ERA40 analyses. The performance of the model in describing the stratospheric composition and chemistry is shown and evaluated in this paper. In general, the FinROSE results show a good comparison with measured total ozone. Also the timing, the depth and the deepening of the Antarctic ozone hole, and the responsible processes are captured well in the model simulations. (orig.)

  17. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.


    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  18. Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Krol, M.; Dentener, F.; Vermeulen, A.; Meinhardt, F.; Graul, R.; Ramonet, M.; Peters, W.; Dlugokencky, E. J.


    A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1° × 1° resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of

  19. Simulating industrial emissions using atmospheric dispersion modeling system: model performance and source emission factors. (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Abi-Esber, L


    In this paper, the Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS4) was coupled with field observations of surface meteorology and concentrations of several air quality indicators (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2)) to test the applicability of source emission factors set by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) at an industrial complex. Best emission factors and data groupings based on receptor location, type of terrain and wind speed, were relied upon to examine model performance using statistical analyses of simulated and observed data. The model performance was deemed satisfactory for several scenarios when receptors were located at downwind sites with index of agreement 'd' values reaching 0.58, fractional bias 'FB' and geometric mean bias 'MG' values approaching 0 and 1, respectively, and normalized mean square error 'NMSE' values as low as 2.17. However, median ratios of predicted to observed concentrations 'Cp/Co' at variable downstream distances were 0.01, 0.36, 0.76 and 0.19 for NOx, CO, PM10 and SO2, respectively, and the fraction of predictions within a factor of two of observations 'FAC2' values were lower than 0.5, indicating that the model could not adequately replicate all observed variations in emittant concentrations. Also, the model was found to be significantly sensitive to the input emission factor bringing into light the deficiency in regulatory compliance modeling which often uses internationally reported emission factors without testing their applicability.

  20. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model (United States)

    Gebauer, S.; Grenfell, J. L.; Stock, J. W.; Lehmann, R.; Godolt, M.; von Paris, P.; Rauer, H.


    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2, whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis. The O2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. (2006) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH4 with increasing O2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O2 is unique. Mixing, CH4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases remove O2 that

  1. Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Holmes


    Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg0 to HgII and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg0 oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg0 oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O3 model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of HgII in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O3 models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of HgII deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a−1. Summertime events of depleted Hg0 at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by

  2. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999 (United States)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.


    Under the mandate contained in the FY 1976 NASA Authorization Act, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed and is implementing a comprehensive program of research, technology development, and monitoring of the Earth's upper atmosphere, with emphasis on the upper troposphere and stratosphere. This program aims at expanding our chemical and physical understanding to permit both the quantitative analysis of current perturbations as well as the assessment of possible future changes in this important region of our environment. It is carried out jointly by the Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP), both managed within the Research Division in the Office of Earth Science at NASA. Significant contributions to this effort have also been provided by the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) of NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology. The long-term objectives of the present program are to perform research to: understand the physics, chemistry, and transport processes of the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and their control on the distribution of atmospheric chemical species such as ozone; assess possible perturbations to the composition of the atmosphere caused by human activities and natural phenomena (with a specific emphasis on trace gas geographical distributions, sources, and sinks and the role of trace gases in defining the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere); understand the processes affecting the distributions of radiatively active species in the atmosphere, and the importance of chemical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks on the meteorology and climatology of the stratosphere and troposphere; and understand ozone production, loss, and recovery in an atmosphere with increasing abundances of greenhouse gases. The current report is composed of two parts. Part 1 summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported

  3. Measuring and modeling mercury in the atmosphere: a critical review (United States)

    Gustin, M. S.; Amos, H. M.; Huang, J.; Miller, M. B.; Heidecorn, K.


    Mercury (Hg) is a global health concern due to its toxicity and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Here we review current methods for measuring the forms of Hg in the atmosphere and models used to interpret these data. There are three operationally defined forms of atmospheric Hg: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate bound mercury (PBM). There is relative confidence in GEM measurements (collection on a gold surface), but GOM (collection on potassium chloride (KCl)-coated denuder) and PBM (collected using various methods) are less well understood. Field and laboratory investigations suggest the methods to measure GOM and PBM are impacted by analytical interferences that vary with environmental setting (e.g., ozone, relative humidity), and GOM concentrations measured by the KCl-coated denuder can be too low by a factor of 1.6 to 12 depending on the chemical composition of GOM. The composition of GOM (e.g., HgBr2, HgCl2, HgBrOH) varies across space and time. This has important implications for refining existing measurement methods and developing new ones, model/measurement comparisons, model development, and assessing trends. Unclear features of previously published data may now be re-examined and possibly explained, which is demonstrated through a case study. Priorities for future research include identification of GOM compounds in ambient air and development of information on their chemical and physical properties and GOM and PBM calibration systems. With this information, identification of redox mechanisms and associated rate coefficients may be developed.

  4. NOAA/NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) Atmospheric Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) numerical weather...

  5. Cloud Condensation Nuclei properties of model and atmospheric HULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dinar


    Full Text Available Humic like substances (HULIS have been identified as a major fraction of the organic component of atmospheric aerosols. These large multifunctional compounds of both primary and secondary sources are surface active and water soluble. Hence, it is expected that they could affect activation of organic aerosols into cloud droplets. We have compared the activation of aerosols containing atmospheric HULIS extracted from fresh, aged and pollution particles to activation of size fractionated fulvic acid from an aquatic source (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid, and correlated it to the estimated molecular weight and measured surface tension. A correlation was found between CCN-activation diameter of SRFA fractions and number average molecular weight of the fraction. The lower molecular weight fractions activated at lower critical diameters, which is explained by the greater number of solute species in the droplet with decreasing molecular weight. The three aerosol-extracted HULIS samples activated at lower diameters than any of the size-fractionated or bulk SRFA. The Köhler model was found to account for activation diameters, provided that accurate physico-chemical parameters are known.

  6. Development of an accurate 3D Monte Carlo broadband atmospheric radiative transfer model (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra L.

    range of the electromagnetic spectrum ("MCBRaT-3D" model) to produce heating rates relevant to atmospheric dynamics, and (3) developing tools to interface between the model and databases of single scattering properties of the real atmosphere. Special attention has been paid to practical aspects of implementation for high performance computing on Blue Waters. Incremental tests of the accuracy of each new component have been performed based on carefully designed analytical solutions, culminating in the "MCBRaT-3D" model's ability to reproduce a profile of broadband atmospheric heating rate from a published intercomparison study and its initial use to provide benchmarking results for the evaluation of other 3D models. The models, tools, and databases developed herein provide a significant contribution to the field of atmospheric science, especially by making them publicly available for further development and use. They will enable quantitative evaluations of radiative transfer models and parameterizations by providing a highly accurate solution to many 3D radiative transfer problems encountered in the atmospheric sciences.

  7. Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zilitinkevich


    Full Text Available Turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs control the exchange processes between the atmosphere and the ocean/land. The key problems of PBL physics are to determine the PBL height, the momentum, energy and matter fluxes at the surface and the mean wind and scalar profiles throughout the layer in a range of regimes from stable and neutral to convective. Until present, the PBLs typical of stormy weather were always considered as neutrally stratified. Recent works have disclosed that such PBLs are in fact very strongly affected by the static stability of the free atmosphere and must be treated as factually stable (we call this type of the PBL "conventionally neutral" in contract to the "truly neutral" PBLs developed against the neutrally stratified free flow. It is common knowledge that basic features of PBLs exhibit a noticeable dependence on the free-flow static stability and baroclinicity. However, the concern of the traditional theory of neural and stable PBLs was almost without exception the barotropic nocturnal PBL, which develops at mid latitudes during a few hours in the night, on the background of a neutral or slightly stable residual layer. The latter separates this type of the PBL from the free atmosphere. It is not surprising that the nature of turbulence in such regimes is basically local and does not depend on the properties of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, long-lived neutral (in fact only conditionally neutral or stable PBLs, which have much more time to grow up, are placed immediately below the stably stratified free flow. Under these conditions, the turbulent transports of momentum and scalars even in the surface layer - far away from the PBL outer boundary - depend on the free-flow Brunt-Väisälä frequency, N. Furthermore, integral measures of the long-lived PBLs (their depths and the resistance law functions depend on N and also on the baroclinic shear, S. In the traditional PBL models both non-local parameters N and S

  8. Modeling of atmospheric-coupled Rayleigh waves on planets with atmosphere: From Earth observation to Mars and Venus perspectives. (United States)

    Lognonné, Philippe; Karakostas, Foivos; Rolland, Lucie; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro


    Acoustic coupling between solid Earth and atmosphere has been observed since the 1960s, first from ground-based seismic, pressure, and ionospheric sensors and since 20 years with various satellite measurements, including with global positioning system (GPS) satellites. This coupling leads to the excitation of the Rayleigh surface waves by local atmospheric sources such as large natural explosions from volcanoes, meteor atmospheric air-bursts, or artificial explosions. It contributes also in the continuous excitation of Rayleigh waves and associated normal modes by atmospheric winds and pressure fluctuations. The same coupling allows the observation of Rayleigh waves in the thermosphere most of the time through ionospheric monitoring with Doppler sounders or GPS. The authors review briefly in this paper observations made on Earth and describe the general frame of the theory enabling the computation of Rayleigh waves for models of telluric planets with atmosphere. The authors then focus on Mars and Venus and give in both cases the atmospheric properties of the Rayleigh normal modes and associated surface waves compared to Earth. The authors then conclude on the observation perspectives especially for Rayleigh waves excited by atmospheric sources on Mars and for remote ionospheric observations of Rayleigh waves excited by quakes on Venus.

  9. Improving Infrasound Signal Detection and Event Location in the Western US Using Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Dannemann, F. K.; Park, J.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.


    Data from five infrasound arrays in the western US jointly operated by University of Utah Seismograph Station and Southern Methodist University are used to test a database-centric processing pipeline, InfraPy, for automated event detection, association and location. Infrasonic array data from a one-year time period (January 1 2012 to December 31 2012) are used. This study focuses on the identification and location of 53 ground-truth verified events produced from near surface military explosions at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Signals are detected using an adaptive F-detector, which accounts for correlated and uncorrelated time-varying noise in order to reduce false detections due to the presence of coherent noise. Variations in detection azimuth and correlation are found to be consistent with seasonal changes in atmospheric winds. The Bayesian infrasonic source location (BISL) method is used to produce source location and time credibility contours based on posterior probability density functions. Updates to the previous BISL methodology include the application of celerity range and azimuth deviation distributions in order to accurately account for the spatial and temporal variability of infrasound propagation through the atmosphere. These priors are estimated by ray tracing through Ground-to-Space (G2S) atmospheric models as a function of season and time of day using historic atmospheric characterizations from 2007 to 2013. Out of the 53 events, 31 are successfully located using the InfraPy pipeline. Confidence contour areas for maximum a posteriori event locations produce error estimates which are reduced a maximum of 98% and an average of 25% from location estimates utilizing a simple time independent uniform atmosphere. We compare real-time ray tracing results with the statistical atmospheric priors used in this study to examine large time differences between known origin times and estimated origin times that might be due to the misidentification of

  10. Atmospheric CO2 modeling at the regional scale: an intercomparison of 5 meso-scale atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pérez-Landa


    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 modeling in interaction with the surface fluxes, at the regional scale is developed within the frame of the European project CarboEurope-IP and its Regional Experiment component. In this context, five meso-scale meteorological models at 2 km resolution participate in an intercomparison exercise. Using a common experimental protocol that imposes a large number of rules, two days of the CarboEurope Regional Experiment Strategy (CERES campaign are simulated. A systematic evaluation of the models is done in confrontation with the observations, using statistical tools and direct comparisons. Thus, temperature and relative humidity at 2 m, wind direction, surface energy and CO2 fluxes, vertical profiles of potential temperature as well as in-situ CO2 concentrations comparisons between observations and simulations are examined. These comparisons reveal a cold bias in the simulated temperature at 2 m, the latent heat flux is often underestimated. Nevertheless, the CO2 concentrations heterogeneities are well captured by most of the models. This intercomparison exercise shows also the models ability to represent the meteorology and carbon cycling at the synoptic and regional scale in the boundary layer, but also points out some of the major shortcomings of the models.

  11. Venusian Polar Vortex reproduced in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (United States)

    Ando, Hiroki; Imamura, Takeshi; Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Kashimura, Hiroki

    The Venus atmosphere has a polar vortex rotating in the retrograde direction with a period of about three days. The vortex has a warm feature surrounded by a cold collar (e.g., Taylor et al. 1980; Piccioni et al. 2006). Although the Venusian polar vortex has been reported by many observations, its mechanism is still unknown. Elson (1982, 1989) examined the structure of the polar vortex by linear calculations. However, the background zonal wind assumed in the calculations was much stronger or weaker than those retrieved in the previous measurements (e.g., Peralta et al. 2008; Kouyama et al. 2012). Lee et al. (2010) and Yamamoto and Takahashi (2012) performed numerical simulations with general circulation models (GCMs) of the Venus atmosphere and obtained vertical structure in the polar region. However, the models included artificial forcing of Kelvin and/or Rossby waves. We have developed a new Venusian GCM by modifying the Atmospheric GCM For the Earth Simulator (Sugimoto et al. 2012; 2013). The basic equations of the GCM are primitive ones in the sigma coordinate on a sphere without topography. The model resolution is T42 (i.e., about 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg grids) and L60 (Deltaz is about 2 km). Rayleigh friction (sponge layer) in the upper layer (>80 km) is applied to prevent the reflection of waves, whose effect increases gradually with height. In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating and Newtonian cooling. The vertical profile of the solar heating is based on Crisp (1986), and zonally averaged distribution is used. In addition diurnal component of the solar heating, which excites the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, is also included. Newtonian cooling relaxes the temperature to the zonally uniform basic temperature which has a virtual static stability of Venus with almost neutral layers, and its coefficient is based on Crisp (1986). To prevent numerical instability, the biharmonic hyper-diffusion is included with 0.8 days of e-folding time

  12. Shallow marine cloud topped boundary layer in atmospheric models (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa


    A common problem in many atmospheric models is excessive expansion over cold water of shallow marine planetary boundary layer (PBL) topped by a thin cloud layer. This phenomenon is often accompanied by spurious light precipitation. The "Cloud Top Entrainment Instability" (CTEI) was proposed as an explanation of the mechanism controlling this process in reality thereby preventing spurious enlargement of the cloudy area and widely spread light precipitation observed in the models. A key element of this hypothesis is evaporative cooling at the PBL top. However, the CTEI hypothesis remains controversial. For example, a recent direct simulation experiment indicated that the evaporative cooling couldn't explain the break-up of the cloudiness as hypothesized by the CTEI. Here, it is shown that the cloud break-up can be achieved in numerical models by a further modification of the nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (MYJ) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Washington. Namely, the impact of moist convective instability is included into the turbulent energy production/dissipation equation if (a) the stratification is stable, (b) the lifting condensation level (LCL) for a particle starting at a model level is below the next upper model level, and (c) there is enough turbulent kinetic energy so that, due to random vertical turbulent motions, a particle starting from a model level can reach its LCL. The criterion (c) should be sufficiently restrictive because otherwise the cloud cover can be completely removed. A real data example will be shown demonstrating the ability of the method to break the spurious cloud cover during the day, but also to allow its recovery over night.

  13. Standard practice for conducting wire-on-bolt test for atmospheric galvanic corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the evaluation of atmospheric galvanic corrosion of any anodic material that can be made into a wire when in contact with a cathodic material that can be made into a threaded rod. 1.2 When certain materials are used for the anode and cathode, this practice has been used to rate the corrosivity of atmospheres. 1.3 The wire-on-bolt test was first described in 1955 (1), and has since been used extensively with standard materials to determine corrosivity of atmospheres under the names CLIMAT Test (CLassify Industrial and Marine ATmospheres) (2-5) and ATCORR (ATmospheric CORRosivity) (6-9). 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations p...

  14. Atmosphere Clouds Model Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Kanagasabai


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method, called Atmosphere Clouds Model (ACM algorithm, used for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem. ACM stochastic optimization algorithm stimulated from the behavior of cloud in the natural earth. ACM replicate the generation behavior, shift behavior and extend behavior of cloud. The projected (ACM algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results shows clearly about the superior performance of the proposed algorithm in plummeting the real power loss. Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Models of Warm Jupiter Atmospheres: Observable Signatures of Obliquity (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily


    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of a hypothetical “warm Jupiter” planet, for a range of possible obliquities from 0° to 90°. We model a Jupiter-mass planet on a 10 day orbit around a Sun-like star, since this hypothetical planet sits at the boundary between planets for which we expect that tidal forces should have aligned their rotation axes with their orbital axes (i.e., ones with zero obliquity) and planets whose timescale for tidal alignment is longer than the typical age of an exoplanet system. In line with observational progress, which is pushing atmospheric characterization for planets on longer orbital periods, we calculate the observable signatures of obliquity for a transiting warm Jupiter: in orbital phase curves of thermal emission and in the hemispheric flux gradients that could be measured by eclipse mapping. For both of these predicted measurements, the signal that we would see depends strongly on our viewing geometry relative to the orientation of the planet’s rotation axis, and we thoroughly identify the degeneracies that result. We compare these signals to the predicted sensitivities of current and future instruments and determine that the James Webb Space Telescope should be able to constrain the obliquities of nearby warm Jupiters to be small (if ≤slant 10^\\circ ) or to directly measure them if significantly non-zero (≥slant 30^\\circ ) using the technique of eclipse mapping. For a bright target and assuming photon-limited precision, this could be done with a single secondary eclipse observation.

  16. Numerical modeling of the infrasonic and seismic waves propagation in the "Earth-Atmosphere" model with a curvilinear interface (United States)

    Mikhailov, Aleksandr A.; Martynov, Valery N.


    In this paper we consider the numerical solution to the problem of the infrasonic and seismic wave propagation for the spatial inhomogeneous model Atmosphere-Earth. The interface between the atmosphere and the elastic medium is assumed to be curvilinear. The efficient numerical algorithm for carrying out calculations on multi-processor computer systems is described. A specific feature of the algorithm proposed is a combination of integral transforms and the finite difference method. The propagation of infrasonic waves in the isothermal atmosphere is described by the linearized Navier-Stokes equations in the form of the hyperbolic first order system in the 3D Cartesian coordinate system. The propagation of seismic waves in the lithosphere is described by the hyperbolic first order system in terms of the displacement velocity vector and stress tensor according to elasticity theory. In this paper we present the results of numerical modeling of wave fields for the test models in the case when the interface between the atmosphere and elastic half-space is curvilinear.

  17. Emulation of Leaf, Canopy and Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Models for Fast Global Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Verrelst


    Full Text Available Physically-based radiative transfer models (RTMs help understand the interactions of radiation with vegetation and atmosphere. However, advanced RTMs can be computationally burdensome, which makes them impractical in many real applications, especially when many state conditions and model couplings need to be studied. To overcome this problem, it is proposed to substitute RTMs through surrogate meta-models also named emulators. Emulators approximate the functioning of RTMs through statistical learning regression methods, and can open many new applications because of their computational efficiency and outstanding accuracy. Emulators allow fast global sensitivity analysis (GSA studies on advanced, computationally expensive RTMs. As a proof-of-concept, three machine learning regression algorithms (MLRAs were tested to function as emulators for the leaf RTM PROSPECT-4, the canopy RTM PROSAIL, and the computationally expensive atmospheric RTM MODTRAN5. Selected MLRAs were: kernel ridge regression (KRR, neural networks (NN and Gaussian processes regression (GPR. For each RTM, 500 simulations were generated for training and validation. The majority of MLRAs were excellently validated to function as emulators with relative errors well below 0.2%. The emulators were then put into a GSA scheme and compared against GSA results as generated by original PROSPECT-4 and PROSAIL runs. NN and GPR emulators delivered identical GSA results, while processing speed compared to the original RTMs doubled for PROSPECT-4 and tripled for PROSAIL. Having the emulator-GSA concept successfully tested, for six MODTRAN5 atmospheric transfer functions (outputs, i.e., direct and diffuse at-surface solar irradiance ( E d i f , E d i r , direct and diffuse upward transmittance ( T d i r , T d i f , spherical albedo (S and path radiance ( L 0 , the most accurate MLRA’s were subsequently applied as emulator into the GSA scheme. The sensitivity analysis along the 400–2500 nm

  18. Summary of the Atmospheric Test Data (Film Scanning and Re-Analysis) Project at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, S. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of the Atmospheric Test Data (ATD) Project is to preserve and make better use of scientific-quality films that were taken during the era of above ground nuclear testing. The project is being done in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is the custodian of the films. Our primary points of contact at LANL have been Alan Carr, Carla Breiner, and Randy Drake.

  19. Modeling the water decarbonization processes in atmospheric deaerators (United States)

    Leduhovsky, G. V.


    A mathematical model of the water decarbonization processes in atmospheric deaerators is proposed to calculate the thermal decomposition degree of hydrocarbonates in a deaerator, pH of a deaerated water sample, and the mass concentration of free carbonic acid in it on a carbon dioxide basis. The mathematical description of these processes is based on the deaeration tank water flow model implemented in the specialized software suite for the calculation of three-dimensional liquid flows, where a real water flow is a set of parallel small plug-flow reactors, and the rate constant of the reaction representing a generalized model of the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbonates with consideration for its chemical and diffusion stages is identified by experimental data. Based on the results of experimental studies performed on deaerators of different designs with and without steam bubbling in their tanks, an empirical support of this model has been developed in the form of recommended reaction order and rate constant values selected depending on the overall alkalinity of water fed into a deaerator. A self-contained mathematical description of the water decarbonization processes in deaerators has been obtained. The proposed model precision has been proven to agree with the specified metrological characteristics of the potentiometric and alkalimetric methods for measuring pH and the free carbonic acid concentration in water. This allows us to recommend the obtained model for the solution of practical problems of forming a specified amount of deaerated water via the selection of the structural and regime parameters of deaerators during their design and regime adjustment.

  20. A new model for atmospheric oxygen over Phanerozoic time. (United States)

    Berner, R A; Canfield, D E


    A mathematical model has been constructed that enables calculation of the level of atmospheric O2 over the past 570 my from rates of burial and weathering of organic carbon (C) and pyrite sulfur (S). Burial rates as a function of time are calculated from an assumed constant worldwide clastic sedimentation rate and the relative abundance, and C and S contents, of the three rock types: marine sandstones and shales, coal basin sediments, and other non-marine clastics (red beds, arkoses). By our model, values of O2 versus time, using a constant total sedimentation rate, agree with those for variable sedimentation derived from present-day rock abundances and estimates of erosional losses since deposition. This agreement is the result of our reliance on the idea that any increase in total worldwide sediment burial, with consequently faster burial of C and S and greater O2 production, must be accompanied by a corresponding increase in erosion and increased exposure of C and S on the continents to O2 consumption via weathering. It is the redistribution of sediment between the three different rock types, and not total sedimentation rate, that is important in O2 control. To add stability to the system, negative feedback against excessive O2 fluctuation was provided in the modeling by the geologically reasonable assignment of higher weathering rates to younger rocks, resulting in rapid recycling of C and S. We did not use direct O2 negative feedback on either weathering of C and S or burial of C because weathering rates are assumed to be limited by uplift and erosion, and the burial rate of C limited by the rate of sediment deposition. The latter assumption is the result of modern sediment studies which show that marine organic matter burial occurs mainly in oxygenated shallow water and is limited by the rate of supply of nutrients to the oceans by rivers. Results of the modeling indicate that atmospheric O2 probably has varied appreciably over Phanerozoic time. During the

  1. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.


    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  2. Natural Environment Corrosion Testing at the Kennedy Space Center Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.


    This presentation will provide an overview of how NASA has been conducting corrosion testing in the Natural Marine Environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S. The following questions will be addressed: What factors should be considered when selecting and constructing a test site? What are the attributes of a good test site? Is more severe always better? What environmental parameters should be monitored? How frequently? What factors should be considered when designing test specimens? Are current test standards sufficient? How do diurnal, annual and other fluctuations in corrosivity influence tests? How are test results interpreted? Can they be quantified?

  3. How well do state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean general circulation models reproduce atmospheric teleconnection patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörthe Handorf


    Full Text Available This article evaluates the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to reproduce the low-frequency variability of the mid-tropospheric winter flow of the Northern Hemisphere in terms of atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Therefore, multi-model simulations for present-day conditions, performed for the 4th assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, have been analysed and compared with re-analysis data sets. The spatial patterns of atmospheric teleconnections are reproduced reasonably by most of the models. The comparison of coupled with atmosphere-only runs confirmed that a better representation of the forcing by sea surface temperatures has the potential to slightly improve the representation of only wave train-like patterns. Due to internally generated climate variability, the models are not able to reproduce the observed temporal behaviour. Insights into the dynamical reasons for the limited skill of climate models in reproducing teleconnections have been obtained by studying the relation between major teleconnections and zonal wind variability patterns. About half of the models are able to reproduce the observed relationship. For these cases, the quality of simulated teleconnection patterns is largely determined by the quality of zonal wind variability patterns. Therefore, improvements of simulated eddy-mean flow interaction have the potential to improve the atmospheric teleconnections.

