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Sample records for atmospheric pressure cell

  1. Selective cytotoxicity of indirect nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma against ovarian clear-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Fumi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kae; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Hori, Masaru; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a histological type of epithelial ovarian cancer that is less responsive to chemotherapy and associated with a poorer prognosis than serous and endometrioid carcinoma. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma which produces reactive species has recently led to an explosion of research in plasma medicine. Plasma treatment can be applied to cancer treatment to induce apoptosis and tumor growth arrest. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that a medium exposed to plasma also has an anti-proliferative effect against cancer in the absence of direct exposure to plasma. In this study, we confirmed whether this indirect plasma has an anti-tumor effect against CCC, and investigated whether this efficacy is selective for cancer cells. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma induced apoptosis in CCC cells, while human peritoneal mesothelial cells remained viable. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma exhibits selective cytotoxicity against CCC cells which are resistant to chemotherapy.

  2. Atmospheric-pressure air microplasma jets in aqueous media for the inactivation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Yang, Si-ze [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu, Dongping [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Song, Ying [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Yue [School of Physics, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The hollow fiber-based cold air microplasma jet array running at atmospheric pressure has been designed to inactivate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) cells in vitro in aqueous media. The influences of electrode configurations, air flow rate, and applied voltage on the discharge characteristics of the single microplasma jet operating in aqueous media are presented, and the bactericidal efficiency of the hollow fibers-based and large-volume microplasma jet array is reported. Optical emission spectroscopy is utilized to identify excited species during the antibacterial testing of plasma in solutions. These well-aligned and rather stable air microplasma jets containing a variety of short-lived species, such as OH and O radicals and charged particles, are in direct contact with aqueous media and are very effective in killing P. fluorescens cells in aqueous media. This design shows its potential application for atmospheric pressure air plasma inactivation of bacteria cells in aqueous media.

  3. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  4. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishaq, M., E-mail: ishaqmusarat@gmail.com [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Bazaka, K. [Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Ostrikov, K. [Comonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  5. Intracellular effects of atmospheric-pressure plasmas on melanoma cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-12-01

    Gas discharge plasmas formed at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature have recently been shown as a promising tool for cancer treatment. The mechanism of the plasma action is attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, electric fields, charges, and photons. The relative importance of different modes of action of atmospheric-pressure plasmas depends on the process parameters and specific treatment objects. Hence, an in-depth understanding of biological mechanisms that underpin plasma-induced death in cancer cells is required to optimise plasma processing conditions. Here, the intracellular factors involved in the observed anti-cancer activity in melanoma Mel007 cells are studied, focusing on the effect of the plasma treatment dose on the expression of tumour suppressor protein TP73. Over-expression of TP73 causes cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis, and hence can potentially be targeted to enhance killing efficacy and selectivity of the plasma treatment. It is shown that the plasma treatment induces dose-dependent up-regulation of TP73 gene expression, resulting in significantly elevated levels of TP73 RNA and protein in plasma-treated melanoma cells. Silencing of TP73 expression by means of RNA interference inhibited the anticancer effects of the plasma, similar to the effect of caspase inhibitor z-VAD or ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. These results confirm the role of TP73 protein in dose-dependent regulation of anticancer activity of atmospheric-pressure plasmas.

  6. Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet with floating electrode on murine melanoma and fibroblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Yao, C.; Chen, S.; Lin, F.; Li, P.; Shi, X.; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma jets have been recently shown as a highly promising tool in certain cancer therapies. In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with a one inner floating and two outer electrode configuration using helium gas for medical applications is developed. Subjected to a range of applied voltages with a frequency of 19.8 kHz at a fixed rate of gas flow (i.e., 3 l/min), electrical and optical characteristics of the APPJ are investigated. Compared with the device only with two outer electrodes, higher discharge current, longer jet, and more active species in the plasma plume at the same applied voltage together with the lower gas breakdown voltage can be achieved through embedding a floating inner electrode. Employing the APPJ with a floating electrode, the effects of identical plasma treatment time durations on murine melanoma cancer and normal fibroblast cells cultured in vitro are evaluated. The results of cell viability, cell apoptosis, and DNA damage detection show that the plasma can inactivate melanoma cells in a time-dependent manner from 10 s to 60 s compared with the control group (p melanoma cells at the same treatment time. The different basal reactive oxygen species level and antioxidant superoxide dismutase level of two kinds of cells may account for their different responses towards the identical plasma exposure.

  7. Cell immobilization on polymer by air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Om, Ji-yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-08-01

    The study of cell immobilization on delicate polymer by an air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) is required for its medical application. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether AAPPJ treatment induce cell immobilization effect on delicate polymers without significant change of surface roughness by AAPPJ treatment. After surface roughness, dynamic contact angle, and chemical characteristics were investigated, the immobilization effect was evaluated with the mouse fibroblast L929 cell line. Surface roughness change was not observed (P > 0.05) in either delicate dental wax or polystyrene plate (PSP) as advancing and receding contact angles significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thanks to decreased hydrocarbon and formation of oxygen-related functional groups in treated PSP. Adherent L929 cells with elongated morphology were found in treated PSP along with the formation of immobilization markers vinculin and actin cytoskeleton. Increased PTK2 gene expression upregulated these markers on treated PSP.

  8. Treatment of oral cancer cells with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, James; Han, Xu; Coffey, Benjamin; Klas, Matej; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2012-10-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are specialized types of plasma that are proposed as a new agent to induce death in cancer cells. The experimental phase of this study will test the application of such plasma to SCC-25 oral cancer cells to determine if it is possible to induce apoptosis or necrosis. Different sources are used on the cells to find a configuration which kills cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells. The sources have been developed based on the dielectric barrier discharge between two external electrodes surrounding a dielectric tube; such a configuration has been shown to induce breaks in DNA strands. Each configuration is characterized using an optical emission spectrophotometer and iCCD camera to determine the optimal conditions for inducing cell death. The cells are incubated after irradiation with plasma, and cell death is determined using microscopy imaging to identify antibody interaction within the cells. These studies are important for better understanding of plasma species interactions with cancer cells and mechanisms of DNA damage and at latter stage they will be useful for the development of advanced cancer therapy.

  9. Pro-apoptotic NOXA is implicated in atmospheric-pressure plasma-induced melanoma cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, M.; Bazaka, K.; Ostrikov, K.

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) has been successfully used to treat several types of cancers in vivo and in vitro, with the effect being primarily attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanisms by which APP induces apoptosis in cancer cells require further elucidation. In this study, the effects of APP on the expression of 500 genes in melanoma Mel007 cancer cells were examined. Pro-apoptotic phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein (PMAIP1), also known as NOXA, was highly expressed as a result of APP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking of ROS using scavenger NAC or silencing of NOXA gene by RNA interference inhibited the APP-induced NOXA genes upregulation and impaired caspases 3/7 mediated apoptosis, confirming the important role plasma-generated ROS species and pro-apoptotic NOXA play in APP-induced cancer cell death.

  10. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-09-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC-25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory consists of two external electrodes wrapping around a quartz tube and nitrogen as a feed gas and operates based on dielectric barrier gas discharge. Generally, it is more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, this design provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to the noble gases for future clinical operation. Different parameters of the APPJ configuration were tested in order to determine radiation dosage. To explore the effects of delayed damage and cell self-repairing, various incubation times of cells after plasma treatment were also performed. Reactive species generated in plasma jet and in liquid environment are essential to be identified and quantified, with the aim of unfolding the mystery of detailed mechanisms for plasma-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, from the comparison of plasma treatment effect on normal oral cells OKF6T, an insight to the selectivity for cancer treatment by APPJ can be explored. All of these studies are critical to better understand the damage responses of normal and abnormal cellular systems to plasma radiation, which are useful for the development of advanced plasma therapy for cancer treatment at a later stage.

  11. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90∘ off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  12. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90(∘) off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  13. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jörn, E-mail: winter@inp-greifswald.de; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V., Felix-Hausdorff-St. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90{sup ∘} off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s{sub 5}) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  14. DNA damage in oral cancer and normal cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Kapaldo, James; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) have been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory operates based on dielectric barrier discharge. It consists of two copper electrodes alternatively wrapping around a fused silica tube with nitrogen as a feed gas. It is generally more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, N2 provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to noble gases, thus this design can be beneficial for the future long-term clinical use. To compare the effects of plasma on cancer cells (SCC25) and normal cells (OKF), the cells from both types were treated at the same experimental condition for various treatment times. The effective area with different damage levels after the treatment was visualized as 3D maps. The delayed damage effects were also explored by varying the incubation times after the treatment. All of these studies are critical for a better understanding of the damage responses of cellular systems exposed to the plasma radiation, thus are useful for the development of the advanced plasma cancer therapy. The research described herein was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, United States Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FC02-04ER15533.

  15. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events.

  16. Mechanistic insights into the impact of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on human epithelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezest, Marlène; Chavatte, Laurent; Bourdens, Marion; Quinton, Damien; Camus, Mylène; Garrigues, Luc; Descargues, Pascal; Arbault, Stéphane; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Casteilla, Louis; Clément, Franck; Planat, Valérie; Bulteau, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) has potential as a new cancer therapy. However, knowledge about cellular signaling events and toxicity subsequent to plasma treatment is still poorly documented. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction between 3 different types of plasma (He, He-O2, He-N2) and human epithelial cell lines to gain better insight into plasma-cell interaction. We provide evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are inducing cell death by apoptosis and that the proteasome, a major intracellular proteolytic system which is important for tumor cell growth and survival, is a target of (He or He-N2) CAPP. However, RONS are not the only actors involved in cell death; electric field and charged particles could play a significant role especially for He-O2 CAPP. By differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis we found that CAPP triggers antioxidant and cellular defense but is also affecting extracellular matrix in keratinocytes. Moreover, we found that malignant cells are more resistant to CAPP treatment than normal cells. Taken together, our findings provide insight into potential mechanisms of CAPP-induced proteasome inactivation and the cellular consequences of these events. PMID:28120925

  17. Disinfection of ocular cells and tissues by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low temperature plasmas have been proposed in medicine as agents for tissue disinfection and have received increasing attention due to the frequency of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. This study explored whether atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (APCP generated by a new portable device that ionizes a flow of helium gas can inactivate ocular pathogens without causing significant tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the APCP effects on cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Herpes simplex virus-1, ocular cells (conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes and ex-vivo corneas. Exposure to APCP for 0.5 to 5 minutes significantly reduced microbial viability (colony-forming units but not human cell viability (MTT assay, FACS and Tunel analysis or the number of HSV-1 plaque-forming units. Increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in exposed microorganisms and cells were found using a FACS-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Immunoassays demonstrated no induction of thymine dimers in cell cultures and corneal tissues. A transient increased expression of 8-OHdG, genes and proteins related to oxidative stress (OGG1, GPX, NFE2L2, was determined in ocular cells and corneas by HPLC, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A short application of APCP appears to be an efficient and rapid ocular disinfectant for bacteria and fungi without significant damage on ocular cells and tissues, although the treatment of conjunctival fibroblasts and keratocytes caused a time-restricted generation of intracellular ROS and oxidative stress-related responses.

  18. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, H.; Gan, L.; Yang, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com, E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn [College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Lu, R. [School Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xian, Y.; Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com, E-mail: yangxl@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-kB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  19. Effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma on human hepatocarcinoma cell and its 5-fluorouracil resistant cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lu, R.; Xian, Y.; Gan, L.; Lu, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma showed selective killing efficiency on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which makes plasma a potential option for cancer therapy. However, the plasma effects on chemotherapeutic drugs-resistant cells are rarely to be found. In this paper, the effects of plasma on human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel7402 cells and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant Bel7402/5FU cells were intensively investigated. The results showed that plasma induced superior toxicity to Bel7402 cells compared with Bel7402/5FU cells. Incubation with plasma-treated medium for 20 s induced more than 85% death rate in Bel7402 cells, while the same death ratio was achieved when Bel7402/5FU cells were treated for as long as 300 s. The hydrogen peroxide in the medium played a leading role in the cytotoxicity effects. Further studies implicated that when the treatment time was shorter than 60 s, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis occurred through the intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in Bel7402 cells. Molecular analysis showed an increase in the transcription factor activity for AP-1, NF-кB, and p53 in Bel7402 cells. No obvious damage could be detected in plasma-treated Bel7402/5FU cells due to the strong intracellular reactive oxygen stress scavenger system.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  1. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

  2. Treatment of poly(ethylene terephthalate) foils by atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzminova, Anna [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Vandrovcová, Marta [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Shelemin, Artem [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bačáková, Lucie [Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovickách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Effect of atmospheric pressure DBD plasma on PET foils was investigated. • DBD treatment causes increase in surface density of O-containing functional groups. • DBD plasma causes increase of wettability, roughness and complex modulus of PET. • DBD treatment positively influences cells growth on PET. • Enhancement of cell growth on treated PET depends on the cell type. - Abstract: In this contribution an effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in air at atmospheric pressure on surface properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils is studied. It is found that exposure of PET to DBD plasma leads to rapid changes of surface chemical composition, wettability, surface morphology as well as mechanical properties of PET surface. In addition, based on biological tests that were performed using two cell types (Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells and HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells), it may be concluded that DBD plasma treatment positively influences cell growth on PET. This effect was found to be connected predominantly with increased surface energy and oxygen content of the surface of treated PET foils.

  3. Enhancement of cell growth on honeycomb-structured polylactide surface using atmospheric-pressure plasma jet modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Chia-Hsing; Yang, Yi-Wei; Liao, Guo-Chun; Liu, Chih-Tung; Wu, Jong-Shinn

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we compare the cell growth results of NIH-3T3 and Neuro-2A cells over 72 h on flat and honeycomb structured PLA films without and with a two-step atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based plasma jet treatment. We developed a fabrication system used for forming of a uniform honeycomb structure on PLA surface, which can produce two different pore sizes, 3-4 μm and 7-8 μm, of honeycomb pattern. We applied a previously developed nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet system to treat the PLA film without and with honeycomb structure. NIH-3T3 and a much smaller Neuro-2A cells were cultivated on the films under various surface conditions. The results show that the two-step plasma treatment in combination with a honeycomb structure can enhance cell growth on PLA film, should the cell size be not too smaller than the pore size of honeycomb structure, e.g., NIH-3T3. Otherwise, cell growth would be better on flat PLA film, e.g., Neuro-2A.

  4. Roles of charged particles and reactive species on cell membrane permeabilization induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hokari, Yutaro; Tominami, Kanako; Mokudai, Takayuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    As factors that influence cell membrane permeabilization during direct and indirect atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation, charged particle influx, superoxide anion radicals (O2 -•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plasma-irradiated solution were evaluated. These are the three strong candidate factors and might multiply contribute to cell membrane permeabilization. In particular, a shorter plasma diffusion distance leads to the enhancement of the direct effects such as charged particle influx and further increase cell membrane permeability. In addition, O2 -• dissipates over time (a life span of the order of minutes) in plasma-irradiated water, and the deactivation of a plasma-irradiated solution in term of cell membrane permeabilization occurs in a life span of the same order. These results could promote the understanding of the mechanism of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization.

  5. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Shon, C H [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y S; Kim, S [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G C [Department of Oral Anatomy, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kong, M G [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ki9100m@pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin {alpha}{sub 2}, integrin {alpha}{sub 4} and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  6. Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. J.; Shon, C. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S.; Kim, G. C.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Increased expression of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is important for the survival, growth and metastasis of melanoma cells. Based on this well-established observation in oncology, we propose to use degradation of integrin and FAK proteins as a potential strategy for melanoma cancer therapy. A low-temperature radio-frequency atmospheric microplasma jet is used to study their effects on the adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells. Microplasma treatment is shown to (1) cause significant cell detachment from the bottom of microtiter plates coated with collagen, (2) induce the death of human melanoma cells, (3) inhibit the expression of integrin α2, integrin α4 and FAK on the cell surface and finally (4) change well-stretched actin filaments to a diffuse pattern. These results suggest that cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can strongly inhibit the adhesion of melanoma cells by reducing the activities of adhesion proteins such as integrins and FAK, key biomolecules that are known to be important in malignant transformation and acquisition of metastatic phenotypes.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment evokes transient oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes and influences cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Straßenburg, Susanne; Haertel, Beate; Harms, Manuela; Holtz, Sarah; Barton, Annemarie; Masur, Kai; von Woedtke, Thomas; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Modern non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma sources enable controllable interaction with biological systems. Their future applications - e.g. wound management - are based on their unique mixture of reactive components sparking both stimulatory as well as inhibitory processes. To gain detailed understanding of plasma-cell interaction and with respect to risk awareness, key mechanisms need to be identified. This study focuses on the impact of an argon non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (kINPen 09) on human HaCaT keratinocytes. With increasing duration, cell viability decreased. In accordance, cells accumulated in G2/M phase within the following 24 h. DNA single-strand breaks were detected immediately after treatment and receded in the aftermath, returning to control levels after 24 h. No directly plasma-related DNA double-strand breaks were detected over the same time. Concurrently, DNA synthesis decreased. Coincident with treatment time, an increase in intracellular 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) conversion increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The radical scavenging activity of culture medium crucially influenced these effects. Thus, ROS changed DNA integrity, and the effectiveness of cellular defence mechanisms characterises the interaction of non-thermal plasma and eukaryotic cells. Effects were time-dependent, indicating an active response of the eukaryotic cells. Hence, a stimulation of eukaryotic cells using short-term non-thermal plasma treatment seems possible, eg in the context of chronic wound care. Long-term plasma treatments stopped in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which might be relevant in controlling neoplastic conditions.

  8. Atmospheric pressure femtosecond laser imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Yves; Gunaratne, Tissa C.; Dantus, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We present a novel imaging mass spectrometry technique that uses femtosecond laser pulses to directly ionize the sample. The method offers significant advantages over current techniques by eliminating the need of a laser-absorbing sample matrix, being suitable for atmospheric pressure sampling, and by providing 10μm resolution, as demonstrated here with a chemical image of vegetable cell walls.

  9. Proliferation assay of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Ando, Ayumi; Hirano, Kazumi; Ogura, Chika; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Ikeguchi, Masamichi; Seki, Atsushi; Nishihara, Shoko; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Proliferation assays of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been performed with cell culture media exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs), which generate reactive species in the media at room temperature. It is found that serum in cell culture media functions as a scavenger of highly reactive species and tends to protect cells in the media against cellular damage. On the other hand, if serum is not present in a cell culture medium when it is exposed to APP, the medium becomes cytotoxic and cannot be detoxified by serum added afterwards. Plasma-induced cytotoxic media hinder proliferation of mouse ES cells and may even cause cell death. It is also shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that organic compounds in cell culture media are in general not significantly modified by plasma exposure. These results indicate that if there is no serum in media when they are exposed to APPs, highly reactive species (such as OH radicals) generated in the media by the APP exposure are immediately converted to less reactive species (such as H2O2), which can no longer readily react with serum that is added to the medium after plasma exposure. This study has clearly shown that it is these less reactive species, rather than highly reactive species, that make the medium cytotoxic to mouse ES cells.

  10. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  11. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Craig E; Rux, Guido; Herppich, Werner B

    2013-01-01

    It has been well-established that many epiphytic bromeliads of the atmospheric-type morphology, i.e., with leaf surfaces completely covered by large, overlapping, multicellular trichomes, are capable of absorbing water vapor from the atmosphere when air humidity increases. It is much less clear, however, whether this absorption of water vapor can hydrate the living cells of the leaves and, as a consequence, enhance physiological processes in such cells. The goal of this research was to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides results in an increase in turgor pressure in leaf epidermal cells that subtend the large trichomes, and, by using chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, to determine if the absorption of atmospheric water vapor by leaves of this epiphyte results in increased photosynthetic activity. Results of measurements on living cells of attached leaves of this epiphytic bromeliad, using a pressure probe and of whole-shoot fluorescence imaging analyses clearly illustrated that the turgor pressure of leaf epidermal cells did not increase, and the photosynthetic activity of leaves did not increase, following exposure of the leaves to high humidity air. These results experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, that the absorption of water vapor following increases in atmospheric humidity in atmospheric epiphytic bromeliads is mostly likely a physical phenomenon resulting from hydration of non-living leaf structures, e.g., trichomes, and has no physiological significance for the plant's living tissues.

  12. Novel thin films deposited on electrospun PCL scaffolds by atmospheric pressure plasma jet for L929 fibroblast cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozutok, M.; Baitukha, A.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.; Turkoglu Sasmazel, H.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the deposition of PCL homopolymers and poly ɛ-caprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) copolymers by atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) onto electrospun PCL scaffolds for improving L929 fibroblast cell growth. Polymer deposited scaffolds showed better stability as well as lower CA as compared to those treated with APPJ in Ar alone used as the carrier gas to introduce the precursors due to the formation of polar groups generated during the plasma treatment, such as -OH and/or -COO. Average fiber and porosity sizes were calculated by using SEM photographs and the ImageJ Launcher Software program and higher values were observed for both PCL and PCL-PEG deposited scaffolds than the untreated electrospun PCL scaffolds. XPS analysis showed that C1s% content decreased for PCL deposited (from 82.4% to 71.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 82.4% to 57.7%) and O1s% composition increased for PCL deposited (from 17.6% to 29.0%) and PCL-PEG deposited (from 17.6% to 42.3%) compared to the untreated one. XPS results proved more incorporation of oxygen moieties on the deposited surfaces than the untreated samples giving rise to more hydrophilic surfaces to the deposited ones. Standard in vitro MTT test, Giemsa staining, fluorescence and CLSM imaging techniques were used for the determination of cell viability, adhesion and proliferation. Cell culture experiments showed that PCL-PEG deposited electrospun PCL scaffolds had the most promising cell adhesion, proliferation and growth among the treated scaffolds. The increased average fiber diameter caused by deposition as well as oxygen containing polar groups formed on the surfaces due to the radicals present in the plasma atmosphere provided higher surface area and functionality, respectively, for cells to attach, yielding better biocompatibility performance.

  13. Domestic atmospheric pressure thermal deaerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, P. V.; Gimmelberg, A. S.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Baeva, A. N.; Chuprakov, M. V.; Grigoriev, G. V.