  4. Stochastic Models for Laser Propagation in Atmospheric Turbulence. (United States)

    Leland, Robert Patton

    In this dissertation, stochastic models for laser propagation in atmospheric turbulence are considered. A review of the existing literature on laser propagation in the atmosphere and white noise theory is presented, with a view toward relating the white noise integral and Ito integral approaches. The laser beam intensity is considered as the solution to a random Schroedinger equation, or forward scattering equation. This model is formulated in a Hilbert space context as an abstract bilinear system with a multiplicative white noise input, as in the literature. The model is also modeled in the Banach space of Fresnel class functions to allow the plane wave case and the application of path integrals. Approximate solutions to the Schroedinger equation of the Trotter-Kato product form are shown to converge for each white noise sample path. The product forms are shown to be physical random variables, allowing an Ito integral representation. The corresponding Ito integrals are shown to converge in mean square, providing a white noise basis for the Stratonovich correction term associated with this equation. Product form solutions for Ornstein -Uhlenbeck process inputs were shown to converge in mean square as the input bandwidth was expanded. A digital simulation of laser propagation in strong turbulence was used to study properties of the beam. Empirical distributions for the irradiance function were estimated from simulated data, and the log-normal and Rice-Nakagami distributions predicted by the classical perturbation methods were seen to be inadequate. A gamma distribution fit the simulated irradiance distribution well in the vicinity of the boresight. Statistics of the beam were seen to converge rapidly as the bandwidth of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process was expanded to its white noise limit. Individual trajectories of the beam were presented to illustrate the distortion and bending of the beam due to turbulence. Feynman path integrals were used to calculate an

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  6. 1D Atmosphere Models from Inversion of Fe i 630 nm Observations with an Application to Solar Irradiance Studies (United States)

    Cristaldi, Alice; Ermolli, Ilaria


    Present-day semi-empirical models of solar irradiance (SI) variations reconstruct SI changes measured on timescales greater than a day by using spectra computed in one dimensional atmosphere models (1D models), which are representative of various solar surface features. Various recent studies have pointed out, however, that the spectra synthesized in 1D models do not reflect the radiative emission of the inhomogenous atmosphere revealed by high-resolution solar observations. We aimed to derive observation-based atmospheres from such observations and test their accuracy for SI estimates. We analyzed spectropolarimetric data of the Fe i 630 nm line pair in photospheric regions that are representative of the granular quiet-Sun pattern (QS) and of small- and large-scale magnetic features, both bright and dark with respect to the QS. The data were taken on 2011 August 6, with the CRisp Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the Swedish Solar Telescope, under excellent seeing conditions. We derived atmosphere models of the observed regions from data inversion with the SIR code. We studied the sensitivity of results to spatial resolution and temporal evolution, and discuss the obtained atmospheres with respect to several 1D models. The atmospheres derived from our study agree well with most of the 1D models we compare our results with, both qualitatively and quantitatively (within 10%), except for pore regions. Spectral synthesis computations of the atmosphere obtained from the QS observations return an SI between 400 and 2400 nm that agrees, on average, within 2.2% with standard reference measurements, and within -0.14% with the SI computed on the QS atmosphere employed by the most advanced semi-empirical model of SI variations.

  7. Evolution of Earth-like Extrasolar Planetary Atmospheres: Assessing the Atmospheres and Biospheres of Early Earth Analog Planets with a Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemical Model. (United States)

    Gebauer, S; Grenfell, J L; Stock, J W; Lehmann, R; Godolt, M; von Paris, P; Rauer, H


    Understanding the evolution of Earth and potentially habitable Earth-like worlds is essential to fathom our origin in the Universe. The search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone and investigation of their atmospheres with climate and photochemical models is a central focus in exoplanetary science. Taking the evolution of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets, a central scientific goal is to understand what the interactions were between atmosphere, geology, and biology on early Earth. The Great Oxidation Event in Earth's history was certainly caused by their interplay, but the origin and controlling processes of this occurrence are not well understood, the study of which will require interdisciplinary, coupled models. In this work, we present results from our newly developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry model in which atmospheric O2 concentrations are fixed to values inferred by geological evidence. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles that governed O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the Great Oxidation Event. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2, whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis. The O2 bistability found by Goldblatt et al. ( 2006 ) is not observed in our calculations likely due to our detailed CH4 oxidation scheme. We calculate increased CH4 with increasing O2 during the Great Oxidation Event. For a given atmospheric surface flux, different atmospheric states are possible; however, the net primary productivity of the biosphere that produces O2 is unique. Mixing, CH4 fluxes, ocean solubility, and mantle/crust properties strongly affect net primary productivity and surface O2 fluxes. Regarding exoplanets, different "states" of O2 could exist for similar biomass output. Strong geological activity could lead to false negatives for life (since our analysis suggests that reducing gases remove O2 that

  8. Unified multifractal atmospheric dynamics tested in the tropics: part I, horizontal scaling and self criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chigirinskaya


    Full Text Available In this paper we test the Unified Mulifractal model of atmospheric dynamics in the tropics. In the first part, we empirically investigate the scaling behaviour along the horizontal, in the second part along the vertical. Here we concentrate on the presentation of basic multifractal notions and techniques and on how they give rise to self-organized critical structures. Indeed, we point out a rather simple and clear characterisation of these structures which may help to clarify both the nature of the oft-cited coherent structures and the generation of cyclones. Using 30 aircraft series of horizontal wind and temperature, we find rather remarkable constancy of the three universal multifractal indices H, C1 and α as well as the value of critical exponents qD, γD associated with multifractal phase transitions and self-organized critical structures. This constancy extends not only from wind tunnel and mid-latitude to the tropics, but also to multifractals generated by Navier-Stokes like equations.

  9. Atmospheric corrosion: statistical validation of models; Corrosion atmosferica: validacion de modelos empleando tecnicas estadisticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, V.; Martinez-Luaces, V.; Guineo-Cobs, G.


    In this paper we discuss two different methods for validation of regression models, applied to corrosion data. One of them is based on the correlation coefficient and the other one is the statistical test of lack of fit. Both methods are used here to analyse fitting of bi logarithmic model in order to predict corrosion for very low carbon steel substrates in rural and urban-industrial atmospheres in Uruguay. Results for parameters A and n of the bi logarithmic model are reported here. For this purpose, all repeated values were used instead of using average values as usual. Modelling is carried out using experimental data corresponding to steel substrates under the same initial meteorological conditions ( in fact, they are put in the rack at the same time). Results of correlation coefficient are compared with the lack of it tested at two different signification levels ({alpha}=0.01 and {alpha}=0.05). Unexpected differences between them are explained and finally, it is possible to conclude, at least in the studied atmospheres, that the bi logarithmic model does not fit properly the experimental data. (Author) 18 refs.

  10. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichink Kruit, R.J.; Schaap, M.; Sauter, F.J.; Zanten, M.C. van; Pul, W.A.J. van


    A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM) for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface-atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of

  11. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute,Université de Liège,Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Enberg, Rikard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jeong, Yu Seon [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); National Institute of Supercomputing and Networking, KISTI,245 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Reno, Mary Hall [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa,Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Sarcevic, Ina [Department of Physics, University of Arizona,1118 E. 4th St. Tucson, AZ 85704 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona,933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stasto, Anna [Department of Physics, 104 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University,University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k{sub T} factorization including low-x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  12. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.


    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  13. Spatio-temporal statistical models with applications to atmospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikle, Christopher K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model.

  14. Prompt atmospheric neutrino fluxes: perturbative QCD models and nuclear effects (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Enberg, Rikard; Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina; Stasto, Anna


    We evaluate the prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high energies using three different frameworks for calculating the heavy quark production cross section in QCD: NLO perturbative QCD, k T factorization including low- x resummation, and the dipole model including parton saturation. We use QCD parameters, the value for the charm quark mass and the range for the factorization and renormalization scales that provide the best description of the total charm cross section measured at fixed target experiments, at RHIC and at LHC. Using these parameters we calculate differential cross sections for charm and bottom production and compare with the latest data on forward charm meson production from LHCb at 7 TeV and at 13 TeV, finding good agreement with the data. In addition, we investigate the role of nuclear shadowing by including nuclear parton distribution functions (PDF) for the target air nucleus using two different nuclear PDF schemes. Depending on the scheme used, we find the reduction of the flux due to nuclear effects varies from 10% to 50% at the highest energies. Finally, we compare our results with the IceCube limit on the prompt neutrino flux, which is already providing valuable information about some of the QCD models.

  15. CFD Modeling of Non-Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koblitz, Tilman

    cost than e.g. using large-eddy simulations. The developed ABL model is successfully validated using a range of different test cases with increasing complexity. Data from several large scale field campaigns, wind tunnel experiments, and previous numerical simulations is presented and compared against...... model results. A method is developed how to simulate the time-dependant non-neutral ABL flow over complex terrain: a precursor simulation is used to specify unsteady inlet boundary conditions on complex terrain domains. The advantage of the developed RANS model framework is its general applicability....... All implementations in the ABL model are tuning free, and except for standard site specific input parameters, no additional model coefficients need to be specified before the simulation. In summary the results show that the implemented modifications are applicable and reproduce the main flow...

  16. DUSTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Dust Dispersion Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Shaw, William J.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Seiple, Timothy E.


    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory just completed a multi-year project to develop a fully tested and documented atmospheric dispersion modeling system (DUST TRANsport or DUSTRAN) to assist the U.S. Department of Defense in addressing particulate air quality issues at military training and testing ranges. This manual documents the DUSTRAN modeling system and includes installation instructions, a user’s guide, and detailed example tutorials.

  17. Evaluation of Atmospheric Loading and Improved Troposphere Modelling (United States)

    Zelensky, Nikita P.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Le Bail, Karine; Pavlis, Despina E.


    Forward modeling of non-tidal atmospheric loading displacements at geodetic tracking stations have not routinely been included in Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositionning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) or Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station analyses for either POD applications or reference frame determination. The displacements which are computed from 6-hourly models such as the ECMWF and can amount to 3-10 mm in the east, north and up components depending on the tracking station locations. We evaluate the application of atmospheric loading in a number ways using the NASA GSFC GEODYN software: First we assess the impact on SLR & DORIS-determined orbits such as Jason-2, where we evaluate the impact on the tracking data RMS of fit and how the total orbits are changed with the application of this correction. Preliminary results show an RMS radial change of 0.5 mm for Jason-2 over 54 cycles and a total change in the Z-centering of the orbit of 3 mm peak-to-peak over one year. We also evaluate the effects on other DORIS-satellites such as Cryosat-2, Envisat and the SPOT satellites. In the second step, we produce two SINEX time series based on data from available DORIS satellites and assess the differences in WRMS, scale and Helmert translation parameters. Troposphere refraction is obviously an important correction for radiometric data types such as DORIS. We evaluate recent improvements in DORIS processing at GSFC including the application of the Vienna Mapping Function (VMF1) grids with a-priori hydrostatic (VZHDs) and wet (VZWDs) zenith delays. We reduce the gridded VZHD at the stations height using pressure and temperature derived from GPT (strategy 1) and Saastamoinen. We discuss the validation of the VMF1 implementation and its application to the Jason-2 POD processing, compared to corrections using the Niell mapping function and the GMF. Using one year of data, we also assess the impact of the new troposphere corrections on the DORIS-only solutions, most

  18. A frailty-contagion model for multi-site hourly precipitation driven by atmospheric covariates (United States)

    Koch, Erwan; Naveau, Philippe


    Accurate stochastic simulations of hourly precipitation are needed for impact studies at local spatial scales. Statistically, hourly precipitation data represent a difficult challenge. They are non-negative, skewed, heavy tailed, contain a lot of zeros (dry hours) and they have complex temporal structures (e.g., long persistence of dry episodes). Inspired by frailty-contagion approaches used in finance and insurance, we propose a multi-site precipitation simulator that, given appropriate regional atmospheric variables, can simultaneously handle dry events and heavy rainfall periods. One advantage of our model is its conceptual simplicity in its dynamical structure. In particular, the temporal variability is represented by a common factor based on a few classical atmospheric covariates like temperatures, pressures and others. Our inference approach is tested on simulated data and applied on measurements made in the northern part of French Brittany.

  19. The role of atmospheric greenhouse gases, orbital parameters, and southern ocean gateways: an idealized model study

    CERN Document Server

    Hertwig, Eileen; Fraedrich, Klaus


    A set of idealized experiments are performed to analyze the competing effects of declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the opening of an ocean gateway, and varying orbital parameters. These forcing mechanisms, which influence the global mean climate state, may have played a role for triggering climate transitions of the past (for example during the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition and the build-up of the Antarctic Ice Sheet). Sensitivity simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model are conducted to test these three forcings and their roles for the global climate. The simulations are carried out under idealized conditions to focus on the essentials. The combination of all three forcings triggers a climate transition which resembles the onset of the Antarctic glaciation. In particular, the temperatures in the southern high latitudes decrease and snow accumulates constantly. Moreover, the relative importance of each possible forcing is explored. All three of the mechanisms (atmosp...

  20. Vorticity-divergence semi-Lagrangian global atmospheric model SL-AV20: dynamical core (United States)

    Tolstykh, Mikhail; Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Goyman, Gordey


    SL-AV (semi-Lagrangian, based on the absolute vorticity equation) is a global hydrostatic atmospheric model. Its latest version, SL-AV20, provides global operational medium-range weather forecast with 20 km resolution over Russia. The lower-resolution configurations of SL-AV20 are being tested for seasonal prediction and climate modeling. The article presents the model dynamical core. Its main features are a vorticity-divergence formulation at the unstaggered grid, high-order finite-difference approximations, semi-Lagrangian semi-implicit discretization and the reduced latitude-longitude grid with variable resolution in latitude. The accuracy of SL-AV20 numerical solutions using a reduced lat-lon grid and the variable resolution in latitude is tested with two idealized test cases. Accuracy and stability of SL-AV20 in the presence of the orography forcing are tested using the mountain-induced Rossby wave test case. The results of all three tests are in good agreement with other published model solutions. It is shown that the use of the reduced grid does not significantly affect the accuracy up to the 25 % reduction in the number of grid points with respect to the regular grid. Variable resolution in latitude allows us to improve the accuracy of a solution in the region of interest.

  1. Modeling Exoplanetary Atmospheres using BART, TEA, and Drift-RHD; Theoretical studies and Observational Implications (United States)

    Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    numerous published papers, further work is needed to couple them self-consistently. Our theoretical studies focus on a number of objectives. We will start by incorporating our kinetic, non-equilibrium cloud model within BART, allowing us to obtain a consistent solution for cloud characteristics. We will further test simple parameterizations against the full solution to explore the reliability of simpler models. Utilizing Drift-RHD, we will explore the role of horizontal advection on cloud distribution, investigate the validity of 1D retrievals by comparing them to selfconsistently generated 3D models, and develop a retrieval framework for wavelengthdependent phase-curves. TEA will be enhanced with additional databases and the inclusion of condensates, providing realistic initial cloudy-model for retrievals. To explore the importance of equilibrium chemistry and exclude non-plausible chemical compositions (often the outcome of many retrieval approaches) we will relax the assumption of non-equilibrium chemistry by utilizing an analytical chemical equilibrium approach in BART. To address observations, our OBS suit for generating synthetic observations will be adapted to interface with our models, allowing us to both compare to existing observations and make predictions for future observations. With these tools, we are particularly well suited to understand discriminants between classes of models and identifying which particular set of observations could most readily distinguish cloud constituents and temperature features. The proposed research is directly relevant to the Planetary Science and Astrophysics goals through furthering our understanding of compositions, dynamics, energetics, and chemical behaviors of exoplanetary atmospheres. In addition, to maximize NASA's investment and encourage open access, we have and will continue to make all of our codes public and available to the community throughout the course of the research.

  2. 40 CFR 53.42 - Generation of test atmospheres for wind tunnel tests. (United States)


    ... or better, and particle size determined by the verification technique shall not differ by more than 0... determined during the tests and shall not exceed 10 percent. Solid particles shall be checked for dryness and evidence of breakage or agglomeration during the microscopic examination. If the solid particles in a test...

  3. Development of the Variable Atmosphere Testing Facility for Blow-Down Analysis of the Mars Hopper Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Robert C. O' Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O' Brien


    Recent developments at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) on a Martian exploration probe have lead to the assembly of a multi-functional variable atmosphere testing facility (VATF). The VATF has been assembled to perform transient blow-down analysis of a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept that has been proposed for the Mars Hopper; a long-lived, long-ranged mobile platform for the Martian surface. This study discusses the current state of the VATF as well as recent blow-down testing performed on a laboratory-scale prototype of the Mars Hopper. The VATF allows for the simulation of Mars ambient conditions within the pressure vessel as well as to safely perform blow-down tests through the prototype using CO2 gas; the proposed propellant for the Mars Hopper. Empirical data gathered will lead to a better understanding of CO2 behavior and will provide validation of simulation models. Additionally, the potential of the VATF to test varying propulsion system designs has been recognized. In addition to being able to simulate varying atmospheres and blow-down gases for the RTR, it can be fitted to perform high temperature hydrogen testing of fuel elements for nuclear thermal propulsion.

  4. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.


    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  5. Fluctuations, response, and resonances in a simple atmospheric model (United States)

    Gritsun, Andrey; Lucarini, Valerio


    We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations by constructing the covariant Lyapunov vectors of the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case-orographic forcing-a substantial projection of the forcing onto the stable directions of the flow. This results into a resonant response shaped as a Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the unforced variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. Such a climatic surprise corresponds to a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The resonance can be attributed to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of using basic methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and high-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems to approach the problem of understanding climate dynamics.

  6. Novel Atmospheric and Sea State Modeling in Ocean Energy Applications (United States)

    Kallos, George; Galanis, George; Kalogeri, Christina; Larsen, Xiaoli Guo


    The rapidly increasing use of renewable energy sources poses new challenges for the research and technological community today. The integration of the, usually, highly variable wind and wave energy amounts into the general grid, the optimization of energy transition and the forecast of extreme values that could lead to instabilities and failures of the system can be listed among them. In the present work, novel methodologies based on state of the art numerical wind/wave simulation systems and advanced statistical techniques addressing such type of problems are discussed. In particular, extremely high resolution modeling systems simulating the atmospheric and sea state conditions with spatial resolution of 100 meters or less and temporal discretization of a few seconds are utilized in order to simulate in the most detailed way the combined wind-wave energy potential at offshore sites. In addition, a statistical analysis based on a variety of mean and variation measures as well as univariate and bivariate probability distributions is used for the estimation of the variability of the power potential revealing the advantages of the use of combined forms of energy by offshore platforms able to produce wind and wave power simultaneously. The estimation and prediction of extreme wind/wave conditions - a critical issue both for site assessment and infrastructure maintenance - is also studied by means of the 50-year return period over areas with increased power potential. This work has been carried out within the framework of the FP7 project MARINA Platform (

  7. Modeling of Long-Range Atmospheric Lasercom Links Between Static and Mobile Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlemann, E T; Breitfeller, E F; Henderson, J R; Kallman, J S; Morris, J R; Ruggiero, A J


    We describe modeling and simulation of long-range terrestrial laser communications links between static and mobile platforms. Atmospheric turbulence modeling, along with pointing, tracking and acquisition models are combined to provide an overall capability to estimate communications link performance.

  8. A global hybrid coupled model based on Atmosphere-SST feedbacks

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A; Dijkstra, Henk A


    A global hybrid coupled model is developed, with the aim of studying the effects of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks on the stability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. The model includes a global ocean general circulation model and a statistical atmosphere model. The statistical atmosphere model is based on linear regressions of data from a fully coupled climate model on sea surface temperature both locally and hemispherically averaged, being the footprint of Atlantic meridional overturning variability. It provides dynamic boundary conditions to the ocean model for heat, freshwater and wind-stress. A basic but consistent representation of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks is captured in the hybrid coupled model and it is more than ten times faster than the fully coupled climate model. The hybrid coupled model reaches a steady state with a climate close to the one of the fully coupled climate model, and the two models also have a similar response (collapse) of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulati...

  9. A simple atmospheric model on the sphere with 100% parallelism (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Takacs, L. L.


    A simple shallow water equations model used to test numerical weather prediction schemes is presented. The spherical geometry is transformed into a formally doubly periodic configuration which can be implemented on a massively parallel computer at 100% parallelism. A nonstaggered grid with all variables defined at the grid points (circles) is used. The parallel structure was simulated by performing step 1 in a FORTRAN array, on an Amdahl serial machine, changing the signs of the winds on the dark side.

  10. Modelling dynamics of atmosphere ventilation and industrial city’s air pollution analysis: New approach (United States)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Agayar, E. V.; Buyadzhi, V. V.; Romanova, A. V.; Mansarliysky, V. F.


    We present a new effective approach to analysis and modelling the natural air ventilation in an atmosphere of the industrial city, which is based on the Arakawa-Schubert and Glushkov models, modified to calculate the current involvement of the ensemble of clouds, and advanced mathematical methods of modelling an unsteady turbulence in the urban area. For the first time the methods of a plane complex field and spectral expansion algorithms are applied to calculate the air circulation for the cloud layer arrays, penetrating into the territory of the industrial city. We have also taken into account for the mechanisms of transformation of the cloud system advection over the territory of the urban area. The results of test computing the air ventilation characteristics are presented for the Odessa city. All above cited methods and models together with the standard monitoring and management systems can be considered as a basis for comprehensive “Green City” construction technology.

  11. Atmospheric sensitivity to roughness length in a regional atmospheric model over the Ohio-Tennessee River Valley (United States)

    Quintanar, Arturo I.; Mahmood, Rezaul; Suarez, Astrid; Leeper, Ronnie


    The response of a regional atmospheric model to small changes in roughness length of two vegetation categories (crops and deciduous broadleaf forest) was analyzed for three synoptic events in June 2006. These were characterized by two convective events (June 11 and 22) and one prefrontal event (June 17). The responses of the model, for precipitation, equivalent potential temperature and wind field were notable in general. However, the response became muted as roughness lengths were increased or decreased. Atmospheric response to these changes varied for different convective events. A small dependence on roughness length was found for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and planetary boundary layer heights during the convective event of June 11. For the June 22 event, the model response was weaker for the crop-only and forest-only roughness length experiments compared to the response when both the crop and forest-only roughness length were changed in combination.

  12. Modelling of pollution dispersion in atmosphere; Modelowanie procesow propagacji skazen w atmosferze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Stankiewicz, R.


    The paper contains the review of the mathematical foundation of atmospheric dispersion models. The atmospheric phenomena relevant to atmospheric dispersion model are discussed. In particular the parametrization of processes with time and space scales smaller than numerical grid size, limited by available computer power, is presented. The special attention was devoted to similarity theory and parametrization of boundary layer. The numerical methods are analysed and the drawbacks of the method are presented. (author). 99 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  13. Carbon dioxide removal system for closed loop atmosphere revitalization, candidate sorbents screening and test results (United States)

    Mattox, E. M.; Knox, J. C.; Bardot, D. M.


    Due to the difficulty and expense it costs to resupply manned-spacecraft habitats, a goal is to create a closed loop atmosphere revitalization system, in which precious commodities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water are continuously recycled. Our aim is to test other sorbents for their capacity for future spacecraft missions, such as on the Orion spacecraft, or possibly lunar or Mars mission habitats to see if they would be better than the zeolite sorbents on the 4-bed molecular sieve. Some of the materials being tested are currently used for other industry applications. Studying these sorbents for their specific spacecraft application is different from that for applications on earth because in space, there are certain power, mass, and volume limitations that are not as critical on Earth. In manned-spaceflight missions, the sorbents are exposed to a much lower volume fraction of CO2 (0.6% volume CO2) than on Earth. LiLSX was tested for its CO2 capacity in an atmosphere like that of the ISS. Breakthrough tests were run to establish the capacities of these materials at a partial pressure of CO2 that is seen on the ISS. This paper discusses experimental results from benchmark materials, such as results previously obtained from tests on Grade 522, and the forementioned candidate materials for the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) system.

  14. Modeling of High-altitude Atmospheric Dispersion Using Climate and Meteorological Forecast Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L G; Chin, H S


    meteorological and climatological data for NARAC models. Import both high altitude meteorological forecasts and high altitude climatological data provided by NRL into the NARAC system. (2) Run ADAPT and LODI transport/dispersion codes for one scenario on imported meteorological forecast and climatological data. (3) Provide documentation of the effort. The following tasking description gives both the context and manner in which the goals listed above were accomplished: (A) We had discussions with NRL personnel, notably Stefan Thonnard and Doug Drob, to confirm the data compatibility of the data that we will be importing for use. Data up to 100km in altitude was provided and imported into the NARAC modeling system. (B) The ADAPT atmospheric data assimilation model was used to take data from NRL and provide mass-consistent three-dimensional time-varying wind fields for the NARAC Langrangian particle tracking code, LODI. A test version of LODI, developed to consider rarefied conditions, higher altitude turbulence, and high initial particle speeds, was used run on the ADAPT output. (C) The results of the proof-of-concept simulations under time-varying meteorological forecasts and under climatological wind fields are compared and documented in this brief report discussing the capability of the NARAC modeling system for importing and using the high altitude datasets from NRL. A limited assessment of the difference between dispersion results on the different data sets is made.

  15. Model-Based Testing of Probabilistic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhold, Marcus; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Stevens, Perdita; Wasowski, Andzej

    This paper presents a model-based testing framework for probabilistic systems. We provide algorithms to generate, execute and evaluate test cases from a probabilistic requirements model. In doing so, we connect ioco-theory for model-based testing and statistical hypothesis testing: our ioco-style

  16. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G


    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  17. Atmospheric corrosion tests along the Norwegian-Russian border. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, J.F.; Mikhailov, A.A.


    A bilateral exposure programme was carried out along the Norwegian-Russian border in 1990-1991, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 to evaluate quantitatively the effect of sulphur pollutants on the atmospheric corrosion of important materials in sub-arctic climate. The first part of the programme demonstrated that also in subarctic climate do metals corrode depending on the atmospheric corrosivity, and dose-response functions were derived which combined the effects of SO{sub 2} and time of wetness. The second part of the programme, which is described in this report, involved exposures of carbon steel, zinc and copper at two sites in Norway and three sites in Russia. It is concluded that the accelerated atmospheric corrosion of metals in regions along the border is mainly due to dry deposition of sulphur. At some sites, dry deposition of Cl contributes because of sea-salt aerosols. The corrosivity of acid precipitation is certain but could not be represented as a function because of the small differences observed in the pH values at the different sites. At all test sites the kinetics of corrosion of steel, zinc and copper are characterized by a reduced corrosion rate after one year of exposure. Time of wetness is an important parameter in predicting atmospheric corrosion of metals even on a regional scale. Hence, for monitoring and for trend-effect analysis, it is very important to determine the corrosivity of SO{sub 2} with time of wetness. In accordance with dose-response functions obtained, the yearly corrosion rate for steel and zinc are higher for the areas with higher amounts of dry deposition of Cl than for areas with analogous but only SO{sub 2}-containing atmosphere. 6 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna


    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  19. Atmospheric Transport Modelling and Radionuclide Analysis for the NPE 2015 scenario (United States)

    Ross, J. Ole; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Heidmann, Verena; Krais, Roman; Schlosser, Clemens; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars


    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions. The International Monitoring System (IMS) is in place and at about 90% complete to verify compliance with the CTBT. The stations of the waveform technologies are capable to detect seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasonic signals for detection, localization, and characterization of explosions. For practicing Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification procedures and interplay between the International Data Centre (IDC) and National Data Centres (NDC), prepardness exercises (NPE) are regularly performed with selected events of fictitious CTBT-violation. The German NDC's expertise for radionuclide analyses and operation of station RN33 is provided by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) while Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) for CTBT purposes is performed at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) for the combination of the radionuclide findings with waveform evidence. The radionuclide part of the NPE 2015 scenario is tackled in a joint effort by BfS and BGR. First, the NPE 2015 spectra are analysed, fission products are identified, and respective activity concentrations are derived. Special focus is on isotopic ratios which allow for source characterization and event timing. For atmospheric backtracking the binary coincidence method is applied for both, SRS fields from IDC and WMO-RSMC, and for in-house backward simulations in higher resolution for the first affected samples. Results are compared with the WebGrape PSR and the spatio-temporal domain with high atmospheric release probability is determined. The ATM results together with the radionuclide fingerprint are used for identification of waveform candidate events. Comparative forward simulations of atmospheric dispersion for candidate events are performed. Finally the overall consistency of various source scenarios is assessed and a fictitious government briefing on

  20. High-resolution numerical simulation of Venus atmosphere by AFES (Atmospheric general circulation model For the Earth Simulator) (United States)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko; AFES project Team


    We have developed an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) for Venus on the basis of AFES (AGCM For the Earth Simulator) and performed a high-resolution simulation (e.g., Sugimoto et al., 2014a). The highest resolution is T639L120; 1920 times 960 horizontal grids (grid intervals are about 20 km) with 120 vertical layers (layer intervals are about 1 km). In the model, the atmosphere is dry and forced by the solar heating with the diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The infrared radiative process is simplified by adopting Newtonian cooling approximation. The temperature is relaxed to a prescribed horizontally uniform temperature distribution, in which a layer with almost neutral static stability observed in the Venus atmosphere presents. A fast zonal wind in a solid-body rotation is given as the initial state.Starting from this idealized superrotation, the model atmosphere reaches a quasi-equilibrium state within 1 Earth year and this state is stably maintained for more than 10 Earth years. The zonal-mean zonal flow with weak midlatitude jets has almost constant velocity of 120 m/s in latitudes between 45°S and 45°N at the cloud top levels, which agrees very well with observations. In the cloud layer, baroclinic waves develop continuously at midlatitudes and generate Rossby-type waves at the cloud top (Sugimoto et al., 2014b). At the polar region, warm polar vortex surrounded by a cold latitude band (cold collar) is well reproduced (Ando et al., 2016). As for horizontal kinetic energy spectra, divergent component is broadly (k > 10) larger than rotational component compared with that on Earth (Kashimura et al., in preparation). We will show recent results of the high-resolution run, e.g., small-scale gravity waves attributed to large-scale thermal tides. Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014a), Baroclinic modes in the Venus atmosphere simulated by GCM, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol. 119, p1950-1968.Sugimoto, N. et al. (2014b), Waves in a Venus general

  1. An atmospheric-terrestrial heavy metal transport model: model theory and process equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenet, R.J.; Grenney, W.J.; Wooldridge, G.L.; Jurinak, J.J.


    A general modelTOHMwas developed to predict the terrestrial fate of zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury emitted during operation of a coal-fired electric generating facility. The model comprises interfacing submodels describing atmospheric dispersion, precipitation, soil chemistry, and soil erosion. TOHM predicted no substantial increase in indigenous levels of zinc, chromium, and lead in the impact area. However, the model predicted that both mercury and cadmium would be emitted and eroded to the environmental sink in concentrations exceeding that naturally present in the system. The process equations used to describe the atmospheric-terrestrial transport of heavy metals are presented. Accounting procedures allowing calculation of amount of sediment eroded, heavy metal distribution, soil chemical reactions, and precipitation are explained. (9 diagrams, 5 graphs, 2 maps, 13 references)

  2. Uncertainities in carbon dioxide radiative forcing in atmospheric general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cess, R.D.; Zhang, M.H. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)); Potter, G.L.; Gates, W.L.; Taylor, K.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)); Colman, R.A.; Fraser, J.R.; McAvaney, B.J. (Bureau of Meterorology Research Centre, Victoria (Australia)); Dazlich, D.A.; Randall, D.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Del Genio, A.D.; Lacis, A.A. (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)); Esch, M.; Roeckner, E. (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)); Galin, V. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Hack, J.J.; Kiehl, J.T. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Ingram, W.J. (Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)); Le Treut, H.; Lli, Z.X. (Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)); Liang, X.Z.; Wang, W.C. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)); Mahfouf,


    Global warming, caused by an increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases, is the direct result of greenhouse gas-induced radiative forcing. When a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered, this forcing differed substantially among 15 atmospheric general circulation models. Although there are several potential causes, the largest contributor was the carbon dioxide radiation parameterizations of the models.

  3. Characterization and Modeling of Atmospheric Flow Within and Above Plant Canopies (United States)

    Souza Freire Grion, Livia

    upper-half of the canopy, and partially mixed conditions in the lower half of the canopy. During the night, most of the canopy (except for the upper 20%) is either partially or poorly mixed, resulting in mixing timescales of up to several hours. For the specific case of ozone, the mixing timescales observed during the day are much lower than the chemical and deposition timescales, whereas chemical processes and turbulence have comparable timescales during the night. In addition, the high day-to-day variability in mixing conditions and the fast increase in mixing during the morning transition period indicate that turbulence within the canopy needs to be properly investigated and modeled in many studies involving plant-atmosphere interactions. Motivated by the findings described above, this work proposes and tests a new approach for modeling canopy flows. Typically, vertical profiles of flow statistics are needed to represent canopy-atmosphere exchanges in chemical and biophysical processes happening within the canopy. Current single-column models provide only steady-state (equilibrium) profiles, and rely on closure assumptions that do not represent the dominant non-local turbulent fluxes present in canopy flows. We overcome these issues by adapting the one-dimensional turbulent (ODT) model to represent atmospheric flows from the ground up to the top of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ODT model numerically resolves the one-dimensional diffusion equation along a vertical line (representing a horizontally homogeneous ABL column), and the presence of three-dimensional turbulence is added through the effect of stochastic eddies. Simulations of ABL without canopy were performed for different atmospheric stabilities and a diurnal cycle, to test the capabilities of this modeling approach in representing unsteady flows with strong non-local transport. In addition, four different types of canopies were simulated, one of them including the transport of scalar with a point

  4. Mesoscale modelling of atmospheric CO2 across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansø, Anne Sofie


    It is scientifically well-established that the increase of atmospheric CO2 affects the entire globe and will lead to higher surface temperatures. Although anthropogenic CO2is emitted straight into the atmosphere, it does not all contribute to the existing atmospheric CO2 reservoir. Approximately 29......% is taken up by the global oceans, due to under-saturation of CO2 in the surface waters, while another 33 % is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere, via photosynthesis. In order to estimate the effects of increasing anthropogenic emissions of CO2 more accurately in the future, it is essential to understand...... the processes controlling the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. This PhD dissertation attempts to increase our understanding of the importance of accounting for high spatiotemporal variability in estimates of CO2 exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface. For this purpose, a mesoscale...

  5. Impact of atmospheric effects on crop yield modelling in Cyprus using Landsat's satellite imagery and field spectroscopy (United States)

    Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.


    Remote sensing, as the tool for spatially continuous measurements has become a trend for estimating Crop Yield since economically efficient agricultural management is highly dependent on detailed temporal and spatial knowledge of the processes affecting physiological crop development. This paper aims at examining the use of field spectroscopy along with Landsat's satellite imagery in order to test the accuracy of raw satellite data and the impact of atmospheric effects on determining crop yield derived from models using remotely sensed data. The spectroradiometric retrieved Vegetation Indices(VI) of Durum wheat, is directly compared to the corresponding VI of Landsat 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI, sourcing from both atmospherically corrected and not corrected satellite images in order to test the effects of atmosphere upon them. Vegetation Indices are vital in the procedure for estimating Crop Yield since they are used in stochastic or empirical models for describing or predicting crop yield. Leaf Area Index, which is also inferred using VI, is also compared to the real values of LAI that are measured using the SunScan instrument, during the satellite's overpass. Crop Yield is finally determined using the Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute's Crop Yield model for Durum wheat, adapted to satellite data, and is used to examine the impact of atmospheric effects. The results have prevailed that if crop yield models using remote sensing imagery, do not apply atmospheric effects algorithms, then there is statistically significant difference in the prediction from the real yield and hence a significant error regarding the model. The study's goal is to illustrate the need of atmospheric effects removal on remotely sensed data especially for models using satellite images.

  6. Sources of nonlinear behavior and Predictability in a realistic atmospheric model: a data modeling statistical approach (United States)

    Peters, J. M.; Kravtsov, S.


    This study quantifies the dependence of nonlinear regimes (manifested in non-gaussian probability distributions) and spreads of ensemble trajectories in a reduced phase space of a realistic three-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG3) atmospheric model on this model's climate state.To elucidate probabilistic properties of the QG3 trajectories, we compute, in phase planes of leading EOFs of the model, the coefficients of the corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. These coefficients represent drift vectors (computed from one-day phase space tendencies) and diffusion tensors (computed from one-day lagged covariance matrices of model trajectory displacements), and are based on a long QG3 simulation. We also fit two statistical trajectory models to the reduced phase-space time series spanned by the full QG3 model states. One reduced model is a standard Linear Inverse Model (LIM) fitted to a long QG3 time series. The LIM model is forced by state-independent (additive) noise and has a deterministic operator which represents non-divergent velocity field in the reduced phase space considered. The other, more advanced model (NSM), is nonlinear, divergent, and is driven by state-dependent noise. The NSM model mimics well the full QG3 model trajectory behavior in the reduced phase space; its corresponding FP model is nearly identical to that based on the full QG3 simulations. By systematic analysis of the differences between the drift vectors and diffusion tensors of the QG3-based, NSM-based, and LIM-based FP models, as well as the PDF evolution simulated by these FP models, we disentangle the contributions of the multiplicative noise and deterministic dynamics into nonlinear behavior and predictability of the atmospheric states produced by the dynamical QG3 model.

  7. Modelling change in color and firmness of baby banana (Musa acuminata AA in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos Espinosa Diego


    Full Text Available

    To determine the change in the ripening stage and quality through associated variables such as firmness and peel color is a useful tool for predicting the behavior and involvement of the product stored at different changing conditions. The change in O2 and CO2 concentration, pulp firmness and peel color were measured in a test of modified atmosphere packaging for baby banana to develop a mathematical model to represent the change in firmness and color as a function of temperature, mixture of gas and time. The fruits were packaged at three temperatures (11, 13 and 17°C and a range of combinations of steady state concentrations of modified atmospheres (5.3 to 15.7 kPa O2 and 0 to 11.0 kPa for CO2, local atmospheric pressure of 74.9 kPa (0.74 atm and 80 % relative humidity constant in polyethylene bags (HDPE micro-perforated for a period of 30 days. The model considers the product respiration rate by an Michaelis-Menten equation of noncompetitive inhibition, and takes into account the transfer of gases through packaging film and through micro-perforations of this; the change of firmness is considered through a first-order model, and depending on the concentration of both O2 and CO2 by Michaelis-Menten equations; color change (in Hunter Lab coordinates was considered separately for each color coordinate, representing the coordinate L* using an increase-logistic model, a* by a zero-order model and b* by first-order model, all temperaturedependent by Arrhenius functions. The predictive capability of the developed model is appropriate, explaining 97.0% of the modified atmosphere effect on the loss of firmness, 90.6% of the change in the coordinate L*, 88.9% of the change in a* and

  8. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version (United States)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.


    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  9. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.


    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  10. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) Model - Part 2: Application to BEARPEX-2007 observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. M. Wolfe; J. A. Thornton; N. C. Bouvier-Brown; A. H. Goldstein; J.-H. Park; M. McKay; D. M. Matross; J. Mao; W. H. Brune; B. W. LaFranchi; E. C. Browne; K.-E. Min; P. J. Wooldridge; R. C. Cohen; J. D. Crounse; I. C. Faloona; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; J. A. de Gouw; A. Huisman; F. N. Keutsch


    In a companion paper, we introduced the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE) model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parovik R.I.


    Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model for unsteady transport of radon from the constant coefficients in the soil – atmosphere. An explicit analytical solution for this model and built at different times of his profiles.



    Brocheton, Fabien; Armand, Patrick; Soulhac, Lionel; Buisson, Emmanuel


    Abstract: The atmospheric dispersion modelling of pollutants is based on models, but also on data and users, who lead to uncertainties, i.e. to differences between the results of the models and the physical reality to describe. The question of the uncertainty of dispersion models is a subject of increasing interest for primarily two reasons: • In spite of the significant number of research works on atmospheric dispersion in the last 30 years, results of simulations preserve an imp...

  13. 46 CFR 154.431 - Model test. (United States)


    ...(c). (b) Analyzed data of a model test for the primary and secondary barrier of the membrane tank... Model test. (a) The primary and secondary barrier of a membrane tank, including the corners and joints...

  14. Atmospheric Processing of European Air Masses: Evidences from the Modelling of HOx Measurements over Cyprus (United States)

    Mallik, C.; Martinez, M.; Novelli, A.; Reiffs, A.; Derstroff, B.; Sauvage, C.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Phillips, G. J.; Fischer, H.; Meusel, H.; Su, H.; Crowley, J.; Schuladen, J.; Williams, J.; Tomsche, L.; Hafermann, S.; Javed, M. U.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.


    Atmospheric concentrations of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), were measured in Cyprus along with a suite of other trace gases during the CYPHEX (CYprus PHotochemistry EXperiment) field campaign, in the summer of 2014. Cyprus is a remote island in the Eastern Mediterranean located downwind of the mainland Europe emissions. The lowest HOx production was observed in aged air masses with the lowest O3 and CO levels and processed for an extended period in the marine boundary layer. To study the contributions of various photochemical precursors to the HOx budget, OH and HO2 were simulated with a photochemical box model (CAABA) constrained with measurements. The model could simulate the observed HOx levels reasonably well, but it failed to reproduce the HOx partitioning, and OH levels were overestimated by about 50% when biogenic hydrocarbons were not included. When isoprene, emitted from the local vegetation, was included in the model, the gap between modelled and measured OH reduced, with the modelled OH being only about 20% too high. The remaining discrepancy vanished by including measured pinene (α and β) reactivity (concentration x rate constant w.r.t. OH) into the model. However, pinene chemistry caused the model to underestimate HO2 by about 20%. Since biogenic emissions account for a major fraction of the global hydrocarbon budget, we tested the performance of a global model EMAC, with the same chemical scheme as CAABA, in simulating the measured OH and HO2 in Cyprus. We found that EMAC is able to simulate the HO2 concentrations, but severely overestimated OH (as well as NO levels), which influences the lifetime of many gaseous species in the atmosphere.

  15. Testing linear models for ability parameters in item response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Hendrawan, I.


    Methods for testing hypotheses concerning the regression parameters in linear models for the latent person parameters in item response models are presented. Three tests are outlined: A likelihood ratio test, a Lagrange multiplier test and a Wald test. The tests are derived in a marginal maximum

  16. Skill Assessment of a Spectral Ocean-Atmosphere Radiative Model (United States)

    Gregg, Watson, W.; Casey, Nancy W.


    Ocean phytoplankton, detrital material, and water absorb and scatter light spectrally. The Ocean- Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is intended to provide surface irradiance over the oceans with sufficient spectral resolution to support ocean ecology, biogeochemistry, and heat exchange investigations, and of sufficient duration to support inter-annual and decadal investigations. OASIM total surface irradiance (integrated 200 nm to 4 microns) was compared to in situ data and three publicly available global data products at monthly 1-degree resolution. OASIM spectrally-integrated surface irradiance had root mean square (RMS) difference= 20.1 W/sq m (about 11%), bias=1.6 W/sq m (about 0.8%), regression slope= 1.01 and correlation coefficient= 0.89, when compared to 2322 in situ observations. OASIM had the lowest bias of any of the global data products evaluated (ISCCP-FD, NCEP, and ISLSCP 11), and the best slope (nearest to unity). It had the second best RMS, and the third best correlation coefficient. OASIM total surface irradiance compared well with ISCCP-FD (RMS= 20.7 W/sq m; bias=-11.4 W/sq m, r=0.98) and ISLSCP II (RMS =25.2 W/sq m; bias= -13.8 W/sq m; r=0.97), but less well with NCEP (RMS =43.0 W/sq m ;bias=-22.6 W/sq m; x=0.91). Comparisons of OASIM photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) with PAR derived from SeaWiFS showed low bias (-1.8 mol photons /sq m/d, or about 5%), RMS (4.25 mol photons /sq m/d ' or about 12%), near unity slope (1.03) and high correlation coefficient (0.97). Coupled with previous estimates of clear sky spectral irradiance in OASIM (6.6% RMS at 1 nm resolution), these results suggest that OASIM provides reasonable estimates of surface broadband and spectral irradiance in the oceans, and can support studies on ocean ecosystems, carbon cycling, and heat exchange.

  17. Effects of microphysical schemes on orographic precipitation and atmospheric water cycle in the WRF model (United States)

    Cossu, Federico; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus


    Atmospheric processes that occur at spatial and temporal scales not resolved by global and regional climate models (GCMs and RCMs) are represented by means of physical parameterizations (or schemes), which are based on several assumptions and approximations. The drawback of using these simplified schemes is the risk of introducing errors in the models, especially when long simulations are performed. This study focuses on the microphysical schemes, the parameterizations responsible for determining the amount of atmospheric water vapour and the liquid and solid atmospheric water content. A correct estimation of cloud density/distribution and precipitation amounts is crucial for long-term climate simulations. Clouds and water vapour modify the radiative properties of the atmosphere, while precipitation affects soil moisture, temperature and albedo. Furthermore, microphysics parameterizations are important for the hydrological and energy budgets, especially for RCMs that employ mass-conserving formulations of the model equations. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a modern numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, has been recently used for regional climate downscaling. WRF was originally designed for short-range NWP but not expressly for long-term climate simulations, and the success of the simulations strongly depends on the parameterizations used. There is therefore the need to test whether WRF physical schemes are suitable for climate prediction or not. Our objective, rather than developing a new parameterization suitable for RCMs, is to make a comparative evaluation of the existing microphysical schemes available in WRF. To achieve this, we perform an idealized simulation in which a fixed set of physical schemes is chosen and a simple terrain model is adopted to eliminate the effects due to complex topography. This method lacks a direct verification with observations but allows to isolate the effects due solely to the microphysical schemes. With

  18. Parameterization of a bucket model for soil-vegetation-atmosphere modeling under seasonal climatic regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romano


    Full Text Available We investigate the potential impact of accounting for seasonal variations in the climatic forcing and using different methods to parameterize the soil water content at field capacity on the water balance components computed by a bucket model (BM. The single-layer BM of Guswa et al. (2002 is employed, whereas the Richards equation (RE based Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP model is used as a benchmark model. The results are analyzed for two differently-textured soils and for some synthetic runs under real-like seasonal weather conditions, using stochastically-generated daily rainfall data for a period of 100 years. Since transient soil-moisture dynamics and climatic seasonality play a key role in certain zones of the World, such as in Mediterranean land areas, a specific feature of this study is to test the prediction capability of the bucket model under a condition where seasonal variations in rainfall are not in phase with the variations in plant transpiration. Reference is made to a hydrologic year in which we have a rainy period (starting 1 November and lasting 151 days where vegetation is basically assumed in a dormant stage, followed by a drier and rainless period with a vegetation regrowth phase. Better agreement between BM and RE-SWAP intercomparison results are obtained when BM is parameterized by a field capacity value determined through the drainage method proposed by Romano and Santini (2002. Depending on the vegetation regrowth or dormant seasons, rainfall variability within a season results in transpiration regimes and soil moisture fluctuations with distinctive features. During the vegetation regrowth season, transpiration exerts a key control on soil water budget with respect to rainfall. During the dormant season of vegetation, the precipitation regime becomes an important climate forcing. Simulations also highlight the occurrence of bimodality in the probability distribution of soil moisture during the season when plants are

  19. A Low Mach Number Model for Moist Atmospheric Flows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duarte, Max; Almgren, Ann S; Bell, John B


    ... on the velocity field. Here, latent heat release is accounted for in the source term of the constraint by estimating the rate of phase change based on the time variation of saturated water vapor subject to the thermodynamic equilibrium constraint. The authors numerically assess the validity of the low Mach number approximation for moist atmospheric ...

  20. Receptor modeling of atmospheric aerosols in Federal Capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The air quality of Abuja urban air shed was investigated with a view to establishing sources of pollution in the city. Forty samples of coarse atmospheric particulates (PM2.5-10) were collected at different categories of spatially distributed receptor locations; high (High-dra) and low (Low-dra) density residential, commercial ...

  1. Development of a Scale-Consistent Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Modeling System Using COSMO, Community Land Model and ParFlow (United States)

    Shrestha, P.; Sulis, M.; Masbou, M.; Kollet, S. J.; Simmer, C.


    Here, we present the development and application of a modular scale-consistent coupled soil vegetation atmosphere (SVA) modeling system. The SVA modeling system developed at the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 32 (TR32, 2nd phase), consists of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German Weather Service) regional climate and weather forecast model COSMO (Consortium for Small Scale Modeling), the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Land Model (CLM) and the 3D variably saturated groundwater hydrology model ParFlow ( originally developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). The external coupler Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil (OASIS) developed at European Centre for Research and Advanced Training (CERFACS, Toulouse, France) is used to drive the SVA system and control the exchange of fluxes defined over different grids of the components of the modeling system. Idealized and realistic test case simulations are presented to show the capability of this SVA modeling system to simulate the land-atmosphere interactions including ground water dynamics. The development of this SVA modeling system will also allow the integration of various model advancement efforts (e.g. implementation of carbon cycle, crop dynamics, downscaling and upscaling algorithm, development of adjoint models) and ensures the availability of these developments to the scientific community.

  2. The critical assessment of vapour pressure estimation methods for use in modelling the formation of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Barley


    Full Text Available A selection of models for estimating vapour pressures have been tested against experimental data for a set of compounds selected for their particular relevance to the formation of atmospheric aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning. The experimental vapour pressure data (all <100 Pa of 45 multifunctional compounds provide a stringent test of the estimation techniques, with a recent complex group contribution method providing the best overall results. The effect of errors in vapour pressures upon the formation of organic aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning in an atmospherically relevant example is also investigated. The mass of organic aerosol formed under typical atmospheric conditions was found to be very sensitive to the variation in vapour pressure values typically present when comparing estimation methods.

  3. Nuclear weapons tests and short-term effects on atmospheric ozone (United States)

    Miller, A. J.; Krueger, A. J.; Prabhakara, C.; Hilsenrath, E.


    Observations made when Nimbus 4 passed over a nuclear cloud about three hours after the bomb exploded are presented. Infrared and BUV measurements indicated that the atmospheric ozone level in the area of cloud was significantly less than in areas directly north and south of the cloud. It is noted, however, that it is not possible to state definitively that the ozone depletion was caused by nitrogen oxides released in the nuclear weapons test, and that further observations must be made to clarify the situation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bondar


    Full Text Available It is shown that at present an acceptable way of reducing the concentration of harmful substances in the surface layer of the atmosphere at rheostat tests of locomotives is their dispersion in a large volume of air. Channels, installed above an exhaust pipe of diesel locomotive with a break at the gas flow, work as ejectors. We have solved jointly the equation of aerodynamic characteristics of the ejector device and the equation of diffusion of gases; as a result the calculated dependence for determining the necessary height of ejector device has been obtained.

  5. Experimental Modeling of Sterilization Effects for Atmospheric Entry Heating on Microorganisms (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Spry, James A.; Ronney, Paul D.; Pandian, Nathan R.; Welder, Eric


    The objective of this research was to design, build, and test an experimental apparatus for studying the parameters of atmospheric entry heating, and the inactivation of temperature-resistant bacterial spores. The apparatus is capable of controlled, rapid heating of sample coupons to temperatures of 200 to 350 C and above. The vacuum chamber permits operation under vacuum or special atmospheric gas mixtures.

  6. Model-based testing for software safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Havva Gulay; Tekinerdogan, Bedir


    Testing safety-critical systems is crucial since a failure or malfunction may result in death or serious injuries to people, equipment, or environment. An important challenge in testing is the derivation of test cases that can identify the potential faults. Model-based testing adopts models of a

  7. Inferring global and regional methane sources and sinks using isotopic observations and atmospheric chemical transport models (United States)

    Rigby, M. L.; Wenger, A.; O'Doherty, S.; Lunt, M. F.; Ganesan, A.; Manning, A.; Prinn, R. G.


    Measurements of the major isotopologues of atmospheric methane have the potential to improve our understanding of the methane budget at the global and regional scale. Using global and regional chemical transport models, we can predict the atmospheric variations in 13C-CH4 and D-CH4, for given assumptions about source isotope ratios and fractionation due to methane sinks. This information can then be used to test the impact that various measurement techniques, technologies and sampling strategies have on our knowledge of the methane budget. We show that, at the global scale, an extensive and accurate network of isotopic measurements can lead to a reduction in the uncertainties in the major global sources. Furthermore, measurements of the D/H ratio in methane may provide some level of uncertainty reduction in the magnitude of the OH sink. Uncertainties can be reduced with improved precision and accuracy of the atmospheric observations. However, to make the most of an atmospheric methane isotope network, we show that the characterisation of source isotope ratios must also be improved. Finally, we put the theory into practice by deriving sector-specific methane sources at the national scale using 13C-CH4 samples collected as part of the Greenhouse gAs Uk and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project. GAUGE measurements are made from a tall tower site to the east of the UK, a background station on the west coast of Ireland and during intensive aircraft sampling campaigns. We will discuss the challenges and benefits associated with adding isotopic information to a national greenhouse gas sampling network and outline a strategy for improvements in the future.

  8. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4: Atmospheric Response to Arctic SHFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Catrin M. [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, John J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Cassano, Elizabeth N. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA


    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  9. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling and Spatial Analysis to Evaluate Population Exposure to Pesticides from Farming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Costanzini


    Full Text Available This work originates from an epidemiological study aimed to assess the correlation between population exposure to pesticides used in agriculture and adverse health effects. In support of the population exposure evaluation two models implemented by the authors were applied: a GIS-based proximity model and the CAREA atmospheric dispersion model. In this work, the results of the two models are presented and compared. Despite the proximity analysis is widely used for these kinds of studies, it was investigated how meteorology could affect the exposure assessment. Both models were applied to pesticides emitted by 1519 agricultural fields and considering 2584 receptors distributed over an area of 8430 km2. CAREA output shows a considerable enhancement in the percentage of exposed receptors, from the 4% of the proximity model to the 54% of the CAREA model. Moreover, the spatial analysis of the results on a specific test site showed that the effects of meteorology considered by CAREA led to an anisotropic exposure distribution that differs considerably from the symmetric distribution resulting by the proximity model. In addition, the results of a field campaign for the definition and planning of ground measurement of concentration for the validation of CAREA are presented. The preliminary results showed how, during treatments, pesticide concentrations distant from the fields are significantly higher than background values.