    2016-04-01

    Based on many years of experience and proven technical solutions, modern atmospheric pressure deaerators of the capacity of 0.4 to 800 t/h were designed and developed. The construction of such deaerators is based on known and explored technical solutions. A two-stage deaeration scheme is applied where the first stage is a jet dripping level (in a column) and the second one is a bubble level (in a tank). In the design of deaeration columns, low-pressure hydraulic nozzles (Δ p tests of the new deaerator prototypes of the capacity of 800 and 500 t/h in the HPP conditions showed their sustainable, reliable, and efficient work in the designed range of hydraulic and thermal loads. The content of solved oxygen and free carbon dioxide in make-up water after deaerators meets the requirements of State Standard GOST 16860-88, the operating rules and regulations, and the customer's specifications. Based on these results, the proposals were developed on the structure and the design of deaerators of the productivity of more than 800 t/h for the use in circuits of large heating systems and the preparation of feed water to the TPP at heating and industrial-heating plants. The atmospheric pressure thermal deaerators developed at NPO TsKTI with consideration of the current requirements are recommended for the use in water preparation schemes of various power facilities.

  14. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  15. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-irradiation inhibits mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm but promotes ectoderm differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Shoko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on living cells have been demonstrated, such as tissue sterilization, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor elimination. However, the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clarified. A large number of reactive species are generated by plasma-irradiation in medium, of which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the main species generated. Here, we investigated the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mESCs using an embryoid body (EB) formation assay with plasma-irradiated medium or H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium. Our findings demonstrated that plasma-irradiated medium potently inhibits the differentiation from mESCs to mesoderm and endoderm by inhibiting Wnt signaling as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In contrast, both the plasma-irradiated medium and H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium enhanced the differentiation to epiblastoid, ectodermal, and neuronal lineages by activation of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling, suggesting that these effects are caused by the H2O2 generated by plasma-irradiation in medium. However, in each case, the differentiation to glial cells remained unaffected. This study is the first demonstration that plasma-irradiation affects the differentiation of mESCs by the regulation of Wnt and FGF4 signaling pathways.

  16. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Yu, Qingni; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining a low pressure environment in a controlled ecological life support system would reduce the technological complexity and resupply cost in the course of the construction of a future manned lunar base. To estimate the effect of a hypobaric environment in a lunar base on biological components, such as higher plants, microbes, and algae, cyanobacteria was used as the model by determining their response of growth, morphology, and physiology when exposed to half of standard atmospheric pressure for 16 days (brought back to standard atmospheric pressure 30 minutes every two days for sampling). The results indicated that the decrease of atmospheric pressure from 100 kPa to 50 kPa reduced the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia sp., Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The ratio of carotenoid to chlorophyll a content in the four tested strains increased under low pressure conditions compared to ambient conditions, resulting from the decrease of chlorophyll a and the increase of carotenoid in the cells. Moreover, low pressure induced the reduction of the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The result from the ultrastructure observed using SEM indicated that low pressure promoted the production of more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) compared to ambient conditions. The results implied that the low pressure environment of 50 kPa in a future lunar base would induce different effects on biological components in a CELSS, which must be considered during the course of designing a future lunar base. The results will be a reference for exploring the response of other biological components, such as plants, microbes, and animals, living in the life support system of a lunar base.

  17. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyang; Cheng, Cheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Shaopeng; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Yu, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  18. Cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma treatment of C6 glioma cells: effects of reactive oxygen species in the medium produced by the plasma on cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyang, Wang; Cheng, Cheng; Peng, Gao; Shaopeng, Li; Jie, Shen; Yan, Lan; Yongqiang, Yu; Paul, K. Chu

    2017-02-01

    An atmospheric-pressure air plasma is employed to treat C6 glioma cells in vitro. To elucidate on the mechanism causing cell death and role of reactive species (RS) in the medium produced by the plasma, the concentration of the long-lived RS such as hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, and ozone in the plasma-treated liquid (phosphate-buffered saline solution) is measured. When vitamin C is added to the medium as a ROS quencher, the viability of C6 glioma cells after the plasma treatment is different from that without vitamin C. The results demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2, and O3 constitute the main factors for inactivation of C6 glioma cells and the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) may only play an auxiliary role in cell death.

  19. On the design and characterization of a new cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its applications on cancer cells treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Morteza; Rajayi, Hajar; Mashayekh, Amir Shahriar; Khani, Mohammadreza; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Shokri, Babak

    2015-06-23

    In this paper, a new configuration of a cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been designed and constructed. Poly-methyl-methacrylate was used as a new dielectric in this configuration which in comparison to other dielectrics is inexpensive, more resistant against break, and also more shapeable. Then, the plasma jet parameters such as plume temperature, rotational and vibrational temperatures, power, electrical behavior (voltage and current profile), electron density, and the produced reactive species were characterized. In order to determine the jet temperature and the amount of reactive species, effects of applied voltage, gas flow rate, and distance from the nozzle were studied. The power of the jet was specified using Lissajous curve approach. The plume temperature of the plasma jet was about the room temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy determined the type of reactive species, and also electron density and its corresponding plasma frequency (~6.4 × 10(13) cm(-3) and 4.52 × 10(11) Hz). Because of producing different reactive species, the device can be used in different applications, especially in plasma medicine. Thus, 4T1 cancer cells were treated using this plasma jet. The results showed that this plasma jet has a great potential to kill one of the most aggressive and resistant cancerous cell lines.

  20. Targeting cancer cells with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by atmospheric-pressure air plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Jun Ahn

    Full Text Available The plasma jet has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for cancer. Anticancer activity of plasma has been reported to involve mitochondrial dysfunction. However, what constituents generated by plasma is linked to this anticancer process and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we report that the therapeutic effects of air plasma result from generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS including H2O2, Ox, OH-, •O2, NOx, leading to depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Simultaneously, ROS/RNS activate c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 kinase. As a consequence, treatment with air plasma jets induces apoptotic death in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Pretreatment of the cells with antioxidants, JNK and p38 inhibitors, or JNK and p38 siRNA abrogates the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and impairs the air plasma-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the ROS/RNS generated by plasma trigger signaling pathways involving JNK and p38 and promote mitochondrial perturbation, leading to apoptosis. Therefore, administration of air plasma may be a feasible strategy to eliminate cancer cells.

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Herrmann, H.W.; Henins, I.; Selwyn, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure plasma discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g., He/O2/H2O) which flows between two concentric cylindrical electrodes: an outer grounded electrode and an inner electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, ionized or dissociated by electron impact. The fast-flowing effluent consists of ions and electrons, which are rapidly lost by recombination, highly reactive radicals (e.g., O, OH), and metastable species (e.g., O2). The metastable O2, which is reactive to hydrocarbon and other organic species, has been observed through optical emission spectroscopy to decrease by a factor of 2 from the APPJ nozzle exit to a distance of 10 cm. Unreacted metastable O2, and that which does not impinge on a surface, will then decay back to ordinary ground state O2, resulting in a completely dry, environmentally-benign form of surface cleaning. Applications such as removal of photoresist, oxide films and organic residues from wafers for the electronics industry, decontamination of civilian and military areas and personnel exposed to chemical or biological warfare agents, and paint (e.g., graffiti) removal are being considered.

  2. Feasibility study of surface-modified carbon cloth electrodes using atmospheric pressure plasma jets for microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Liou, Jyun-Sian; Liu, Jung-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Chang-Han; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the surface and electrochemical properties of carbon cloth electrodes surface-modified by using atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) for applications involving microbial fuel cells (MFCs). APPJ treatment made the carbon cloth highly hydrophilic and did not introduce any observable cracks or flaws. MFCs configured with APPJ-treated carbon cloth electrodes exhibited electrochemical performance (maximum power density of 7.56 mW m-2) superior to that of MFCs configured with untreated carbon cloth electrodes (maximum power density of 2.38 mW m-2). This boost in performance can be attributed to the formation of abundant carboxyl and ammonium functional groups on the surface of APPJ-treated carbon cloth, which promoted the formation of anodic biofilms and the adhesion of bacteria, while facilitating the transfer of electrons from the bacteria to the electrodes. APPJ surface modification is non-toxic and environmentally friendly (no exogenous chemicals are required), which is particularly beneficial as the introduction of toxins might otherwise inhibit bacterial growth and metabolism. The APPJ surface modification process is rapid, cost-effective, and applicable to substrates covering a large area, making it ideal for the fabrication of large-scale MFCs and bioelectrochemical bioenergy devices.

  3. Particle-in-Cell Simulation for the Control of Electron Energy Distribution of Dielectric Barrier Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyo Won; Yel Lee, Jung; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2011-10-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure plasmas attract lots of interests for the useful applications such as surface modification and bio-medical treatment. In this study, a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) simulation was adopted to investigate the discharge characteristics of a planar micro dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a driving frequency from 1 MHz to 50 MHz and with a gap distance from 60 to 500 micrometers. The variation of control parameters such as the gap distance, the driving wave form, and the applied voltage results in the change in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Through the relation between the ionization mean free path and the gap size, a significant change of EEDFs is achievable with the decrease of gap distance. Therefore, it is possible to categorize the operation range of DBDs for its applications by controlling the interactions between plasmas and neutral gas for the generation of preferable radicals. This work was supported by the Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 20104010100670).

  4. Rapid atmospheric pressure plasma jet processed reduced graphene oxide counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Liang, Sheng-Ping; Wu, Ting-Jui; Chang, Haoming; Kao, Peng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Cheng, I-Chun

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we present the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the counter electrode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). rGO was first deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by screen-printing, followed by post-treatment to remove excessive organic additives. We investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatment on the DSSC performance. A power conversion efficiency of 5.19% was reached when DSSCs with an rGO counter electrode were treated by APPJs in the ambient air for a few seconds. For comparison, it requires a conventional calcination process at 400 °C for 15 min to obtain comparable efficiency. Scanning electron micrographs show that the APPJ treatment modifies the rGO structure, which may reduce its conductivity in part but simultaneously greatly enhances its catalytic activity. Combined with the rapid removal of organic additives by the highly reactive APPJ, DSSCs with APPJ-treated rGO counter electrode show comparable efficiencies to furnace-calcined rGO counter electrodes with greatly reduced process time. This ultrashort process time renders an estimated energy consumption per unit area of 1.1 kJ/cm(2), which is only one-third of that consumed in a conventional furnace calcination process. This new methodology thus saves energy, cost, and time, which is greatly beneficial to future mass production.

  5. Comparison of the characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasma jets using different working gases and applications to plasma-cancer cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hea Min Joh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jets employing nitrogen, helium, or argon gases driven by low-frequency (several tens of kilohertz ac voltage and pulsed dc voltage were fabricated and characterized. The changes in discharge current, optical emission intensities from reactive radicals, gas temperature, and plume length of plasma jets with the control parameters were measured and compared. The control parameters include applied voltage, working gas, and gas flow rate. As an application to plasma-cancer cell interactions, the effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the morphology and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level of human lung adenocarcinoma cell (A549 and human bladder cancer cell (EJ were explored. The experimental results show that the plasma can effectively control the intracellular concentrations of ROS. Although there exist slight differences in the production of ROS, helium, argon, or nitrogen plasma jets are found to be useful in enhancing the intracellular ROS concentrations in cancer cells.

  6. Functionalization of nanomaterials by non-thermal large area atmospheric pressure plasmas: application to flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heesoo; Park, Jaeyoung; Yoo, Eun Sang; Han, Gill-Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho

    2013-08-01

    A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film properties can be obtained by the non-thermal APP method when compared with the thermal sintering process operating at 450 °C. The crystallinity of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles is significantly improved without thermal agglomeration, while the surface defects such as Ti3+ ions are eliminated, thus providing efficient charge collecting properties for solar cells. Finally, we successfully fabricated a flexible DSSC with an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2% using a transparent plastic substrate. This work demonstrates the potential of non-thermal APP technology in the area of device-level, nano-enabled material manufacturing.A key challenge to the industrial application of nanotechnology is the development of fabrication processes for functional devices based on nanomaterials which can be scaled up for mass production. In this report, we disclose the results of non-thermal radio-frequency (rf) atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) based deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on a flexible substrate for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Operating at 190 °C without a vacuum enclosure, the APP method can avoid thermal damage and vacuum compatibility restrictions and utilize roll-to-roll processing over a large area. The various analyses of the TiO2 films demonstrate that superior film

  7. An Atmospheric Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom experiments on atmospheric pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing physics demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of atmospheric pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…

  8. Improvement of the self-cleaning capabilities and transparency of cover glasses for solar cell applications by modification with atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Duksun; Ahn, Seoung Kyu; Park, Sangho; Moon, Se Youn

    2016-07-01

    Using a cover glass is indispensable for protecting solar cells in photovoltaic systems. Herein, the surface of the cover glass was modified by atmospheric pressure plasma to enhance the self-cleaning effect without degrading the transmittance. A lower surface energy was achieved by depositing fluorocarbon polymers, and a micro-nano multi-scale morphology was built on the cover glass within 50 s. These two properties led to an increase in the hydrophobicity, which enhanced the self-cleaning effect of the surface. The morphology of the surface also helped to improve the transparency by reducing reflections. Both the enhanced self-cleaning effect and the improved transparency induced by the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment were confirmed by analyzing the total conversion efficiency of a solar cell by outdoor field testing.

  9. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  10. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  11. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  12. A study of the effect on human mesenchymal stem cells of an atmospheric pressure plasma source driven by different voltage waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurita, R.; Alviano, F.; Marchionni, C.; Abruzzo, P. M.; Bolotta, A.; Bonsi, L.; Colombo, V.; Gherardi, M.; Liguori, A.; Ricci, F.; Rossi, M.; Stancampiano, A.; Tazzari, P. L.; Marini, M.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of an atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells was investigated. A dielectric barrier discharge non-equilibrium plasma source driven by two different high-voltage pulsed generators was used and cell survival, senescence, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated. Cells deprived of the culture medium and treated with nanosecond pulsed plasma showed a higher mortality rate, while higher survival and retention of proliferation were observed in cells treated with microsecond pulsed plasma in the presence of the culture medium. While a few treated cells showed the hallmarks of senescence, unexpected delayed apoptosis ensued in cells exposed to plasma-treated medium. The plasma treatment did not change the expression of OCT4, a marker of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

  13. Simulations of atmospheric pressure discharge in a high-voltage nanosecond pulse using the particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision model in noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Dezhen; Ren, Chunsheng

    2008-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure discharge nonequilibrium plasmas have been applied to plasma processing with modern technology. Simulations of discharge in pure Ar and pure He gases at one atmospheric pressure by a high voltage trapezoidal nanosecond pulse have been performed using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model coupled with a renormalization and weighting procedure (mapping algorithm). Numerical results show that the characteristics of discharge in both inert gases are very similar. There exist the effects of local reverse field and double-peak distributions of charged particles' density. The electron and ion energy distribution functions are also observed, and the discharge is concluded in the view of ionization avalanche in number. Furthermore, the independence of total current density is a function of time, but not of position.

  14. Evaporation of urea at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Andreas M; Czekaj, Izabela; Elsener, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander; Kröcher, Oliver

    2011-03-31

    Aqueous urea solution is widely used as reducing agent in the selective catalytic reduction of NO(x) (SCR). Because reports of urea vapor at atmospheric pressure are rare, gaseous urea is usually neglected in computational models used for designing SCR systems. In this study, urea evaporation was investigated under flow reactor conditions, and a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of gaseous urea was recorded at atmospheric pressure for the first time. The spectrum was compared to literature data under vacuum conditions and with theoretical spectra of monomolecular and dimeric urea in the gas phase calculated with the density functional theory (DFT) method. Comparison of the spectra indicates that urea vapor is in the monomolecular form at atmospheric pressure. The measured vapor pressure of urea agrees with the thermodynamic data obtained under vacuum reported in the literature. Our results indicate that considering gaseous urea will improve the computational modeling of urea SCR systems.

  15. Micro-pattern formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) layers by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and cell culture on the patterned ECMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ayumi; Asano, Toshifumi; Urisu, Tsuneo; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-12-01

    A new patterning technique for the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited on a Si substrate was developed with the use of a low-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma and a metal stencil mask. The development of such a patterning technique for cell arrangement is a crucial step for the development of future cell chips. In this study, optimal process conditions for ECM patterning over the size of a typical single chip (about 1 cm2) were achieved and the obtained ECM patterns were directly observed by fluorescence labelling. It was also demonstrated that HEK293 cells (human embryo kidney cells) attach to and proliferate on the ECM layer patterned by this technique, arranging themselves on the Si substrate in the mask pattern.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  17. Synergistic Effect of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma and TiO2 Photocatalysis on Inactivation of Escherichia coli Cells in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Li, Jiangwei; Wang, Xingquan; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Size; Chen, Zhong; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma and TiO2 photocatalysis have been widely investigated separately for the management and reduction of microorganisms in aqueous solutions. In this paper, the two methods were combined in order to achieve a more profound understanding of their interactions in disinfection of water contaminated by Escherichia coli. Under water discharges carried out by microplasma jet arrays can result in a rapid inactivation of E. coli cells. The inactivation efficiency is largely dependent on the feed gases used, the plasma treatment time, and the discharge power. Compared to atmospheric-pressure N2, He and air microplasma arrays, O2 microplasma had the highest activity against E. coli cells in aqueous solution, and showed >99.9% bacterial inactivation efficiency within 4 min. Addition of TiO2 photocatalytic film to the plasma discharge reactor significantly enhanced the inactivation efficiency of the O2 microplasma system, decreasing the time required to achieve 99.9% killing of E. coli cells to 1 min. This may be attributed to the enhancement of ROS generation due to high catalytic activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalyst in the combined plasma-TiO2 systems. Present work demonstrated the synergistic effect of the two agents, which can be correlated in order to maximize treatment efficiency. PMID:28004829

  18. Synergistic Effect of Atmospheric-pressure Plasma and TiO2 Photocatalysis on Inactivation of Escherichia coli Cells in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Li, Jiangwei; Wang, Xingquan; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Size; Chen, Zhong; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma and TiO2 photocatalysis have been widely investigated separately for the management and reduction of microorganisms in aqueous solutions. In this paper, the two methods were combined in order to achieve a more profound understanding of their interactions in disinfection of water contaminated by Escherichia coli. Under water discharges carried out by microplasma jet arrays can result in a rapid inactivation of E. coli cells. The inactivation efficiency is largely dependent on the feed gases used, the plasma treatment time, and the discharge power. Compared to atmospheric-pressure N2, He and air microplasma arrays, O2 microplasma had the highest activity against E. coli cells in aqueous solution, and showed >99.9% bacterial inactivation efficiency within 4 min. Addition of TiO2 photocatalytic film to the plasma discharge reactor significantly enhanced the inactivation efficiency of the O2 microplasma system, decreasing the time required to achieve 99.9% killing of E. coli cells to 1 min. This may be attributed to the enhancement of ROS generation due to high catalytic activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalyst in the combined plasma-TiO2 systems. Present work demonstrated the synergistic effect of the two agents, which can be correlated in order to maximize treatment efficiency.

  19. Improved Heterojunction Quality in Cu2O-based Solar Cells Through the Optimization of Atmospheric Pressure Spatial Atomic Layer Deposited Zn1-xMgxO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievskaya, Yulia; Hoye, Robert L Z; Sadhanala, Aditya; Musselman, Kevin P; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2016-07-31

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) was used to deposit n-type ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO thin films onto p-type thermally oxidized Cu2O substrates outside vacuum at low temperature. The performance of photovoltaic devices featuring atmospherically fabricated ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction was dependent on the conditions of AP-SALD film deposition, namely, the substrate temperature and deposition time, as well as on the Cu2O substrate exposure to oxidizing agents prior to and during the ZnO deposition. Superficial Cu2O to CuO oxidation was identified as a limiting factor to heterojunction quality due to recombination at the ZnO/Cu2O interface. Optimization of AP-SALD conditions as well as keeping Cu2O away from air and moisture in order to minimize Cu2O surface oxidation led to improved device performance. A three-fold increase in the open-circuit voltage (up to 0.65 V) and a two-fold increase in the short-circuit current density produced solar cells with a record 2.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE). This PCE is the highest reported for a Zn1-xMgxO/Cu2O heterojunction formed outside vacuum, which highlights atmospheric pressure spatial ALD as a promising technique for inexpensive and scalable fabrication of Cu2O-based photovoltaics.

  20. Antitumorigenic effect of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge on human colorectal cancer cells via regulation of Sp1 transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Duksun; Cho, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Ra Ham; Bang, Woong; Park, Kyungho; Kim, Minseok S.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il; Moon, Se Youn

    2017-02-01

    Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and HCT116) were exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure to investigate the anticancer capacity of the plasma. The dose- and time-dependent effects of DBDP on cell viability, regulation of transcription factor Sp1, cell-cycle analysis, and colony formation were investigated by means of MTS assay, DAPI staining, propidium iodide staining, annexin V-FITC staining, Western blot analysis, RT-PCR analysis, fluorescence microscopy, and anchorage-independent cell transformation assay. By increasing the duration of plasma dose times, significant reductions in the levels of both Sp1 protein and Sp1 mRNA were observed in both cell lines. Also, expression of negative regulators related to the cell cycle (such as p53, p21, and p27) was increased and of the positive regulator cyclin D1 was decreased, indicating that the plasma treatment led to apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the sizes and quantities of colony formation were significantly suppressed even though two cancer promoters, such as TPA and epidermal growth factor, accompanied the plasma treatment. Thus, plasma treatment inhibited cell viability and colony formation by suppressing Sp1, which induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in these two human colorectal cancer cell lines.