  10. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  11. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He


    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV. In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP. The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models – GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTm_N – using different data sources in 2014 – the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  12. Large off-shore wind farms: linking wake models with atmospheric boundary layer models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, Gerard [Energy Research Centre, Wind Energy Dept., Petten (Netherlands); Barthelmie, Rebecca [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Rados, Kostas [Robert Gordon Univ., School of Mechanical and Offshore Engineering, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Lange, Bernhard [Oldenburg Univ., Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor Research EHF, Oldenburg (Germany); Schlez, Wolfgang [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Within the ENDOW project various candidate atmospheric and wake models are available to be incorporated into the design tool. In order to gain insight into the suitability of the various models and in the way how they can be linked, a questionnaire has been distributed between the various modelling partners. Using the response on the questionnaire an inventory of the different models has been made with emphasis on the items which determine the compatibility of the different models. Aspects, which are of importance for this compatibility are consistency from a physical point of view, but also consistency from an informatic point of view (i.e. input/output, platform, compiler etc.). In the paper the first results from the questionnaire are summarised. Thereto Section 2 gives a brief description of the questionnaire. This is followed by section 3 and 4, in which the response on the wake- and the atmospheric models is summarised respectively. In section 5 some first ideas on the interfacing are proposed. It must be noted that the present inventory is very preliminary: Many answers on the questionnaire are still lacking and the paper is mainly intended to encourage further research and as a template for similar studies. (Author)

  13. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van


    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  14. Analyzing early exo-Earths with a coupled atmosphere biogeochemical model (United States)

    Gebauer, Stefanie; Grenfell, John Lee; Stock, Joachim; Lehmann, Ralph; Godolt, Mareike; von Paris, Philip; Rauer, Heike


    Investigating Earth-like extrasolar planets with atmospheric models is a central focus in planetary science. Taking the development of Earth as a reference for Earth-like planets we investigate interactions between the atmosphere, planetary surface and organisms. The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is related to feedbacks between these three. Its origin and controlling mechanisms are not well defined - requiring interdisciplinary, coupled models. We present results from our newly-developed Coupled Atmosphere Biogeochemistry (CAB) model which is unique in the literature. Applying a unique tool (Pathway Analysis Program), ours is the first quantitative analysis of catalytic cycles governing O2 in early Earth's atmosphere near the GOE. Complicated oxidation pathways play a key role in destroying O2 whereas in the upper atmosphere, most O2 is formed abiotically via CO2 photolysis.

  15. Equilibrium model of thin magnetic flux tubes. [solar atmosphere (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Kalkofen, W.; Rosner, R.


    The existence of a physically realizable domain in which approximations that lead to a self consistent solution for flux tube stratification in the solar atmosphere, without ad hoc hypotheses, is proved. The transfer equation is solved assuming that no energy transport other than radiative is present. Convective motions inside the tube are assumed to be suppressed by magnetic forces. Only one parameter, the plasma beta at tau = 0, must be specified, and this can be estimated from observations of spatially resolved flux tubes.

  16. Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere (United States)


    airglow emission and the ionosphere. This would greatly enhance our ability to detect tsunamis in the ionosphere. RELATED PROJECTS Not at this time. ...Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the spectrum of atmospheric GWs excited by a tsunami (using ocean model data as input

  17. Summary of the March 25--26, 1991 atmospheric model working meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.


    Atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations for the initial phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project were made using the MESOILT2 computer code (Ramsdell and Burk 1991). This code implemented a Lagrangian trajectory, puff dispersion model using components from other models designed primarily for regulatory applications. Uncertainty in the dispersion calculations was estimated following model calculations. The results of the atmospheric dispersion calculations were summarized in frequency distributions by location for use in preliminary dose calculations.

  18. Model Atmospheres and Spectral Irradiance Library of the Exoplanet Host Stars Observed in the MUSCLES Survey (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey


    We propose to compute state-of-the-art model atmospheres (photospheres, chromospheres, transition regions and coronae) of the 4 K and 7 M exoplanet host stars observed by HST in the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, the nearest host star Proxima Centauri, and TRAPPIST-1. Our semi-empirical models will fit theunique high-resolution panchromatic (X-ray to infrared) spectra of these stars in the MAST High-Level Science Products archive consisting of COS and STIS UV spectra and near-simultaneous Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ground-based observations. We will compute models with the fully tested SSRPM computer software incorporating 52 atoms and ions in full non-LTE (435,986 spectral lines) and the 20 most-abundant diatomic molecules (about 2 million lines). This code has successfully fit the panchromatic spectrum of the M1.5 V exoplanet host star GJ 832 (Fontenla et al. 2016), the first M star with such a detailed model, and solar spectra. Our models will (1) predict the unobservable extreme-UV spectra, (2) determine radiative energy losses and balancing heating rates throughout these atmospheres, (3) compute a stellar irradiance library needed to describe the radiation environment of potentially habitable exoplanets to be studied by TESS and JWST, and (4) in the long post-HST era when UV observations will not be possible, the stellar irradiance library will be a powerful tool for predicting the panchromatic spectra of host stars that have only limited spectral coverage, in particular no UV spectra. The stellar models and spectral irradiance library will be placed quickly in MAST.

  19. Evaluation of radioxenon releases in Australia using atmospheric dispersion modelling tools. (United States)

    Tinker, Rick; Orr, Blake; Grzechnik, Marcus; Hoffmann, Emmy; Saey, Paul; Solomon, Stephen


    The origin of a series of atmospheric radioxenon events detected at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) International Monitoring System site in Melbourne, Australia, between November 2008 and February 2009 was investigated. Backward tracking analyses indicated that the events were consistent with releases associated with hot commission testing of the Australian Nuclear Science Technology Organisation (ANSTO) radiopharmaceutical production facility in Sydney, Australia. Forward dispersion analyses were used to estimate release magnitudes and transport times. The estimated (133)Xe release magnitude of the largest event (between 0.2 and 34 TBq over a 2 d window), was in close agreement with the stack emission releases estimated by the facility for this time period (between 0.5 and 2 TBq). Modelling of irradiation conditions and theoretical radioxenon emission rates were undertaken and provided further evidence that the Melbourne detections originated from this radiopharmaceutical production facility. These findings do not have public health implications. This is the first comprehensive study of atmospheric radioxenon measurements and releases in Australia. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnitude of fission product depositions from atmospheric nuclear weapon test fallout in France. (United States)

    Renaud, Philippe; Louvat, Didier


    The external dose attributable to fallout from worldwide atmospheric nuclear testing, which represents about 40% of the total effective dose received before 2000, is dominated by specific fission products such as 95Zr, 104Ba, 106Ru, 103Ru, and 144Ce, which are far less well-documented than 90Sr and 137Cs. The depositions of these nuclides over France were calculated on the basis of activity measurements in air and rainwater samples collected from 1961 to 1977. These depositions were then compared to the same radionuclides activities measured in grass during that period. This study shows that the transfer and deposition processes occur in a very similar manner for all the studied radionuclides. Depositions calculated in this study, consistent in most cases with UNSCEAR estimates, constitute a good basis for the external dose assessment of nuclear weapon test fallout over Western Europe.

  1. Implementation of Biophysical Factors Into the Land Surface and Atmosphere Interaction Model (United States)

    Hong, S.; Lakshmi, V.; Small, E. E.; Chen, F.


    We test the NOAH land surface model implemented into the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) by simulating surface skin temperature, vegetation fraction, and evapotranspiration in order to improve the model simulation. This study has two major questions: 1) Is the model simulation reliable with respect to real- time land surface variation and 2) what improvements from satellite remote sensing can be implemented or parameterized into the model simulations. The relationship between skin temperature and vegetation fraction impacts the variation of evapotranpiration, which is influenced by moisture availability on the surface and vice versa. The skin surface temperature varies with vegetation amount, land cover type, precipitation, topography, soil type and texture. Complex interactions between them determine the relationship between skin temperature and vegetation fraction and hence the evapotranspiration. Of the factors that influence the land surface-atmosphere interactions, water content in vegetation is investigated to examine the possibility of the model improvement. Vegetation water content, which is differently controlled by vegetation types, varies with land cover type as well as with the moisture conditions on the land surface. Oklahoma in the central U.S. is selected as the study area because it shows large variations of vegetation, from bare soil to fully vegetated, and of surface temperature during rainy seasons. The simulated variables are compared to the MODIS satellite data and the Mesonet ground-based observations. The model simulation is calibrated based on the real surface conditions provided by Mesonet observation data.

  2. Challenges and Opportunities in Modeling of the Global Atmosphere (United States)

    Janjic, Zavisa; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Vasic, Ratko


    are comparable to the scales of the dominant Rossby waves, such fictitious solutions are hard to identify and remove. Another new challenge on the global scale is that the limit of validity of the hydrostatic approximation is rapidly being approached. Relaxing the hydrostatic approximation requieres careful reformulation of the model dynamics and more computations and communications. The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) will be briefly discussed as an example. The non-hydrostatic dynamics were designed in such a way as to avoid over-specification. The global version is run on the latitude-longitude grid, and the polar filter selectively slows down the waves that would otherwise be unstable without modifying their amplitudes. The model has been successfully tested on various scales. The skill of the medium range forecasts produced by the NMMB is comparable to that of other major medium range models, and its computational efficiency on parallel computers is good.

  3. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole


    Here, we evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... of westerly wind directions observed at the wind farm. Simulations (post-processed to partly account for the wind direction uncertainty) and observations show good agreement for all stability classes, being the simulations using a stability-dependent wake decay coefficient closer to the data for the last...... turbines and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes are different...

  4. Modeling large offshore wind farms under different atmospheric stability regimes with the Park wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Rathmann, Ole


    We evaluate a modified version of the Park wake model against power data from a west-east row in the middle of the Horns Rev I offshore wind farm. The evaluation is performed on data classified in four different atmospheric stability conditions, for a narrow wind speed range, and a wide range...... of westerly wind directions observed at the wind farm. Simulations (post-processed to partly account for the wind direction uncertainty) and observations show good agreement for all stability classes, being the simulations using a stability-dependent wake decay coefficient closer to the data for the last...... turbines on the row and those using the WAsP recommended value closer to the data for the first turbines. It is generally seen that under stable and unstable atmospheric conditions the power deficits are the highest and lowest, respectively, but the wind conditions under both stability regimes...

  5. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010 (United States)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars


    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  6. Regional Sources of Atmospheric Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde, and Implications for Atmospheric Modeling (United States)

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations over the Eastern half of the United States are simulated with a 3-D air quality model to identify the most important chemical precursors under January and July conditions. We find that both aldehydes primarily result from photochemical...

  7. Complex Permittivity Model of Venus Atmosphere and Implications for Design of Imaging Altimeter and INSAR Orbiters (United States)

    Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.; Smrekar, S.; Wenkert, D.; Jordan, R.


    To design altimeter and interferometric SAR (InSAR) systems for measuring Venus' topography, the effects of Venus' atmosphere on the signals need to be investigated. These radar systems are envisioned to operate at X-band, and therefore, a model of Venus atmosphere permittivity profile at X-band is required and has been developed in this work. The effect of signal propagation through this atmosphere and its implication in designing the altimeter and the InSAR instruments are also investigated. The model was constructed for the complex dielectric constant of the atmosphere. Using relations between permittivity and polarization of polar material, the real part of the atmosphere dielectric constant was obtained by calculating the total polarization of the mixture of known atmospheric components including CO2, N2, H2O, SO2, H2SO4, CO, and OCS. The contribution of each atmospheric component to the mixture polarization was calculated based on given temperatures and component densities in the mixture. For each atmospheric component, the polarization was modeled as a function of frequency, temperature, and pressure based on available information in literature. Imaginary part of the atmospheric dielectric constant was calculated by superposing the measured absorptions of mixture components. The temperature and pressure dependences of absorption of each component were modeled according to measurement data and published information. Hence, based on several datasets inferred or directly measured from previous explorations of Venus, the complex dielectric constant profile has been constructed. The validity of the atmosphere permittivity model has been verified by comparing simulation results with measurement data of Venus atmosphere, e.g., from nadir refractivity and absorption measured by the Magellan mission for a portion of the profile. Using this simulated dielectric constant profile, the X-band electromagnetic wave propagation in Venus atmosphere has been modeled, in

  8. Evaluating stomatal models and their atmospheric drought response in a land surface scheme: A multibiome analysis (United States)

    Knauer, Jürgen; Werner, Christiane; Zaehle, Sönke


    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key variable in Earth system models as it regulates the transfer of carbon and water between the terrestrial biosphere and the lower atmosphere. Various approaches have been developed that aim for a simple representation of stomatal regulation applicable at the global scale. These models differ, among others, in their response to atmospheric humidity, which induces stomatal closure in a dry atmosphere. In this study, we compared the widely used empirical Ball-Berry and Leuning stomatal conductance models to an alternative empirical approach, an optimization-based approach, and a semimechanistic hydraulic model. We evaluated these models using evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) observations derived from eddy covariance measurements at 56 sites across multiple biomes and climatic conditions. The different models were embedded in the land surface model JSBACH. Differences in performance across plant functional types or climatic conditions were small, partly owing to the large variations in the observational data. The models yielded comparable results at low to moderate atmospheric drought but diverged under dry atmospheric conditions, where models with a low sensitivity to air humidity tended to overestimate gs. The Ball-Berry model gave the best fit to the data for most biomes and climatic conditions, but all evaluated approaches have proven adequate for use in land surface models. Our findings further encourage future efforts toward a vegetation-type-specific parameterization of gs to improve the modeling of coupled terrestrial carbon and water dynamics.

  9. Theoretical oscillation frequencies for solar-type dwarfs from stellar models with 〈3D〉-atmospheres (United States)

    Jørgensen, Andreas Christ Sølvsten; Weiss, Achim; Mosumgaard, Jakob Rørsted; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Sahlholdt, Christian Lundsgaard


    We present a new method for replacing the outermost layers of stellar models with interpolated atmospheres based on results from 3D simulations, in order to correct for structural inadequacies of these layers. This replacement is known as patching. Tests, based on 3D atmospheres from three different codes and interior models with different input physics, are performed. Using solar models, we investigate how different patching criteria affect the eigenfrequencies. These criteria include the depth, at which the replacement is performed, the quantity, on which the replacement is based, and the mismatch in Teff and log g between the un-patched model and patched 3D atmosphere. We find the eigenfrequencies to be unaltered by the patching depth deep within the adiabatic region, while changing the patching quantity or the employed atmosphere grid leads to frequency shifts that may exceed 1 μHz. Likewise, the eigenfrequencies are sensitive to mismatches in Teff or log g. A thorough investigation of the accuracy of a new scheme, for interpolating mean 3D stratifications within the atmosphere grids, is furthermore performed. Throughout large parts of the atmosphere grids, our interpolation scheme yields sufficiently accurate results for the purpose of asteroseismology. We apply our procedure in asteroseismic analyses of four Kepler stars and draw the same conclusions as in the solar case: Correcting for structural deficiencies lowers the eigenfrequencies, this correction is slightly sensitive to the patching criteria, and the remaining frequency discrepancy between models and observations is less frequency dependent. Our work shows the applicability and relevance of patching in asteroseismology.

  10. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO2 simulation (United States)

    Bian, H.; Kawa, S. R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Rasch, P.; Wu, S.


    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO2 distributions. Global CO2 in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO2 by adopting the same CO2 emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection. Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO2 over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO2 difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO2 seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO2 sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO2 driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  11. Identifying the European fossil fuel plumes in the atmosphere over the Northeast Atlantic Region through isotopic observations and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, C.; Christensen, J.H.; Hansen, A.W.


    Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August......Atmospheric transport, C-14. fossil fuel CO_2, numerical modeling, the north East Atlantic Region Udgivelsesdato: 18 August...

  12. Study of fundamental physical principles in atmospheric modeling based on identification of atmosphere - climate control factors

    CERN Document Server

    Iudin, M


    Several critical review articles have been published on tropospheric halogen chemistry. One of the leading subjects of publications is the Arctic ozone depletion events (ODE) at polar sunrise. The articles deal with a wide spectrum of questions: from the detailed reaction cycles of chlorine, iodine and bromine species to processing of satellite data of vertical column BrO. For a long time, bromine explosion - natural phenomenon of exponential increase in gaseous Br radicals happening in springtime Arctic has remained main puzzle for explorers. In this paper, the possible bromine emission ground inventories in polar Arctic region are examined. Resulted model amounts of BrO and Bry equated satellite data on vertical column BrO. By looking at the bromine spread out in Arctic marine boundary layer (MBL) in the context of a network with rank linkage, the author rationalized model bromine flux empirical expression. Then, based on the obtained features of bromine explosion, author opens discussion on the parametrica...

  13. Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle Simulated in The Global Model GOCART: Model Description and Global Properties (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Rood, Richard B.; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Mueller, Jean-Francois; Thompson, Anne M.


    The Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the atmospheric sulfur cycle. The model uses the simulated meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). Global sulfur budgets from a 6-year simulation for SO2, sulfate, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) are presented in this paper. In a normal year without major volcanic perturbations, about 20% of the sulfate precursor emission is from natural sources (biogenic and volcanic) and 80% is anthropogenic: the same sources contribute 339% and 67% respectively to the total sulfate burden. A sulfate production efficiency of 0.41 - 0.42 is estimated in the model, an efficiency which is defined as a ratio of the amount oi sulfate produced to the total amount of SO2 emitted and produced in the atmosphere. This value indicates that less than half of the SO2 entering the atmosphere contributes to the sulfate production, the rest being removed by dry and wet depositions. In a simulation for 1990, we estimate a total sulfate production of 39 Tg S /yr with 36% and 64% respectively from in-air and in-cloud oxidation of SO2. We also demonstrate that major volcanic eruptions, such as the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991, can significantly change the sulfate formation pathways, distributions, abundance, and lifetime. Comparison with other models shows that the parameterizations for wet removal or wet production of sulfate are the most critical factors in determining the burdens of SO2 and sulfate. Therefore, a priority for future research should be to reduce the large uncertainties associated with the wet physical and chemical processes.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews


    CAU 104 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C • 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 • 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site • 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a • 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) • 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) • 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) • 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie • 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) • 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) • 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth • 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 • 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b • 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax These 15 CASs include releases from 30 atmospheric tests conducted in the approximately 1 square mile of CAU 104. Because releases associated with the CASs included in this CAU overlap and are not separate and distinguishable, these CASs are addressed jointly at the CAU level. The purpose of this CADD/CAP is to evaluate potential corrective action alternatives (CAAs), provide the rationale for the selection of recommended CAAs, and provide the plan for implementation of the recommended CAA for CAU 104. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 4, 2011, through May 3, 2012, as set forth in the CAU 104 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz


    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  16. Modeling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Cohen


    Full Text Available Abstract Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes continues to have important public health and wildlife ecotoxicology impacts, and atmospheric deposition is a significant ongoing loading pathway. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount and source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition to each lake, information needed to prioritize amelioration efforts. A new global, Eulerian version of the HYSPLIT-Hg model was used to simulate the 2005 global atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury to the Great Lakes. In addition to the base case, 10 alternative model configurations were used to examine sensitivity to uncertainties in atmospheric mercury chemistry and surface exchange. A novel atmospheric lifetime analysis was used to characterize fate and transport processes within the model. Model-estimated wet deposition and atmospheric concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 were generally within ∼10% of measurements in the Great Lakes region. The model overestimated non-Hg(0 concentrations by a factor of 2–3, similar to other modeling studies. Potential reasons for this disagreement include model inaccuracies, differences in atmospheric Hg fractions being compared, and the measurements being biased low. Lake Erie, downwind of significant local/regional emissions sources, was estimated by the model to be the most impacted by direct anthropogenic emissions (58% of the base case total deposition, while Lake Superior, with the fewest upwind local/regional sources, was the least impacted (27%. The U.S. was the largest national contributor, followed by China, contributing 25% and 6%, respectively, on average, for the Great Lakes. The contribution of U.S. direct anthropogenic emissions to total mercury deposition varied between 46% for the base case (with a range of 24–51% over all model configurations for Lake Erie and 11% (range 6–13% for Lake Superior. These results illustrate the importance of atmospheric

  17. Implementing Numerical Experiments Based on the Coupled Model of Atmospheric General Circulation and Thermohaline Ocean One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko


    Full Text Available The paper presents a realized hydrodynamic three-dimensional global climatic model, which comprises the model blocks of atmospheric general circulation, thermohaline large-scale circulation of the ocean, and sea ice evolution. Before rather strongly aggregated heat-moisturebalance model of the atmosphere for temperature and humidity of a surface layer was used as a model of the atmosphere. The atmospheric general circulation model is significantly more complicated and allows us to describe processes in the atmosphere more adequately. Functioning of a coupled climatic model is considered in conditions of the seasonal cycle of solar radiation.The paper considers a procedure for coupled calculation of the ocean model and atmospheric general circulation model. Synchronization of a number of parameters in both models is necessary for their joint action. In this regard a procedure of two-dimensional interpolation of data defined on the grids of the ocean model and atmosphere model and back is developed. A feature of this task is discrepancy of grid nodes and continental configurations in models. Coupled model-based long-term calculations for more than 400 years have shown its stable work. Calculation results and comparison with observation data are under discussion.The paper shows distribution of mean global atmosphere temperature versus time in stable conditions to demonstrate that there is inter-annual variability of atmosphere temperature at the steady state of a climate system. It presents distribution of temperature difference of the ocean surface from the observations and from the model of the ocean thermohaline circulation for January. Noticeable deviations of temperature are observed near Antarctica. Apparently, it is because of inaccurate calculation of the sea ice distribution in model. The geographical distribution of the ocean surface temperature for January with coupled calculation shows, in general, a zonal uniform structure of isolines

  18. Evaluating 20th Century precipitation characteristics between multi-scale atmospheric models with different land-atmosphere coupling (United States)

    Phillips, M.; Denning, A. S.; Randall, D. A.; Branson, M.


    Multi-scale models of the atmosphere provide an opportunity to investigate processes that are unresolved by traditional Global Climate Models while at the same time remaining viable in terms of computational resources for climate-length time scales. The MMF represents a shift away from large horizontal grid spacing in traditional GCMs that leads to overabundant light precipitation and lack of heavy events, toward a model where precipitation intensity is allowed to vary over a much wider range of values. Resolving atmospheric motions on the scale of 4 km makes it possible to recover features of precipitation, such as intense downpours, that were previously only obtained by computationally expensive regional simulations. These heavy precipitation events may have little impact on large-scale moisture and energy budgets, but are outstanding in terms of interaction with the land surface and potential impact on human life. Three versions of the Community Earth System Model were used in this study; the standard CESM, the multi-scale `Super-Parameterized' CESM where large-scale parameterizations have been replaced with a 2D cloud-permitting model, and a multi-instance land version of the SP-CESM where each column of the 2D CRM is allowed to interact with an individual land unit. These simulations were carried out using prescribed Sea Surface Temperatures for the period from 1979-2006 with daily precipitation saved for all 28 years. Comparisons of the statistical properties of precipitation between model architectures and against observations from rain gauges were made, with specific focus on detection and evaluation of extreme precipitation events.

  19. Model-Based Testing: The New Revolution in Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The efforts spent on testing are enormous due to the continuing quest for better software quality, and the ever growing complexity of software systems. The situation is aggravated by the fact that the complexity of testing tends to grow faster than the complexity of the systems being tested, in the worst case even exponentially. Whereas development and construction methods for software allow the building of ever larger and more complex systems, there is a real danger that testing methods cannot keep pace with construction, hence these new systems cannot be sufficiently fast and thoroughly be tested. This may seriously hamper the development of future generations of software systems. One of the new technologies to meet the challenges imposed on software testing is model-based testing. Models can be utilized in many ways throughout the product life-cycle, including: improved quality of specifications, code generation, reliability analysis, and test generation. This paper will focus on the testing benefits from MBT methods and review some of the historical challenges that prevented model based testing and we also try to present the solutions that can overcome these challenges.

  20. An Energy Budget Model to Calculate the Low Atmosphere Profiles of Effective Sound Speed at Night

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tunick, Arnold


    ...) for generating low atmosphere profiles of effective sound speed at night. The alternate model is based on the solution of a quartic equation for surface temperature, which assumes a balance between the net long wave...

  1. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere...

  2. Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Vorticity based parameterization for specification of Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere ozone in atmospheric models - the data set consists of 3D O3...

  3. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  4. Land Surface Model (LSM 1.0) for Ecological, Hydrological, Atmospheric Studies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NCAR LSM 1.0 is a land surface model developed to examine biogeophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere interactions, especially the effects of land surfaces...

  5. Land Surface Model (LSM 1.0) for Ecological, Hydrological, Atmospheric Studies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The NCAR LSM 1.0 is a land surface model developed to examine biogeophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere interactions, especially the effects of...

  6. MAPSS: Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System Model, Version 1.0 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPSS (Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System) is a landscape to global vegetation distribution model that was developed to simulate the potential biosphere impacts and...

  7. Modeling chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide in microreactors at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konakov, S.A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.


    We developed a multiphysics mathematical model for simulation of silicon dioxide Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and oxygen mixture in a microreactor at atmospheric pressure. Microfluidics is a promising technology with numerous applications in chemical synthesis

  8. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Maui-Oahu (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Hawaiian islands of Oahu,...

  9. Puff-plume atmospheric deposition model for use at SRP in emergency-response situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.


    An atmospheric transport and diffusion model developed for real-time calculation of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release was improved by including deposition calculations.

  10. Local predictability in a simple model of atmospheric balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gyarmati


    Full Text Available The 2 degree-of-freedom elastic pendulum equations can be considered as the lowest order analogue of interacting low-frequency (slow Rossby-Haurwitz and high-frequency (fast gravity waves in the atmosphere. The strength of the coupling between the low and the high frequency waves is controlled by a single coupling parameter, e, defined by the ratio of the fast and slow characteristic time scales. In this paper, efficient, high accuracy, and symplectic structure preserving numerical solutions are designed for the elastic pendulum equation in order to study the role balanced dynamics play in local predictability. To quantify changes in the local predictability, two measures are considered: the local Lyapunov number and the leading singular value of the tangent linear map. It is shown, both based on theoretical considerations and numerical experiments, that there exist regions of the phase space where the local Lyapunov number indicates exceptionally high predictability, while the dominant singular value indicates exceptionally low predictability. It is also demonstrated that the local Lyapunov number has a tendency to choose instabilities associated with balanced motions, while the dominant singular value favors instabilities related to highly unbalanced motions. The implications of these findings for atmospheric dynamics are also discussed.

  11. A review of wind field models for atmospheric transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Skyllingstad, E.D.