  1. Stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirokov, Alexandre V.

    There has been a considerable interest in non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges over the past decade due to increased number of industrial applications. Although non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges have been intensively studied for the past century the clear physical picture of these discharges is far from being complete. Spontaneous transition of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges to thermal discharge and discharge filamentation are among least understood plasma phenomena. The discharge stability and reliable control of plasma parameters are highly desirable for numerous applications. This study focuses on stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges with respect to filamentation and arcing. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APG) is the newest and the most promising addition to the family of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges. However this discharge is very susceptible to thermal instability which causes arcing, loss of uniformity and significant damage to electrodes. Suppression of thermal instability and effective control of discharge parameters is critical for industrial applications. A model was developed to understand transition to arc in atmospheric pressure glow discharges. APG discharges that operate in pure helium and in helium with addition of oxygen and nitrogen were considered in these studies. Simulation results indicate that arcing is the result of sheath breakdown rather than thermal instability. It was shown that although sheath breakdown is always followed by overheating the transition to arc in atmospheric glow discharges is not a result of thermal instability. In second part of this research interaction between plasma filaments in dielectric barrier discharges has been studied. This interaction is responsible for the formation of microdischarge patterns reminiscent of two-dimensional crystals. Depending on the application, microdischarge patterns may have a significant influence on DBD performance

  2. Graphene Membranes for Atmospheric Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherup, Robert S; Eren, Baran; Hao, Yibo; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2016-05-05

    Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is demonstrated using single-layer graphene membranes as photoelectron-transparent barriers that sustain pressure differences in excess of 6 orders of magnitude. The graphene serves as a support for catalyst nanoparticles under atmospheric pressure reaction conditions (up to 1.5 bar), where XPS allows the oxidation state of Cu nanoparticles and gas phase species to be simultaneously probed. We thereby observe that the Cu(2+) oxidation state is stable in O2 (1 bar) but is spontaneously reduced under vacuum. We further demonstrate the detection of various gas-phase species (Ar, CO, CO2, N2, O2) in the pressure range 10-1500 mbar including species with low photoionization cross sections (He, H2). Pressure-dependent changes in the apparent binding energies of gas-phase species are observed, attributable to changes in work function of the metal-coated grids supporting the graphene. We expect atmospheric pressure XPS based on this graphene membrane approach to be a valuable tool for studying nanoparticle catalysis.

  3. Effects of the pulse width on the reactive species production and DNA damage in cancer cells exposed to atmospheric pressure microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Kang, Tae Hong; Chung, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions were investigated using an atmospheric pressure dc microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jet. We investigated the effects of the electrical parameters such as applied voltage and pulse width (determined by the pulse frequency and duty ratio) on the production of reactive species in the gas/liquid phases and on the DNA damage responses in the cancer cells. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were estimated inside the plasma-treated liquids using a chemical probe method, and the nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. Importantly, the more concentration of OH resulted in the more DNA base oxidation and breaks in human lung cancer A549 cells. The data are very suggestive that there is strong correlation between the production of OH in the plasmas/liquids and the DNA damage.

  4. Biomedical applications and diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Puač, N.; Lazović, S.; Maletić, D.; Spasić, K.; Malović, G.

    2012-03-01

    Numerous applications of non-equilibrium (cold, low temperature) plasmas require those plasmas to operate at atmospheric pressure. Achieving non-equilibrium at atmospheric pressure is difficult since the ionization growth is very fast at such a high pressure. High degree of ionization on the other hand enables transfer of energy between electrons and ions and further heating of the background neutral gas through collisions between ions and neutrals. Thus, all schemes to produce non-equilibrium plasmas revolve around some form of control of ionization growth. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas is difficult and some of the techniques cannot be employed at all. The difficulties stem mostly from the small size. Optical emission spectroscopy and laser absorption spectroscopy require very high resolution in order to resolve the anatomy of the discharges. Mass analysis is not normally applicable for atmospheric pressure plasmas, but recently systems with triple differential pumping have been developed that allow analysis of plasma chemistry at atmospheric pressures which is essential for numerous applications. Application of such systems is, however, not free from problems. Applications in biomedicine require minimum heating of the ambient air. The gas temperature should not exceed 40 °C to avoid thermal damage to the living tissues. Thus, plasmas should operate at very low powers and power control is essential. We developed unique derivative probes that allow control of power well below 1 W and studied four different sources, including dielectric barrier discharges, plasma needle, atmospheric pressure jet and micro atmospheric pressure jet. The jet operates in plasma bullet regime if proper conditions are met. Finally, we cover results on treatment of bacteria and human cells as well as treatment of plants by plasmas. Localized delivery of active species by plasmas may lead to a number of medical procedures that may also involve removal of bacteria, fungi and

  5. Analysis of oxysterols and vitamin D metabolites in mouse brain and cell line samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Linda; Maire, Florian B R; Savolainen, Mari; Kopra, Jaakko; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Myöhänen, Timo; Kylli, Petri; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-10-17

    We have developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitative analyses of several oxysterols and vitamin D metabolites in mouse brain and cell line samples. An UHPLC-APPI-high resolution mass spectrometric (UHPLC-APPI-HRMS) method that uses a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer was also developed for confirmatory analysis and for the identification of non-targeted oxysterols. Both methods showed good quantitative performance. Furthermore, APPI provides high ionization efficiency for determining oxysterols and vitamin D related compounds without the time consuming derivatization step needed in the conventionally used electrospray ionization method to achieve acceptable sensitivity. Several oxysterols were quantified in mouse brain and cell line samples. Additionally, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was detected in mouse brain samples for the first time.

  6. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-03-31

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy.

  7. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy. PMID:28361987

  8. Possibilities of plasma decontamination at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Windarto, Hendri; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Akatsuka, Hiroshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakagishi, Kohji [ATOX Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The highly effective decontamination process by using atmospheric pressure plasma is proposed. The microwave plasma generator, which we designed, is suitable for discharge of molecular gas and it has a special feature as a source of high concentration reactive atoms in the discharge o molecular gases rather than a plasma source. To demonstrate this idea and discuss about its possibility, some cold experiments were carried out. Our experimental results shows the high effectiveness and it can be concluded consequently that the proposed process has the possibility of the practical processing with having the advantage of plasma decontamination technique which have been investigated under the low pressure conditions. (author)

  9. Piezoelectric pressure transducer technique for oxidizing atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ted A.; Burton, Rodney L.

    1992-07-01

    The diaphragm sensing tip of a high-speed piezoelectric pressure transducer can be destroyed when measuring transient impulse pressures in hot oxidizing atmospheres, e.g., oxygen at 3000 K and 34 atm for times of tens of milliseconds. A technique is presented to preserve the transducer under these conditions, which uses a protective layer of 0.025-0.050-mm-thick brass foil, held in place with double-sided tape. The integrity of the transducer is preserved, and the response time to a shock wave is increased from 1 to 2-6/microsec using the technique.

  10. Atmospheric pressure does not influence acute diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos, Benito; Pons-Renedo, Fernando; Feranández-Salazar, Luis; Muñoz, María Fe; Olmo, Lourdes del; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Beltrán de Heredia, Juan; Hernández-González, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica The article offers information on a study which examines the influence of atmospheric pressure on the development of acute diverticular disease. The value of atmospheric pressure and its daily trends in 2012 was collected to prove whether atmospheric pressure influence this disease by raising intra-diverticular pressure in days with higher atmospheric pressure. The study involved patients with acute diverticulitis who underwent computed tomography.

  11. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  12. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  13. Generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and its effects on DNA damage in lung cancer cells exposed to atmospheric pressure helium/oxygen plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Hun; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Choi, Ji Ye; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of the operating parameters on the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in the gas and liquid phases exposed to atmospheric pressure a pulsed-dc helium plasma jets. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were obtained at the plasma-liquid surface and inside the plasma-treated liquids using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and chemical probe method. And the nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. The data are very suggestive that there is a strong correlation among the production of RONS in the plasmas and liquids. Exposure of plasma to cancer cells increases the cellular levels of RONS, which has been linked to apoptosis and the damage of cellular proteins, and may also indirectly cause structural damage to DNA. To identify the correlation between the production of RONS in cells and plasmas, various assay analyses were performed on plasma treated human lung cancer cells (A549) cells. In addition, the effect of additive oxygen gas on the plasma-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells was investigated. It was observed that DNA damage was significantly increased with helium/oxygen plasma compared to with pure helium plasma.

  14. Trends in surface engineering of biomaterials: atmospheric pressure plasma deposition of coatings for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, G.; Sardella, E.; Fanelli, F.; D'Agostino, R.; Favia, P.

    2011-11-01

    Cold plasma processes for surface engineering of biomaterials and biomedical devices are traditionally performed at low pressure; more and more, though, surface modification plasma processes at atmospheric pressure are also gaining popularity. This short review is aimed to list briefly atmospheric pressure plasma processes reported, in the last decade, for adapting the surface of materials to the best interactions with cells, bacteria and biomolecules.

  15. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangil; Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho; Sik Yang, Sang; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  16. Cellular membrane collapse by atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangil; Sik Yang, Sang, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Ahn, Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo, E-mail: jsjlee@ajou.ac.kr, E-mail: ssyang@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-06

    Cellular membrane dysfunction caused by air plasma in cancer cells has been studied to exploit atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that plasma jet treatment of cervical cancer HeLa cells increased electrical conductivity across the cellular lipid membrane and caused simultaneous lipid oxidation and cellular membrane collapse. We made this finding by employing a self-manufactured microelectrode chip. Furthermore, increased roughness of the cellular lipid membrane and sequential collapse of the membrane were observed by atomic force microscopy following plasma jet treatment. These results suggest that the cellular membrane catastrophe occurs via coincident altered electrical conductivity, lipid oxidation, and membrane roughening caused by an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet, possibly resulting in cellular vulnerability to reactive species generated from the plasma as well as cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

  17. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  18. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Clément, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  19. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Matrali, S. H. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Gazeli, K. [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Clement, F. [IPREM-LCABIE, Plasmas et Applications, UPPA, 64000 Pau (France); Antimisiaris, S. G. [Pharmaceutical Technology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, Rion 26504 (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICES)-FORTH, Rion 26504 (Greece)

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  20. Formation Mechanism of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Nan; Cao, Zexian

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet can protrude some 5.0 cm into air. It holds promise for multivarious innovative applications, but its formation mechanism remains unsettled. We show that the plasma jet is essentially a streamer corona totally independent of, but obscured by, dielectric barrier discharge. Consequently, the jets can be equally successfully generated even with one single bare metal electrode attached to the tube orifice, both downstream and upstream simultaneously, and at a significantly reduced voltage. These results will help understand the underlying physics and facilitate a safer and more flexible implementation of this marvelous plasma source.

  1. New development of atmospheric pressure plasma polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wang; Jufan Zhang; Shen Dong

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma polishing (APPP) is a precision machining technology used for manufacturing high quality optical surfaces. The changes of surface modulus and hardness after machining prove the distinct improvement of surface mechanical properties. The demonstrated decrease of surfacc residual stresses testifies the removal of the former deformation layer.And the surface topographies under atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicate obvious amelioration of the surface status,showing that the 0.926-nm average surface roughness has been achieved.

  2. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-12-01

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements.

  3. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-12-23

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements.

  4. Effects of nitrogen on the apoptosis of and changes in gene expression in human lymphoma U937 cells exposed to argon-based cold atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Yunoki, Tatsuya; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is known as a source of biologically active agents, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In the present study, we examined the effects of nitrogen (N2) on the apoptosis of and changes in gene expression in human lymphoma U937 cells exposed to argon (Ar)-CAP. Enormous amounts of hydroxyl (·OH) radicals in aqueous solution were produced using Ar‑CAP generated using a 20 kHz low frequency at 18 kV with a flow rate of 2 l/min. The increase in the levels of ·OH radicals was significantly attenuated by the addition of N2 to Ar gas. On the other hand, the level of total nitrate/nitrite in the supernatant was significantly elevated in the Ar + N2-CAP‑exposed U937 cells. When the cells were exposed to Ar‑CAP, a significant increase in apoptosis was observed, whereas apoptosis was markedly decreased in the cells exposed to Ar + N2-CAP. Microarray and pathway analyses revealed that a newly identified gene network containing a number of heat shock proteins (HSPs), anti-apoptotic genes, was mainly associated with the biological function of the prevention of apoptosis. Quantitative PCR revealed that the expression levels of HSPs were significantly elevated in the cells exposed to Ar + N2-CAP than those exposed to Ar‑CAP. These results indicate that N2 gas in Ar‑CAP modifies the ratio of ROS to RNS, and suppresses the apoptosis induced by Ar‑CAP. The modulation of gaseous conditions in CAP may thus prove to be useful for future clinical applications, such as for switching from a sterilizing mode to cytocidal effect for cancer cells.

  5. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Processing for Polymer Adhesion: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant de...... development of the atmospheric pressure plasma processing, this work presents its fundamental aspects, applications, and characterization techniques relevant to adhesion.......Atmospheric pressure plasma processing has attracted significant interests over decades due to its usefulness and a variety of applications. Adhesion improvement of polymer surfaces is among the most important applications of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Reflecting recent significant...

  7. Electron heating in atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Robert H.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2001-04-01

    The application of nanosecond voltage pulses to weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas allows heating the electrons without considerably increasing the gas temperature, provided that the duration of the pulses is less than the critical time for the development of glow-to-arc transitions. The shift in the electron energy distribution towards higher energies causes a temporary increase in the ionization rate, and consequently a strong rise in electron density. This increase in electron density is reflected in an increased decay time of the plasma after the pulse application. Experiments in atmospheric pressure air glow discharges with gas temperatures of approximately 2000 K have been performed to explore the electron heating effect. Measurements of the temporal development of the voltage across the discharge and the optical emission in the visible after applying a 10 ns high voltage pulse to a weakly ionized steady state plasma demonstrated increasing plasma decay times from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds when the pulsed electric field was raised from 10 to 40 kV/cm. Temporally resolved photographs of the discharge have shown that the plasma column expands during this process. The nonlinear electron heating effect can be used to reduce the power consumption in a repetitively operated air plasma considerably compared to a dc plasma operation. Besides allowing power reduction, pulsed electron heating also has the potential to enhance plasma processes, which require elevated electron energies, such as excimer generation for ultraviolet lamps.

  8. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmosphere pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Tang, Yongkang; Yu, Qingni; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin

    Maintaining a low pressure environment would reduce the technological complexity and constructed cost of future lunar base. To estimate the effect of hypobaric of controlled ecological life support system in lunar base on terrestrial life, cyanobacteria was used as the model to exam the response of growth, morphology, physiology to it. The decrease of atmosphere pressure from 100 KPa to 50 KPa reducing the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the chlorophyll a content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp, Anabaena Hos-aquae, the carotenoid content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia.sp and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa. This study explored the biological characteristics of the cyanobacteria under low pressure condition, which aimed at understanding the response of the earth's life to environment for the future moon base, the results enrich the research contents of the lunar biology and may be referred for the research of other terrestrial life, such as human, plant, microbe and animal living in life support system of lunar base.

  9. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inhibits thyroid papillary cancer cell invasion via cytoskeletal modulation, altered MMP-2/-9/uPA activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Won Chang

    Full Text Available Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is defined as a partially or completely ionized gas that includes a mixture of electrons and ions. Advances in plasma physics have made it possible to use non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTP in cancer research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on apoptotic cancer cell death mediated by NTP as a potential cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of NTP on invasion or metastasis, as well as the mechanism by which plasma induces anti-migration and anti-invasion properties in human thyroid papillary cancer cell lines (BHP10-3 and TPC1. Wound healing, pull-down, and Transwell assays demonstrated that NTP reduced cell migration and invasion. In addition, NTP induced morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as detected by scanning electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also examined matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/-9 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA activity using gelatin zymography, uPA assays and RT-PCR. FAK, Src, and paxillin expression was detected using Western blot analyses and immunocytochemistry. NTP decreased FAK, Src, and paxillin expression as well as MMP/uPA activity. In conclusion, NTP inhibited the invasion and metastasis of BHP10-3 and TPC1 cells by decreasing MMP-2/-9 and uPA activities and rearranging the cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the FAK/Src complex. These findings suggest novel actions for NTP and may aid in the development of new therapeutic strategies for locally invasive and metastatic cancers.

  10. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastuta, Andrei Vasile; Topala, Ionut; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Bd. Carol No. 11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Grigoras, Constantin, E-mail: andrei.nastuta@uaic.ro [Physiopathology Department, Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-03-16

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  11. Stimulation of wound healing by helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile Nastuta, Andrei; Topala, Ionut; Grigoras, Constantin; Pohoata, Valentin; Popa, Gheorghe

    2011-03-01

    New experiments using atmospheric pressure plasma have found large application in treatment of living cells or tissues, wound healing, cancerous cell apoptosis, blood coagulation on wounds, bone tissue modification, sterilization and decontamination. In this study an atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated using a cylindrical dielectric-barrier discharge was applied for treatment of burned wounds on Wistar rats' skin. The low temperature plasma jet works in helium and is driven by high voltage pulses. Oxygen and nitrogen based impurities are identified in the jet by emission spectroscopy. This paper analyses the natural epithelization of the rats' skin wounds and two methods of assisted epithelization, a classical one using polyurethane wound dressing and a new one using daily atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of wounds. Systemic and local medical data, such as haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, were monitored during entire period of study. Increased oxidative stress was observed for plasma treated wound. This result can be related to the presence in the plasma volume of active species, such as O and OH radicals. Both methods, wound dressing and plasma-assisted epithelization, provided positive medical results related to the recovery process of burned wounds. The dynamics of the skin regeneration process was modified: the epidermis re-epitelization was accelerated, while the recovery of superficial dermis was slowed down.

  12. Structure formation of atmospheric pressure discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Alexey E.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper it is shown, by analyzing the results of experimental studies, that the outer boundary of the atmospheric pressure discharge pinch is determined by the condition of equality of plasma flows based on the thermal and electric field energy. In most cases, the number of charged particles coming from near-electrode zones is sufficient to compensate for losses in the discharge bulk. At large currents and enhanced heating, plasma is in the diffusion mode of losses, with recombination of charged particles at the pinch boundary. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  13. Atmospheric-pressure DBD plasma-assisted surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate: A study on cell growth/proliferation and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, Babak, E-mail: b-shokri@sbu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Laser-Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, M. [Faculty of Physics, Science Department, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cell viability and antibacterial activity was investigated on PMMA modified by DBD. • Treated-samples got hydrophilic by introducing oxygen-containing functional groups. • Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) adhesion was significantly enhanced. • Samples exhibited acceptable antibacterial activity against E. Coli. • Optimum antibacterial performance and cell attachment were obtained. - Abstract: This paper reports polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surface modification by atmospheric-pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve its biocompatibility and antibacterial effects. The role of plasma system parameters, such as electrode gap, treatment time and applied voltage, on the surface characteristics and biological responses was studied. The surface characteristics of PMMA films before and after the plasma treatments were analyzed by water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Also, acid–base approach was used for evaluation of surface free energy (SFE) and its components. Stability of plasma treatment or aging effect was examined by repeating water contact angle measurements in a period of 9 days after treatment. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of samples were investigated by bacterial adhesion assay against Escherichia coli. Additionally, all samples were tested for the biocompatibility by cell viability assay of mouse embryonic fibroblast. WCA measurements indicated that the surface wettability of PMMA films was improved by increasing surface free energy via oxygen DBD plasma treatments. AFM measurement revealed that surface roughness was slightly increased after treatments, and ATR-FTIR analysis showed that more polar groups were introduced on the plasma-treated PMMA film surface. The results also demonstrated an enhancement of antibacterial performance of the modified surfaces. Furthermore, it was

  14. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of

  15. Atmospheric-pressure DBD plasma-assisted surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate: A study on cell growth/proliferation and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Shokri, Babak; Sharifian, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) surface modification by atmospheric-pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve its biocompatibility and antibacterial effects. The role of plasma system parameters, such as electrode gap, treatment time and applied voltage, on the surface characteristics and biological responses was studied. The surface characteristics of PMMA films before and after the plasma treatments were analyzed by water contact angle (WCA) goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Also, acid-base approach was used for evaluation of surface free energy (SFE) and its components. Stability of plasma treatment or aging effect was examined by repeating water contact angle measurements in a period of 9 days after treatment. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of samples were investigated by bacterial adhesion assay against Escherichia coli. Additionally, all samples were tested for the biocompatibility by cell viability assay of mouse embryonic fibroblast. WCA measurements indicated that the surface wettability of PMMA films was improved by increasing surface free energy via oxygen DBD plasma treatments. AFM measurement revealed that surface roughness was slightly increased after treatments, and ATR-FTIR analysis showed that more polar groups were introduced on the plasma-treated PMMA film surface. The results also demonstrated an enhancement of antibacterial performance of the modified surfaces. Furthermore, it was observed that plasma-treated samples exhibited significantly better biocompatibility, comparing to the pristine one.

  16. Fast incorporation of primary amine group into polylactide surface for improving C₂C₁₂ cell proliferation using nitrogen-based atmospheric-pressure plasma jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Wei; Wu, Jane-Yii; Liu, Chih-Tung; Liao, Guo-Chun; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Hsu, Ray-Quen; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Wu, Jong-Shinn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report the development of the fast incorporation of primary amine functional groups into a polylactide (PLA) surface using the post-discharge jet region of an atmospheric-pressure nitrogen-based dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Plasma treatments were carried out in two sequential steps: (1) nitrogen with 0.1% oxygen addition, and (2) nitrogen with 5% ammonia addition. The analyses show that the concentration of N/C ratio, surface energy, contact angle, and surface roughness of the treated PLA surface can reach 19.1%, 70.5 mJ/m(2), 38° and 73.22 nm, respectively. In addition, the proposed two-step plasma treatment procedure can produce a PLA surface exhibiting almost the same C2C12 cell attachment and proliferation performance as that of the conventional gelatin coating method. Most importantly, the processing/preparation time is reduced from 13-15 h (gelatin coating method) to 5-15 min (two-step plasma treatment), which is very useful in practical applications.

  17. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Processed Pt-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxides for Counter-Electrodes of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Hao Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ processed Pt-decorated reduced graphene oxides (rGOs were used as counter-electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Pastes containing rGO, ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and chloroplatinic acid were screen-printed and sintered by nitrogen dc-pulse APPJs. Pt nanodots were uniformly distributed on the rGO flakes. When using Pt-decorated rGOs as the counter electrodes of DSSCs, the efficiency of the DSSC first increased and then decreased as the APPJ processing time increased. Nitrogen APPJs can effectively remove organic binders and can reduce chloroplatinic acid to Pt, thereby improving the efficiency of DSSCs. However, over-calcination by APPJ can damage the graphenes and degrade the DSSCs. The addition of Pt mainly improves the fill factor, which thereby increases the efficiency of DSSCs. The optimized APPJ processing time was merely 9 s owing to the vigorous interaction among the rGOs, chloroplatinic acid and nitrogen APPJs.

  18. Atmospheric pressure variations and abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) presents with increased frequency in the winter and spring months. Seasonal changes in atmospheric pressure mirrors this pattern. AIM: To establish if there was a seasonal variation in the occurrence of RAAA and to determine if there was any association with atmospheric pressure changes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed. Daily atmospheric pressure readings for the region were obtained. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant monthly variation in RAAA presentation with 107 cases (52.5%) occurring from November to March. The monthly number of RAAA and the mean atmospheric pressure in the previous month were inversely related (r = -0.752, r (2) = 0.566, P = 0.03), and there was significantly greater daily atmospheric pressure variability on days when patients with RAAA were admitted. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a relationship between atmospheric pressure and RAAA.