    The primary objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is developing a computer code to estimate these doses and their uncertainties. The code, known as the HEDR integrated Code (HEDRIC), consists of four separate component codes. One of the component codes, called the Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) combines meteorological and release data to estimate time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination at specific locations in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The RATCHET domain covers approximately 75,000 square miles, extending from the crest of the Cascade Mountains on the west to the eastern edge of the Idaho panhandle and from central Oregon on the south to the Canadian border. This letter report explains the procedures in RATCHET that transform observed wind data into the wind fields used in atmospheric transport calculations. It also describes and evaluates alternative procedures not selected for use in RATCHET.

  12. Test atmospheres of diisocyanates with special reference to controlled exposure of humans. (United States)

    Brorson, T; Skarping, G; Renman, L; Sangö, C


    An all glass apparatus for the generation of air concentrations of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was developed. The generation principle was based on gas-phase permeation with permeation membranes of silicon rubber. In an 8 m3 stainless steel test chamber, low and steady TDI-and HDI atmospheres (1-100 micrograms/m3) could be maintained. The diisocyanate concentrations were determined by an HPLC method, using the 9-(N-methylaminomethyl)-anthracene reagent utilizing UV detection. The sum of diisocyanates and their related amines were determined by sampling in 0.4 M hydrochloric acid solution, and analysis by capillary gas chromatography with thermionic specific detection. Related amines were determined by sampling in ethanol - 0.2% KOH and analysis on GC-TSD. A continuous band-tape monitor was used for the determination of diisocyanates. Losses of diisocyanates in the test chamber were evaluated by measuring the TDI and HDI concentrations at the inlet respectively the outlet of the test chamber. At the outlet of the test chamber, ca 25% of the TDI respectively HDI concentrations were recovered. With a male subject in the test chamber ca 15% of the HDI concentration was recovered. The air flow through the test chamber was ca 10 m3/h. The changes in isomeric composition of airborne TDI, at stopped flow conditions, showed that the decay of the 2,4-isomer was faster than of the 2,6-isomer. No trace of the related amine toluene diamine (TDA) was detected in the test chamber, at TDI concentrations ranging from 20 to 50 micrograms/m3. Sampling losses due to sampling connections were evaluated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  14. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.


    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  15. Atomic Action Refinement in Model Based Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bijl, H.M.; Rensink, Arend; Tretmans, G.J.


    In model based testing (MBT) test cases are derived from a specification of the system that we want to test. In general the specification is more abstract than the implementation. This may result in 1) test cases that are not executable, because their actions are too abstract (the implementation

  16. Atmospheric pollution. From processes to modelling; Pollution atmospherique. Des processus a la modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sportisse, B. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC), Centre d' Enseignement et de Recherche en Environnement Atmospherique, Lab. Commun ENPC, 75 - Paris (France)


    Air quality, greenhouse effect, ozone hole, chemical or nuclear accidents.. All these phenomena are tightly linked to the chemical composition of atmosphere and to the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This book aims at supplying the main elements of understanding of 'atmospheric pollutions': stakes, physical processes involved, role of scientific expertise in decision making. Content: 1 - classifications and scales: chemical composition of the atmosphere, vertical structure, time scales (transport, residence); 2 - matter/light interaction: notions of radiative transfer, application to the Earth's atmosphere; 3 - some elements about the atmospheric boundary layer: notion of scales in meteorology, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), thermal stratification and stability, description of ABL turbulence, elements of atmospheric dynamics, some elements about the urban climate; 4 - notions of atmospheric chemistry: characteristics, ozone stratospheric chemistry, ozone tropospheric chemistry, brief introduction to indoor air quality; 5 - aerosols, clouds and rains: aerosols and particulates, aerosols and clouds, acid rains and leaching; 6 - towards numerical simulation: equation of reactive dispersion, numerical methods for chemistry-transport models, numerical resolution of the general equation of aerosols dynamics (GDE), modern simulation chains, perspectives. (J.S.)

  17. Traceability in Model-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew George


    Full Text Available The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML for defining the relationships between models.

  18. Modeling of atmospheric iron processing carried by mineral dust and its deposition to ocean (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Vukovic, Ana; Vujadinovic, Mirjam


    Relatively insoluble iron in dust originating from desert soils increases its solubility after Fe carried by mineral dust is chemically processed by the atmosphere. After dust is deposited deposition to the ocean, soluble Fe as a nutrient could enhance the marine primary production. The atmospheric dust cycle is driven by the atmospheric processes often of smaller, meso-scales. The soil mineralogy of dust emitted from sources determines also how much Fe in the aerosol will be finding. Once Fe is exposed to the atmospheric processes, the atmospheric radiation, clouds and polluted air will chemically affect the iron in dust. Global dust-iron models, having typical horizontal resolutions of 100-300 km which are mostly used to numerically simulate the fate of iron in the atmosphere can provide rather global picture of the dust and iron transport, but not details. Such models often introduce simplistic approximation on the Fe content in dust-productive soils. To simulate the Fe processing we instead implemented a high resolution regional atmospheric dust-iron model with detailed 1km global map for the geographic distribution of Fe content in soil. We also introduced a parameterization of the Fe processing caused by dust mineralogy, cloud processes and solar radiation. We will present results from simulation experiments in order to explore the model capability to reproduce major observed patterns of deposited Fe into the Atlantic cruises.

  19. Theory, measurements, and models of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Saturn (United States)

    Atreya, S. K.; Donahue, T. M.; Nagy, A. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mcconnell, J. C.


    The structure and composition of the thermosphere, exosphere, and ionosphere of saturn have been determined from observations at optical and radio wavelengths mainly by instruments aboard Voyager spacecraft. Techniques for determining the vertical profiles of temperature and density and the atmospheric vertical mixing in the upper Saturn atmosphere are discussed. Radio occultation measurements and theoretical models of Saturn's ionosphere are reviewed, and attempts to interpret the measurements using the models are discussed. Finally, mechanisms of thermospheric heating are examined.

  20. Atmospheric dispersion modelling of particulate and gaseous pollutants affecting the trans-Manche region


    Plainiotis, Stylianos


    This thesis describes the development of a methodology to determine large-scale and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion patterns. The research is only concerned with outdoor exposure to atmospheric pollutants and aims to identify pollution sources using dispersion modelling with the assistance of ground level measurements from British, French and other monitoring stations and remote sensing technology. \\ud \\ud Lagrangian Particle Dispersion (LPD) models compute trajectories of a large number of...

  1. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.


    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  2. Joint test for structural model specification


    Serkan YÜKSEL


    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Aim of this thesis is to propose a test statistic that can test for true structural model in time series. Main concern of the thesis is to suggest a test statistic, which has joint null of unit root and no structural break (difference stationary model). When joint null hypothesis is rejected, source of deviation from the null model may be structural break or (and) stationarity. Sources of the deviation correspond to different structural...

  3. Final Technical Report: Development of the DUSTRAN GIS-Based Complex Terrain Model for Atmospheric Dust Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Shaw, William J.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Seiple, Timothy E.


    Activities at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) training and testing ranges can be sources of dust in local and regional airsheds governed by air-quality regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory just completed a multi-year project to develop a fully tested and documented atmospheric dispersion modeling system (DUST TRANsport or DUSTRAN) to assist the DoD in addressing particulate air-quality issues at military training and testing ranges.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Street; F. L. Ludwig; Y. Chen


    Our DOE project is one of the efforts comprising the Vertical Transport and Mixing Program of the Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in Department of Energy. We used ARPS to simulate flow in the Salt Lake Valley. We simulated the physical processes more accurately so that we can better understand the physics of flow in complex terrain and its effects at larger scales. The simulations provided evidence that atmospheric forcing interacts with the Jordan Narrows, the Traverse Range and other complex mountain terrain at the south end of the Salt Lake Valley to produce lee rotors, hydraulic jumps and other effects. While we have successfully used ARPS to simulate VTMX 2000 flows, we have also used observed data to test the model and identify some of its weaknesses. Those are being addressed in a continuation project supported by DOE.

  5. Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Travis A.; Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark; Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.


    We use observations of robust scaling behavior in clouds and precipitation to derive constraints on how partitioning of precipitation should change with model resolution. Our analysis indicates that 90-99% of stratiform precipitation should occur in clouds that are resolvable by contemporary climate models (e.g., with 200 km or finer grid spacing). Furthermore, this resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation should increase sharply with resolution, such that effectively all stratiform precipitation should be resolvable above scales of ~50 km. We show that the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model also exhibit the robust cloud and precipitation scaling behavior that is present in observations, yet the resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation actually decreases with increasing model resolution. A suite of experiments with multiple dynamical cores provides strong evidence that this `scale-incognizant' behavior originates in one of the CAM4 parameterizations. An additional set of sensitivity experiments rules out both convection parameterizations, and by a process of elimination these results implicate the stratiform cloud and precipitation parameterization. Tests with the CAM5 physics package show improvements in the resolution-dependence of resolved cloud fraction and resolved stratiform precipitation fraction.

  6. Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model Simulations of Precipitation in the Central Andes (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen D.; Mohr, Karen I.


    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. In addition, South American meteorology and climate are also made further complicated by ENSO, a powerful coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. Modelling studies in this region have typically resorted to either atmospheric mesoscale or atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models. The latter offers full physics and high spatial resolution, but it is computationally inefficient typically lack an interactive ocean, whereas the former offers high computational efficiency and ocean-atmosphere coupling, but it lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution to adequate resolve the complex orography and explicitly simulate precipitation. Explicit simulation of precipitation is vital in the Central Andes where rainfall rates are light (0.5-5 mm hr-1), there is strong seasonality, and most precipitation is associated with weak mesoscale-organized convection. Recent increases in both computational power and model development have led to the advent of coupled ocean-atmosphere mesoscale models for both weather and climate study applications. These modelling systems, while computationally expensive, include two-way ocean-atmosphere coupling, high resolution, and explicit simulation of precipitation. In this study, we use the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST), a fully-coupled mesoscale atmosphere-ocean modeling system. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data when ECMWF interim analysis data were used for boundary conditions on a 27-9-km grid configuration (Outer grid extent: 60.4S to 17.7N and 118.6W to 17.4W).

  7. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LeDuc, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  8. Detailed source term estimation of the atmospheric release for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident by coupling simulations of an atmospheric dispersion model with an improved deposition scheme and oceanic dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katata, G.; Chino, M.; Kobayashi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki (Japan); and others


    cumulative surface deposition of total {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs and air dose rate obtained by airborne surveys. The new source term was also tested using three atmospheric dispersion models (Modele Lagrangien de Dispersion de Particules d'ordre zero: MLDP0, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model: HYSPLIT, and Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment: NAME) for regional and global calculations, and the calculated results showed good agreement with observed air concentration and surface deposition of {sup 137}Cs in eastern Japan.

  9. Software Testing and Verification in Climate Model Development (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.; Rood, RIchard B.


    Over the past 30 years most climate models have grown from relatively simple representations of a few atmospheric processes to a complex multi-disciplinary system. Computer infrastructure over that period has gone from punch card mainframes to modem parallel clusters. Model implementations have become complex, brittle, and increasingly difficult to extend and maintain. Existing verification processes for model implementations rely almost exclusively upon some combination of detailed analysis of output from full climate simulations and system-level regression tests. In additional to being quite costly in terms of developer time and computing resources, these testing methodologies are limited in terms of the types of defects that can be detected, isolated and diagnosed. Mitigating these weaknesses of coarse-grained testing with finer-grained "unit" tests has been perceived as cumbersome and counter-productive. In the commercial software sector, recent advances in tools and methodology have led to a renaissance for systematic fine-grained testing. We discuss the availability of analogous tools for scientific software and examine benefits that similar testing methodologies could bring to climate modeling software. We describe the unique challenges faced when testing complex numerical algorithms and suggest techniques to minimize and/or eliminate the difficulties.

  10. Modelling atmospheric transport of α-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Northern Hemispherewith a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Hansen


    Full Text Available The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange processes of POPs.

  11. Applicability of Simplified Simulation Models for Perforation-Mediated Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ji Kwon


    Full Text Available The comprehensive mass balances of differential equations involving gas diffusion and hydraulic convection through package perforation, gas permeation through polymeric film, and produce respiration have commonly been used to predict the atmosphere of perforated fresh produce packages. However, the predictions often suffer from instability, and to circumvent this problem, a simplified diffusion model that omits the convective gas transfer and empirical models based on experimental mass transfer data have been developed and investigated previously by several researchers. This study investigated the potential and limitations of the simplified diffusion model and two empirical models for predicting the atmosphere in perforated produce packages. The simplified diffusion model satisfactorily estimated the atmosphere inside the perforated packages of fresh produce under the aerobic conditions examined. Published empirical models of the mass transfer coefficients of the perforation seem to be valid only for the measured conditions and thus should be used carefully for that specific purpose.

  12. Modeling the Cloudy Atmospheres of Cool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Hot Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncher, Diana

    M-dwarfs are very attractive targets when searching for new exoplanets. Unfortunately, they are also very difficult to model since their temperatures are low enough for dust clouds to form in their atmospheres. Because the properties of an exoplanet cannot be determined without knowing the proper......M-dwarfs are very attractive targets when searching for new exoplanets. Unfortunately, they are also very difficult to model since their temperatures are low enough for dust clouds to form in their atmospheres. Because the properties of an exoplanet cannot be determined without knowing......-consistent cloudy atmosphere models that can be used to properly determine the stellar parameters of cool stars. With this enhanced model atmosphere code I have created a grid of cool, dusty atmosphere models ranging in effective temperatures from Teff = 2000 − 3000 K. I have studied the formation and structure...... of their clouds and found that their synthetic spectra fit the observed spectra of mid to late type M-dwarfs and early type L-dwarfs well. With additional development into even cooler regimes, they could be used to characterize the atmospheres of exoplanets and aid us in our search for the kind of chemical...

  13. lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Brockhoff, Per B.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    One of the frequent questions by users of the mixed model function lmer of the lme4 package has been: How can I get p values for the F and t tests for objects returned by lmer? The lmerTest package extends the 'lmerMod' class of the lme4 package, by overloading the anova and summary functions...... by providing p values for tests for fixed effects. We have implemented the Satterthwaite's method for approximating degrees of freedom for the t and F tests. We have also implemented the construction of Type I - III ANOVA tables. Furthermore, one may also obtain the summary as well as the anova table using...

  14. Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.


    The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…

  15. Testing predictive performance of binary choice models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.D. Donkers (Bas); B. Melenberg (Bertrand)


    textabstractBinary choice models occur frequently in economic modeling. A measure of the predictive performance of binary choice models that is often reported is the hit rate of a model. This paper develops a test for the outperformance of a predictor for binary outcomes over a naive prediction

  16. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling system. (United States)

    Basit, Abdul; Espinosa, Francisco; Avila, Ruben; Raza, S; Irfan, N


    In this paper we present an atmospheric dispersion scenario for a proposed nuclear power plant in Pakistan involving the hypothetical accidental release of radionuclides. For this, a concept involving a Lagrangian stochastic particle model (LSPM) coupled with an Eulerian regional atmospheric modelling system (RAMS) is used. The atmospheric turbulent dispersion of radionuclides (represented by non-buoyant particles/neutral traces) in the LSPM is modelled by applying non-homogeneous turbulence conditions. The mean wind velocities governed by the topography of the region and the surface fluxes of momentum and heat are calculated by the RAMS code. A moving least squares (MLS) technique is introduced to calculate the concentration of radionuclides at ground level. The numerically calculated vertical profiles of wind velocity and temperature are compared with observed data. The results obtained demonstrate that in regions of complex terrain it is not sufficient to model the atmospheric dispersion of particles using a straight-line Gaussian plume model, and that by utilising a Lagrangian stochastic particle model and regional atmospheric modelling system a much more realistic estimation of the dispersion in such a hypothetical scenario was ascertained. The particle dispersion results for a 12 h ground release show that a triangular area of about 400 km(2) situated in the north-west quadrant of release is under radiological threat. The particle distribution shows that the use of a Gaussian plume model (GPM) in such situations will yield quite misleading results.

  17. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods (United States)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)


    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.


    The offsite drift of pesticide from spray operations is an ongoing source of concern. The SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) system, documented in this report, incorporates the near-field spray application model, AGDISP, into a meso-scale atmospheric transport model. The AGDISP model ...

  19. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO{sub 2} simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). UMBC Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center; Kawa, S.R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rasch, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wu, S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO{sub 2} distributions. Global CO{sub 2} in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO{sub 2} by adopting the same CO{sub 2} emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection.Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO{sub 2} over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO{sub 2} difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO{sub 2} seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO{sub 2} sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO{sub 2} driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  20. Meteorological Modeling Using the WRF-ARW Model for Grand Bay Intensive Studies of Atmospheric Mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Ngan


    Full Text Available Measurements at the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve support a range of research activities aimed at improving the understanding of the atmospheric fate and transport of mercury. Routine monitoring was enhanced by two intensive measurement periods conducted at the site in summer 2010 and spring 2011. Detailed meteorological data are required to properly represent the weather conditions, to determine the transport and dispersion of plumes and to understand the wet and dry deposition of mercury. To describe the mesoscale features that might influence future plume calculations for mercury episodes during the Grand Bay Intensive campaigns, fine-resolution meteorological simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model were conducted with various initialization and nudging configurations. The WRF simulations with nudging generated reasonable results in comparison with conventional observations in the region and measurements obtained at the Grand Bay site, including surface and sounding data. The grid nudging, together with observational nudging, had a positive effect on wind prediction. However, the nudging of mass fields (temperature and moisture led to overestimates of precipitation, which may introduce significant inaccuracies if the data were to be used for subsequent atmospheric mercury modeling. The regional flow prediction was also influenced by the reanalysis data used to initialize the WRF simulations. Even with observational nudging, the summer case simulation results in the fine resolution domain inherited features of the reanalysis data, resulting in different regional wind patterns. By contrast, the spring intensive period showed less influence from the reanalysis data.

  1. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz


    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an aerotol...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  2. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. (United States)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz


    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max, C.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.

  4. Assessment of CNRM coupled ocean-atmosphere model sensitivity to the representation of aerosols (United States)

    Watson, Laura; Michou, Martine; Nabat, Pierre; Saint-Martin, David


    Atmospheric aerosols can significantly affect the Earth's radiative balance due to absorption, scattering and aerosol-cloud interactions. Although our understanding of aerosol properties has improved over recent decades, aerosol radiative forcing remains as one of the largest uncertainties when attributing recent and projecting future anthropogenic climate change. Ensembles of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model were used to investigate how the representation of aerosols within the model can affect climate. The control simulation consisted of a 30-year simulation with an interactive aerosol scheme and aerosol emissions that evolve from 1980-2009. The sensitivity tests included using constant 1980 emissions, using prescribed 2-D monthly mean AODs, modifying the aerosol vertical distribution, altering aerosol optical properties, and changing the parameters used for calculating the aerosol first indirect effect. The results of these sensitivity studies show how modifying certain aspects of the aerosol scheme can significantly affect radiative flux and temperature. In particular, it was shown that compared to the control simulation the use of constant 1980 aerosol emissions decreased the average winter surface temperature of the Arctic by 0.2 K and that the use of prescribed 2-D monthly mean AODs reduced the annual global surface temperature by 0.3 K. Increasing the vertical distribution of anthropogenic aerosols in the model and altering aerosol optical properties modified localised radiative fluxes and temperatures, but the most significant change in global surface temperature (1.3 K) was caused by removing sea salt and organic matter from the calculation of cloud droplet number concentration.

  5. The Framework for 0-D Atmospheric Modeling (F0AM) v3.1 (United States)

    Wolfe, Glenn M.; Marvin, Margaret R.; Roberts, Sandra J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Liao, Jin


    The Framework for 0-D Atmospheric Modeling(F0AM) is a flexible and user-friendly MATLAB-based platform for simulation of atmospheric chemistry systems. The F0AM interface incorporates front-end configuration of observational constraints and model setups, making it readily adaptable to simulation of photochemical chambers, Lagrangian plumes, and steady-state or time-evolving solar cycles. Six different chemical mechanisms and three options for calculation of photolysis frequencies are currently available. Example simulations are presented to illustrate model capabilities and, more generally, highlight some of the advantages and challenges of 0-D box modeling.

  6. Testing models for structure formation. (United States)

    Kaiser, N.

    The author reviews a number of tests of theories for structure formation. Large-scale flows and IRAS galaxies indicate a high density parameter Ω ≅ 1, in accord with inflationary predictions, but it is not clear how this meshes with the uniformly low values obtained from virial analysis on scales ≡1 Mpc. Gravitational distortion of faint galaxies behind clusters allows one to construct maps of the mass surface density, and this should shed some light on the large vs. small-scale Ω discrepancy. Power spectrum analysis reveals too red a spectrum on scales λ ≡ 10 - 100 h-1Mpc, but the gaussian fluctuation hypothesis appears to be in good shape. These results suggest that the problem for CDM lies not in the very early universe but in the assumed matter content. The power spectrum problem can be solved by invoking a cocktail of mixed dark matter. However, if gravitational lensing fails to reveal extended dark mass around clusters then we may be forced to explore more radical possibilities for the dark matter.

  7. Biglan Model Test Based on Institutional Diversity. (United States)

    Roskens, Ronald W.; Creswell, John W.

    The Biglan model, a theoretical framework for empirically examining the differences among subject areas, classifies according to three dimensions: adherence to common set of paradigms (hard or soft), application orientation (pure or applied), and emphasis on living systems (life or nonlife). Tests of the model are reviewed, and a further test is…

  8. Multivariate Model for Test Response Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Shaji; Krishnan, Shaji; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A systematic approach to construct an effective multivariate test response model for capturing manufacturing defects in electronic products is described. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by its capability in reducing the number of test-points, while achieving the maximal coverage

  9. A review of numerical models to predict the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides. (United States)

    Leelőssy, Ádám; Lagzi, István; Kovács, Attila; Mészáros, Róbert


    The field of atmospheric dispersion modeling has evolved together with nuclear risk assessment and emergency response systems. Atmospheric concentration and deposition of radionuclides originating from an unintended release provide the basis of dose estimations and countermeasure strategies. To predict the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides several numerical models are available coupled with numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems. This work provides a review of the main concepts and different approaches of atmospheric dispersion modeling. Key processes of the atmospheric transport of radionuclides are emission, advection, turbulent diffusion, dry and wet deposition, radioactive decay and other physical and chemical transformations. A wide range of modeling software are available to simulate these processes with different physical assumptions, numerical approaches and implementation. The most appropriate modeling tool for a specific purpose can be selected based on the spatial scale, the complexity of meteorology, land surface and physical and chemical transformations, also considering the available data and computational resource. For most regulatory and operational applications, offline coupled NWP-dispersion systems are used, either with a local scale Gaussian, or a regional to global scale Eulerian or Lagrangian approach. The dispersion model results show large sensitivity on the accuracy of the coupled NWP model, especially through the description of planetary boundary layer turbulence, deep convection and wet deposition. Improvement of dispersion predictions can be achieved by online coupling of mesoscale meteorology and atmospheric transport models. The 2011 Fukushima event was the first large-scale nuclear accident where real-time prognostic dispersion modeling provided decision support. Dozens of dispersion models with different approaches were used for prognostic and retrospective simulations of the Fukushima release. An unknown

  10. Atmospheric Lidar Data Storage Model Based on Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen


    Full Text Available Ontology is an effective method to solve the problem of heterogeneous data in lidar measurements. Due to complexity and diversity of data structure, traditional method of ontology storage cannot be directly applied to lidar data. In this work, we proposed a novel ontology storage model based on the object-oriented data model, in which the mapping mechanism was established from ontology of lidar data to the object-oriented data model. A new storage model of lidar data is then obtained by a combination of the characteristics of lidar data and the syntax of OWL DL. Compared to the traditional method of ontology storage, we believe that the new storage model can better serve the sharing of lidar data.

  11. Development and Validation of a Polarimetric-MCScene 3D Atmospheric Radiation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hawes, Frederick [Spectral Sciences, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fox, Marsha [Spectral Sciences, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)


    Polarimetric measurements can substantially enhance the ability of both spectrally resolved and single band imagery to detect the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, providing data for locating and identifying facilities, materials, and processes of undeclared and proliferant nuclear weapons programs worldwide. Unfortunately, models do not exist that efficiently and accurately predict spectral polarized signatures for the materials of interest embedded in complex 3D environments. Having such a model would enable one to test hypotheses and optimize both the enhancement of scene contrast and the signal processing for spectral signature extraction. The Phase I set the groundwork for development of fully validated polarimetric spectral signature and scene simulation models. This has been accomplished 1. by (a) identifying and downloading state-of-the-art surface and atmospheric polarimetric data sources, (b) implementing tools for generating custom polarimetric data, and (c) identifying and requesting US Government funded field measurement data for use in validation; 2. by formulating an approach for upgrading the radiometric spectral signature model MODTRAN to generate polarimetric intensities through (a) ingestion of the polarimetric data, (b) polarimetric vectorization of existing MODTRAN modules, and (c) integration of a newly developed algorithm for computing polarimetric multiple scattering contributions; 3. by generating an initial polarimetric model that demonstrates calculation of polarimetric solar and lunar single scatter intensities arising from the interaction of incoming irradiances with molecules and aerosols; 4. by developing a design and implementation plan to (a) automate polarimetric scene construction and (b) efficiently sample polarimetric scattering and reflection events, for use in a to be developed polarimetric version of the existing first-principles synthetic scene simulation model, MCScene; and 5. by planning a validation field


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard; Rahbek, Anders


    We present novel theory for testing for reduction of GARCH-X type models with an exogenous (X) covariate to standard GARCH type models. To deal with the problems of potential nuisance parameters on the boundary of the parameter space as well as lack of identification under the null, we exploit...... a noticeable property of specific zero-entries in the inverse information of the GARCH-X type models. Specifically, we consider sequential testing based on two likelihood ratio tests and as demonstrated the structure of the inverse information implies that the proposed test neither depends on whether...

  13. Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob

    are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...... (DEA) wave energy programme. The tests will establish a well documented basis for the development of a 1:4.5 scale prototype planned for testing Nissum Bredning, a sea inlet on the Danish West Coast....

  14. BARTTest: Community-Standard Radiative-Transfer Tests I: Forward Models (United States)

    Himes, Michael D.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Challener, Ryan C.


    Atmospheric radiative transfer codes are used both to predict planetary spectra and in retrieval algorithms to interpret data. Observational plans, theoretical models, and scientific results thus depend on the correctness of these calculations. Yet, the calculations are complex and the codes implementing them are often written without modern software-verification techniques. The community needs a suite of test calculations with analytically, numerically, or at least communally verified results. We therefore offer the Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Test Suite, or BARTTest, a collection of tests offered for community use and development.This presentation focuses on forward models. Tests include a single-line, single layer atmosphere verified by an independent numerical line-broadening code included with the test, an isothermal atmoshere with hundreds of millions of lines (which should emit as a blackbody of the same temperature), and realistic atmospheres verified by an independent radiative transfer model.BARTTest is open-source software. We propose this test suite as a standard for verifying radiative-transfer codes, analogous to the Held-Suarez test for general circulation models. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  15. Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions using the atmospheric zoom model TM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bergamaschi


    Full Text Available A synthesis inversion based on the atmospheric zoom model TM5 is used to derive top-down estimates of CH4 emissions from individual European countries for the year 2001. We employ a model zoom over Europe with 1° × 1° resolution that is two-way nested into the global model domain (with resolution of 6° × 4°. This approach ensures consistent boundary conditions for the zoom domain and thus European top-down estimates consistent with global CH4 observations. The TM5 model, driven by ECMWF analyses, simulates synoptic scale events at most European and global sites fairly well, and the use of high-frequency observations allows exploiting the information content of individual synoptic events. A detailed source attribution is presented for a comprehensive set of 56 monitoring sites, assigning the atmospheric signal to the emissions of individual European countries and larger global regions. The available observational data put significant constraints on emissions from different regions. Within Europe, in particular several Western European countries are well constrained. The inversion results suggest up to 50-90% higher anthropogenic CH4 emissions in 2001 for Germany, France and UK compared to reported UNFCCC values (EEA, 2003. A recent revision of the German inventory, however, resulted in an increase of reported CH4 emissions by 68.5% (EEA, 2004, being now in very good agreement with our top-down estimate. The top-down estimate for Finland is distinctly smaller than the a priori estimate, suggesting much smaller CH4 emissions from Finnish wetlands than derived from the bottom-up inventory. The EU-15 totals are relatively close to UNFCCC values (within 4-30% and appear very robust for different inversion scenarios.

  16. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information. (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer


    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  17. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hao


    Full Text Available In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF and very low frequency (VLF atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf.

  18. Testing Expected Shortfall Models for Derivative Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.; Schumacher, J.M.


    In this paper we test several risk management models for computing expected shortfall for one-period hedge errors of hedged derivatives positions.Contrary to value-at-risk, expected shortfall cannot be tested using the standard binomial test, since we need information of the distribution in the

  19. Hybrid fluid/kinetic modeling of Pluto’s escaping atmosphere (United States)

    Erwin, Justin; Tucker, O. J.; Johnson, Robert E.


    Predicting the rate of escape and thermal structure of Pluto’s upper atmosphere in preparation for the New Horizons Spacecraft encounter in 2015 is important for planning and interpreting the expected measurements. Having a moderate Jeans parameter Pluto’s atmosphere does not fit the classic definition of Jeans escape for light species escaping from the terrestrial planets, nor does it fit the hydrodynamic outflow from comets and certain exoplanets. It has been proposed for some time that Pluto lies in the region of slow hydrodynamic escape. Using a hybrid fluid/molecular-kinetic model, we previously demonstrated the typical implementation of this model fails to correctly describe the appropriate temperature structure for the upper atmosphere for solar minimum conditions. Here we use a time-dependent solver to allow us to extend those simulations to higher heating rates and we examine fluid models in which Jeans-like escape expressions are used for the upper boundary conditions. We compare these to hybrid simulations of the atmosphere under heating conditions roughly representative of solar minimum and mean conditions as these bracket conditions expected during the New Horizon encounter. Although we find escape rates comparable to those previously estimated by the slow hydrodynamic escape model, and roughly consistent with energy limited escape, our model produces a much more extended atmosphere with higher temperatures roughly consistent with recent observations of CO. Such an extended atmosphere will be affected by Charon and will affect Pluto’s interaction with the solar wind at the New Horizon encounter. For the parameter space covered, we also find an inverse relationship between exobase temperature and altitude and the Jeans escape rate that is consistent with the energy limited escape rate. Since we have previously shown that such models can be scaled, these results have implications for modeling exoplanet atmospheres for which the energy limited

  20. Southern hemisphere climate variability as represented by an ocean-atmosphere coupled model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beraki, A


    Full Text Available , 1996: Relationship of air temperature in New Zealand to regional anomalies in sea-surface temperature and atmospheric circulation. Int. J. Climatol., 16, 405?425. Beraki, A., D. DeWitt, W.A. Landman and O. Cobus, 2011: Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled... variability as represented by an ocean-atmosphere coupled model Asmerom Beraki1,2, Willem A. Landman2,3 and David DeWitt4 1South African Weather Service Pretoria, South Africa, 2Departement of Geography...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews


    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  2. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeat, A. [Lyon-1 Univ., MCS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Kern, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)


    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  3. [Atmospheric correction method for HJ-1 CCD imagery over waters based on radiative transfer model]. (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Gu, Xing-Fa; Li, Zheng-Qiang; Li, Li; Chen, Xing-Feng


    Atmospheric correction is a bottleneck in quantitative application of Chinese satellites HJ-1 data to remote sensing of water color. According to the characteristics of CCD sensors, the present paper made use of air-water coupled radiative transfer model to work out the look-up table (LUT) of atmospheric corrected parameters, and thereafter developed pixel-by-pixel atmospheric correction method over waters accomplishing the water-leaving remote sensing reflectance with accessorial meteorological input. The paper validates the HJ-1 CCD retrievals with MODIS and in-situ results. It was found that the accuracy in blue and green bands is good. However, the accuracy in red or NIR bands is much worse than blue or green ones. It was also demonstrated that the aerosol model is a sensitive factor to the atmospheric correction accuracy.

  4. Atmospheric Isotopologues Observed with Ace-Fts and Modeled with Waccm (United States)

    Buzan, Eric M.; Beale, Christopher A.; Yousefi, Mahdi; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter F.


    Atmospheric isotopologues are useful tracers of dynamics and chemistry and can be used to constrain budgets of gases in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) routinely measures vertical profiles of over 35 molecules and 20 isotopologues via solar occultation from a satellite in low Earth orbit. The primary instrument is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer with a spectral range of 750 - 4400 \\wn and a resolution of 0.02 \\wn. ACE began taking measurements in 2004 and is still active today. This talk focuses on isotopic measurements of CH_{4}, CO, CO_{2}, and N_{2}O from ACE-FTS. To complement ACE-FTS data, modeling using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) was performed for each molecule.

  5. Artificial Neural Network model for the determination of GSM Rxlevel from atmospheric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ofure Eichie


    Full Text Available Accurate received signal level (Rxlevel values are useful for mobile telecommunication network planning. Rxlevel is affected by the dynamics of the atmosphere through which it propagates. Adequate knowledge of the prevailing atmospheric conditions in an environment is essential for proper network planning. However most of the existing GSM received signal determination model are function of distance between point of signal reception and transmitting site thus necessitating the development of a model that involve the use of atmospheric parameters in the determination of received GSM signal level. In this paper, a three stage approach was used in the development of the model using some atmospheric parameters such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and dew point. The selected and easily measurable atmospheric parameters were used as input parameters in developing two new models for computing the Rxlevel of GSM signal using a three-step approach. Data acquisition and pre-processing serves as the first stage and formulation of ANN design and the development of parametric model for the Rxlevel using ANN synaptic weights form the second stage of the proposed approach. The third stage involves the use of ANN weight and bias values, and network architecture in the development of the model equation. In evaluating the performance of the proposed models, network parameters were varied and the results obtained using mean squared error (MSE as performance measure showed the developed model with 33 neurons in the hidden layer and tansig activation, function in both the hidden and output layers as the optimal model with least MSE value of 0.056. Thus showing that the developed model has an acceptable accuracy value as demonstrated from comparison of results with actual measured values.

  6. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Leelőssy

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated with different models, namely the WRF-Chem Eulerian online coupled model and the HYSPLIT and the RAPTOR Lagrangian models. Although only limited data of 131I detections has been available, the accuracy of modeled plume direction could be evaluated in complex late autumn weather situations. For the studied cases, the general reliability of models has been demonstrated. However, serious uncertainties arise related to low level inversions, above all in case of an emission event on 4 November 2011, when an important wind shear caused a significant difference between simulated and real transport directions. Results underline the importance of prudent interpretation of dispersion model results and the identification of weather conditions with a potential to cause large model errors.

  7. Numerical simulations of atmospheric dispersion of iodine-131 by different models. (United States)

    Leelőssy, Ádám; Mészáros, Róbert; Kovács, Attila; Lagzi, István; Kovács, Tibor


    Nowadays, several dispersion models are available to simulate the transport processes of air pollutants and toxic substances including radionuclides in the atmosphere. Reliability of atmospheric transport models has been demonstrated in several recent cases from local to global scale; however, very few actual emission data are available to evaluate model results in real-life cases. In this study, the atmospheric dispersion of 131I emitted to the atmosphere during an industrial process was simulated with different models, namely the WRF-Chem Eulerian online coupled model and the HYSPLIT and the RAPTOR Lagrangian models. Although only limited data of 131I detections has been available, the accuracy of modeled plume direction could be evaluated in complex late autumn weather situations. For the studied cases, the general reliability of models has been demonstrated. However, serious uncertainties arise related to low level inversions, above all in case of an emission event on 4 November 2011, when an important wind shear caused a significant difference between simulated and real transport directions. Results underline the importance of prudent interpretation of dispersion model results and the identification of weather conditions with a potential to cause large model errors.

  8. Modeling and Measurements of Atmospheric Methane at Four Corners, NM (United States)

    Costigan, K. R.; Lindenmaier, R.; Dubey, M. K.


    Methane (CH4) fugitive emissions from fossil energy mining remain highly uncertain and scrutinized with the rapid expansion in domestic production by hydraulic fracturing. Top down observational studies of reported bottom up inventories are limited, but the latter may be biased low. We focus on the Four Corners region of the Southwestern United States, a region with extensive coal bed methane production, to verify its current emissions. At our site we measured methane over a range of scales using ground-based, in-situ instruments and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), which is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Measurements of CH4 produced much higher concentrations of methane in this rural area than previously expected. The diurnal variation and wind direction dependence in the CH4 concentrations suggest a source location tied to topographically induced winds and consistent with oil and gas production. This paper presents the results of WRF-Chem simulations that are performed to simulate methane concentrations in this region. Emissions from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) indicate large CH4 emissions, associated with the gas production and distribution sector, in one 0.1 x 0.1 degree grid cell within the region and these emissions are employed in the simulations. A series of six simulations are run at two-month intervals during 2012. Each simulates a six-day time series to demonstrate the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the methane concentrations that would be expected at the FTS location, from the sources reported in the EDGAR data set. The results of these simulations will be presented, along with the implications for interpretation of the FTS measurements. We will also interpret our FTS measurements of ethane (C2H6), which is emitted only from fossil fuel mining, to attribute leaks.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kachar


    Full Text Available Increase of temperature with height in the troposphere is called temperature inversion. Parameters such as strength and depth are characteristics of temperature inversion. Inversion strength is defined as the temperature difference between the surface and the top of the inversion and the depth of inversion is defined as the height of the inversion from the surface. The common approach in determination of these parameters is the use of Radiosonde where these measurements are too sparse. The main objective of this study is detection and modeling the temperature inversion using MODIS thermal infrared data. There are more than 180 days per year in which the temperature inversion conditions are present in Kermanshah city. Kermanshah weather station was selected as the study area. 90 inversion days was selected from 2007 to 2008 where the sky was clear and the Radiosonde data were available. Brightness temperature for all thermal infrared bands of MODIS was calculated for these days. Brightness temperature difference between any of the thermal infrared bands of MODIS and band 31 was found to be sensitive to strength and depth of temperature inversion. Then correlation coefficients between these pairs and the inversion depth and strength both calculated from Radiosonde were evaluated. The results showed poor linear correlation. This was found to be due to the change of the atmospheric water vapor content and the relatively weak temperature inversion strength and depth occurring in Kermanshah. The polynomial mathematical models and Artificial intelligence algorithms were deployed for detection and modeling the temperature inversion. A model with the lowest terms and highest possible accuracy was obtained. The Model was tested using 20 independent test data. Results indicate that the inversion strength can be estimated with RMSE of 0.84° C and R2 of 0.90. Also inversion depth can be estimated with RMSE of 54.56 m and R2 of 0.86.

  10. Modeling Top of Atmosphere Radiance over Heterogeneous Non-Lambertian Rugged Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijafar Mousivand


    Full Text Available Topography affects the fraction of direct and diffuse radiation received on a pixel and changes the sun–target–sensor geometry, resulting in variations in the observed radiance. Retrieval of surface–atmosphere properties from top of atmosphere radiance may need to account for topographic effects. This study investigates how such effects can be taken into account for top of atmosphere radiance modeling. In this paper, a system for top of atmosphere radiance modeling over heterogeneous non-Lambertian rugged terrain through radiative transfer modeling is presented. The paper proposes an extension of “the four-stream radiative transfer theory” (Verhoef and Bach 2003, 2007 and 2012 mainly aimed at representing topography-induced contributions to the top of atmosphere radiance modeling. A detailed account for BRDF effects, adjacency effects and topography effects on the radiance modeling is given, in which sky-view factor and non-Lambertian reflected radiance from adjacent slopes are modeled precisely. The paper also provides a new formulation to derive the atmospheric coefficients from MODTRAN with only two model runs, to make it more computationally efficient and also avoiding the use of zero surface albedo as used in the four-stream radiative transfer theory. The modeling begins with four surface reflectance factors calculated by the Soil–Leaf–Canopy radiative transfer model SLC at the top of canopy and propagates them through the effects of the atmosphere, which is explained by six atmospheric coefficients, derived from MODTRAN radiative transfer code. The top of the atmosphere radiance is then convolved with the sensor characteristics to generate sensor-like radiance. Using a composite dataset, it has been shown that neglecting sky view factor and/or terrain reflected radiance can cause uncertainty in the forward TOA radiance modeling up to 5 (mW/m2·sr·nm. It has also been shown that this level of uncertainty can be translated

  11. PICASSO VISION instrument design, engineering model test results, and flight model development status (United States)

    Näsilä, Antti; Holmlund, Christer; Mannila, Rami; Näkki, Ismo; Ojanen, Harri J.; Akujärvi, Altti; Saari, Heikki; Fussen, Didier; Pieroux, Didier; Demoulin, Philippe


    PICASSO - A PICo-satellite for Atmospheric and Space Science Observations is an ESA project led by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, in collaboration with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd. (UK) and Centre Spatial de Liège (BE). The test campaign for the engineering model of the PICASSO VISION instrument, a miniaturized nanosatellite spectral imager, has been successfully completed. The test results look very promising. The proto-flight model of VISION has also been successfully integrated and it is waiting for the final integration to the satellite platform.

  12. The Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE Model – Part 1: Model description and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe


    Full Text Available We present the Chemistry of Atmosphere-Forest Exchange (CAFE model, a vertically-resolved 1-D chemical transport model designed to probe the details of near-surface reactive gas exchange. CAFE integrates all key processes, including turbulent diffusion, emission, deposition and chemistry, throughout the forest canopy and mixed layer. CAFE utilizes the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM and is the first model of its kind to incorporate a suite of reactions for the oxidation of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, providing a more comprehensive description of the oxidative chemistry occurring within and above the forest. We use CAFE to simulate a young Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA. Utilizing meteorological constraints from the BEARPEX-2007 field campaign, we assess the sensitivity of modeled fluxes to parameterizations of diffusion, laminar sublayer resistance and radiation extinction. To characterize the general chemical environment of this forest, we also present modeled mixing ratio profiles of biogenic hydrocarbons, hydrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen. The vertical profiles of these species demonstrate a range of structures and gradients that reflect the interplay of physical and chemical processes within the forest canopy, which can influence net exchange.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.


    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the

  14. Test-driven modeling of embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan


    To benefit maximally from model-based systems engineering (MBSE) trustworthy high quality models are required. From the software disciplines it is known that test-driven development (TDD) can significantly increase the quality of the products. Using a test-driven approach with MBSE may have...... a similar positive effect on the quality of the system models and the resulting products and may therefore be desirable. To define a test-driven model-based systems engineering (TD-MBSE) approach, we must define this approach for numerous sub disciplines such as modeling of requirements, use cases......, scenarios, behavior, architecture, etc. In this paper we present a method that utilizes the formalism of timed automatons with formal and statistical model checking techniques to apply TD-MBSE to the modeling of system architecture and behavior. The results obtained from applying it to an industrial case...

  15. Projects To Probe Titan's Surface Composition and Development of Atmospheric Removal Models for Cassini VIMS Data (United States)

    Pitman, K. M.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; West, R. A.; Wolff, M. J.; Brown, R. H.


    In this work, we will describe recent projects performed by our group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology involving I/F data of Titan's surface acquired by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), including the next stage of development of methods to de-gas and de-fog VIMS images. VIMS I/F spectra include contributions from both surface and atmospheric signal; therefore, current spectral data analysis necessarily focuses on portions of VIMS I/F spectra where atmospheric methane and scattering by haze is at a minimum. However, atmospheric opacity clears enough between wavelengths of 1 and 2 microns to provide strong potential to view complex landforms if a proper atmospheric correction can be applied. Plane- parallel radiative transfer (RT) correction methods have been used successfully in surface-atmospheric separation retrievals for Mars and offer some utility for VIMS observations of Titan that are away from the limb. In a previous work (Pitman et al. 2007, LPSC XXXVIII, p. 1164), we determined which inputs to radiative transfer models must be updated, given results from recent meetings and literature, and evaluated two plane-parallel RT models (adding-doubling, discrete ordinates) to determine which is more easily customized for surface- atmospheric separation of Titan. In this work, we report our progress on replacing Voyager with Cassini-Huygens inputs and how these models currently compare. Work performed under contract to NASA and by appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program (ORAU).

  16. A variational data assimilation system for soil–atmosphere flux estimates for the Community Land Model (CLM3.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hoppe


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a spatio-temporal variational data assimilation system (4D-var for the soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model "Community Land Model" (CLM3.5, along with the development of the adjoint code for the core soil–atmosphere transfer scheme of energy and soil moisture. The purpose of this work is to obtain an improved estimation technique for the energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. Optimal assessments of these fluxes are neither available from model simulations nor measurements alone, while a 4D-var data assimilation has the potential to combine both information sources by a Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE. The 4D-var method requires the development of the adjoint model of the CLM which is established in this work. The new data assimilation algorithm is able to assimilate soil temperature and soil moisture measurements for one-dimensional columns of the model grid. Numerical experiments were first used to test the algorithm under idealised conditions. It was found that the analysis delivers improved results whenever there is a dependence between the initial values and the assimilated quantity. Furthermore, soil temperature and soil moisture from in situ field measurements were assimilated. These calculations demonstrate the improved performance of flux estimates, whenever soil property parameters are available of sufficient quality. Misspecifications could also be identified by the performance of the variational scheme.

  17. Performance testing of cross flow heat exchanger operating in the atmosphere of flue gas particulate with vapor condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntaphan, A.


    Full Text Available Performance testing of a cross flow heat exchanger operating under the atmosphere of flue gas particulate from combustion was carried out in this work. This heat exchanger exchanges heat between flue gas from the fuel oil combustion and cold water. The heat exchanger is composed of a spiral finned tube bank having 3 rows and 8 tubes per row with a staggered arrangement. The fin spacings considered are 2.85 and 6.10 mm. The theories of thermodynamics and heat transfer are used for analyzing the performance of this system.In this experiment, the flue gas temperature of 200ºC from combustion having 0.35 kg/s mass flow rate flows along outside surface of the heat exchanger and transfers heat to the 25ºC cooling water having 0.15 kg/s mass flow rate flowing in the tube side. Each experiment uses 750 hr for testing. During the testing, part of flue gas condenses on the heat transfer surface.From the experiment, it was found that the heat transfer rate of both heat exchangers tended to decrease with time while the airside pressure drop increased. These results come from the fouling on the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is found that the heat exchanger having 2.85 mm fin spacing has an approximately 4 times higher fouling resistance than that of the 6.10 mm fin spacing.In this work a model for calculating the fouling resistance is also developed as a the function of time. The model is developed from that of Kern and Seaton and the mean deviation of the model is 0.789.

  18. A system of conservative regridding for ice–atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fischer


    Full Text Available The method of elevation classes, in which the ice surface model is run at multiple elevations within each grid cell, has proven to be a useful way for a low-resolution atmosphere inside a general circulation model (GCM to produce high-resolution downscaled surface mass balance fields for use in one-way studies coupling atmospheres and ice flow models. Past uses of elevation classes have failed to conserve mass and energy because the transformation used to regrid to the atmosphere was inconsistent with the transformation used to downscale to the ice model. This would cause problems for two-way coupling. A strategy that resolves this conservation issue has been designed and is presented here. The approach identifies three grids between which data must be regridded and five transformations between those grids required by a typical coupled atmosphere–ice flow model. This paper develops a theoretical framework for the problem and shows how each of these transformations may be achieved in a consistent, conservative manner. These transformations are implemented in Glint2, a library used to couple atmosphere models with ice models. Source code and documentation are available for download. Confounding real-world issues are discussed, including the use of projections for ice modeling, how to handle dynamically changing ice geometry, and modifications required for finite element ice models.

  19. A Flexible Atmospheric Modeling Framework for the CESM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, David [Colorado State University; Heikes, Ross [Colorado State University; Konor, Celal [Colorado State University


    We have created two global dynamical cores based on the unified system of equations and Z-grid staggering on an icosahedral grid, which are collectively called UZIM (Unified Z-grid Icosahedral Model). The z-coordinate version (UZIM-height) can be run in hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic modes. The sigma-coordinate version (UZIM-sigma) runs in only hydrostatic mode. The super-parameterization has been included as a physics option in both models. The UZIM versions with the super-parameterization are called SUZI. With SUZI-height, we have completed aquaplanet runs. With SUZI-sigma, we are making aquaplanet runs and realistic climate simulations. SUZI-sigma includes realistic topography and a SiB3 model to parameterize the land-surface processes.

  20. Collider Tests of the Little Higgs Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron T


    The little Higgs model provides an alternative to traditional candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. The new heavy gauge bosons predicted by this model should be observable at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We discuss how the LHC experiments could test the little Higgs model by studying the production and decay of these particles.

  1. Toward unification of the multiscale modeling of the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arakawa


    Full Text Available As far as the representation of deep moist convection is concerned, only two kinds of model physics are used at present: highly parameterized as in the conventional general circulation models (GCMs and explicitly simulated as in the cloud-resolving models (CRMs. Ideally, these two kinds of model physics should be unified so that a continuous transition of model physics from one kind to the other takes place as the resolution changes. With such unification, the GCM can converge to a global CRM (GCRM as the grid size is refined. This paper suggests two possible routes to achieve the unification. ROUTE I continues to follow the parameterization approach, but uses a unified parameterization that is applicable to any horizontal resolutions between those typically used by GCMs and CRMs. It is shown that a key to construct such a unified parameterization is to eliminate the assumption of small fractional area covered by convective clouds, which is commonly used in the conventional cumulus parameterizations either explicitly or implicitly. A preliminary design of the unified parameterization is presented, which demonstrates that such an assumption can be eliminated through a relatively minor modification of the existing mass-flux based parameterizations. Partial evaluations of the unified parameterization are also presented. ROUTE II follows the "multi-scale modeling framework (MMF" approach, which takes advantage of explicit representation of deep moist convection and associated cloud-scale processes by CRMs. The Quasi-3-D (Q3-D MMF is an attempt to broaden the applicability of MMF without necessarily using a fully three-dimensional CRM. This is accomplished using a network of cloud-resolving grids with large gaps. An outline of the Q3-D algorithm and highlights of preliminary results are reviewed.

  2. Using ARM Measurements to Understand and Reduce the Double ITCZ Biases in the Community Atmospheric Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minghua [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    1. Understanding of the observed variability of ITCZ in the equatorial eastern Pacific. The annual mean precipitation in the eastern Pacific has a maximum zonal band north of the equator in the ITCZ where the maximum SST is located. During the boreal spring (referring to February, March, and April throughout the present paper), because of the accumulated solar radiation heating and oceanic heat transport, a secondary maximum of SST exists in the southeastern equatorial Pacific. Associated with this warm SST is also a seasonal transitional maximum of precipitation in the same region in boreal spring, exhibited as a weak double ITCZ pattern in the equatorial eastern Pacific. This climatological seasonal variation, however, varies greatly from year to year: double ITCZ in the boreal spring occurs in some years but not in other years; when there a single ITCZ, it can appear either north, south or at the equator. Understanding this observed variability is critical to find the ultimate cause of the double ITCZ in climate models. Seasonal variation of ITCZ south of the eastern equatorial Pacific: By analyzing data from satellites, field measurements and atmospheric reanalysis, we have found that in the region where spurious ITCZ in models occurs, there is a “seasonal cloud transition” — from stratocumulus to shallow cumulus and eventually to deep convection —in the South Equatorial Pacific (SEP) from September to April that is similar to the spatial cloud transition from the California coast to the equator. This seasonal transition is associated with increasing sea surface temperature (SST), decreasing lower tropospheric stability and large-scale subsidence. This finding of seasonal cloud transition points to the same source of model errors in the ITCZ simulations as in simulation of stratocumulus-cumulus-deep convection transition. It provides a test for climate models to simulate the relationships between clouds and large-scale atmospheric fields in a region

  3. Assessing the Uncertainty of Tropical Cyclone Simulations in NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model


    Kevin A Reed; Christiane Jablonowski


    The paper explores the impact of the initial-data, parameter and structural model uncertainty on the simulation of a tropical cyclone-like vortex in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). An analytic technique is used to initialize the model with an idealized weak vortex that develops into a tropical cyclone over ten simulation days. A total of 78 ensemble simulations are performed at horizontal grid spacings of 1.0°, 0.5° and 0.2...

  4. Comparison between model predictions and observations of ELF radio atmospherics generated by rocket-triggered lightning (United States)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.


    Model predictions of the ELF radio atmospheric generated by rocket-triggered lightning are compared with observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica. The ability to infer source characteristics using observations at great distances may prove to greatly enhance the understanding of lightning processes that are associated with the production of transient luminous events (TLEs) as well as other ionospheric effects associated with lightning. The modeling of the sferic waveform is carried out using a modified version of the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center over a period of many years. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. ELF observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica during rocket-triggered lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida are presented. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) are used together with LWPC to predict the sferic waveform observed at Arrival Heights under various ionospheric conditions. This paper critically compares observations with model predictions.