  19. A New Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Source (APMPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang; ZHANG Guixin; LI Yinan; ZHU Zhijie; WANG Xinxin; LUO Chengmu

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source (APMPS) that can generate a large volume of plasma at an atmospheric pressure has been developed at Tsinghua University. This paper presents the design of this APMPS, the theoretical consideration of microwave plasma ignition and the simulation results, including the distributions of the electric field and power density inside the cavity as well as the accuracy of the simulation results. In addition, a method of producing an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma and some relevant observations of the plasma are also provided. It. is expected that this research would be useful for further developing atmospheric pressure microwave plasma sources and expanding the scope of their applications.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge with Liquid Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2013-09-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in contact with liquid are widely studied aiming variety of plasma applications. DC glow discharge with liquid electrode is an easy method to obtain simple and stable plasma-liquid interface. When we focus attention on liquid-phase reaction, the discharge system is considered as electrolysis with plasma electrode. The plasma electrode will supply electrons and positive ions to the liquid surface in a different way from the conventional metal electrode. However, the phenomena at plasma-liquid interface have not been understood well. In this work, we studied physical and chemical effect in liquid induced by dc atmospheric pressure glow discharge with liquid electrode. The experiment was carried out using H-shaped Hoffman electrolysis apparatus filled with electrolyte, to separate the anodic and cathodic reactions. Two nozzle electrodes made of stainless steel are set about 2 mm above the liquid surface. By applying a dc voltage between the nozzle electrodes, dc glow discharges as plasma electrodes are generated in contact with liquid. As electrolyte, we used aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, AgNO3 and HAuCl4. AgNO3 and HAuCl4 are to discuss the reduction process of metal ions for synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). OH radical generation yield in liquid was measured by chemical probe method using terephthalic acid. Discharge-induced liquid flow was visualized by Schlieren method. Electron irradiation to liquid surface (plasma cathode) generated OH- and OH radical in liquid while positive ion irradiation (plasma anode) generated H+ and OH radical. The generation efficiency of OH radical was better with plasma anode. Both Ag NPs in AgNO3 and Au NPs in HAuCl4 were synthesized with plasma cathode while only Au NPs were generated with plasma anode. Possible reaction process is qualitatively discussed. The discharge-induced liquid flow such as convection pattern was strongly influenced by the gas flow on the liquid surface. This work

  1. Atmospheric pressure changes and unexplained variability in INR measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael E; Shaw, Robert F; Ernst, Erika J; Alexander, Bruce; Kaboli, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Changes in atmospheric pressure may influence hepatic blood flow and drug metabolism. Anecdotal experience suggests international normalized ratio (INR) variability may be temporally related to significant atmospheric pressure changes. We investigated this potential association in a large sample of patients with multiple INRs. This is a retrospective review of outpatient anticoagulation records from the Iowa City Veteran's Affairs Medical Center and affiliated outpatient clinics from October 1999 to July 2007. All patients, receiving at least one prescription for warfarin and INR at least 30 days or more from the date of the first warfarin prescription, were identified. INRs during periods of hospitalization and vitamin K use were excluded. Proximity analysis using geocoding of ZIP codes of identified patients to the nearest National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration station was performed to assign atmospheric pressure with INR. Spearman's Rho and Pearson's correlation were used to evaluate atmospheric pressure and INR. Unique patients (1441) with 45 187 INRs were analyzed. When limited to nontherapeutic INRs following a previously therapeutic INR (1121 unique patients/5256 INRs), a small but clinically insignificant association between delta INR and delta atmospheric pressure was observed (r = -0.025; P = 0.038), but not for actual INR and atmospheric pressure (P = 0.06). Delta atmospheric pressure demonstrated greater variation during fall/winter months compared with spring/summer (0.23 vs. 0.15 inHg; P atmospheric pressure changes and INR variability. These findings refute the anecdotal experience seen in our anticoagulation clinic.

  2. Electrode Configurations in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being studied for emerging medical applications including cancer treatment and wound healing. APPJs typically consist of a dielectric tube through which a rare gas flows, sometimes with an O2 or H2O impurity. In this paper, we present results from a computational study of APPJs using nonPDPSIM, a 2-D plasma hydrodynamics model, with the goal of providing insights on how the placement of electrodes can influence the production of reactive species. Gas consisting of He/O2 = 99.5/0.5 is flowed through a capillary tube at 2 slpm into humid air, and a pulsed DC voltage is applied. An APPJ with two external ring electrodes will be compared with one having a powered electrode inside and a ground electrode on the outside. The consequences on ionization wave propagation and the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) will be discussed. Changing the electrode configuration can concentrate the power deposition in volumes having different gas composition, resulting in different RONS production. An internal electrode can result in increased production of NOx and HNOx by increasing propagation of the ionization wave through the He dominated plume to outside of the tube where humid air is diffusing into the plume. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  3. The effect of atmospheric pressure on ventricular assist device output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Masaharu; Yamazaki, Akio; Fukuda, Wakako; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Minakawa, Masahito; Fukui, Kozo; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-03-01

    The effect of cabin pressure change on the respiratory system during flight is well documented in the literature, but how the change in atmospheric pressure affects ventricular assist device (VAD) output flow has not been studied yet. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the change in VAD output using a mock circulatory system in a low-pressure chamber mimicking high altitude. Changes in output and driving pressure were measured during decompression from 1.0 to 0.7 atm and pressurization from 0.7 to 1.0 atm. Two driving systems were evaluated: the VCT system and the Mobart system. In the VCT system, output and driving pressure remained the same during decompression and pressurization. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped and recovered during pressurization. The lowest output was observed at 0.7 atm, which was 80% of the baseline driven by the Mobart system. Under a practical cabin pressure of 0.8 atm, the output driven by the Mobart system was 90% of the baseline. In the Mobart system, the output decreased as the atmospheric pressure dropped, and recovered during pressurization. However, the decrease in output was slight. In an environment where the atmospheric pressure changes, it is necessary to monitor the diaphragmatic motion of the blood pump and the driving air pressure, and to adjust the systolic:diastolic ratio as well as the positive and negative pressures in a VAD system.

  4. Atmospheric pressure plasma for surface modification

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Rory A

    2012-01-01

    This Book's focus and intent is to impart an understanding of the practical application of atmospheric plasma for the advancement of a wide range of current and emerging technologies. The primary key feature of this book is the introduction of over thirteen years of practical experimental evidence of successful surface modifications by atmospheric plasma methods. It offers a handbook-based approach for leveraging and optimizing atmospheric plasma technologies which are currently in commercial use. It also offers a complete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrial plasma process

  5. Spectrochemical analysis with DC glow discharges at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Reinsberg, K.-G.

    2015-04-01

    A review on recent work and developments in dc glow discharges at atmospheric pressure when used as radiation sources for optical atomic spectrometry and mass spectrometry is given. Diagnostics and analytical features of dc glow discharges at atmospheric pressure between conductive solid electrodes as well as with a liquid as the cathode and flowing afterglow sources were described. Possibilities for the introduction of analytes in solutions, in the gaseous state and direct solids sampling were discussed. - Highlights: • The state-of-the-art and trends of development of dc glow discharges at atmospheric pressure for spectrochemical analysis are discussed.

  6. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  7. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  8. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  9. Charge Exchange Reaction in Dopant-Assisted Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Kauppila, Tiina J; Kostiainen, Risto

    2016-08-01

    The efficiencies of charge exchange reaction in dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DA-APCI) and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI) mass spectrometry (MS) were compared by flow injection analysis. Fourteen individual compounds and a commercial mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model analytes to cover a wide range of polarities, gas-phase ionization energies, and proton affinities. Chlorobenzene was used as the dopant, and methanol/water (80/20) as the solvent. In both techniques, analytes formed the same ions (radical cations, protonated molecules, and/or fragments). However, in DA-APCI, the relative efficiency of charge exchange versus proton transfer was lower than in DA-APPI. This is suggested to be because in DA-APCI both dopant and solvent clusters can be ionized, and the formed reagent ions can react with the analytes via competing charge exchange and proton transfer reactions. In DA-APPI, on the other hand, the main reagents are dopant-derived radical cations, which favor ionization of analytes via charge exchange. The efficiency of charge exchange in both DA-APPI and DA-APCI was shown to depend heavily on the solvent flow rate, with best efficiency seen at lowest flow rates studied (0.05 and 0.1 mL/min). Both DA-APCI and DA-APPI showed the radical cation of chlorobenzene at 0.05-0.1 mL/min flow rate, but at increasing flow rate, the abundance of chlorobenzene M(+.) decreased and reagent ion populations deriving from different gas-phase chemistry were recorded. The formation of these reagent ions explains the decreasing ionization efficiency and the differences in charge exchange between the techniques. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  11. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-12-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  12. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry of adsorbed molecules at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John J.; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Simon, Kuriakose; Levis, Robert J.

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure mass analysis of solid phase biomolecules is performed using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS). A non-resonant femtosecond duration laser pulse vaporizes native samples at atmospheric pressure for subsequent electrospray ionization and transfer into a mass spectrometer. LEMS was used to detect a complex molecule (irinotecan HCl), a complex mixture (cold medicine formulation with active ingredients: acetaminophen, dextromethorphan HBr and doxylamine succinate), and a biological building block (deoxyguanosine) deposited on steel surfaces without a matrix molecule.

  13. Surface Pressure Measurements of Atmospheric Tides Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Maor, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Similar to the oceans, the atmosphere also has tides that are measured in variations of atmospheric pressure. However, unlike the gravitational tides in the oceans, the atmospheric tides are caused primarily in the troposphere and stratosphere when the atmosphere is periodically heated by the sun, due to tropospheric absorption by water vapor and stratospheric absorption by ozone. Due to the forcing being always on the day side of the globe, the tides migrate around the globe following the sun (migrating tides) with a dominant periodicity of 12 hours (and less so at 24 hours). In recent years smartphones have been equipped with sensitive, cheap and reliable pressure sensors that can easily detect these atmospheric tides. By 2020 it is expected that there will be more than 6 billion smartphones globally, each measuring continuously atmospheric pressure at 1Hz temporal resolution. In this presentation we will present some control experiments we have performed with smartphones to monitor atmospheric tides, while also using random pressure data from more than 50,000 daily users via the WeatherSignal application. We conclude that smartphones are a useful tool for studying atmospheric tides on local and global scales.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced spatial ALD of silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bruele, F.J.; Smets, M.; Illiberi, A.; Creyghton, Y.; Buskens, P.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.

    2014-01-01

    The authors have investigated the growth of thin silver films using a unique combination of atmospheric process elements: spatial atomic layer deposition and an atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma source. Silver films were grown on top of Si substrates with good purity a

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced spatial ALD of silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bruele, F.J.; Smets, M.; Illiberi, A.; Creyghton, Y.; Buskens, P.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.

    2014-01-01

    The authors have investigated the growth of thin silver films using a unique combination of atmospheric process elements: spatial atomic layer deposition and an atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma source. Silver films were grown on top of Si substrates with good purity a

  16. Investigation of atmospheric pressure streamer discharges for methane reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuilo, M. V.; Stefani, F.; Rosocha, L. A.; Raja, L. L.

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen has several valuable uses in transportation: it can lower the coefficient of variation under lean burn conditions in internal combustion engines, and it is essential for the operation of fuel cells. Currently hydrogen can only be produced efficiently by reducing fossil fuels in large facilities. However, on-board production is desirable to reduce the infrastructure associated with storing and distributing hydrogen. Plasma dry reforming processes are viable candidates for onboard production. Our current work investigates the fundamental behavior of a single streamer discharge in methane. The electron temperature, and active species generation are determined through time resolved spectroscopy. This work will hopefully accelerate the development of non-thermal plasma based devices that include: dielectric barrier discharges, pulsed corona discharges, and other atmospheric-pressure plasma devices.

  17. Vapor phase growth of functional pentacene films at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolin, C.; Vasseur, K.; Niesen, B.; Willegems, M.; Müller, R.; Steudel, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to traditional vacuum evaporation techniques for small organic molecules, organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) possesses a extra processing parameter: the pressure of process gas Pch. Here, the influence of large Pch variations (from 0.1 mbar to atmospheric pressure) on pentacene thin film

  18. A Spectacular Experiment Exhibiting Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Noxaïc, Armand

    2014-01-01

    The experiment described here is fairly easy to reproduce and dramatically shows the magnitude of ambient air pressure. Two circular plates of aluminum are applied one against the other. How do you make their separation very difficult? With only the help of an elastic band! You don't have to use a vacuum pump for this experiment.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma accelerates tail regeneration in tadpoles Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivie, A.; Martus, K.; Menon, J.

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma is a partially ionized gas composed of neutral and charged particles, including electrons and ions, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, it is utilized as possible therapy in oncology, sterilization, skin diseases, wound healing and tissue regeneration. In this study we focused on effect of plasma exposure on tail regeneration of tadpoles, Xenopus leavis with special emphasis on role of ROS, antioxidant defenses and morphological features of the regenerate. When amputated region of the tail was exposed to the helium plasma it resulted in a faster rate of growth, elevated ROS and increase in antioxidant enzymes in the regenerate compared to that of untreated control. An increase in nitric oxide (free radical) as well as activity of nitric oxide synthase(s) were observed once the cells of the regeneration blastema - a mass of proliferating cells are ready for differentiation. Microscopically the cells of the regenerate of plasma treated tadpoles show altered morphology and characteristics of cellular hypoxia and oxidative stress. We summarize that plasma exposure accelerates the dynamics of wound healing and tail regeneration through its effects on cell proliferation and differentiation as well as angiogenesis mediated through ROS signaling.

  20. Temperature field simulation of gob influenced by atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 罗海珠; 梁运涛; 王继仁

    2015-01-01

    The current temperature field model of mine gob does not take the boundary conditions of the atmospheric pressure into account, while the actual atmospheric pressure is influenced by weather, so as to produce differences between ventilation negative pressure of the working face and the negative pressure of gas drainage in gob, thus interfering the calculated results of gob temperature field. According to the characteristics of the actual air flow and temperature change in gob, a two-dimensional temperature field model of the gob was built, and the relational model between the air pressure of intake and outlet of the gob and the atmospheric pressure was established, which was introduced into the boundary conditions of temperature field to conduct calculation. By means of analysis on the simulation example, and comparison with the traditional model, the results indicate that atmospheric pressure change had notable impact on the distribution of gob temperature field. The laboratory test system of gob temperature field was constructed, and the relative error between simulated and measured value was no greater than 9.6%, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed model. This work offers theoretical basis for accurate calculation of temperature and prediction of ignition source in mine gob, and has important implications on preventing spontaneous combustion of coal.

  1. Decomposition of Chemical Chain Molecules with Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansli, Murat; Tasal, Erol

    2016-10-01

    Chemical chain molecules' decomposition is an interesting subject area for the atmospheric pressure plasma applications. The effects of the atmospheric pressure argon plasma on 4-((2-methoxyphenyl)Diazenyl)Benzene-1,3,-Diol molecule at room temperature are investigated. This molecule is one of the industrial dye molecules used widely. When considering the ecological life, this molecule will be very harmful and danger. We suggest a different, easy and useful decomposing method for such molecules. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet was principally treated for this decomposing of the molecule. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) was used to characterization of the molecule after the plasma application to molecule in liquid phase with ethanol and methanol solvents. The atmospheric-pressure plasma jet of argon (Ar) as non-equilibrium has been formed by ac-power generator with frequency - 24 kHz and voltage - 12 kV. Characterizations for solutions prepared with ethanol and methanol solvents of molecule have been examined after applying (duration: 3 minutes) the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The molecule was broken at 6C-7N =8N-9C stretching peak after the plasma treatment. The new plasma photo-products for ethanol and methanol solutions were produced as 6C-7N-8N =9C (strong, varying) and 12C =17O (strong, wide) stretching peaks.

  2. Synthesis of Carbon Nanomaterials by Atmospheric Pressure Microdischarge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qin; Wang, Mingzhi; Li, Yanguo; Zou, Lianghua

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure microdischarge of CH4 was generated in a removable gas cell fitted in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for synthesizing carbon nanomaterials. A Pd alloy needle with 12 μm tip curve radius and a polycrystalline Pt film with 600 nm thickness were used as the anode and the cathode respectively. A pulse voltage was applied. The pressure of CH4 was 100 kPa. The gaps between the anode and the cathode were changed from 5 μm to 100 μm. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) results showed that spherical or sticklike carbon nanomaterials were fabricated in the discharge area on the surface of the Pt film cathode after the microdischarge. With the time of microdischarge increase, the spherical carbon nanomaterials grew into the sticklike gradually within 7 s. For 7 s deposition, the length and the diameter of some sticklike carbon nanomaterials were 1000 nm and 20 nm respectively. However, when the deposition time was longer than 8 s, the discharge center was melted. A high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was also used to characterize the structures of the sticklike carbon nanomaterials, which showed that the sticklike carbon nanomaterials were nanorods. This microdischarge is a fast and simple method for synthesizing carbon nanomaterial.

  3. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: tsubasa@oshima-k.ac.jp [Electronic-Mechanical Engineering Department, Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-Oshima, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan); Buttapeng, C. [School of Electrical and Energy Engineering, University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce, 126/1, Vibhavadee-Rungsit, Dindaeng, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Furuya, S. [Faculty of Education, Gunma University, 4-2 Aramaki, Maebashi (Japan); Harada, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  4. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.

  5. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  6. MicroScale - Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, Mohan [Case Western Reserve University

    2012-01-25

    Low-temperature plasmas play an essential role in the manufacturing of integrated circuits which are ubiquitous in modern society. In recent years, these top-down approaches to materials processing have reached a physical limit. As a result, alternative approaches to materials processing are being developed that will allow the fabrication of nanoscale materials from the bottom up. The aim of our research is to develop a new class of plasmas, termed “microplasmas” for nanomaterials synthesis. Microplasmas are a special class of plasmas formed in geometries where at least one dimension is less than 1 mm. Plasma confinement leads to several unique properties including high-pressure stability and non-equilibrium that make microplasams suitable for nanomaterials synthesis. Vapor-phase precursors can be dissociated to homogeneously nucleate nanometer-sized metal and alloyed nanoparticles. Alternatively, metal salts dispersed in liquids or polymer films can be electrochemically reduced to form metal nanoparticles. In this talk, I will discuss these topics in detail, highlighting the advantages of microplasma-based systems for the synthesis of well-defined nanomaterials.

  7. Super-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-03-01

    Super-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry was performed using a commercial mass spectrometer by pressurizing the ion source with compressed air up to 7 atm. Similar to typical APCI source, reactant ions in the experiment were generated with corona discharge using a needle electrode. Although a higher needle potential was necessary to initiate the corona discharge, discharge current and detected ion signal were stable at all tested pressures. A Roots booster pump with variable pumping speed was installed between the evacuation port of the mass spectrometer and the original rough pumps to maintain a same pressure in the first pumping stage of the mass spectrometer regardless of ion source pressure. Measurement of gaseous methamphetamine and research department explosive showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. Beyond 5 atm, the ion intensity decreased with further increase of pressure, likely due to greater ion losses inside the ion transport capillary. For benzene, it was found that besides molecular ion and protonated species, ion due to [M + 2H](+) which was not so common in APCI, was also observed with high ion abundance under super-atmospheric pressure condition.

  8. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, A.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Jamme, F.; Rouam, V.; Wien, F.; Laprévote, O.; Réfrégiers, M.

    2012-05-01

    We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  9. Characteristics of RF Cold Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liang; MENG Yuedong; SHU Xingsheng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of a stable discharge at atmospheric pressure is investigated.The plasma source consisted of two closely spaced parallel-plated perforated electrodes,driven by a radio frequency power to generate a uniform cold plasma in Helium at atmospheric pressure.Both alpha and gamma modes were clearly observed.The hollow cathode effects were found in the discharge.The influence of the dielectric barrier on the discharge was also investigated by utilizing a surface-anodized aluminium electrode as the anode.

  10. Engineering a laser remote sensor for atmospheric pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.; Korb, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    A system for the remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and temperature is described. Resonant lines in the 7600 Angstrom oxygen A band region are used and an organic dye laser beam is tuned to measure line absorption changes with temperature or pressure. A reference beam outside this band is also transmitted for calibration. Using lidar techniques, profiling of these parameters with altitude can be accomplished.

  11. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-03-30

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  12. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-03-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  13. On the permanent hip-stabilizing effect of atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prietzel, Torsten; Hammer, Niels; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Kaßebaum, Eric; Farag, Mohamed; von Salis-Soglio, Georg

    2014-08-22

    Hip joint dislocations related to total hip arthroplasty (THA) are a common complication especially in the early postoperative course. The surgical approach, the alignment of the prosthetic components, the range of motion and the muscle tone are known factors influencing the risk of dislocation. A further factor that is discussed until today is atmospheric pressure which is not taken into account in the present THA concepts. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of atmospheric pressure on hip joint stability. Five joint models (Ø 28-44 mm), consisting of THA components were hermetically sealed with a rubber capsule, filled with a defined amount of fluid and exposed to varying ambient pressure. Displacement and pressure sensors were used to record the extent of dislocation related to intraarticular and ambient pressure. In 200 experiments spontaneous dislocations of the different sized joint models were reliably observed once the ambient pressure was lower than 6.0 kPa. Increasing the ambient pressure above 6.0 kPa immediately and persistently reduced the joint models until the ambient pressure was lowered again. Displacement always exceeded half the diameter of the joint model and was independent of gravity effects. This experimental study gives strong evidence that the hip joint is permanently stabilized by atmospheric pressure, confirming the theories of Weber and Weber (1836). On basis of these findings the use of larger prosthetic heads, capsular repair and the deployment of an intracapsular Redon drain are proposed to substantially decrease the risk of dislocation after THA.

  14. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats with Low Pressure Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  15. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Based Flame Control and Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Based Flame Control and Diagnostics 5a...to 10%)  Flame speed enhancement (>20%)  Extension of lean limit (factor of two)  Distributed ignition  Development of new diagnostics

  16. Atmospheric pressure CVD of SNO2 and ZNO:AL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Kniknie, B.J.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Mannie, G.; Thune, P.; Illiberi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) is a highly cost effective method of depositing transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). In this work, insights in alcohol addition in the widely applied SnO2 process are discussed, including high resolution TEM images. Furthermore, the APCVD process of ZnO:Al was demon

  17. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  18. Modes of Homogeneous Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure in Helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Hui; WANG De-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    @@ The discharge modes of a homogeneous barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure in helium are investigated with a one-dimensional fluid model It is found that, either in single peak discharge or in multipeak discharge, there are two discharge modes: glow and Townsend modes. The structure and features of the two modes are compared.The conditions forming the two modes are discussed.

  19. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Glassy carbon plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). He gas, gas mixtures of He and reactive gases such as O2, CO2 and NH3, Ar gas and Ar/NH3 gas mixture were used as treatment gases. The oxygen and nitrogen contents on the surface as well as defect...

  20. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  1. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  2. Atmospheric pressure photoionization using tunable VUV synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A., E-mail: alexandre.giuliani@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Giorgetta, J.-L.; Ricaud, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jamme, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INRA, U1008 CEPIA, Rue de la Geraudiere, F-44316 Nantes (France); Rouam, V.; Wien, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laprevote, O. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, ICSN-CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Chimie-Toxicologie Analytique et cellulaire, IFR 71, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, 4 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Refregiers, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with a vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) beamline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The set up allows photoionization up to 20 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared to classical atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), our set up offers spectral purity and tunability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allows photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile and hard to vaporize molecules. - Abstract: We report here the first coupling of an atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source with a synchrotron radiation beamline in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). A commercial APPI source of a QStar Pulsar i from AB Sciex was modified to receive photons from the DISCO beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility. Photons are delivered at atmospheric pressure in the 4-20 eV range. The advantages of this new set up, termed SR-APPI, over classical APPI are spectral purity and continuous tunability. The technique may also be used to perform tunable photoionization mass spectrometry on fragile compounds difficult to vaporize by classical methods.

  3. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  4. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... and the material surface, and thus, many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before they are inactivated and can be efficiently utilised for surface modification. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using a dielectric barrier discharge and a gliding...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  5. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  6. A Micromachined Pressure Sensor with Integrated Resonator Operating at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Ren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel resonant pressure sensor with an improved micromechanical double-ended tuning fork resonator packaged in dry air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The resonator is electrostatically driven and capacitively detected, and the sensor is designed to realize a low cost resonant pressure sensor with medium accuracy. Various damping mechanisms in a resonator that is vibrating at atmospheric pressure are analyzed in detail, and a formula is developed to predict the overall quality factor. A trade-off has been reached between the quality factor, stress sensitivity and drive capability of the resonator. Furthermore, differential sense elements and the method of electromechanical amplitude modulation are used for capacitive detection to obtain a large signal-to-noise ratio. The prototype sensor chip is successfully fabricated using a micromachining process based on a commercially available silicon-on-insulator wafer and is hermetically encapsulated in a custom 16-pin Kovar package. Preliminary measurements show that the fundamental frequency of the resonant pressure sensor is approximately 34.55 kHz with a pressure sensitivity of 20.77 Hz/kPa. Over the full scale pressure range of 100–400 kPa and the whole temperature range of −20–60 °C, high quality factors from 1,146 to 1,772 are obtained. The characterization of the prototype sensor reveals the feasibility of a resonant pressure sensor packaged at atmospheric pressure.

  7. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  8. Removal of paper microbial contamination by atmospheric pressure DBD discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrajova, J.; Chalupova, L.; Novotny, O.; Cech, J.; Krcma, F.; Stahel, P.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper the removal of the microbial contamination from paper material using the plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure is investigated. The Aspergillus niger has been chosen as a bio-indicator enabling to evaluate the effect of plasma assisted microbial inactivation. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at atmospheric pressure was used for the paper sterilization. The working gas (nitrogen, argon and helium), plasma exposition time and the plasma power density were varied in order to see the effect of the plasma treatment on the fungi removal. After the treatment, the microbial abatement was evaluated by the standard plate count method. This proved a positive effect of the DBD plasma treatment on fungi removal. Morphological and colorimetric changes of paper substrate after plasma treatment were also investigated.

  9. Peptide fragmentation induced by radicals at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey N; Laiko, Victor V; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2009-04-01

    A novel ion dissociation technique, which is capable of providing an efficient fragmentation of peptides at essential atmospheric pressure conditions, is developed. The fragmentation patterns observed often contain c-type fragments that are specific to electron capture dissociation/electron transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD), along with the y-/b-type fragments that are specific to collision-activated dissociation (CAD). In the presented experimental setup, ion fragmentation takes place within a flow reactor located in the atmospheric pressure region between the ion source and the mass spectrometer. According to a proposed mechanism, the fragmentation results from the interaction of ESI-generated analyte ions with the gas-phase radical species produced by a corona discharge source.

  10. Thermally induced atmospheric pressure gas discharges using pyroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Linczer, John; Go, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Using a heated pyroelectric crystal, an atmospheric pressure gas discharge was generated through the input of heat. When put through a change in temperature, the polarization of a pyroelectric can change significantly, creating a substantial electric potential at its surface. When configured with a grounded sharp counter electrode, a large inhomogeneous electric field forms in the interstitial gas to initiate a corona-like discharge. Under constant heating conditions, gaseous ions drifting to the pyroelectric accumulate and screen the electric field, extinguishing the discharge. By thermally cycling the pyroelectric, negative and positive discharges are generated during heating and cooling, respectively, with peak currents on the order of 80 nA. Time-integrated visualization confirmed the generation of both a corona-like discharge and a surface discharge on the pyroelectric. Parametric studies identified that thermal cycling conditions significantly influence discharge formation for this new atmospheric pressure discharge approach.

  11. Simulation of low temperature atmospheric pressure corona discharge in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekasov, Vladimir; Kirsanov, Gennady; Eliseev, Stepan; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sisoev, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to construct a numerical model of corona discharge in helium at atmospheric pressure. The calculation was based on the two-dimensional hybrid model. Two different plasma-chemical models were considered. Models were built for RF corona and negative DC corona discharge. The system of equations is solved by the finite element method in the COMSOL Multiphysics. Main parameters of the discharge (the density of charged and excited particles, the electron temperature) and their dependence on the input parameters of the model (geometry, electrode voltage, power) were calculated. The calculations showed that the shape of the electron distribution near the electrode depends on the discharge power. The neutral gas heating data obtained will allow predicting the temperature of the gases at the designing of atmospheric pressure helium plasma sources.

  12. Ferrous alloys cast under high pressure gas atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is describing the essence of the process of introducing nitrogen to the melt of ferrous alloys by application of overpressure above the metal bath. The problem was discussed in terms of both theory (the thermodynamic aspects of the process and practice (the technical and technological aspects, safety of the furnace stand operation, and technique of conducting the melt. The novel technique of melting under high pressure of the gas atmosphere (up to 5 MPa has not been used so far in the domestic industry, mainly because of the lack of proper equipment satisfyng the requirements of safe operation. Owing to cooperation undertaken with a partner from Bulgaria, a more detailed investigation of this technology has become possible and melting of selected ferrous alloys was conducted under the gas atmosphere at a pressure of about 3,5 MPa.

  13. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar......The atmospheric partitioning between gas and condensed phase of organic molecules is poorly understood, and discrepancies exist between predicted and observed concentrations of secondary organic aerosols. A key problem is the lack of information about thermodynamic properties of semi- and low...... alcohols. These polyols are common in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols. In our experimental system sub-micron particles are generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol is selected using a differential mobility analyzer. The particles...

  14. Atmospheric oxygenation caused by a change in volcanic degassing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno; Arndt, Nicholas T

    2011-10-12

    The Precambrian history of our planet is marked by two major events: a pulse of continental crust formation at the end of the Archaean eon and a weak oxygenation of the atmosphere (the Great Oxidation Event) that followed, at 2.45 billion years ago. This oxygenation has been linked to the emergence of oxygenic cyanobacteria and to changes in the compositions of volcanic gases, but not to the composition of erupting lavas--geochemical constraints indicate that the oxidation state of basalts and their mantle sources has remained constant since 3.5 billion years ago. Here we propose that a decrease in the average pressure of volcanic degassing changed the oxidation state of sulphur in volcanic gases, initiating the modern biogeochemical sulphur cycle and triggering atmospheric oxygenation. Using thermodynamic calculations simulating gas-melt equilibria in erupting magmas, we suggest that mostly submarine Archaean volcanoes produced gases with SO(2)/H(2)S atmosphere.

  15. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilde, M.; Zardini, A. A.; Hong, J.; Tschiskale, M.; Emanuelsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric partitioning between gas and condensed phase of organic molecules is poorly understood, and discrepancies exist between predicted and observed concentrations of secondary organic aerosols. A key problem is the lack of information about thermodynamic properties of semi- and low volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar alcohols. These polyols are common in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols. In our experimental system sub-micron particles are generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol is selected using a differential mobility analyzer. The particles are allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using thermodynamic modeling. Results are presented and discussed in context of atmospheric gas to particle partitioning.

  16. Atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization using a heated microchip nebulizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Auriola, Seppo

    2009-10-30

    When a standard atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion source is used without applying the corona discharge or photoirradiation, atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization (APTSI) of various compounds can be achieved. Although largely ignored, this phenomenon has recently gained interest as an alternative ionization technique. In this study, this technique is performed for the first time on a miniaturized scale using a microchip nebulizer. Sample ionization with the presented microchip-APTSI (microAPTSI) is achieved by applying only heat and gas flow to a nebulizer chip, without any other methods to promote gas-phase ionization. To evaluate the performance of the described microAPTSI setup, ionization efficiency for a set of test compounds was monitored as the microchip positioning, temperature, nebulizer gas flow rate, sample solution composition, and solvent flow rate were varied. The microAPTSI mass spectra of the test compounds were also compared to those obtained with ESI and APCI. The microAPTSI produces ESI-like spectra with low background noise, favoring the formation of protonated or deprotonated molecules of compounds that are ionizable in solution. Multiple charging of peptides without in-source fragmentation was also observed. Unlike ESI, however, the microAPTSI source can tolerate the presence of mobile phase additives like trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) without significant ion suppression. The microAPTSI source can be used with standard mass spectrometer ion source hardware, being a unique alternative to the present interfacing techniques.

  17. Transmission geometry laserspray ionization vacuum using an atmospheric pressure inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; El-Baba, Tarick J; Inutan, Ellen D; Manly, Cory D; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    This represents the first report of laserspray ionization vacuum (LSIV) with operation directly from atmospheric pressure for use in mass spectrometry. Two different types of electrospray ionization source inlets were converted to LSIV sources by equipping the entrance of the atmospheric pressure inlet aperture with a customized cone that is sealed with a removable glass plate holding the matrix/analyte sample. A laser aligned in transmission geometry (at 180° relative to the inlet) ablates the matrix/analyte sample deposited on the vacuum side of the glass slide. Laser ablation from vacuum requires lower inlet temperature relative to laser ablation at atmospheric pressure. However, higher inlet temperature is required for high-mass analytes, for example, α-chymotrypsinogen (25.6 kDa). Labile compounds such as gangliosides and cardiolipins are detected in the negative ion mode directly from mouse brain tissue as intact doubly deprotonated ions. Multiple charging enhances the ion mobility spectrometry separation of ions derived from complex tissue samples.

  18. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Maike; Wiacek, Claudia; Koethe, Martin; Braun, Peggy G

    2017-03-20

    Contamination of eggshells with Salmonella Enteritidis remains a food safety concern. In many cases human salmonellosis within the EU can be traced back to raw or undercooked eggs and egg products. Atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel decontamination method that can reduce a wide range of pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using an effective short time cold plasma treatment to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis on the eggshell. Therefore, artificially contaminated eggshells were treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet under different experimental settings with various exposure times (15-300s), distances from the plasma jet nozzle to the eggshell surface (5, 8 or 12mm), feed gas compositions (Ar, Ar with 0.2, 0.5 or 1.0% O2), gas flow rates (5 and 7slm) and different inoculations of Salmonella Enteritidis (10(1)-10(6)CFU/cm(2)). Atmospheric pressure plasma could reduce Salmonella Enteritidis on eggshells significantly. Reduction factors ranged between 0.22 and 2.27 log CFU (colony-forming units). Exposure time and, particularly at 10(4)CFU/cm(2) inoculation, feed gas had a major impact on Salmonella reduction. Precisely, longer exposure times led to higher reductions and Ar as feed gas was more effective than ArO2 mixtures.

  19. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  20. Turgor pressure: direct manometric measurement in single cells of Nitella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P B; Stanton, F W

    1967-03-31

    A small capillary, fused at one end, serves as a micromanometer when the open end is inserted into a large Nitella cell. The cell's ability to compress the gas reveals its turgor pressure directly-save for a small correction due to capillarity. The method gives a lower limit to turgor pressure for the same cell in the normal state. The common method, incipient plasmolysis, gives an upper limit. On Nitella axillaris cells the two methods limit the turgor pressure at 5.1 to 5.7 atmospheres. The manometric method is also applicable to growing cells, where osmotic equilibrium is not present.

  1. Inactivation of Hela cancer cells by an atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet∗%大气压冷等离子体射流灭活子宫颈癌Hela细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骏†; 陈维; 李辉; 王鹏业; 杨思泽

    2013-01-01

    An inactivation mechanism study on Hela cancer cells by means of an atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet is presented. Cell morphology is observed under an inverted microscope after plasma treatment. The neutral red uptake assay provides quantitative evaluations of cell viability under different conditions. The effect of the inactivation efficiency of Hela cancer cells in the argon (900 mL/min) with addition of different amount of oxygen (1%, 2%, 4%, 8%) into atmospheric pressure cold plasma jet is discussed under the fixed power 18 W. Results show that 2% O2 addition provides the best inactivation efficiency, and the survival rate can be reduced to 7%after 180 s treatment. When the oxygen addition exceeds 2%, the inactivation efficiency gradually weakens. The effect is not so good as that in pure argon plasma when the oxygen addition arrives at 8%. According to the emission spectrum of the plasmum, it is concluded that the reactive oxygen species in the plasma play a key role in cancer cell inactivation process.%  研究了大气压冷等离子体射流对子宫颈癌Hela细胞的灭活机制。在倒置显微镜下观察不同等离子体处理条件下的细胞形态,并通过中性红吸收测试定量测定各个条件下的细胞存活率。将功率维持在18 W,在900 mL/min氩等离子体中添入氧气的百分含量分别为1%,2%,4%和8%的条件下处理Hela细胞,探讨活性气体氧气在惰性气体氩气中的百分含量对Hela癌细胞灭活效率的影响,发现添加2%氧气时,氩/氧等离子体灭活效果最佳,处理180 s后细胞存活率可降至7%。当继续添加氧超过2%时,灭活效果逐渐减弱,直至8%时,其效果反而不如单纯氩等离子体。通过测量等离子体发射光谱,结果表明活性氧自由基在癌细胞灭活过程中可能起关键作用。

  2. Time and space variability of spectral estimates of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavero, Flavio G.; Einaudi, Franco

    1987-01-01

    The temporal and spatial behaviors of atmospheric pressure spectra over the northern Italy and the Alpine massif were analyzed using data on surface pressure measurements carried out at two microbarograph stations in the Po Valley, one 50 km south of the Alps, the other in the foothills of the Dolomites. The first 15 days of the study overlapped with the Alpex Intensive Observation Period. The pressure records were found to be intrinsically nonstationary and were found to display substantial time variability, implying that the statistical moments depend on time. The shape and the energy content of spectra depended on different time segments. In addition, important differences existed between spectra obtained at the two stations, indicating a substantial effect of topography, particularly for periods less than 40 min.

  3. Reduced Pressure Cabin Testing of the Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlisch, Jeffery J.

    2013-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Atmosphere Revitalization System for moderate duration missions of the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. In previous years at this conference, reports were presented on extensive Johnson Space Center testing of this technology in a sea-level pressure environment with simulated and actual human metabolic loads in both open and closed-loop configurations. In 2011, the technology was tested in an open cabin-loop configuration at ambient and two sub-ambient pressures to compare the performance of the system to the results of previous tests at ambient pressure. The testing used a human metabolic simulator with a different type of water vapor generation than previously used, which added some unique challenges in the data analysis. This paper summarizes the results of: baseline and some matrix testing at all three cabin pressures, increased vacuum regeneration line pressure with a high metabolic load, a set of tests studying CO2 and water vapor co-adsorption effects relative to model-predicted performance, and validation tests of flight program computer model predictions with specific operating conditions.

  4. Atmospheric pressure ion focusing with a vortex stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

    2011-09-30

    For successful operation of ionization analysis techniques an efficient sampling and sample ion transportation into an analytical path are required. This is of particular importance for atmospheric pressure ionization sources like corona discharge, electrospray, MALDI, ionization with radioactive isotopes ((3)H, (63)Ni) that produce nonuniform spatial distribution of sample ions. The available methods of sample ion focusing with electric fields are either efficient at reduced pressure (to 1 Torr) or feature high sample losses. In this paper we suggest to use a highly whirled gas stream for atmospheric pressure ion focusing. We use a (63)Ni radioactive source to produce an ionized bipolar sample at atmospheric pressure. It is shown by experiments that compared to an aspiration method a forced highly whirled vortex stream allows one to enhance the efficiency of remote ionized sample collection at distances equal to the vortex sampler diameter by an order of magnitude. With a vortex stream, a sixfold increase in the efficiency of the radial ionized sample collection has been obtained. It may be deduced that with the vortex stream remote sampling obtains a new feature which is characterized by a considerable enhancement of the efficiency of the ionized sample collection and can be called as a "gas-dynamic" ionized sample focusing. Considered is the effect of recombination losses of the ionized sample during the remote sampling thereof with the vortex sampler. Prospects for a practical implementation of the vortex sampler for solving the problems of the customs control over the smuggling of radioactive α and β sources are made based on the research results.

  5. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  6. Minimally-Invasive Gene Transfection by Chemical and Physical Interaction of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Toshiro

    2014-10-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma irradiated to the living-cell is investigated for medical applications such as gene transfection, which is expected to play an important role in molecular biology, gene therapy, and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional gene transfection using the plasma has some problems that the cell viability is low and the genes cannot be transferred into some specific lipid cells, which is attributed to the unknown mechanism of the gene transfection using the plasma. Therefore, the time-controlled atmospheric pressure plasma flow is generated and irradiated to the living-cell suspended solution for clarifying the transfection mechanism toward developing highly-efficient and minimally- invasive gene transfection system. In this experiment, fluorescent dye YOYO-1 is used as the simulated gene and LIVE/DEAD Stain is simultaneously used for cell viability assay. By the fluorescence image, the transfection efficiency is calculated as the ratio of the number of transferred and surviving cells to total cell count. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is significantly increased by the short-time (cell viability (>90%). This result indicates that the physical effects such as the electric field caused by the charged particles arriving at the surface of the cell membrane, and chemical effects associated with plasma-activated products in solution act synergistically to enhance the cell-membrane transport with low-damage. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24108004.

  7. Plasma-on-chip device for stable irradiation of cells cultured in media with a low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tomohiro; Chang, Chun-Yao; Kobayashi, Mime; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Sasaki, Minoru; Kumagai, Shinya

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) device which enables plasma treatment for cells cultured in media. The device, referred to as the plasma-on-chip, comprises microwells and microplasma sources fabricated together in a single chip. The microwells have through-holes between the microwells and microplasma sources. Each microplasma source is located on the backside of each microwells. The reactive components generated by the microplasma sources pass through the through-holes and reach cells cultured in the microwells. In this study, a plasma-on-chip device was modified for a stable plasma treatment. The use of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique allowed a stable plasma treatment up to 3 min. The plasma-on-chip with the original electrode configuration typically had the maximum stable operation time of around 1 min. Spectral analysis of the plasma identified reactive species such as O and OH radicals that can affect the activity of cells. Plasma treatment was successfully performed on yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and green algae (Chlorella) cells. While no apparent change was observed with yeast, the treatment degraded the activity of the Chlorella cells and decreased their fluorescence. The device has the potential to help understand interactions between plasma and cells.

  8. Atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced spatial ALD of silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruele, Fieke J. van den, E-mail: Fieke.vandenBruele@tno.nl; Smets, Mireille; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Creyghton, Yves [TNO, High Tech Campus 21, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Buskens, Pascal [TNO, Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven, The Netherlands and DWI Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen (Germany); Roozeboom, Fred [TNO, High Tech Campus 21, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands and Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    The authors have investigated the growth of thin silver films using a unique combination of atmospheric process elements: spatial atomic layer deposition and an atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma source. Silver films were grown on top of Si substrates with good purity as revealed by resistivity values as low as 18 μΩ cm and C- and F-levels below detection limits of energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The growth of the silver films starts through the nucleation of islands that subsequently coalesce. The authors show that the surface island morphology is dependent on surface diffusion, which can be controlled by temperature within the deposition temperature range of 100–120 °C.

  9. [Spectral diagnosis of plasma jet at atmospheric pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi; Tang, Xiao-liang; Qiu, Gao

    2008-12-01

    A new approach to surface modification of materials using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is presented in the present paper. The emission spectral lines of argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure were recorded by the grating spectrograph HR2000 and computer software. The argon plasma emission spectra, ranging from 300nm to 1000 nm, were measured at different applied voltage. Compared to air plasma emission spectra under the same circumstance, it is shown that all of the spectral lines are attributed to neutral argon atoms. The spectral lines 763.51 and 772.42 nm were chosen to estimate the electron excitation temperature. The purpose of the study is to research the relationship between the applied voltage and temperature to control the process of materials' surface modification promptly. The results show that electron excitation temperature is in the range of 0.1-0.5 eV and increases with increasing applied voltage. In the process of surface modification under the plasma jet, the infrared radiation thermometer was used to measure the material surface temperature under the plasma jet. The results show that the material surface temperature is in the range of 50-100 degrees C and it also increases with increasing applied voltage. Because the material surface was under the plasma jet and its temperature was decided by the plasma, and the material surface temperature increased with increasing the macro-temperature of plasma jet, the relationship between the surface temperature and applied voltage indicates the relationship between the macro-temperature of the plasma jet and the applied voltage approximately. The experimental results indicate that DBD plasma jet at atmospheric pressure is a new approach to improving the quality of materials' surface modification, and spectral diagnosis has proved to be a kind of workable method by choosing suitable applied voltage.