  5. CAM-SE: A scalable spectral element dynamical core for the Community Atmosphere Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Edwards, Jim [IBM and National Center for Atmospheric Research; Evans, Kate J [ORNL; Guba, O [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lauritzen, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mirin, Art [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); St.-Cyr, Amik [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Taylor, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Worley, Patrick H [ORNL


    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5 includes a spectral element dynamical core option from NCAR's High-Order Method Modeling Environment. It is a continuous Galerkin spectral finite element method designed for fully unstructured quadrilateral meshes. The current configurations in CAM are based on the cubed-sphere grid. The main motivation for including a spectral element dynamical core is to improve the scalability of CAM by allowing quasi-uniform grids for the sphere that do not require polar filters. In addition, the approach provides other state-of-the-art capabilities such as improved conservation properties. Spectral elements are used for the horizontal discretization, while most other aspects of the dynamical core are a hybrid of well tested techniques from CAM's finite volume and global spectral dynamical core options. Here we first give a overview of the spectral element dynamical core as used in CAM. We then give scalability and performance results from CAM running with three different dynamical core options within the Community Earth System Model, using a pre-industrial time-slice configuration. We focus on high resolution simulations of 1/4 degree, 1/8 degree, and T340 spectral truncation.

  6. Regional effects of atmospheric aerosols on temperature: an evaluation of an ensemble of online coupled models (United States)

    Baró, Rocío; Palacios-Peña, Laura; Baklanov, Alexander; Balzarini, Alessandra; Brunner, Dominik; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Pérez, Juan Luis; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Schröder, Wolfram; Werhahn, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Žabkar, Rahela; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro


    The climate effect of atmospheric aerosols is associated with their influence on the radiative budget of the Earth due to the direct aerosol-radiation interactions (ARIs) and indirect effects, resulting from aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions (ACIs). Online coupled meteorology-chemistry models permit the description of these effects on the basis of simulated atmospheric aerosol concentrations, although there is still some uncertainty associated with the use of these models. Thus, the objective of this work is to assess whether the inclusion of atmospheric aerosol radiative feedbacks of an ensemble of online coupled models improves the simulation results for maximum, mean and minimum temperature at 2 m over Europe. The evaluated models outputs originate from EuMetChem COST Action ES1004 simulations for Europe, differing in the inclusion (or omission) of ARI and ACI in the various models. The cases studies cover two important atmospheric aerosol episodes over Europe in the year 2010: (i) a heat wave event and a forest fire episode (July-August 2010) and (ii) a more humid episode including a Saharan desert dust outbreak in October 2010. The simulation results are evaluated against observational data from the E-OBS gridded database. The results indicate that, although there is only a slight improvement in the bias of the simulation results when including the radiative feedbacks, the spatiotemporal variability and correlation coefficients are improved for the cases under study when atmospheric aerosol radiative effects are included.

  7. Regional effects of atmospheric aerosols on temperature: an evaluation of an ensemble of online coupled models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baró


    Full Text Available The climate effect of atmospheric aerosols is associated with their influence on the radiative budget of the Earth due to the direct aerosol–radiation interactions (ARIs and indirect effects, resulting from aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions (ACIs. Online coupled meteorology–chemistry models permit the description of these effects on the basis of simulated atmospheric aerosol concentrations, although there is still some uncertainty associated with the use of these models. Thus, the objective of this work is to assess whether the inclusion of atmospheric aerosol radiative feedbacks of an ensemble of online coupled models improves the simulation results for maximum, mean and minimum temperature at 2 m over Europe. The evaluated models outputs originate from EuMetChem COST Action ES1004 simulations for Europe, differing in the inclusion (or omission of ARI and ACI in the various models. The cases studies cover two important atmospheric aerosol episodes over Europe in the year 2010: (i a heat wave event and a forest fire episode (July–August 2010 and (ii a more humid episode including a Saharan desert dust outbreak in October 2010. The simulation results are evaluated against observational data from the E-OBS gridded database. The results indicate that, although there is only a slight improvement in the bias of the simulation results when including the radiative feedbacks, the spatiotemporal variability and correlation coefficients are improved for the cases under study when atmospheric aerosol radiative effects are included.

  8. Interagency Modeling Atmospheric Assessment Center Local Jurisdiction: IMAAC Operations Framework (United States)


    proposed model ( Daft & Lengel, 1986). All six Ohio LINC Cities were interviewed face- to-face providing the basis for the research evaluating...Cincinnati, DHS should work in partnership with Cincinnati Urban Area Leadership to convene a randomly selected, but statistically-significant, UASI...response system. Internal document. Daft , R. L. & Lengel, R. H. (1986). Organizational Information Requirements, Media Richness and Structural

  9. Modelling atmospheric temperature rise due to pollutants and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a mathematical model we show that temperature increases (warming) as the Hartman number due to pollutant increases. Thus, temperature and pollutants contribute to global warming. We also discuss the implications of the result on agriculture and forestry. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  10. Statistical Surrogate Modeling of Atmospheric Dispersion Events Using Bayesian Adaptive Splines (United States)

    Francom, D.; Sansó, B.; Bulaevskaya, V.; Lucas, D. D.


    Uncertainty in the inputs of complex computer models, including atmospheric dispersion and transport codes, is often assessed via statistical surrogate models. Surrogate models are computationally efficient statistical approximations of expensive computer models that enable uncertainty analysis. We introduce Bayesian adaptive spline methods for producing surrogate models that capture the major spatiotemporal patterns of the parent model, while satisfying all the necessities of flexibility, accuracy and computational feasibility. We present novel methodological and computational approaches motivated by a controlled atmospheric tracer release experiment conducted at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant in California. Traditional methods for building statistical surrogate models often do not scale well to experiments with large amounts of data. Our approach is well suited to experiments involving large numbers of model inputs, large numbers of simulations, and functional output for each simulation. Our approach allows us to perform global sensitivity analysis with ease. We also present an approach to calibration of simulators using field data.

  11. Modeling and mapping of atmospheric mercury deposition in adirondack park, new york.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yu

    Full Text Available The Adirondacks of New York State, USA is a region that is sensitive to atmospheric mercury (Hg deposition. In this study, we estimated atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks using a new scheme that combined numerical modeling and limited experimental data. The majority of the land cover in the Adirondacks is forested with 47% of the total area deciduous, 20% coniferous and 10% mixed. We used litterfall plus throughfall deposition as the total atmospheric Hg deposition to coniferous and deciduous forests during the leaf-on period, and wet Hg deposition plus modeled atmospheric dry Hg deposition as the total Hg deposition to the deciduous forest during the leaf-off period and for the non-forested areas year-around. To estimate atmospheric dry Hg deposition we used the Big Leaf model. The average atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks was estimated as 17.4 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text] with a range of -3.7-46.0 [Formula: see text]g m[Formula: see text] yr[Formula: see text]. Atmospheric Hg dry deposition (370 kg yr[Formula: see text] was found to be more important than wet deposition (210 kg yr[Formula: see text] to the entire Adirondacks (2.4 million ha. The spatial pattern showed a large variation in atmospheric Hg deposition with scattered areas in the eastern Adirondacks having total Hg deposition greater than 30 μg m(-2 yr(-1, while the southwestern and the northern areas received Hg deposition ranging from 25-30 μg m(-2 yr(-1.

  12. Development and applications of a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System (United States)

    Warner, J. C.; Armstrong, B. N.; He, R.; Zambon, J. B.; Olabarrieta, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Haas, K. A.


    Understanding processes responsible for coastal change is important for managing both our natural and economic coastal resources. Coastal processes respond from both local scale and larger regional scale forcings. Understanding these processes can lead to significant insight into how the coastal zone evolves. Storms are one of the primary driving forces causing coastal change from a coupling of wave and wind driven flows. Here we utilize a numerical modeling approach to investigate these dynamics of coastal storm impacts. We use the Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere - Wave - Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System that utilizes the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange prognostic variables between the ocean model ROMS, atmosphere model WRF, wave model SWAN, and the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) sediment routines. The models exchange fields of sea-surface temperature, ocean currents, water levels, bathymetry, wave heights, lengths, periods, bottom orbital velocities, and atmospheric surface heat and momentum fluxes, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, and evaporation. Data fields are exchanged using regridded flux conservative sparse matrix interpolation weights computed from the SCRIP spherical coordinate remapping interpolation package. We describe the modeling components and the model field exchange methods. As part of the system, the wave and ocean models run with cascading, refined, spatial grids to provide increased resolution, scaling down to resolve nearshore wave driven flows simulated by the vortex force formulation, all within selected regions of a larger, coarser-scale coastal modeling system. The ocean and wave models are driven by the atmospheric component, which is affected by wave dependent ocean-surface roughness and sea surface temperature which modify the heat and momentum fluxes at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We describe the application of the modeling system to several regions of multi-scale complexity to identify the

  13. Planetary atmosphere models: A research and instructional web-based resource (United States)

    Gray, Samuel Augustine

    The effects of altitude change on the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound were investigated. These effects have been documented in Global Reference Atmospheric Models (GRAMs) to be used in calculating the conditions in various parts of the atmosphere for several planets. Besides GRAMs, there are several websites that provide online calculators for the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere. This thesis presents the creation of an online calculator of the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, and Neptune. The websites consist of input forms for altitude and temperature adjustment followed by a results table for the calculated data. The first phase involved creating a spreadsheet reference based on the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere and other planetary GRAMs available. Microsoft Excel was used to input the equations and make a graphical representation of the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound change as altitude changed using equations obtained from the GRAMs. These spreadsheets were used later as a reference for the JavaScript code in both the design and comparison of the data output of the calculators. The websites were created using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript coding languages. The calculators could accurately display the temperature, pressure, density, and speed of sound of these planets from surface values to various stages within the atmosphere. These websites provide a resource for students involved in projects and classes that require knowledge of these changes in these atmospheres. This project also created a chance for new project topics to arise for future students involved in aeronautics and astronautics.

  14. On the Nature, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Planetary Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Alexander A.; Grisogono, Branko; Bornstein, Robert


    The gap between our modern understanding of planetary boundary layer physics and its decades-old representations in current operational atmospheric models is widening, which has stimulated this review of the current state of the art and an analysis of the immediate needs in boundary layer theory......, measurements, and modeling....

  15. Single Column Modeling of Atmospheric Boundary Layers and the Complex Interactions with the Land Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.A.M.; Steeneveld, G.J.


    In this paper a summary is given of the basic approaches for the modeling and parameterization of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer. The treated approaches are in current use in regional and global-scale models for the forecasting and study of weather, climate and air quality. Here we

  16. An improved k-ε model applied to a wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan


    An improved k-ε turbulence model is developed and applied to a single wind turbine wake in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer using a Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes solver. The proposed model includes a flow-dependent Cμ that is sensitive to high velocity gradients, e.g., at the edge of a wind...

  17. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (United States)

    Ned Nikolova; Karl F. Zeller


    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology....

  18. MC-SPAM: Monte-Carlo Synthetic-Photometry/Atmosphere-Model (United States)

    Espinoza, Néstor; Jordán, Andrés


    MC-SPAM (Monte-Carlo Synthetic-Photometry/Atmosphere-Model) generates limb-darkening coefficients from models that are comparable to transit photometry; it extends the original SPAM algorithm by Howarth (2011) by taking in consideration the uncertainty on the stellar and transit parameters of the system under analysis.

  19. Improved representation of East Antarctic surface mass balance in a regional atmospheric climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wessem, J. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; Morlighem, M.; Mouginot, J.; Rignot, E.; Medley, B.; Joughin, I.; Wouters, B.; Depoorter, M. A.; Bamber, J. L.; Lenaerts, J. T M; Van De Berg, W. J.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.; Van Meijgaard, E.


    This study evaluates the impact of a recent upgrade in the physics package of the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2 on the simulated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Antarctic ice sheet. The modelled SMB increases, in particular over the grounded ice sheet of East Antarctica (+44Gt a-1),

  20. The impact of ocean-atmosphere interaction and atmospheric model resolution on the Mediterranean climate as simulated by regionally coupled ESM ROM (United States)

    Sein, Dmitry; Cabos, William; Jacob, Daniela


    The Mediterranean Sea and adjacent land is located in a transitional area between tropical and mid-latitudes and presents a complex orography and coastlines where intense local air-sea and land-sea interactions take place. These intense local air-sea interactions together with the inflow of Atlantic water drive the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation. The resolution of global climate models in general is too coarse to correctly describe air-sea fluxes of energy and mass that play a key role in the process of deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. From the other hand stand-alone atmospheric models can be inadequate to simulate the air-sea fluxes correctly. For these reasons, the Mediterranean Sea is a region where atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCM) are critical for the study of the processes in the atmosphere and ocean. In this work we use the regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model ROM and its atmospheric component REMO in standalone configuration in order to assess the role of ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and the ocean and atmosphere models resolution in the simulation of both the ocean and atmospheric features of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle. To this end, a number of coupled and uncoupled simulations forced by ERA-Interim boundary conditions have been carried out. Namely, four different sets of coupled and uncoupled simulations with different atmospheric resolutions (25 and 12.5 km) are used to estimate the impact of resolution and coupling on the mass and heat budget as well as deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J


    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  2. Revisiting the radionuclide atmospheric dispersion event of the Chernobyl disaster - modelling sensitivity and data assimilation (United States)

    Roustan, Yelva; Duhanyan, Nora; Bocquet, Marc; Winiarek, Victor


    A sensitivity study of the numerical model, as well as, an inverse modelling approach applied to the atmospheric dispersion issues after the Chernobyl disaster are both presented in this paper. On the one hand, the robustness of the source term reconstruction through advanced data assimilation techniques was tested. On the other hand, the classical approaches for sensitivity analysis were enhanced by the use of an optimised forcing field which otherwise is known to be strongly uncertain. The POLYPHEMUS air quality system was used to perform the simulations of radionuclide dispersion. Activity concentrations in air and deposited to the ground of iodine-131, caesium-137 and caesium-134 were considered. The impact of the implemented parameterizations of the physical processes (dry and wet depositions, vertical turbulent diffusion), of the forcing fields (meteorology and source terms) and of the numerical configuration (horizontal resolution) were investigated for the sensitivity study of the model. A four dimensional variational scheme (4D-Var) based on the approximate adjoint of the chemistry transport model was used to invert the source term. The data assimilation is performed with measurements of activity concentrations in air extracted from the Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring (REM) database. For most of the investigated configurations (sensitivity study), the statistics to compare the model results to the field measurements as regards the concentrations in air are clearly improved while using a reconstructed source term. As regards the ground deposited concentrations, an improvement can only be seen in case of satisfactorily modelled episode. Through these studies, the source term and the meteorological fields are proved to have a major impact on the activity concentrations in air. These studies also reinforce the use of reconstructed source term instead of the usual estimated one. A more detailed parameterization of the deposition process seems also to be

  3. Model for Atmospheric Propagation of Spatially Combined Laser Beams (United States)


    are various types of SSL structures but only fiber and slab SSLs have been used as DE weapons. Slab Solid-State Lasers In a slab SSL, the gain...Demonstration (MLD) that leveraged slab SSL technology. In 2010, the MLD project group coherently combined seven 15 kW slab SSLs to create a 1.064 µm laser output power of 105 kW [1]. During field testing, the MLD successfully tracked and engaged small boats in a marine environment. In May 2011, a

  4. Wideband Channel Modeling in Real Atmospheric Environments with Experimental Evaluation (United States)


    received signal will experience ISI and the channel is considered wideband. If either the transmitter or receiver is mobile or the environment is not...are commonly used in spread spectrum communication systems such as Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) systems. Narrowband interference mitigation...Model (APM) for Mobile Radio Applications,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, no. 10 (October), pp. 2869–2877. [5] A. Barrios. 1995

  5. Modelling the formation of organic particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anttila


    Full Text Available Particle formation resulting from activation of inorganic stable clusters by a supersaturated organic vapour was investigated using a numerical model. The applied aerosol dynamic model included a detailed description of the activation process along with a treatment of the appropriate aerosol and gas-phase processes. The obtained results suggest that both gaseous sulphuric acid and organic vapours contribute to organic particle formation in continental background areas. The initial growth of freshly-nucleated clusters is driven mainly by condensation of gaseous sulphuric acid and by a lesser extent self-coagulation. After the clusters have reached sizes of around 2 nm in diameter, low-volatile organic vapours start to condense spontaneously into the clusters, thereby accelerating their growth to detectable sizes. A shortage of gaseous sulphuric acid or organic vapours limit, or suppress altogether, the particle formation, since freshly-nucleated clusters are rapidly coagulated away by pre-existing particles. The obtained modelling results were applied to explaining the observed seasonal cycle in the number of aerosol formation events in a continental forest site.

  6. Performance of parallel computers for spectral atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.T.; Toonen, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Massively parallel processing (MPP) computer systems use high-speed interconnection networks to link hundreds or thousands of RISC microprocessors. With each microprocessor having a peak performance of 100 Mflops/sec or more, there is at least the possibility of achieving very high performance. However, the question of exactly how to achieve this performance remains unanswered. MPP systems and vector multiprocessors require very different coding styles. Different MPP systems have widely varying architectures and performance characteristics. For most problems, a range of different parallel algorithms is possible, again with varying performance characteristics. In this paper, we provide a detailed, fair evaluation of MPP performance for a weather and climate modeling application. Using a specially designed spectral transform code, we study performance on three different MPP systems: Intel Paragon, IBM SP2, and Cray T3D. We take great care to control for performance differences due to varying algorithmic characteristics. The results yield insights into MPP performance characteristics, parallel spectral transform algorithms, and coding style for MPP systems. We conclude that it is possible to construct parallel models that achieve multi-Gflop/sec performance on a range of MPPs if the models are constructed to allow run-time selection of appropriate algorithms.

  7. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry – general circulation model: Comparison with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hein

    Full Text Available The coupled climate-chemistry model ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM is presented which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks. This is the first model which interactively combines a general circulation model with a chemical model, employing most of the important reactions and species necessary to describe the stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone chemistry, and which is computationally fast enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. This is possible as the model time-step used for the chemistry can be chosen as large as the integration time-step for the dynamics. Vertically the atmosphere is discretized by 39 levels from the surface up to the top layer which is centred at 10 hPa, with a relatively high vertical resolution of approximately 700 m near the extra-tropical tropopause. We present the results of a control simulation representing recent conditions (1990 and compare it to available observations. The focus is on investigations of stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM reproduces main features of stratospheric dynamics in the arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to earlier model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their inter-hemispheric differences are reproduced. Considering methane oxidation as part of the dynamic-chemistry feedback results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour concentrations. The current model constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic

  8. Testing of the abiotic degradation of chemicals in the atmosphere: the smog chamber approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepffer, W.H.; Haag, F.; Kohl, E.G.; Frank, R.


    Methods for measuring the hydroxyl-, ozone-, and direct photochemical reactivity of a substance in one specially designed medium size smog chamber are described. Rate coefficients for the reaction of OH with n-hexane, n-heptane, ethene, ethyne, chloroform, trichloroethene, methanol, 2-propanol, benzene, o-xylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, p-chloroaniline, naphthalene, acenaphthene, 1,4-dichloronaphthalene, biphenyl, and fluorenone are given and discussed. An upper limit of 5 X 10(-13) cm3/sec is given for the sum penta- and hexa-chlorobiphenyls (PCB). Rate coefficients for the ozone reaction are given for beta-pinene, limonene, delta 3-carene, cineol, vinyl chloride and 1,3-butadiene. In cases where the literature data are available for comparison, the rate coefficients (kappa OH and kappa O3) reported here compare favorably with the best data reported. The direct photochemical reactivity has been shown to be measurable if the chamber is cleaned carefully. Preliminary results on benzophenone are reported. The methods described here, except that of direct photochemical reactivity, are in agreement with those proposed to OECD. Moreover, part of the Draft OECD Test Guideline (Berlin, 1987) on Photochemical-Oxidative Degradation in the Atmosphere is based on work described here and on closely related work in other laboratories.

  9. Adsorption tests of water vapor on synthetic zeolites for an atmospheric detritiation dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.R. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail:; Lee, M.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Paek, S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, D.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Tritiated hydrogen and hydrocarbon are usually oxidized to a tritiated water vapor to make the tritium adsorbable and easy to treat. The adsorption system as a subsequent process plays an important role in a tritium recovery and its performance affects the overall detritiation efficiency significantly. In order to quantify an adsorbent's utilization and its dynamic capacity against an inlet humidity and a flow rate, a series of quantitative tests based on the breakthrough behavior were carried out in an isothermal fixed bed of synthetic zeolites such as molecular sieve 4A, 5A, 13X and mordenite. The amount of water vapor breaking during the adsorption was estimated to provide a breakthrough capacity at the various inlet flow rates and humidity conditions. The molecular sieve 13X exhibited a better adsorption performance at a given bed height. The existence of CO{sub 2} in a humid atmosphere had a minor effect on the net adsorption capacity and the hydrogen isotopic water (HDO) in the elution stream showed a delayed behavior during a thermal desorption.

  10. Testing FSO WDM communication system in simulation software optiwave OptiSystem in different atmospheric environments (United States)

    Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Bednarek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir


    In this article the author's team deals with using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications. In FSO communication occurs due to the influence of atmospheric effect (attenuation, and fluctuation of the received power signal, influence turbulence) and the WDM channel suffers from interchannel crosstalk. There is considered only the one direction. The behavior FSO link was tested for one or eight channels. Here we will be dealing with modulation schemes OOK (On-Off keying), QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and Subcarrier Intensity Modulation (SIM) based on a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying). Simulation software OptiSystem 14 was used for tasting. For simulation some parameters were set according to real FSO link such as the datarate 1.25 Gbps, link range 1.4 km. Simulated FSO link used wavelength of 1550 nm with 0.8 nm spacing. There is obtained the influence of crosstalk and modulation format for the BER, depending on the amount of turbulence in the propagation medium.

  11. Conceiving processes in atmospheric models-General equations, subscale parameterizations, and 'superparameterizations' (United States)

    Gramelsberger, Gabriele

    The scientific understanding of atmospheric processes has been rooted in the mechanical and physical view of nature ever since dynamic meteorology gained ground in the late 19th century. Conceiving the atmosphere as a giant 'air mass circulation engine' entails applying hydro- and thermodynamical theory to the subject in order to describe the atmosphere's behaviour on small scales. But when it comes to forecasting, it turns out that this view is far too complex to be computed. The limitation of analytical methods precludes an exact solution, forcing scientists to make use of numerical simulation. However, simulation introduces two prerequisites to meteorology: First, the partitioning of the theoretical view into two parts-the large-scale behaviour of the atmosphere, and the effects of smaller-scale processes on this large-scale behaviour, so-called parametrizations; and second, the dependency on computational power in order to achieve a higher resolution. The history of today's atmospheric circulation modelling can be reconstructed as the attempt to improve the handling of these basic constraints. It can be further seen as the old schism between theory and application under new circumstances, which triggers a new discussion about the question of how processes may be conceived in atmospheric modelling.

  12. Acute effects of a large bolide impact simulated by a global atmospheric circulation model (United States)

    Thompson, Starley L.; Crutzen, P. J.


    The goal is to use a global three-dimensional atmospheric circulation model developed for studies of atmospheric effects of nuclear war to examine the time evolution of atmospheric effects from a large bolide impact. The model allows for dust and NOx injection, atmospheric transport by winds, removal by precipitation, radiative transfer effects, stratospheric ozone chemistry, and nitric acid formation and deposition on a simulated Earth having realistic geography. Researchers assume a modest 2 km-diameter impactor of the type that could have formed the 32 km-diameter impact structure found near Manson, Iowa and dated at roughly 66 Ma. Such an impact would have created on the order of 5 x 10 to the 10th power metric tons of atmospheric dust (about 0.01 g cm(-2) if spread globally) and 1 x 10 to the 37th power molecules of NO, or two orders of magnitude more stratospheric NO than might be produced in a large nuclear war. Researchers ignore potential injections of CO2 and wildfire smoke, and assume the direct heating of the atmosphere by impact ejecta on a regional scale is not large compared to absorption of solar energy by dust. Researchers assume an impact site at 45 N in the interior of present day North America.

  13. Dependence of the Martian radiation environment on atmospheric depth: Modeling and measurement (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Slaba, Tony C.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Badavi, Francis F.; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David E.; Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Rafkin, Scot


    The energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is influenced by solar and heliospheric modulation and changes in the local atmospheric pressure (or column depth). The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity on the surface of Mars has been measuring this effect for over four Earth years (about two Martian years). The anticorrelation between the recorded surface Galactic Cosmic Ray-induced dose rates and pressure changes has been investigated by Rafkin et al. (2014) and the long-term solar modulation has also been empirically analyzed and modeled by Guo et al. (2015). This paper employs the newly updated HZETRN2015 code to model the Martian atmospheric shielding effect on the accumulated dose rates and the change of this effect under different solar modulation and atmospheric conditions. The modeled results are compared with the most up-to-date (from 14 August 2012 to 29 June 2016) observations of the RAD instrument on the surface of Mars. Both model and measurements agree reasonably well and show the atmospheric shielding effect under weak solar modulation conditions and the decline of this effect as solar modulation becomes stronger. This result is important for better risk estimations of future human explorations to Mars under different heliospheric and Martian atmospheric conditions.

  14. Dependence of Martian radiation environment on atmospheric depth: modeling and measurement (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Slaba, Tony; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Boehm, Eckart; Brinza, David; Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald; Matthiae, Daniel; Rafkin, Scot; Badavi, Francis


    The energetic particle environment on the Martian surface is influenced by solar and heliospheric modulation and changes in the local atmospheric pressure (or column depth). The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity on the surface of Mars has been measuring this effect for over four Earth years (about two Martian years). The anti-correlation between the recorded surface Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) induced dose rates and pressure changes has been investigated by Rafkin et al. (2014) and the long-term solar modulation have also been empirically analyzed and modeled by Guo et al. (2015). This paper employs the newly updated HZETRN2015 code to model the Martian atmospheric shielding effect on the accumulated dose rates and the change of this effect under different solar modulation and atmospheric conditions. The modeled results are compared with the most up-to-date (from 14 August 2012 until 29 June 2016) observations of the RAD instrument on the surface of Mars. Both model and measurements agree reasonably well and show the atmospheric shielding effect under weak solar modulation conditions and the decline of this effect as solar modulation becomes stronger. This result is important for better risk estimations of future human explorations to Mars under different heliospheric and Martian atmospheric conditions.