  10. Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max Karasik

    1999-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.

  11. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of carbon fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Michelsen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibres are continuously treated with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in various gas conditions for adhesion improvement in mind. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that oxygen is effectively introduced onto the carbon fibre surfaces by He, H...... temperature for a month the O/C ratio at the plasma treated surfaces decreased to 0.151, which is close to that of the untreated ones. It can be attributed to the adsorption of hydrocarbon contamination at the plasma treated surfaces....

  13. Diagnostics of Atmospheric Pressure Surface Discharge Plasmas in Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 詹如娟; 温晓辉

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure surface discharge is shown to have great prospects for a number of industrial applications.To acquire better results in application fields and considering that the study of the basic parameters including electron temperature and electron density is desirable,we develop an equivalent circuit model and the diagnostic techniques based on optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurement in our laboratory.The electron temperature has been determined to be about 0.7eV by a Fermi-Dirac model.The electron density has been calculated to be near 1010 cm-3 from a time resolved electrical measurement(Ohmic heating method).

  14. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  15. The major influence of the atmosphere on intracranial pressure: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbowski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the atmosphere on human physiology has been studied widely within the last years. In practice, intracranial pressure is a pressure difference between intracranial compartments and the surrounding atmosphere. This means that gauge intracranial pressure uses atmospheric pressure as its zero point, and therefore, this method of pressure measurement excludes the effects of barometric pressure's fluctuation. The comparison of these two physical quantities can only take place through their absolute value relationship. The aim of this study is to investigate the direct effect of barometric pressure on the absolute intracranial pressure homeostasis. A prospective observational cross-sectional open study was conducted in Szczecin, Poland. In 28 neurosurgical patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial intraventricular pressure was monitored in a sitting position. A total of 168 intracranial pressure and atmospheric pressure measurements were performed. Absolute atmospheric pressure was recorded directly. All values of intracranial gauge pressure were converted to absolute pressure (the sum of gauge intracranial pressure and local absolute atmospheric pressure). The average absolute mean intracranial pressure in the patients is 1006.6 hPa (95 % CI 1004.5 to 1008.8 hPa, SEM 1.1), and the mean absolute atmospheric pressure is 1007.9 hPa (95 % CI 1006.3 to 1009.6 hPa, SEM 0.8). The observed association between atmospheric and intracranial pressure is strongly significant (Spearman correlation r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and all the measurements are perfectly reliable (Bland-Altman coefficient is 4.8 %). It appears from this study that changes in absolute intracranial pressure are related to seasonal variation. Absolute intracranial pressure is shown to be impacted positively by atmospheric pressure.

  16. The major influence of the atmosphere on intracranial pressure: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbowski, Leszek

    2016-06-01

    The impact of the atmosphere on human physiology has been studied widely within the last years. In practice, intracranial pressure is a pressure difference between intracranial compartments and the surrounding atmosphere. This means that gauge intracranial pressure uses atmospheric pressure as its zero point, and therefore, this method of pressure measurement excludes the effects of barometric pressure's fluctuation. The comparison of these two physical quantities can only take place through their absolute value relationship. The aim of this study is to investigate the direct effect of barometric pressure on the absolute intracranial pressure homeostasis. A prospective observational cross-sectional open study was conducted in Szczecin, Poland. In 28 neurosurgical patients with suspected normal-pressure hydrocephalus, intracranial intraventricular pressure was monitored in a sitting position. A total of 168 intracranial pressure and atmospheric pressure measurements were performed. Absolute atmospheric pressure was recorded directly. All values of intracranial gauge pressure were converted to absolute pressure (the sum of gauge intracranial pressure and local absolute atmospheric pressure). The average absolute mean intracranial pressure in the patients is 1006.6 hPa (95 % CI 1004.5 to 1008.8 hPa, SEM 1.1), and the mean absolute atmospheric pressure is 1007.9 hPa (95 % CI 1006.3 to 1009.6 hPa, SEM 0.8). The observed association between atmospheric and intracranial pressure is strongly significant (Spearman correlation r = 0.87, p < 0.05) and all the measurements are perfectly reliable (Bland-Altman coefficient is 4.8 %). It appears from this study that changes in absolute intracranial pressure are related to seasonal variation. Absolute intracranial pressure is shown to be impacted positively by atmospheric pressure.

  17. Effects of a Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Human Gingival Fibroblasts for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ have been developed and applied in biomedical research as a cancer treatment or bacterial sterilization. However, the drawback of APPJ on normal oral cells during plasma treatment and underlying cell death mechanisms have not been studied and clearly explained, although there is known to be an influence from reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hence, this study investigates whether and how a nonthermal atmospheric pressure air plasma jet kills human normal gingival cells using immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (hTERT-hNOF cells. In this study, a set of physicochemical or biological methods were used to illuminate the killing mechanisms. It was found that ROS were induced intracellularly without a breakdown of the cell wall and apoptosis was involved in cell death when an air APPJ treatment was performed on the cells directly without media; the air treatment only supported a detachment of the cells without increase of ROS. It was also revealed that a correlation between intracellular ROS concentration and cells viability existed. These results indicated that the direct air APPJ treatment possibly raises safety issue to normal tissue and thereby APPJ application in biomedical field needs more in vitro and in vivo study to optimize it.

  18. Effects of a Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet on Human Gingival Fibroblasts for Biomedical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have been developed and applied in biomedical research as a cancer treatment or bacterial sterilization. However, the drawback of APPJ on normal oral cells during plasma treatment and underlying cell death mechanisms have not been studied and clearly explained, although there is known to be an influence from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, this study investigates whether and how a nonthermal atmospheric pressure air plasma jet kills human normal gingival cells using immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (hTERT-hNOF cells). In this study, a set of physicochemical or biological methods were used to illuminate the killing mechanisms. It was found that ROS were induced intracellularly without a breakdown of the cell wall and apoptosis was involved in cell death when an air APPJ treatment was performed on the cells directly without media; the air treatment only supported a detachment of the cells without increase of ROS. It was also revealed that a correlation between intracellular ROS concentration and cells viability existed. These results indicated that the direct air APPJ treatment possibly raises safety issue to normal tissue and thereby APPJ application in biomedical field needs more in vitro and in vivo study to optimize it.

  19. High rate (∼7 nm/s), atmospheric pressure deposition of ZnO front electrode for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells with efficiency beyond 15%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Grob, F.; Frijters, C.; Poodt, P.; Ramachandra, R.; Winands, H.; Simor, M.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown on a moving glass substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. High deposition rates of ∼7 nm/s are achieved at low temperature (200°C) for a substrate speed from 20 to 60 mm/min. ZnO films are highly transparent in th

  20. High rate (∼7 nm/s), atmospheric pressure deposition of ZnO front electrode for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells with efficiency beyond 15%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Grob, F.; Frijters, C.; Poodt, P.; Ramachandra, R.; Winands, H.; Simor, M.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown on a moving glass substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. High deposition rates of ∼7 nm/s are achieved at low temperature (200°C) for a substrate speed from 20 to 60 mm/min. ZnO films are highly transparent in

  1. Bacteria Inactivation Using DBD Plasma Jet in Atmospheric Pressure Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guimin; ZHANG Guanjun; SHI Xingmin; MA Yue; WANG Ning; LI Yuan

    2009-01-01

    A coaxial dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet Was designed,which can be operated in atmospheric pressure argon under an intermediate frequency sinusoidal resonant power supply,and an atmospheric pressure glow-like discharge Was achieved.Two kinds of typical bacteria,i.e.,the Staphylococcus aureus(S.aurens)and Escherichia coil(E.coil),were employed to study the bacterial inactivation mechanism by means of the non-thermal plasma.The killing log value (KLV)of S.aureus reached up to 5.38 with a treatment time of 90 s and that of E.coil up to 5.36 with 60 s,respectively.According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the two bacteria before and after the plasma treatment.it is concluded that the reactive species in the argon plasma played a major role in the bacterial inactivation,while the heat,electric field and UV photons had little effect.

  2. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet for sterilization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Wibowo, Kusnanto Mukti; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Arshad, Mohd Khairuddin Md; Hashim, Uda; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteria or sterilization has been a major issue in the medical field, especially regarding of human safety, whereby, in a huge scenario fatality can be caused by hazardous bacteria. Often, E-coli as gram-negative bacteria are selected as a key indicator of proper sterilization process as E-coli is tough and dormant bacteria. The technology in sterilization has moved on from chemical, wet and irradiation sterilization to a high promising device such as atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet (APPNJ). It has been reported that atmospheric pressure plasma has provided bundle of advantages over earlier sterilization process. The APPNJ is developed in our lab using high frequency and high voltage neon transformer power supply connected to copper needle and copper sheet electrodes. The gas discharge is Ar gas flowing at 40 L/min through a quartz glass tube. The E-coli bacteria are self-cultured from waste water and then treated with APPNJ. The treatment processes are run into two difference gaps between the plasma orifice and sample with various treatment times. Only 40s is required by direct treatment to achieve 100% killing of E-coli. On the other hand, indirect treatment has inactivated 50% of the E-coli in 40s. In this study, direct and indirect effect of APPNJ to the E-coli can be observed which can be utilized into sterilization of bio-compatible material applications.

  3. Charging of aerosol and nucleation in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The paper focuses on applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc corona, streamer, spark and ac dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs)) in aerosol processes for materials and environment. Since aerosol kinematics depends mainly on electric forces acting on charged particles, the two mechanisms of aerosol charging by the collection of ions are presented in corona, post-corona and DBDs. In such defined charging conditions, field and diffusion charging laws are depicted, with respect to applications of controlled kinematics of charged aerosol. Then key parameters controlling the formation by nucleation and the growth by coagulation of particles in plasmas are presented. Sources of vapor leading to nucleated nanoparticles are depicted in atmospheric pressure electrical discharges: (i) when filamentary dc streamer and spark as well as ac-DBDs interact with metal or dielectric surfaces and (ii) when discharges induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. In both cases, condensable gaseous species are produced, leading to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation. The composition, size and structure of primary nanoparticles as well as the final size of agglomerates are related to plasma parameters (energy, number per unit surface and time and thermal gradients around each filament as well as the transit time).

  4. Microwave heating systems for atmospheric pressure: Nonequilibrium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guest, G.E.; Dandl, R.A. (AMPC, Inc., Carlsbad, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma-chemical processing is attracting increasing interest because of the possibility of creating mixtures of active species that would not be available in thermal equilibrium. For significant throughput of reactants it would be advantageous to create nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure mixtures of gases. Techniques for accomplishing this are very limited at present. Here they describe a novel microwave approach to creating nonequilibrium plasmas in large volumes of atmospheric-pressure gases using pulses of microwave radiation with very high peak power that are focused by quasi-optical techniques at one or more points in the interior of the reaction chamber. A new type of microwave source, the Plasma Electron Microwave Source (PEMS), is able to produce the require power levels by storing cw microwave power in a mirror-confined, relativistic-electron plasma and periodically transforming a fraction of that stored energy into intense microwave pulses. This approach avoids many of the limitations inherent in resonant cavity approaches and is expected to permit ultrahigh purity discharges to be produced.

  5. Parametric study of radiofrequency helium discharge under atmospheric pressure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAFDAR HUSSAIN; HAFIZ IMRAN AHMAD QAZI; SHANAWER NIAZ; MANZOOR AHMAD BADAR

    2016-12-01

    The parameters of radio frequency helium discharge under atmospheric pressure were studied by electrical and optical measurements using high voltage probe, current probe and optical emission spectroscopy. Two discharge modes $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ were observed within certain limits. During $\\alpha$ to $\\gamma$ mode transition, a decrease in voltage (280–168 V), current (2.05–1.61 A) and phase angle (76$^{\\rm o}-56^{\\rm o}$) occurred. The discharge parameters such as resistance, reactance, sheath thickness, electron density, excitation temperature and gas temperature were assessed by electrical measurements using equivalent circuit model and optical emission spectroscopy. In $\\alpha$ mode, the discharge current increased from 1.17 to 2.05 A, electron density increased from $0.19 \\times 10^{12} {\\rm to} 0.47 \\times 10^{12} {\\rm cm}^{−3}$ while sheath thickness decreased from 0.40 to 0.25 mm. The excitation temperatures in the $\\alpha$ and $\\gamma$ modes were 3266 and 4500 K respectively, evaluated by Boltzmann’s plot method. The estimated gas temperature increased from 335 K in the α mode to 485 K in the γ mode, suggesting that the radio frequency atmospheric pressure helium discharge can be used for surface treatment applications.

  6. Surface modification of polycarbonate in homogeneous atmospheric pressure discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIra, M; Trunec, D; St' ahel, P; BursIkova, V; Navratil, Z [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-01-07

    A homogeneous atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge was used for the surface modification of polycarbonate (PC). The discharge was generated between two planar metal electrodes, the top electrode was covered by glass and the bottom electrode was covered by a polymer sample. The discharge burned in pure nitrogen or in a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen. The surface properties of both treated and untreated polymers were characterized by atomic force microscopy, surface free energy (SFE) measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The influence of the treatment time and power input to the discharge on the surface properties of polymers was studied. The ageing of treated samples was also investigated. The treatment of polymers in the homogeneous atmospheric pressure discharge was homogeneous and the polymer surfaces showed a smaller degree of roughness in comparison with the polymer surfaces treated in a filamentary discharge. The SFE of the treated PC obtained at optimum conditions was 53 mJ m{sup -2} and the corresponding contact angle of water was 38{sup 0}. The maximum decrease in the SFE during ageing was about 13%. The analysis of the chemical composition showed an increase in the nitrogen concentration in the surface layer, but almost a zero increase in the oxygen concentration. This result was discussed concerning the measured values of the SFE measurement.

  7. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2014-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.

  8. Specific interaction between negative atmospheric ions and organic compounds in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Sakai, Mami; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2012-06-01

    The interaction between negative atmospheric ions and various types of organic compounds were investigated using atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. Atmospheric negative ions such as O(2)(-), HCO(3)(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and NO(3)(-)(HNO(3)) having different proton affinities served as the reactant ions for analyte ionization in APCDI in negative-ion mode. The individual atmospheric ions specifically ionized aliphatic and aromatic compounds with various functional groups as atmospheric ion adducts and deprotonated analytes. The formation of the atmospheric ion adducts under certain discharge conditions is most likely attributable to the affinity between the analyte and atmospheric ion and the concentration of the atmospheric ion produced under these conditions. The deprotonated analytes, in contrast, were generated from the adducts of the atmospheric ions with higher proton affinity attributable to efficient proton abstraction from the analyte by the atmospheric ion.

  9. Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas Scott

    An atmospheric pressure plasma source operating at temperatures below 150?C and fed with 1.0-3.0 volume% oxygen in helium was used to activate the surfaces of the native oxide on silicon, carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024. Helium and oxygen were passed through the plasma source, whereby ionization occurred and ˜10 16 cm-3 oxygen atoms, ˜1015 cm -3 ozone molecules and ˜1016 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecules (O21Deltag) were generated. The plasma afterglow was directed onto the substrate material located 4 mm downstream. Surface properties of the plasma treated materials have been investigated using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The work presented herein establishes atmospheric-pressure plasma as a surface preparation technique that is well suited for surface activation and enhanced adhesive bond strength in a variety of materials. Atmospheric plasma activation presents an environmentally friendly alternative to wet chemical and abrasive methods of surface preparation. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to study the aging mechanism of the native oxide on silicon. During storage at ambient conditions, the water contact angle of a clean surface increased from composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024 was demonstrated with the atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasma. All surfaces studied were converted from a hydrophobic state with a water contact angle of 65° to 80° into a hydrophilic state with a water contact angle between 20° and 40° within 5 seconds of plasma exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the carbon atoms on the carbon-fiber/epoxy composite were oxidized, yielding 17 atom% carboxylic acid groups, 10% ketones or aldehydes and 9% alcohols. Analysis of stainless steel and aluminum by XPS illustrate oxidation of the metal

  10. Measurement of viscosity of gaseous mixtures at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coefficients of viscosity of various types of gas mixtures, including simulated natural-gas samples, have been measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using a modified capillary tube method. Pressure drops across the straight capillary tube section of a thermal mass flowmeter were measured for small, well-defined, volume flow rates for the test gases and for standard air. In this configuration, the flowmeter provides the volumetric flow rates as well as a well-characterized capillary section for differential pressure measurements across it. The coefficients of viscosity of the test gases were calculated using the reported value of 185.6 micro P for the viscosity of air. The coefficients of viscosity for the test mixtures were also calculated using Wilke's approximation of the Chapman-Enskog (C-E) theory. The experimental and calculated values for binary mixtures are in agreement within the reported accuracy of Wilke's approximation of the C-E theory. However, the agreement for multicomponent mixtures is less satisfactory, possible because of the limitations of Wilkes's approximation of the classical dilute-gas state model.

  11. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  12. Diagnostics of atmospheric pressure capillary DBD oxygen plasma jet

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, N C; Pramanik, B K

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure capillary dielectric barrier oxygen discharge plasma jet is developed to generate non-thermal plasma using unipolar positive pulse power supply. Both optical and electrical techniques are used to investigate the characteristics of the produced plasma as function of applied voltage and gas flow rate. Analytical results obtained from the optical emission spectroscopic data reveal the gas temperature, rotational temperature, excitation temperature and electron density. Gas temperature and rotational temperature are found to decrease with increasing oxygen flow rate but increase linearly with applied voltage. It is exposed that the electron density is boosting up with enhanced applied voltage and oxygen flow rate, while the electron excitation temperature is reducing with rising oxygen flow rate. Electrical characterization demonstrates that the discharge frequency is falling with flow rate but increasing with voltage. The produced plasma is applied preliminarily to study the inactivation yie...

  13. Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges for sterilization and surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, O. H.; Lai, C. K.; Choo, C. Y.; Wong, C. S.; Nor, R. M. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thong, K. L. [Microbiology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharges can be generated in different configurations for different applications. For sterilization, a parallel-plate electrode configuration with glass dielectric that discharges in air was used. Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus) were successfully inactivated using sinusoidal high voltage of ∼15 kVp-p at 8.5 kHz. In the surface treatment, a hemisphere and disc electrode arrangement that allowed a plasma jet to be extruded under controlled nitrogen gas flow (at 9.2 kHz, 20 kVp-p) was applied to enhance the wettability of PET (Mylar) film.

  14. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces the number of pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products. Furthermore, APCP treatment can be used to generate nitrite, which is an essential component of the curing process. Here, we introduce the effectiveness of APCP treatment as a pasteurization method and/or curing process for use in the meat and meat product processing industry.

  15. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  16. Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric pressure low temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Daniel G.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a common pollutant of indoor air in residences and commercial buildings. The removal of CH2O from atmospheric pressure gas streams (N2/O2/H2O/CH2O) using plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier discharge has been theoretically investigated with the goal of cleansing indoor air. The model consists of a full accounting of the electron, ion, and neutral chemical kinetics in contaminated humid air. We find that the destruction of CH2O results dominantly from chemical attack by OH and O radicals, with the primary end products being CO and H2O. The predicted destruction rates for CH2O are typically 2-8 ppm/(mJ cm-3) (parts per million of CH2O in air/energy deposition). The elimination of the unwanted byproducts, CO and NO, using a platinum catalyst is discussed.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for aerosols processes in materials and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, J. P.; Jidenko, N.; Bourgeois, E.

    2009-08-01

    The paper highlights applications of some atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc-corona, streamer and spark and ac-Dielectric Barrier Discharges) to aerosol processes for Materials and Environment (filtration, diagnostics). The production of vapor i.e. condensable gaseous species, leads to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation in these AP plasmas: (i) when dc streamer and spark filamentary discharges as well as ac filamentary dielectric barrier discharges interact with metal or dielectric surfaces, and (ii) when discharges induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. It is shown how composition, size and structure of primary nano-particles are related to plasma parameters (energy, number per unit surface and time and thermal gradients). Then the growth by coagulation controls the final size of agglomerates versus plasma parameters and transit time in and after the plasma. Charging and electro-thermal collection are depicted to account for the related potential applications of controlled kinematics of charged aerosol.

  18. The solvation of electrons by an atmospheric-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Paul; Bartels, David M.; Sankaran, R. Mohan; Go, David B.

    2015-06-01

    Solvated electrons are typically generated by radiolysis or photoionization of solutes. While plasmas containing free electrons have been brought into contact with liquids in studies dating back centuries, there has been little evidence that electrons are solvated by this approach. Here we report direct measurements of solvated electrons generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma in contact with the surface of an aqueous solution. The electrons are measured by their optical absorbance using a total internal reflection geometry. The measured absorption spectrum is unexpectedly blue shifted, which is potentially due to the intense electric field in the interfacial Debye layer. We estimate an average penetration depth of 2.5+/-1.0 nm, indicating that the electrons fully solvate before reacting through second-order recombination. Reactions with various electron scavengers including H+, NO2-, NO3- and H2O2 show that the kinetics are similar, but not identical, to those for solvated electrons formed in bulk water by radiolysis.

  19. Controlled Microdroplet Transport in an Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, P D; Kelsey, C P; Bingham, A; Montgomery, E P; Bennet, E D; Potts, H E; Rutherford, D; McDowell, D A; Diver, D A; Mariotti, D

    2015-01-01

    We report the controlled injection of near-isolated micron-sized liquid droplets into a low temperature He-Ne steady-state rf plasma at atmospheric pressure. The H2O droplet stream is constrained within a 2 mm diameter quartz tube. Imaging at the tube exit indicates a log-normal droplet size distribution with an initial count mean diameter of 15 micrometers falling to 13 micrometers with plasma exposure. The radial velocity profile is approximately parabolic indicating near laminar flow conditions with the majority of droplets travelling at >75% of the local gas speed and having a plasma transit time of < 100 microseconds. The maximum gas temperature, determined from nitrogen spectral lines, was below 400 K and the observed droplet size reduction implies additional factors beyond standard evaporation, including charge and surface chemistry effects. The successful demonstration of controlled microdroplet streams opens up possibilities for gas-phase microreactors and remote delivery of active species for pla...