  15. Variational data assimilation schemes for transport and transformation models of atmospheric chemistry (United States)

    Penenko, Alexey; Penenko, Vladimir; Tsvetova, Elena; Antokhin, Pavel


    The work is devoted to data assimilation algorithm for atmospheric chemistry transport and transformation models. In the work a control function is introduced into the model source term (emission rate) to provide flexibility to adjust to data. This function is evaluated as the constrained minimum of the target functional combining a control function norm with a norm of the misfit between measured data and its model-simulated analog. Transport and transformation processes model is acting as a constraint. The constrained minimization problem is solved with Euler-Lagrange variational principle [1] which allows reducing it to a system of direct, adjoint and control function estimate relations. This provides a physically-plausible structure of the resulting analysis without model error covariance matrices that are sought within conventional approaches to data assimilation. High dimensionality of the atmospheric chemistry models and a real-time mode of operation demand for computational efficiency of the data assimilation algorithms. Computational issues with complicated models can be solved by using a splitting technique. Within this approach a complex model is split to a set of relatively independent simpler models equipped with a coupling procedure. In a fine-grained approach data assimilation is carried out quasi-independently on the separate splitting stages with shared measurement data [2]. In integrated schemes data assimilation is carried out with respect to the split model as a whole. We compare the two approaches both theoretically and numerically. Data assimilation on the transport stage is carried out with a direct algorithm without iterations. Different algorithms to assimilate data on nonlinear transformation stage are compared. In the work we compare data assimilation results for both artificial and real measurement data. With these data we study the impact of transformation processes and data assimilation to the performance of the modeling system [3]. The

  16. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) Model - An Unified Concept for Earthquake Precursors Validation (United States)

    Pulinets, S.; Ouzounov, D.


    The paper presents a conception of complex multidisciplinary approach to the problem of clarification the nature of short-term earthquake precursors observed in atmosphere, atmospheric electricity and in ionosphere and magnetosphere. Our approach is based on the most fundamental principles of tectonics giving understanding that earthquake is an ultimate result of relative movement of tectonic plates and blocks of different sizes. Different kind of gases: methane, helium, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide leaking from the crust can serve as carrier gases for radon including underwater seismically active faults. Radon action on atmospheric gases is similar to the cosmic rays effects in upper layers of atmosphere: it is the air ionization and formation by ions the nucleus of water condensation. Condensation of water vapor is accompanied by the latent heat exhalation is the main cause for observing atmospheric thermal anomalies. Formation of large ion clusters changes the conductivity of boundary layer of atmosphere and parameters of the global electric circuit over the active tectonic faults. Variations of atmospheric electricity are the main source of ionospheric anomalies over seismically active areas. Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model can explain most of these events as a synergy between different ground surface, atmosphere and ionosphere processes and anomalous variations which are usually named as short-term earthquake precursors. A newly developed approach of Interdisciplinary Space-Terrestrial Framework (ISTF) can provide also a verification of these precursory processes in seismically active regions. The main outcome of this paper is the unified concept for systematic validation of different types of earthquake precursors united by physical basis in one common theory.

  17. Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B


    Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

  18. Space Launch System Scale Model Acoustic Test Ignition Overpressure Testing (United States)

    Nance, Donald K.; Liever, Peter A.


    The overpressure phenomenon is a transient fluid dynamic event occurring during rocket propulsion system ignition. This phenomenon results from fluid compression of the accelerating plume gas, subsequent rarefaction, and subsequent propagation from the exhaust trench and duct holes. The high-amplitude unsteady fluid-dynamic perturbations can adversely affect the vehicle and surrounding structure. Commonly known as ignition overpressure (IOP), this is an important design-to environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) that NASA is currently developing. Subscale testing is useful in validating and verifying the IOP environment. This was one of the objectives of the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT), conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The test data quantifies the effectiveness of the SLS IOP suppression system and improves the analytical models used to predict the SLS IOP environments. The reduction and analysis of the data gathered during the SMAT IOP test series requires identification and characterization of multiple dynamic events and scaling of the event waveforms to provide the most accurate comparisons to determine the effectiveness of the IOP suppression systems. The identification and characterization of the overpressure events, the waveform scaling, the computation of the IOP suppression system knockdown factors, and preliminary comparisons to the analytical models are discussed.

  19. Atmospheric aerosol dispersion models and their applications to environmental risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Mazur


    Full Text Available Introduction. Numerical models of dispersion of atmospheric pollutants are widely used to forecast the spread of contaminants in the air and to analyze the effects of this phenomenon. The aim of the study is to investigate the possibilities and the quality of diagnosis and prediction of atmospheric transport of aerosols in the air using the dispersion model of atmospheric pollutants, developed at the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM in Warsaw. Material and methods. A model of the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants, linked with meteorological models in a diagnostic mode, was used to simulate the transport of the cloud of aerosols released during the crash near the town of Ożydiw (Ukraine and of volcanic ash – during the volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. Results. Possible directions of dispersion of pollutants in the air and its concentration in the atmosphere and deposition to the soil were assessed. The analysis of temporal variability of concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere confirmed that the model developed at IMWM is an effective tool for diagnosis of air quality in the area of Poland as well as for determination of exposure duration to the aerosol clouds for different weather scenarios. Conclusions. The results are a confirmation of the thesis, that because in the environmental risk assessment, an important element is not only current information on the level of pollution concentrations, but also the time of exposure to pollution and forecast of these elements, and consequently the predicted effects on man or the environment in general; so it is necessary to use forecasting tools, similar to presented application. The dispersion model described in the paper is an operational tool for description, analysis and forecasting of emergency situations in case of emissions of hazardous substances.

  20. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen


    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  1. Modeling Reliability Growth in Accelerated Stress Testing (United States)


    and E. Elsayed, "A general accelerated life model for step stress testing," IIE Transactions , vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1059-1069, 2005. [57] D. Nicholls...W. Nelson, "Accelerated Life Testing - step-stress models and data analyses," IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 29, pp. 103-108, 1980. [19] G...34 IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vols. R-26, no. 5, pp. 348-351, 1977. [35] D. E. Olsen, "Estimating reliability growth," IEEE Transactions on

  2. Modelling ties in the sign test. (United States)

    Rayner, J C; Best, D J


    If ties occur in the sign test, the procedure recommended by Coakley and Heise (1996, Biometrics 52, 1242-1251) is the asymptotic uniformly most powerful nonrandomised test due to Putter (1955, Annals of Mathematical Statistics 26, 368-386). It may be shown that this is a consequence of how the probability of a tie is modelled. Other models with different optimal procedures can be constructed.

  3. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka (United States)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.


    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  4. Torsion vehicle model test for automotive vehicle (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.


    Torsion vehicle model test of Simple Structural Surfaces (SSS) model for automotive vehicle sedan is proposed in this paper to demonstrate the importance of providing continuous load path within the vehicle structures. The proposed approach is relatively easy to understand as compared to Finite Element Method (FEM). The results prove that the proposed vehicle model test is capable to show that a satisfactory load paths can five a sufficient structural stiffness within the vehicle structure. It is clearly observed that the global torsion stiffness reduces significantly when only one panel is removed from the complete SSS model. The results also five a food agreement with respect to the theoretical hypothesis as the structure is less stiff in torsion in an open section condition. The SSS model and the corresponding torsion test is obviously useful to give an overview of vehicle structural integrity. It can be potentially integrated with FEM to speed up the design process of automotive vehicle.

  5. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens


    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  6. A model study of mixing and entrainment in the horizontally evolving atmospheric convective boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorovich, E.; Kaiser, R. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Hydrologie und Wasserwirtschaft (Germany)


    We present results from a parallel wind-tunnel/large-eddy simulation (LES) model study of mixing and entrainment in the atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) longitudinally developing over a heated surface. The advection-type entrainment of warmer air from upper turbulence-free layers into the growing CBL has been investigated. Most of numerical and laboratory model studies of the CBL carried out so far dealt with another type of entrainment, namely the non-steady one, regarding the CBL growth as a non-stationary process. In the atmosphere, both types of the CBL development can take place, often being superimposed. (au)

  7. Computational dispersion properties of horizontal staggered grids for atmospheric and ocean models (United States)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.


    The computational dispersion properties of horizontally and time-horizontally staggered grids utilizing corresponding centered-difference techniques for approximation of the adjustment, or gravity wave equations, are examined in terms of their group velocity characteristics. Results are acquired for oceanic and atmospheric models, the former being characterized by a much smaller Rossby radius of deformation. For all grids considered additional filtering is required to control and even eliminate waves with poor computational dispersion characteristics. Computational dispersion properties along with other computational characteristics and requirements give some guidance for an optimal selection of an appropriate grid for an ocean or atmospheric model.

  8. Constraining the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) (United States)

    Pla Garcia, J.; Rafkin, S. C. R.


    The detection of methane by SAM instrument has garnered significant attention. There are many major unresolved questions regarding this detection: 1) Where is the release location? 2) How spatially extensive is the release? 3) For how long is CH4 released? In an effort to better address the potential mixing and remaining questions, atmospheric circulation studies of Gale Crater were performed with MRAMS mesoscale model, ideally suited for this investigation. The model was focused on rover locations using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the detection site. In order to characterize seasonal mixing changes throughout the Martian year, simulations were conducted at Ls0, 90, 180 and 270. The rise in CH4 concentration was reported to start around Ls336, peaked shortly after Ls82, and then dropped to background prior to Ls103. The aim of this work is to establish the amount of mixing during all seasons and to test whether CH4 releases inside or outside of Gale crater are consistent with SAM observations.

  9. Categorisation of nuclear explosions from legitimate radioxenon sources with atmospheric transport modelling (United States)

    Schoeppner, M.; Postelt, F.; Kalinowski, M.; Plastino, W.


    Radioxenon is produced during nuclear explosions and due to its high fission ratio during the reaction and its noble gas character the isotopes can be detected remote from the location of the explosion. Therefore it is used by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Organization (CTBTO) as an indicator for the nuclear character of an explosion and is monitored with the International Monitoring System (IMS). The concentration of radioxenon in the air is continuously measured by multiple stations worldwide and is in need of an automatic categorization scheme in order to highlight signals of interest and to sort out signals that can be explained by legitimate sources. The dispersion and transport of radioxenon emissions through the atmosphere can be simulated with atmospheric transport modelling. Many legitimate sources of radioxenon exist: Nuclear power plants and isotope production facilities are mainly responsible for the worldwide background. The characterisation of this background is an important prerequisite to discriminate nuclear explosion signals against the background. It has been discovered that the few existing isotope production facilities are the major contributors to the background, each with emission strengths in the order of magnitude or more than all nuclear power plants together. Therefore, especially the characterization of these few, but strong, emitters can improve the quality of the signal prediction. Since the location of such an emitter is usually known the source-receptor sensitivity matrices can be utilized together with measured radioxenon concentrations from IMS stations in order to deduct information about the time dependent emissions from the strong emitter. An automatic method to determine an approximated, time dependent source term of an emitter with known location has been developed and is presented. This is a potentially valid tool for the categorization of radioxenon samples, because it can be used to assess whether the measured

  10. Predicting Complex Organic Mixture Atmospheric Chemistry Using Computer-Generated Reaction Models (United States)

    Klein, M. T.; Broadbelt, L. J.; Mazurek, M. A.


    New measurement and chemical characterization technologies now offer unprecedented capabilities for detecting and describing atmospheric organic matter at the molecular level. As a result, very detailed and extensive chemical inventories are produced routinely in atmospheric field measurements of organic compounds found in the vapor and condensed phases (particles, cloud and fog droplets). Hundreds of organic compounds can constitute the complex chemical mixtures observed for these types of samples, exhibiting a wide spectrum of physical properties such as molecular weight, polarity, pH, and chemical reactivity. The central challenge is describing chemically the complex organic aerosol mixture in a useable fashion that can be linked to predictive models. However, the great compositional complexity of organic aerosols engenders a need for the modeling of the reaction chemistry of these compounds in atmospheric chemical models. On a mechanistic level, atmospheric reactions of organic compounds can involve a network of a very large number of chemical species and reactions. Deriving such large molecular kinetic models by hand is a tedious and time-consuming process. However, such models are usually built upon a few basic chemical principles tempered with the model builder's observations, experience, and intuition that can be summarized as a set of rules. This suggests that given an algorithmic framework, computers (information technology) may be used to apply these chemical principles and rules, thereby building a kinetic model. The framework for this model building process has been developed by means of graph theory. A molecule, which is a set of atoms connected by bonds, may be conceptualized as a set of vertices connected by edges, or to be more precise, a graph. The bond breaking and forming for a reaction can be represented compactly in the form of a matrix operator formally called the "reaction matrix". The addition of the reaction matrix operator to the reduced

  11. A model for radiological consequences of nuclear power plant operational atmospheric releases. (United States)

    Kocar, Cemil; Sökmen, Cemal Niyazi


    A dynamic dose and risk assessment model is developed to estimate radiological consequences of atmospheric emissions from nuclear power plants. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion, external exposure from clouds and radioactivity deposited on the ground are included in the model. The model allows to simulate interregional moves of people and multi-location food supply in the computational domain. Any long-range atmospheric dispersion model which yields radionuclide concentrations in air and on the ground at predetermined time intervals can easily be integrated into the model. The software developed is validated against radionuclide concentrations measured in different environmental media and dose values estimated after the Chernobyl accident. Results obtained using the model compare well with dose estimates and activities measured in foodstuffs and feedstuffs.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in geothermally-influenced lakes derived from atmospherically corrected Landsat thermal imagery and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Mathew G; Hamilton, David P.; Trolle, Dennis


    Atmospheric correction of Landsat 7 thermal data was carried out for the purpose of retrieval of lake skin water temperature in Rotorua lakes, and Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. The effect of the atmosphere was modelled using four sources of atmospheric profile data as input to the MODera...

  13. Modeling the distribution of ammonia across Europe including bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wichink Kruit


    Full Text Available A large shortcoming of current chemistry transport models (CTM for simulating the fate of ammonia in the atmosphere is the lack of a description of the bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange. In this paper, results of an update of the surface–atmosphere exchange module DEPAC, i.e. DEPosition of Acidifying Compounds, in the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS are discussed. It is shown that with the new description, which includes bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange, the modeled ammonia concentrations increase almost everywhere, in particular in agricultural source areas. The reason is that by using a compensation point the ammonia lifetime and transport distance is increased. As a consequence, deposition of ammonia and ammonium decreases in agricultural source areas, while it increases in large nature areas and remote regions especially in southern Scandinavia. The inclusion of a compensation point for water reduces the dry deposition over sea and allows reproducing the observed marine background concentrations at coastal locations to a better extent. A comparison with measurements shows that the model results better represent the measured ammonia concentrations. The concentrations in nature areas are slightly overestimated, while the concentrations in agricultural source areas are still underestimated. Although the introduction of the compensation point improves the model performance, the modeling of ammonia remains challenging. Important aspects are emission patterns in space and time as well as a proper approach to deal with the high concentration gradients in relation to model resolution. In short, the inclusion of a bi-directional surface–atmosphere exchange is a significant step forward for modeling ammonia.

  14. Modeling answer changes on test items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.


    The probability of test takers changing answers upon review of their initial choices is modeled. The primary purpose of the model is to check erasures on answer sheets recorded by an optical scanner for numbers and patterns that may be indicative of irregular behavior, such as teachers or school

  15. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels


    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  16. Multilevel Monte Carlo and Improved Timestepping Methods in Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling


    Katsiolides, G; Muller, EH; Scheichl, R.; Shardlow, T.; Giles, MB; Thomson, DJ


    A common way to simulate the transport and spread of pollutants in the atmosphere is via stochastic Lagrangian dispersion models. Mathematically, these models describe turbulent transport processes with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The computational bottleneck is the Monte Carlo algorithm, which simulates the motion of a large number of model particles in a turbulent velocity field; for each particle, a trajectory is calculated with a numerical timestepping method. Choosing an ef...

  17. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    . This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  18. Low-dimensional models for the estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from atmospheric observations (United States)

    van Bloemen Waanders, B.; Ray, J.; McKenna, S. A.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.


    The estimation of anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions using atmospheric observations of CO2 has recently attracted increasing interest due to its relevance to monitoring of CO2 mitigation treaties and programs. To date, techniques to perform large-scale inversions had primarily been developed within the context of understanding biospheric and oceanic fluxes. Such fluxes tend to vary relatively smoothly in space and time, making it possible to use multiGaussian models to parameterize and regularize such inversions, predicated on limited measurements of CO2 concentrations. However, the spatial distribution of anthropogenic emissions is non-stationary and multiscale, and therefore makes the use of multiGaussians models less suitable. Thus, a need exists to identify how anthropogenic emissions may be represented in a low-dimensional manner (i.e., with few parameters), for use in top-down estimation. Certain aspects of the spatial extent of anthropogenic emissions can be represented using easily measurable proxies such as nightlights, population density and GDP; in fact, fossil fuel inventories regularly use them to disaggregate regional emission budgets to finer spatial resolutions. However, such proxies can also be used to construct a priori models for anthropogenic emissions, which can then be updated, with data, through inverse modeling. In this presentation, we compare 3 low-dimensional parameterizations to characterize anthropogenic sources. The models are derived from images of nightlights over the continental USA, but adopt different arguments to achieve their dimensionality reduction. In the first model, we threshold nightlights and fit bivariate Gaussian kernels over clusters to represent emission sources; the emission field is modeled as a weighted sum of the kernels. The second approach models emissions as a weighted superposition of a filtered nightlight-distribution and a multiresolution defect, modeled with Haar wavelet. The nightlight-based methods

  19. Determinations Of The Radii, Redshifts, And Atmospheric Compositions Of Neutron Stars From Modeling Their Chandra X-ray Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Stage, M D


    Fitting the X-ray spectra of thermal radiation from neutron stars with realistic atmosphere models provides a way to place constraints on their radii, surface gravities and compositions, and to test general relativity in the strong field limit. Such determinations allow us to constrain the equation of state of nuclear matter. I present fits which constrain the radii and surface compositions of two neutron stars, using high quality Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the point source in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant (Cas A XPS), and the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754. I apply models calculated with advanced versions of the ATM model atmosphere code developed by Madej and Joss for neutron- star atmospheres composed of hydrogen, hydrogen-helium, iron, or a silicon to iron mixture. The results, taken assuming a typical value of 1.4 solar masses, show that the X-ray emission is generated from hot spot regions of scale size ∼3–4 km, on stars of intrinsic radius 9 and 12.5 km. Thi...

  20. News from Online: In a Planet, Not a Test Tube: Atmospheric Chemistry (United States)

    Michalovic, Mark


    Atmospheric chemistry covers many topics including the gas laws, chemical reactions, kinetics, and catalysis. The article reviews some of the materials available online for teaching chemistry through exploration of the atmosphere. Included are web sites dealing with ozone depletion caused by chlorofluorocarbons and the green house effect and global warming related to the presence of naturally-occurring and human-made compounds in the air. Also covered are materials dealing with the extraterrestrial chemistry in the atmospheres of other worlds, including Venus with its choking, high-pressure carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid atmosphere and Saturn's moon Titan, whose dense nitrogen blanket harbors hydrocarbons and other compounds thought necessary for life to develop.

  1. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl


    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  2. Garbage In Garbage Out Garbage In : Improving the Inputs and Atmospheric Feedbacks in Seasonal Snowpack Modeling (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.


    Without good input data, almost any model will produce bad output; however, alpine environments are extremely difficult places to make measurements of those inputs. Perhaps the least well known input is precipitation, but almost as important are temperature, wind, humidity, and radiation. Recent advances in atmospheric modeling have improved the fidelity of the output such that model output is sometimes better than interpolated observations, particularly for precipitation; however these models come with a tremendous computational cost. We describe the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) as one path to a computationally efficient method to improve snow pack model inputs over complex terrain. ICAR provides estimates of all inputs at a small fraction of the computational cost of a traditional atmospheric model such as the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Importantly, ICAR is able to simulate feedbacks from the land surface that are critical for estimating the air temperature. In addition, we will explore future improvements to the local wind fields including the use of statistics derived from limited duration Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model runs. These wind fields play a critical role in determing the redistribution of snow, and the redistribution of snow changes the surface topography and thus the wind field. We show that a proper depiction of snowpack redistribution can have a large affect on streamflow timing, and an even larger effect on the climate change signal of that streamflow.

  3. The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jöckel


    Full Text Available The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup up to 0.01 hPa was used at spectral T42 resolution to simulate the lower and middle atmosphere. With the high vertical resolution the model simulates the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The model meteorology has been tested to check the influence of the changes to ECHAM5 and the radiation interactions with the new representation of atmospheric composition. In the simulations presented here a Newtonian relaxation technique was applied in the tropospheric part of the domain to weakly nudge the model towards the analysed meteorology during the period 1998–2005. This allows an efficient and direct evaluation with satellite and in-situ data. It is shown that the tropospheric wave forcing of the stratosphere in the model suffices to reproduce major stratospheric warming events leading e.g. to the vortex split over Antarctica in 2002. Characteristic features such as dehydration and denitrification caused by the sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud particles and ozone depletion during winter and spring are simulated well, although ozone loss in the lower polar stratosphere is slightly underestimated. The model realistically simulates stratosphere-troposphere exchange processes as indicated by comparisons with satellite and in situ measurements. The evaluation of tropospheric chemistry presented here focuses on the distributions of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, carbon monoxide and reactive nitrogen compounds. In spite of minor shortcomings, mostly related to the relatively coarse T42 resolution and the neglect of inter-annual changes in biomass burning emissions, the main characteristics of the trace gas distributions are generally reproduced well. The MESSy


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Polischuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the improvement of the method of forecasting the quality of atmospheric air when discharging from stationary sources of pollution and from mobile sources of pollution. The choice of the goal is due to the fact that recently the requirements to the quality of the forecast information of the atmospheric air have increased, which entails the modernization of existing forecast methods. The work has improved the unit for assessing and forecasting the state of atmospheric air in a system of regional environmental monitoring to improve the level of environmental safety in the planning and development of territories. The improved unit serves to determine the quality indices of atmospheric air and the state of its resource potential. Methodology. For the decision of the put task the complex method of researches, which consists in the analysis of the systems and generalization of existent researches after the problem of estimation and prognosis of the state of atmospheric air, use of objective method at the construction of the hierarchical system of models, is utilized. For determination of indexes the method of expert estimations is top level used. For the solution of differential equations of aerodynamics and mass transfer uses finite-difference methods. Findings. The structure of prognosis block is developed on atmospheric air in the system of the ecological monitoring. Researches of indexes of quality of atmospheric air and state of its resource potential are executed with the use of the developed models. Originality. The use of a hierarchical series of mathematical models for a comprehensive assessment and prediction of the state of atmospheric air in scenarios of socio-ecological and economic development and urban development activities of the regions is justified, which makes it possible to raise the level of their ecological safety at the stage of carrying out design and prospecting works. Practical value. The

  5. Measurements and modeling of atmospheric flux of ammonia from an anaerobic dairy waste lagoon (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Neger, Manjit; Filipy, Jenny; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions are not well understood in the US due to a lack of measurement data from the main emission sources. This paper describes concentration measurements downwind of an anaerobic dairy waste lagoon using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), tracer ratio flux experiments and the testing of two mechanistic emission models. The tracer ratio method involves releasing a measured flux of a tracer gas upwind of the lagoon and measuring the concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurement. The flux is calculated by ratioing the tracer flux and concentration with the NH3 concentration and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion over the area source. Measured fluxes from the tracer experiments ranged from 0.11gm-2h-1 at an air temperature of 11C to 0.54gm-2h-1 at an air temperature of 27C. The NH3 emission models were based upon the temperature-dependent biological activity, the partitioning of NH3 and NH4+ in solution, and the partitioning of NH3 between the gas and liquid phases. The theoretical mechanistic model and the empirical mechanistic model had normalized mean errors of 120% and 21%, respectively, when compared to measurements. Emissions were most sensitive to changes in lagoon pH. Annual emissions were 55kgNH3cow-1yr-1 from all lagoons, estimated excretion is 180kgNcow-1yr-1. Using literature lagoon design criteria to estimate lagoon size resulted in an underestimation of emissions of -29%.

  6. Multiple climate regimes in an idealized lake-ice-atmosphere model (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Kravtsov, Sergey; Roebber, Paul


    In recent decades, the Laurentian Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming with the summertime trends substantially exceeding the warming rates of surrounding land. Warming of the deepest (Lake Superior) was the strongest, and that of the shallowest (Lake Erie)—the weakest of all lakes. To investigate the dynamics of accelerated lake warming, we considered single-column and multi-column thermodynamic lake-ice models coupled to an idealized two-layer atmosphere. The variable temperature of the upper atmospheric layer—a proxy for the large-scale atmospheric forcing—consisted, in the most general case, of a linear trend mimicking the global warming and atmospheric interannual variability, both on top of the prescribed seasonal cycle of the upper-air temperature. The atmospheric boundary layer of the coupled model exchanged heat with the lake and exhibited lateral diffusive heat transports between the adjacent atmospheric columns. In simpler single-column models, we find that, for a certain range of periodic atmospheric forcing, each lake possesses two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, which we call "regimes"—with and without lake-ice occurrence in winter and with corresponding cold and warm temperatures in the following summer, respectively, all under an identical seasonally varying external forcing. Deeper lakes exhibit larger differences in their summertime surface water temperature between the warm and cold regimes, due to their larger thermal and dynamical inertia. The regime behavior of multi-column coupled models is similar but more complex, and in some cases, they admit more than two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, with varying degrees of wintertime ice-cover. The simulated lake response to climate change in the presence of the atmospheric noise rationalizes the observed accelerated warming of the lakes, the correlation between wintertime ice cover and next summer's lake-surface temperature, as well as higher warming trends of the

  7. Study on the air-sea interaction over East Asia by using the Regional Atmosphere-ocean coupled model system (United States)

    Han, Y. J.; Chang, E. C.


    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is remotely influenced by the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Western North Pacific (WNP) by changing the meridional circulation from the tropics to the mid-latitude region. SSTs over local oceans surrounding the Korean peninsula can affect atmospheric instability which leads convective precipitation. However, atmosphere is not only dependent on the SST, but also plays important role to the SST as a forcing. In this study, impact of SST distribution and air-sea interaction on the EASM is analyzed by using the regional atmosphere-ocean coupled model in 2003, which has above normal precipitation from 2000 to 2010. The coupled model system consists of the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs) Regional Model Program (RMP) as the atmospheric component model and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) as oceanic component model. The coupled system exchanges surface wind stress, energy fluxes and precipitation from the atmosphere to the ocean model and SST from ocean to atmospheric model. The atmosphere only run and the atmosphere-ocean coupled run are performed for June-July-August. The generated SSTs in the coupled model are cooler over the WNP and warmer over local oceans surrounding the Korean peninsula than the Optimum Interpolation SST, which is used for SST boundary forcing in the atmosphere mode run. The cooler SSTs over the WNP decrease air temperature because of reduced heat fluxes from ocean to atmosphere and strengthen divergence which induces downward motion in the lower troposphere, whereas the warmer SSTs surrounding the Korea peninsula increase air temperature by increased heat fluxes from ocean to atmosphere and strengthen convergence which lead to upward motion in the lower level. As results, the coupled model produces less precipitation over t