  20. Atmospheric pressure vapour phase decomposition: a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinosi, Amedeo; Andriollo, Nunzio; Tibaldi, Francesca; Monticelli, Damiano

    2012-11-15

    In the present work we demonstrated that the digestion of difficult matrices (high boiling petrochemical fractions and distillation bottoms) can be achieved by oxidation with nitric acid vapours at atmospheric pressure employing simple laboratory glassware. The application of this procedure as a digestion method prior to Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is presented, although the employment of other detection techniques may be foreseen. The method ensured a fast, less than half an hour, treatment time and detection limits in the range 20-100 μg/kg for As, Bi, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn, whereas higher values were obtained for Ba, Ca, K, P, Rh, Ti and V (0.3-3 mg/kg). The potentialities and limitations of this procedure were discussed: the application to a broad range of matrices may be foreseen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of nonstationary phenomena in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Yu. D.; Frants, O. B.; Nekhoroshev, V. O.; Suslov, A. I.; Kas'yanov, V. S.; Shemyakin, I. A.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Nonstationary processes in atmospheric-pressure glow discharge manifest themselves in spontaneous transitions from the normal glow discharge into a spark. In the experiments, both so-called completed transitions in which a highly conductive constricted channel arises and incomplete transitions accompanied by the formation of a diffuse channel are observed. A model of the positive column of a discharge in air is elaborated that allows one to interpret specific features of the discharge both in the stationary stage and during its transition into a spark and makes it possible to calculate the characteristic oscillatory current waveforms for completed transitions into a spark and aperiodic ones for incomplete transitions. The calculated parameters of the positive column in the glow discharge mode agree well with experiment. Data on the densities of the most abundant species generated in the discharge (such as atomic oxygen, metastable nitrogen molecules, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and negative oxygen ions) are presented.

  2. Synthesis of silicon nanocones using rf microplasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2005-10-01

    We report the synthesis of silicon nanocones using the rf microplasma discharge at atmospheric pressure. The products formed underneath the tube electrode on Fe-coated crystalline silicon were constituted mainly of silicon and silicon oxide despite the use of a methane-argon mixture. Carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires were also formed around the silicon nanocones. The number density and average size of silicon nanocones increased with the plasma exposure time accompanied by the enlargement of their surface distribution. The growth mechanism of silicon nanocones is discussed in terms of the catalytic growth via diffusion of silicon with nanocrystalline Si particle through FeSix nanoclusters, and enhanced Si oxidation by the plasma heating.

  3. Acetonitrile Ion Suppression in Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Kevin; Mahoney, Keira E.; Yevdokimov, Alexander V.; Smith, James L.; Oxley, Jimmie C.

    2016-11-01

    Efforts to analyze trace levels of cyclic peroxides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence that acetonitrile suppressed ion formation. Further investigations extended this discovery to ketones, linear peroxides, esters, and possibly many other types of compounds, including triazole and menadione. Direct ionization suppression caused by acetonitrile was observed for multiple adduct types in both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The addition of only 2% acetonitrile significantly decreased the sensitivity of analyte response. Efforts to identify the mechanism were made using various nitriles. The ion suppression was reduced by substitution of an acetonitrile hydrogen with an electron-withdrawing group, but was exacerbated by electron-donating or steric groups adjacent to the nitrile. Although current theory does not explain this phenomenon, we propose that polar interactions between the various functionalities and the nitrile may be forming neutral aggregates that manifest as ionization suppression.

  4. Ultrafast laser-collision-induced fluorescence in atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnat, E. V.; Fierro, A.

    2017-04-01

    The implementation and demonstration of laser-collision-induced fluorescence (LCIF) generated in atmospheric pressure helium environments is presented in this communication. As collision times are observed to be fast (~10 ns), ultrashort pulse laser excitation (<100 fs) of the 23S to 33P (388.9 nm) is utilized to initiate the LCIF process. Both neutral-induced and electron-induced components of the LCIF are observed in the helium afterglow plasma as the reduced electric field (E/N) is tuned from  <0.1 Td to over 5 Td. Under the discharge conditions presented in this study (640 Torr He), the lower limit of electron density detection is ~1012 e cm‑3. The spatial profiles of the 23S helium metastable and electrons are presented as functions of E/N to demonstrate the spatial resolving capabilities of the LCIF method.

  5. Plasma reactor for deposition of carbon nanowalls at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Zh; Mitev, D.; Kiss'ovski, Zh

    2016-10-01

    In this study a novel plasma reactor for deposition of carbon nanowalls at atmospheric pressure is constructed and characterized. A low power microwave discharge is used as a plasma source and working gas of Ar/H2/CH4 gas mixture. The substrate is heated by plasma flame and its temperature is in the range 600-700 C. The chemical composition of the plasma and the gas mixture effect on the concentration of the various particles in the plasma is investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of the plasma jet in Ar/H2/CH4 mixture shows the presence of carbon (Swan band) and an intensive line of CH (388 nm), which are necessary species for deposition of carbon nanostructures. Additional voltage in the range from -20 V to -100 V is applied in order to ensure the vertical growth of graphene walls. Results of deposited carbon nanostructures on metal substrate are shown.

  6. Eradication of Bacterial Biofilms Using Atmospheric Pressure Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawareek, Mahmoud; Gilmore, Brendan; Gorman, Sean; Algwari, Qais; Graham, William; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in natural and clinical settings and form a major health risk. Biofilms are recognised to be the predominant mode of bacterial growth, and are an immunological challenge compared to planktonic bacteria of the same species. Eradication of biofilms with atmospheric pressure plasma jets is investigated. Cold non-equilibrium plasmas, operated at ambient atmospheric pressure and temperature, are efficient sources for controlled energy transport through highly reactive neutrals (e.g. ROS, RNS), charged particles (ions and electrons), UV radiation, and electro-magnetic fields. A focused panel of clinically significant biofilms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, are exposed to various plasma jet configurations operated in helium and oxygen mixtures. Viability of surviving cells was determined using both standard plate counting method and XTT viability assay. These are correlated with measurements and simulations of relevant reactive plasma species.

  7. Sterilization of Surfaces with a Handheld Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Robert; Habib, Sara; Chan, Wai; Gonzalez, Eleazar; Tijerina, A.; Sloan, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for decontaminating the surfaces of materials and equipment. In this study, an atmospheric pressure, oxygen and argon plasma was investigated for the destruction of viruses, bacteria, and spores. The plasma was operated at an argon flow rate of 30 L/min, an oxygen flow rate of 20 mL/min, a power density of 101.0 W/cm^3 (beam area = 5.1 cm^2), and at a distance from the surface of 7.1 mm. An average 6log10 reduction of viable spores was obtained after only 45 seconds of exposure to the reactive gas. By contrast, it takes more than 35 minutes at 121^oC to sterilize anthrax in an autoclave. The plasma properties were investigated by numerical modeling and chemical titration with nitric oxide. The numerical model included a detailed reaction mechanism for the discharge as well as for the afterglow. It was predicted that at a delivered power density of 29.3 W/cm^3, 30 L/min argon, and 0.01 volume% O2, the plasma generated 1.9 x 10^14 cm-3 O atoms, 1.6 x 10^12 cm-3 ozone, 9.3 x 10^13 cm-3 O2(^1δg), and 2.9 x 10^12 cm-3 O2(^1σ^+g) at 1 cm downstream of the source. The O atom density measured by chemical titration with NO was 6.0 x 10^14 cm-3 at the same conditions. It is believe that the oxygen atoms and the O2(^1δg) metastables were responsible for killing the anthrax and other microorganisms.

  8. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  9. Effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and surface anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zeyang; Zhu Hongqing; Xu Jiyuan; Qin Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents numerical studies on the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on hill-side coal fires and their surface anomalies. Based on the single-particle reaction–diffusion model, a formula to estimate oxygen consumption rate at high temperature controlled by oxygen transport is proposed. Daily fluctuant atmospheric pressure was imposed on boundaries, including the abandoned gallery and cracks. Simulated results show that the effects of atmospheric pressure fluctuations on coal fires and surface anomalies depend on two factors: the fluctuant amplitude and the pressure difference between inlet(s) and outlet(s) of the air ventilation system. If the pressure difference is close to the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations greatly enhance gas flow motion and tempera-tures of the combustion zone and outtake(s). If the pressure difference is much larger than the fluctuant amplitude, atmospheric pressure fluctuations exert no impact on underground coal fires and surface anomalies.

  10. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  11. The ionization mechanisms in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    A novel, gas-tight API interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the ionization mechanism in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI). Eight analytes (ethylbenzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzaldehyde, pyridine, quinolone, and acridine) with varying ionization energies (IEs) and proton affinities (PAs), and four common APPI dopants (toluene, acetone, anisole, and chlorobenzene) were chosen. All the studied compounds were ionized by direct APPI, forming mainly molecular ions. Addition of dopants suppressed the signal of the analytes with IEs above the IE of the dopant. For compounds with suitable IEs or Pas, the dopants increased the ionization efficiency as the analytes could be ionized through dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions, such as charge exchange, proton transfer, and other rather unexpected reactions, such as formation of [M + 77](+) in the presence of chlorobenzene. Experiments with deuterated toluene as the dopant verified that in case of proton transfer, the proton originated from the dopant instead of proton-bound solvent clusters, as in conventional open or non-tight APPI sources. In direct APLI using a 266 nm laser, a narrower range of compounds was ionized than in direct APPI, because of exceedingly high IEs or unfavorable two-photon absorption cross-sections. Introduction of dopants in the APLI system changed the ionization mechanism to similar dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions with the dopant as in APPI, which produced mainly ions of the same form as in APPI, and ionized a wider range of analytes than direct APLI.

  12. Ionization of EPA contaminants in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-seven EPA priority environmental pollutants were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with an optimized atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and an atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) interface with and without dopants. The analyzed compounds included e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro compounds, halogenated compounds, aromatic compounds with phenolic, acidic, alcohol, and amino groups, phthalate and adipatic esters, and aliphatic ethers. Toluene, anisole, chlorobenzene, and acetone were tested as dopants. The widest range of analytes was ionized using direct APPI (66/77 compounds). The introduction of dopants decreased the amount of compounds ionized in APPI (e.g., 54/77 with toluene), but in many cases the ionization efficiency increased. While in direct APPI the formation of molecular ions via photoionization was the main ionization reaction, dopant-assisted (DA) APPI promoted ionization reactions, such as charge exchange and proton transfer. Direct APLI ionized a much smaller amount of compounds than APPI (41/77 compounds), showing selectivity towards compounds with low ionization energies (IEs) and long-lived resonantly excited intermediate states. DA-APLI, however, was able to ionize a higher amount of compounds (e.g. 51/77 with toluene), as the ionization took place entirely through dopant-assisted ion/molecule reactions similar to those in DA-APPI. Best ionization efficiency in APPI and APLI (both direct and DA) was obtained for PAHs and aromatics with O- and N-functionalities, whereas nitro compounds and aliphatic ethers were the most difficult to ionize. Halogenated aromatics and esters were (mainly) ionized in APPI, but not in APLI.

  13. STUDY ON APOPTOSIS OF BREAST CANCER CELLS INDUCED BY COLD ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE PLASMA JET%大气压冷等离子体射流诱导乳癌细胞凋亡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁威利; 隋爱华; 刘世海; 刘相萍; 王静; 王海波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (CAPPJ) on apoptosis of MDA-MB-468 cells in breast cancer cell lines.Methods A self-made CAPPJ device was applied in this study for MDA-MB-468 cells.The cells were exposed to CAPPJ for 10,30 and 90 seconds,respectively.That with no treatment served as blank-control group,that exposed to air stream only for 90 seconds served as experimental-control group.By using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay,the cell proliferation-inhibiting rate in each group was determined; by using DAPI dyeing,the morphologic changes of cell nucleus in each group were detected.The mRNA expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR).Results CAPPJ could obviously inhibit the cell proliferation with dose dependent in nature (F=22.4,42.3;P<0.01),and air stream only did not impact MDA MB-468 cells.After exposing to CAPPJ,pyknosis and nuclear fragmentation occurred,Bax expression up-regulated,and Bcl-2 down-regulated (F=32.3,12.4;P<0.05).Conclusion The CAPPJ can inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-468 cells through inducing apoptosis.The mechanism may be associated with promotion of Bax and inhibition of Bcl-2 gene.%目的 研究大气压冷等离子体射流对乳癌细胞系MDA-MB-468细胞的凋亡诱导作用.方法 采用自行研制的大气压冷等离子体射流发生装置,处理MDA-MB-468细胞.大气压冷等离子体射流处理时间分别为10、30、60和90 s,以不处理者为空白对照组,以单纯气流处理90 s者为实验对照组.采用四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法检测各组细胞增殖抑制率,二脒基苯基吲哚(DAPI)染色检测各组细胞的核形态变化,荧光定量聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)测定各组细胞Bax和Bcl-2 mRNA的表达变化.结果 大气压冷等离子体射流可明显抑制细胞的增殖,且有明显的剂量依赖性(F=22.4、42.3,P<0.01),而单纯气流对MDA-MB-468细胞无明显影响.经大气压

  14. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer's solution for anti-tumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-08

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer's solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer's lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer's lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  15. High Pressure Atmospheric Sampling Inlet System for Venus or the Gas Giants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high pressure atmospheric sampling inlet system for sample acquisition in extreme planetary environments,...

  16. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma in polymer and composite adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang

    An atmospheric pressure helium and oxygen plasma was used to investigate surface activation and bonding in polymer composites. This device was operated by passing 1.0-3.0 vol% of oxygen in helium through a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes powered by 13.56 or 27.12 MHz radio frequency power. The gases were partially ionized between the capacitors where plasma was generated. The reactive species in the plasma were carried downstream by the gas flow to treat the substrate surface. The temperature of the plasm gas reaching the surface of the substrate did not exceed 150 °C, which makes it suitable for polymer processing. The reactive species in the plasma downstream includes ~ 1016-1017 cm-3 atomic oxygen, ~ 1015 cm-3 ozone molecule, and ~ 10 16 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecule (O2 1Deltag). The substrates were treated at 2-5 mm distance from the exit of the plasma. Surface properties of the substrates were characterized using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the plasma treated samples were bonded adhesively or fabricated into composites. The increase in mechanical strength was correlated to changes in the material composition and structure after plasma treatment. The work presented hereafter establishes atmospheric pressure plasma as an effective method to activate and to clean the surfaces of polymers and composites for bonding. This application can be further expanded to the activation of carbon fibers for better fiber-resin interactions during the fabrication of composites. Treating electronic grade FR-4 and polyimide with the He/O2 plasma for a few seconds changed the substrate surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, which allowed complete wetting of the surface by epoxy in underfill applications. Characterization of the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows formation of oxygenated functional groups, including hydroxyl, carbonyl, and

  17. Study of short atmospheric pressure dc glow microdischarge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Bogdanov, Eugene; Chirtsov, Alexander; Emelin, Sergey

    2011-10-01

    The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen and oxygen atoms; ozone molecule; and different nitrogen and oxygen ions with different plasmochemical reactions between them. Simulations predicted the main regions of the dc glow discharges including cathode and anode sheath and plasma of negative glow, Faraday dark space and transition region. Gas heating plays an important role in shaping the discharge profiles. The results of experiments and simulations of short (without positive column) atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air are presented. We used metal steel electrodes with a gap of 5-100 microns. The experimental voltage-current characteristic's (VAC) have a constant or slightly increasing form at low gap. The most stable microdischarges were burning with a flat cathode and rounded anode, when the length of the discharge is automatically established near the minimum of the Paschen curve by changing their binding on the anode. In this case microdischarge was stable and it had growing VAC. For simulations we used 2D fluid model with kinetic description of electrons. We solved the balance equations for the vibrationally- and the electronically-excited states of a nitrogen and oxygen molecules; nitrogen

  18. PRESSURE COMPENSATION METHOD OF UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT BEING UNDER ATMOSPHERIC CIRCUMSTANCE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATED VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingfeng; Li Yanmin; Zhong Tianyu; Xu Guohua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the-state-of-the-art of pressure compensation of underwater hydraulic systems (UHSs), a new method of pressure compensation of UHSs, whose hydraulic power unit is in the atmospheric circumstance, is proposed. And a pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation is realized. The pressure compensation precision is guaranteed by direct detection. Its dynamic performance and stability are improved by a dynamic feedback. Theoretical study, simulation and experiment show that the pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation has a fine property of tracking underwater ambient pressure and meet the requirement of underwater ambient pressure compensation.

  19. Influence of atmospheric pressure on the incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Raúl; Díez, Manuel Mariano; Medrano, María José; Vera, Cristina; Guillamot, Paloma; Sánchez, Ana; Ratia, Tomás; Granell, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the incidence of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax (ISP) and atmospheric pressure (AP). A total of 288 cases of ISP were included, 229 men and 59 women. The AP of the day of diagnosis, of the 3 prior days and the monthly average was registered. The association between the incidence of ISP and AP was analyzed by calculating standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and Poisson regression. The AP on the day of admission (mean±standard deviation) (1,017.9±7 hectopascals [hPa]) was higher than the monthly average AP (1,016.9±4.1 hPa) (P=.005). There was a monthly distribution pattern of ISP with the highest incidence in the months of January, February and September and the lowest in April. When AP was less than 1,014 hPa, there were fewer cases registered than what would statistically have been expected (58/72 cases). In contrast, when the pressure was higher than 1,019 hPa, the registered cases were more than expected (109/82 cases) (SIR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.51). The risk of ISP increased 1.15 times (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.25, P=.001) for each hPa of AP, regardless of sex, age and monthly average AP. A dose-response relationship was observed, with progressive increases in risk (IRR=1.06 when the AP was 1,014-1016 hPa; 1.17 hPa when the AP was 1,016-1,019 hPa and 1.69 when AP was superior to 1,019 hPa) (P for trend=.089). The AP is a risk factor for the onset of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of atmospheric pressure on infrared reflectance spectra of Martian analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Pratt, Stephen F.; Patterson, William

    1993-01-01

    The use of terrestrial samples as analogs of Mars soils are complicated by the Martian atmosphere. Spectral features due to the Martian atmosphere can be removed from telescopic spectra of Mars and ISM spectra of Mars, but this does not account for any spectral differences resulting from atmospheric pressure or any interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. We are examining the effects of atmospheric pressure on reflectance spectra of powdered samples in the laboratory. Contrary to a previous experiment with granite, no significant changes in albedo or the Christiansen feature were observed from 1 bar pressure down to a pressure of 8 micrometers Hg. However, reducing the atmospheric pressure does have a pronounced affect on the hydration features, even for samples retained in a dry environment for years.

  1. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure on human arterial pressure during the solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.; Levi, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    We performed a study of the systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure (AtmP) and the horizontal geomagnetic field component (H). We worked with a sample of 304 healthy normotense volunteers, 152 men and 152 women, with ages between 18 and 84 years in Mexico City during the period 2008-2014, corresponding to the minimum, ascending and maximum phases of the solar cycle 24. The data was divided by gender, age and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: Correlations, bivariate and superposed epochs (within a window of three days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the SBP and DBP and the natural variables (AtmP and H). The correlation analysis indicated correlation between the SBP and DBP and AtmP and H, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analysis showed that the largest correlations are between the SBP and DBP and the AtmP. The superposed epoch analysis found that the largest number of significant SBP and DBP changes occurred for women. Finally, the blood pressure changes are larger during the solar minimum and ascending solar cycle phases than during the solar maximum; the storms of the minimum were more intense than those of the maximum and this could be the reason of behavior of the blood pressure changes along the solar cycle.

  2. Atmospheric pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy apparatus: Bridging the pressure gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Vélez, J. J., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Schlögl, R. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Pfeifer, V.; Algara-Siller, G.; Stotz, E.; Teschner, D.; Kube, P.; Knop-Gericke, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Hävecker, M., E-mail: velasco@fhi-berlin.mpg.de, E-mail: mh@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Skorupska, K. [Department of Heterogeneous Reactions, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470 (Germany); Wang, R.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S. [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Centeno, A.; Zurutuza, A. [Graphenea, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    One of the main goals in catalysis is the characterization of solid/gas interfaces in a reaction environment. The electronic structure and chemical composition of surfaces become heavily influenced by the surrounding environment. However, the lack of surface sensitive techniques that are able to monitor these modifications under high pressure conditions hinders the understanding of such processes. This limitation is known throughout the community as the “pressure gap.” We have developed a novel experimental setup that provides chemical information on a molecular level under atmospheric pressure and in presence of reactive gases and at elevated temperatures. This approach is based on separating the vacuum environment from the high-pressure environment by a silicon nitride grid—that contains an array of micrometer-sized holes—coated with a bilayer of graphene. Using this configuration, we have investigated the local electronic structure of catalysts by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and in presence of gases at 1 atm. The reaction products were monitored online by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The successful operation of this setup was demonstrated with three different examples: the oxidation/reduction reaction of iridium (noble metal) and copper (transition metal) nanoparticles and with the hydrogenation of propyne on Pd black catalyst (powder).

  3. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2015-07-22

    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  4. In situ impedance measurement of microwave atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. T.; Nam, W. J.; Lee, J. K.; Yun, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    The impedance of atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets driven by microwave frequency is determined in situ by a novel ‘two frequency method’. In the conventional method of reflection coefficient ({{S}}11) measurement, the frequency of the driving microwave power is scanned, which inevitably affects the plasma characters and leads to uncertainty in the estimated plasma impedance. In our proposed method, the frequency-scanning signal additional to the driving power is used to measure {{S}}11 over a wide frequency range, which enables accurate determination of the plasma impedance based on an equivalent circuit model. The measured resistance and reactance of the plasma increase with the driving power in agreement with the transmission line theory. Based on this in situ measurement of the plasma impedance, the net power coupled to the plasma has been determined. The overall power efficiency remains approximately unchanged around 45% for different input power levels owing to the competing effects between the impedance mismatch and the volume change of the plasma.

  5. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; ZHU Fengsen; TU Xin; BO Zheng; CEN Kefa; LI Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    In this work,a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions.The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals,high speed photography,and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics.Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g.,10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone,in this RGA system,a lower gas flow rate (e.g.,2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions.Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas.The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes,the arc restrike mode,takeover mode,and combined modes,can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas.The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate.

  6. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Atmospheric pressure thermal dissociation of phospho- and sulfopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlin, Lívia S; Xia, Yu; Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham

    2008-12-01

    Several phospho- and sulfopeptides were subjected to atmospheric pressure thermal dissociation (APTD), which was effected by passing peptide ions generated by electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI) through a heated coiled metal tube. Sequence informative fragment ions including a-, b-, c-, and y-types of ions were observed with increased relative intensities under APTD compared with collision-induced dissociation (CID), performed inside the ion trap. A certain degree of preservation of phosphate and sulfate ester moieties was observed for some fragments ions under APTD. The neutral fragments generated outside the mass spectrometer were further analyzed via on-line corona discharge to provide rich and complementary sequence information to that provided by the fragment ions directly obtained from APTD, although complete losses of the modification groups were noted. Improved primary sequence information for phospho- and sulfopeptides was typically obtained by analyzing both ionic and neutral fragments from APTD compared with fragment ions from CID alone. Localization of the modification sites of phospho- and sulfopeptides was achieved by combining the structural information acquired from APTD and CID.

  8. Atmospheric pressure arc discharge with ablating graphite anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemchinsky, V. A. [Keiser University, Fort Lauderdale Campus, FL, 33309, USA; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-05-18

    The anodic carbon arc discharge is used to produce carbon nanoparticles. Recent experiments with the carbon arc at atmospheric pressure helium demonstrated the enhanced ablation rate for narrow graphite anodes resulting in high deposition rates of carbonaceous products on the copper cathode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322–6). The proposed model explains these results with interconnected steady-state models of the cathode and the anode processes. When considering cathode functioning, the model predicts circulation of the particles in the near-cathode region: evaporation of the cathode material, ionization of evaporated atoms and molecules in the near-cathode plasma, return of the resulting ions to the cathode, surface recombination of ions and electrons followed again by cathode evaporation etc. In the case of the low anode ablation rate, the ion acceleration in the cathode sheath provides the major cathode heating mechanism. In the case of an intensive anode ablation, an additional cathode heating is due to latent fusion heat of the atomic species evaporated from the anode and depositing at the cathode. Using the experimental arc voltage as the only input discharge parameter, the model allows us to calculate the anode ablation rate. A comparison of the results of calculations with the available experimental data shows reasonable agreement.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Small surface wave discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss'ovski, Zh; Kolev, M.; Ivanov, A.; Lishev, St.; Koleva, I.

    2009-09-01

    A small surface wave driven source produces plasma at atmospheric pressure. Microwave power at frequency 2.45 GHz is coupled with the source and a discharge is ignited at power levels below 10 W. The coaxial exciter of the surface waves has a length of 10 mm because its dielectric is a high permittivity discharge tube. The plasma source operates as a plasma jet in the case of plasma columns longer than the tube length. The source maintains stable plasma columns over a wide range of neutral gas flow and applied power in continuous and pulse regimes. An additional advantage of this source is the discharge self-ignition. An electron temperature of Te ~ 1.9 eV and a density of ne ~ 3.9 × 1014 cm-3 are estimated by the probe diagnostics method. The emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm under different experimental conditions are analysed and they prove the applicability of the source for analytical spectroscopy. The dependences of column length, reflected power and plasma parameters on the gas flow and the input power are discussed.

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet for Chem/Bio Warfare Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O2, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. The plasma generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen which are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard blister agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance. Recent results demonstrate that by replacing the O2 reactive additive with CO2, ozone formation is greatly reduced. This has the result of extending the lifetime of atomic oxygen by an order of magnitude or more. A recirculating APP Decon Chamber which combines heat, vacuum, forced convection and reactivity is currently being developed for enhanced decontamination of sensitive equipment. Several techniques are also being evaluated for use in an APP Decon Jet for decontamination of items which cannot be placed inside a chamber.

  11. Power modulation in an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S.; Turner, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Power modulation in an atmospheric pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma jet is investigated by numerical modelling. The dynamics of successively pulsing the applied power on and off for a helium-oxygen (˜0.6%) plasma is investigated. The impact of power pulsing on reactive species generation and gas heating is discussed with control opportunities emphasized. Power modulation shows linear control for reactive species and heat flux delivery to a treatment surface above an initial phase of power growth. Power is found to be coupled primarily to the electrons with electron loss rates determining the interference between successive power modulation phases. Plasma decay in the power off phase is characterized by a large initial electron loss in the first 0.5 µs followed by ambipolar decay dominated by ions of opposite charge. Power modulation effects on gas heating show a larger range of temperature control when compared with convection cooling. Reactive oxygen species reaching a treatment surface are shown to typically vary over an order of magnitude for variation in the duty cycle.

  12. Microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pekka; Marttila, Seppo J; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2004-11-15

    A novel microchip heated nebulizer for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Anisotropic wet etching is used to fabricate the flow channels, inlet, and nozzle on a silicon wafer. An integrated heater of aluminum is sputtered on a glass wafer. The two wafers are jointed by anodic bonding, creating a two-dimensional version of an APCI source with a sample channel in the middle and gas channels symmetrically on both sides. The ionization is initiated with an external corona-discharge needle positioned 2 mm in front of the microchip heated nebulizer. The microchip APCI source provides flow rates down to 50 nL/min, stable long-term analysis with chip lifetime of weeks, good quantitative repeatability (RSD 0.995) with linear dynamic rage of at least 4 orders of magnitude, and cost-efficient manufacturing. The limit of detection (LOD) for acridine measured with microchip APCI at flow rate of 6.2 muL/min was 5 nM, corresponding to a mass flow of 0.52 fmol/s. The LOD with commercial macro-APCI at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for acridine was the same, 5 nM, corresponding to a significantly worse mass flow sensitivity (83 fmol/s) than measured with microchip APCI. The advantages of microchip APCI makes it a very attractive new microfluidic detector.

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination of composite submicron fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Tučeková, Zlata; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The plasma assisted calcination of composite organic/inorganic submicron fibers for the preparation of inorganic fibers in submicron scale was studied. Aluminium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers prepared by electrospinning were treated using low-temperature plasma generated by special type of dielectric barrier discharge, so called diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air, synthetic air, oxygen and nitrogen. Effect of plasma treatment on base polymer removal was investigated by using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Influence of working gas on the base polymer reduction was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and CHNS elemental analysis. Changes in fibers morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High efficiency of organic template removal without any degradation of fibers was observed after plasma treatment in ambient air. Due to the low-temperature approach and short exposure time, the plasma assisted calcination is a promising alternative to the conventional thermal calcination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  14. On the mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Zhao, Peng; Shu, Xingsheng; Shen, Jie; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-08-01

    For the purpose of unveiling the parameters influencing the length of atmospheric pressure plasma plume, an over 165 cm long argon plasma plume is generated in the quartz tube attached to the nozzle of the device. Dependence of plasma length on discharge parameters such as applied voltage, frequency of power supply, and argon gas flow rate was investigated. Experimental results indicated that (a) the applied voltage plays crucial roles on plasma plume length, that is, the plasma plume length exponentially increases with the applied voltage, (b) the plasma plume length increases with frequency, more obviously when the applied voltage is higher, (c) the plasma plume length increases with argon gas flow rate, reaches its maximum at critical value of the gas flow rate, and then decreases again. An evaluation of the physical phenomena involved in streamer propagation, particularly of the energy balance, was investigated. The numerical results were qualitatively consistent with previous experimental results by successfully indicating the high velocity of "plasma bullet" and providing physical mechanism of energy balance determining streamer length.

  15. Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)

  16. Basic characteristics of an atmospheric pressure rf generated plasma jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shou-Guo; Li Hai-Jiang; Ye Tian-Chun; Zhao Ling-Li

    2004-01-01

    A plasma jet has been developed which operates using radio frequency (rf) power and produces a stable homogeneous discharge at atmospheric pressure. Its discharge characteristics, especially the dependence of stable discharge operating range on the feed gas, were studied, and the electric parameters such as RMS current, RMS voltage and reflected power were obtained with different gas flows. These studies indicate that there is an optimum range of operation of the plasma jet for a filling with a gas mixture of He and O2. Two "failure" modes of the discharge are identified.One is a filamentary arc when the input power is raised above a critical level, another is that the discharge disappears gradually as the addition of O2 approaches 3.2%. Possible explanations for the two failure modes have been given. The current and voltage waveform measurements show that there is a clear phase shift between normal and failure modes.In addition, Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves as a function of pure helium and for 1% addition of oxygen have been studied.

  17. Dynamics of apokamp-type atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnin, Eduard A.; Panarin, Victor A.; Skakun, Victor S.; Baksht, Evgeny Kh.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes a new discharge source of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) in air with no gas supply through the discharge region. In this discharge mode, plasma jets develop from the bending point of a bright current channel between two electrodes and are therefore termed an apokamp (from Greek `off' and `bend'). The apokamp can represent single plasma jets of length up 6 cm or several jets, and the temperature of such jets can range from more than 1000 °C at their base to 100-250 °C at their tip. Apokamps are formed at maximum applied voltage of positive polarity, provided that the second electrode is capacitively decoupled with ground. According to high-speed photography with time resolution from several nanoseconds to several tens of nanoseconds, the apokamp consists of a set of plasma bullets moving with a velocity of 100-220 km/s, which excludes the convective mechanism of plasma decay. Estimates on a 100-ns scale show that the near-electrode zones and the zones from which apokamps develop are close in temperature.

  18. Methane coupling in microwave plasma under atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng Shen; Dekun Sun; Hongsheng Yang

    2011-01-01

    Methane coupling in microwave plasma under atmospheric pressure has been investigated.The effects of molar ratio n(CH4)/n(H2),flow rate and microwave power on the reaction have been studied.(1) With the decrease of n(CH4)/n(H2) ratio,methane conversion,C2 hydrocarbon yield,energy yield and space-time yield of acetylene increased,but the yield of carbon deposit decreased.(2) With the increase of microwave power,energy yield of acetylene decreased,but space-time yield of acetylene increased.(3) With the increase of flow rate,energy yield and space-time yield of acetylene increased first and then decreased.Finally,under the reaction conditions of CH4 flow rate of 700 mL/min,n(CH4)/n(H2) ratio of 1/4 and microwave power of 400 W,the energy yield and space-time yield of acetylene could reach 0.337 mmol/kJ and 12.3 mol/(s·m3),respectively.The reaction mechanism of methane coupling in microwave plasma has been investigated based on the thermodynamics of chemical reaction.Interestingly,the acetylene yield of methane coupling in microwave plasma was much higher than the maximum thermodynamic yield of acetylene.This phenomenon was tentatively explained from non-expansion work in the microwave plasma system.

  19. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Non-equilibrium Plasmas on Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂亚庭; 许莉; 俞莺; 谭明; 李娟; 陈宏翔

    2010-01-01

    In this study,the sterilizing effect of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas(APNPs) on Neisseria gonorrhoeae(N.gonorrhoeae) was preliminarily examined and the possible mechanisms were explored.N.gonorrhoeae FA1090,FA19 and MS11 were treated by APNPs and their survival rate was analyzed by using CFUs counting and structurally studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy.The morphological changes of bacterial cell membrane and wall were studied under TEM.Our results showed that APNPs had strong steril...

  20. The impact of relative humidity and atmospheric pressure on mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chun Quan; Yang, Jun; Ou, Qiao Qun; Liu, Hua Zhang; Lin, Guo Zhen; Chen, Ping Yan; Qian, Jun; Guo, Yu Ming

    2014-12-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of ambient temperatures on mortality, little evidence is on health impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. This study aimed to assess the impacts of atmospheric pressure and relative humidity on mortality in Guangzhou, China. This study included 213,737 registered deaths during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. A quasi-Poisson regression with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to assess the effects of atmospheric pressure/relative humidity. We found significant effect of low atmospheric pressure/relative humidity on mortality. There was a 1.79% (95% confidence interval: 0.38%-3.22%) increase in non-accidental mortality and a 2.27% (0.07%-4.51%) increase in cardiovascular mortality comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of atmospheric pressure. A 3.97% (0.67%-7.39%) increase in cardiovascular mortality was also observed comparing the 5th and 25th percentile of relative humidity. Women were more vulnerable to decrease in atmospheric pressure and relative humidity than men. Age and education attainment were also potential effect modifiers. Furthermore, low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity increased temperature-related mortality. Both low atmospheric pressure and relative humidity are important risk factors of mortality. Our findings would be helpful to develop health risk assessment and climate policy interventions that would better protect vulnerable subgroups of the population. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its application for polymer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarani, Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet is a suitable source for polymer treatment. The main characteristic of this plasma jet is the remote operation and its scalable dimension, thus, allowing local treatment of 3D surfaces. In this work an atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet has been constructed and the application of the plasma jet for polymer treatment is investigated.

  2. Novel applications of atmospheric pressure plasma on textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Carrie Elizabeth

    Various applications of atmospheric pressure plasma are investigated in conjunction with polymeric materials including paper, polypropylene non-woven fabric, and cotton. The effect of plasma on bulk and surface properties is examined by treating both cellulosic pulp and prefabricated paper with various plasma-gas compositions. After treatment, pulp is processed into paper and the properties are compared. The method of pulp preparation is found to be more significant than the plasma, but differences in density, strength, and surface roughness are apparent for the pulp vs. paper plasma treatments. The plasma is also used to remove sizes of PVA and starch from poly/cotton and cotton fabric respectively. In both cases plasma successfully removes a significant amount of size, but complete size removal is not achieved. Subsequent washes (PVA) or scouring (cotton) to remove the size are less successful than a control, suggesting the plasma is crosslinking the size that is not etched away. However, at short durations in cold water using an oxygen plasma, slightly more PVA is removed than with a control. For the starch sized samples, plasma and scouring are never as successful at removing starch as a conventional enzyme, but plasma improves dyeability without need for scouring. Plasma is also used to graft chemicals to the surface of polypropylene and cotton fabric. HTCC, an antimicrobial is grafted to polypropylene with successful grafting indicated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), dye tests, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity of the grafted samples is also characterized. 3ATAC, a vinyl monomer is also grafted to polypropylene and to cotton. Additives including Mohr's salt, potassium persulfate, and diacrylate are assessed to increase yield. Successful grafting of 3ATAC is confirmed by XPS and dye testing. A combination of all three additives is identified as optimum for maximizing graft yield.

  3. Helium atmospheric pressure plasma jets touching dielectric and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, Seth A., E-mail: norbergs@umich.edu; Johnsen, Eric, E-mail: ejohnsen@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2125 (United States); Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are being investigated in the context plasma medicine and biotechnology applications, and surface functionalization. The composition of the surface being treated ranges from plastics, liquids, and biological tissue, to metals. The dielectric constant of these materials ranges from as low as 1.5 for plastics to near 80 for liquids, and essentially infinite for metals. The electrical properties of the surface are not independent variables as the permittivity of the material being treated has an effect on the dynamics of the incident APPJ. In this paper, results are discussed from a computational investigation of the interaction of an APPJ incident onto materials of varying permittivity, and their impact on the discharge dynamics of the plasma jet. The computer model used in this investigation solves Poisson's equation, transport equations for charged and neutral species, the electron energy equation, and the Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The APPJ is sustained in He/O{sub 2} = 99.8/0.2 flowing into humid air, and is directed onto dielectric surfaces in contact with ground with dielectric constants ranging from 2 to 80, and a grounded metal surface. Low values of relative permittivity encourage propagation of the electric field into the treated material and formation and propagation of a surface ionization wave. High values of relative permittivity promote the restrike of the ionization wave and the formation of a conduction channel between the plasma discharge and the treated surface. The distribution of space charge surrounding the APPJ is discussed.

  4. Microwave capillary plasmas in helium at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M.; Noël, C.; Belmonte, T.; Alves, L. L.

    2014-07-01

    This work uses both simulations and experiments to study helium plasmas (99.999% purity), sustained by surface-wave discharges (2.45 GHz frequency) in capillary tubes (3 mm in-radius) at atmospheric pressure. The simulations use a self-consistent homogeneous and stationary collisional-radiative model (CRM) that solves the rate balance equations for the different species present in the plasma (electrons, He+ and He_2^+ ions, He(n ⩽ 6) excited states and He_2^* excimers) and the gas thermal balance equation, coupled with the two-term electron Boltzmann equation (including direct and stepwise inelastic and superelastic collisions as well as electron-electron collisions). The experiments use optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics to measure the electron density ne (from the Hβ Stark broadening), the gas temperature Tg (from the ro-vibrational transitions of OH, present at trace concentrations) and the populations of excited states in the energy region 22.7-24.2 eV, whose spectrum allows determining the excitation temperature Texc. Measurements yield ne ≃ (2.45 ± 1.4) × 1013 cm-3, Tg ≃ 1700 ± 100 K and Texc ≃ 2793 ± 116 K, for a ˜180 ± 10 W power coupled and ˜1 cm length plasma column. The model predictions at ne = 1.7 × 1013 cm-3 are in very good agreement with measurements yielding Tg = 1800 K, Texc = 2792 K (for ˜30% average relative error between calculated and measured excited-state densities), and a power absorbed by the plasma per unit length of 165 W cm-1. The model results depend strongly on ne, and hence on the plasma conductivity and on the power coupled to the plasma. The coupling of a thermal module to the CRM has been shown to be crucial. Increasing the electron density leads to very high gas temperature values, which limits the variation range of (ne, Tg) as input parameters to the model.

  5. Collaborative Research. Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung-Jin [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Eden, James Gary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources offers the promise of greatly expanding the range of applications for each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by the addition of photons and the associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. This project combined the construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling. Through a continuous discussion and co-design process with the UC-Berkeley Team, we have successfully completed the fabrication and testing of all components for a microplasma array-assisted system designed for photon-activated plasma chemistry research. Microcavity plasma lamps capable of generating more than 20 mW/cm2 at 172 nm (Xe dimer) were fabricated with a custom form factor to mate to the plasma chemistry setup, and a lamp was current being installed by the Berkeley team so as to investigate plasma chemistry-photon synergies at a higher photon energy (~7.2 eV) as compared to the UVA treatment that is afforded by UV LEDs operating at 365 nm. In particular, motivated by the promising results from the Berkeley team with UVA treatment, we also produced the first generation of lamps that can generate photons in the 300-370 nm wavelength range. Another set of experiments, conducted under the auspices of this grant, involved the use of plasma microjet arrays. The combination of the photons and excited radicals produced by the plasma column resulted in broad area deactivation of bacteria.

  6. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Reuter, S.; Graves, D. B.; Ostrikov, K.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors' vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  7. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-05-04

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  8. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet characterization and applications on melanoma cancer treatment (B/16-F10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashayekh, Shahriar [Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, 19839-63113 Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajaee, Hajar; Hassan, Zuhir M. [Imonology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhlaghi, Morteza [Laser-Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, 19839-63113 Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, Babak [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, 19839-63113 Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A new approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper, a pin-to-hole plasma jet for biological applications has been designed and manufactured and characterized. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet by using Infra-red camera as a novel method and using Speicair software to determine vibrational and transitional temperatures, and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the generated species. Treatment of Melanoma cancer cells (B16/F10) was also implemented, and tetrazolium salt dye (MTT assay) and flow cytometry were used to evaluate viability. Effect of ultraviolet photons on cancerous cells was also observed using an MgF{sub 2} crystal with MTT assay. Finally, in-vivo studies on C57 type mice were also done in order to have a better understanding of the effects in real conditions.

  9. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet characterization and applications on melanoma cancer treatment (B/16-F10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh, Shahriar; Rajaee, Hajar; Akhlaghi, Morteza; Shokri, Babak; Hassan, Zuhir M.

    2015-09-01

    A new approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper, a pin-to-hole plasma jet for biological applications has been designed and manufactured and characterized. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet by using Infra-red camera as a novel method and using Speicair software to determine vibrational and transitional temperatures, and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the generated species. Treatment of Melanoma cancer cells (B16/F10) was also implemented, and tetrazolium salt dye (MTT assay) and flow cytometry were used to evaluate viability. Effect of ultraviolet photons on cancerous cells was also observed using an MgF2 crystal with MTT assay. Finally, in-vivo studies on C57 type mice were also done in order to have a better understanding of the effects in real conditions.

  10. The Role of Free Radicals in Hemolytic Toxicity Induced by Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Youn Baik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP has received attention due to its generation of various kinds of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. The controllability, as well as the complexity, is one of the strong points of APP in various applications. For biological applications of this novel method, the cytotoxicity should be estimated at various levels. Herein, we suggest red blood cell (RBC as a good cell model that is simpler than nucleated cells but much more complex than other lipid model systems. Air and N2 gases were compared to verify the main ROS/RNS in cytotoxicity, and microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were performed to estimate the damages induced on RBCs. The results shown here will provide basic information on APP-induced cytotoxicity at cellular and molecular levels.

  11. Shock Formation by Plasma Filaments of Microwave Discharge under Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2016-03-01

    A one-dimensional compressible fluid calculation was coupled with a finite- difference time-domain code and a particle-in-cell code with collision to reproduce propagation of electromagnetic wave, ionization process of plasma, and shock wave formation in atmospheric microwave discharge. Plasma filaments are driven toward the microwave source at 1 atm, and the distance between each filament is one-fifth of the wavelength of the incident microwave. The strong shock wave is generated due to the high plasma density at the atmospheric pressure. A simple analysis of the microwave propagation into the plasma shows that cut-off density of the microwave becomes smaller with the pressure decrease in a collisional plasma. At the lower pressure, the smaller density plasma is obtained with a diffusive pattern because of the smaller cut-off density and the larger diffusion effect. In contrast with the 1-atm case, the weak shock wave is generated at a rarefied condition, which lowers performance of microwave thruster.

  12. Physico Chemical Characteristics of High Performance Polymer Modified by Low and Atmospheric Pressure Plasma1

    OpenAIRE

    N Bhatnagar; Jha, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Gupta, G.; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surf...

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics of high performance polymer modified by low and atmospheric pressure plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu, Bhatnagar; Sangeeta, Jha; Shantanu, Bhowmik; Govind, Gupta; Moon, J.; Kim, C

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surf...

  14. Influence of high-pressure-low-temperature treatment on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Shen; G. Urrutia Benet; S. Brul; D. Knorr

    2005-01-01

    High pressure inactivation processes, especially at subzero temperatures, were performed on Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells at various pressure, temperature and time combinations. Whilst atmospheric pressure, lowering the temperature for various periods to as low as 45 -C was found to have minor

  15. Cells under pressure - treatment of eukaryotic cells with high hydrostatic pressure, from physiologic aspects to pressure induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Benjamin; Janko, Christina; Ebel, Nina; Meister, Silke; Schlücker, Eberhard; Meyer-Pittroff, Roland; Fietkau, Rainer; Herrmann, Martin; Gaipl, Udo S

    2008-01-01

    The research on high hydrostatic pressure in medicine and life sciences is multifaceted. According to the used pressure head the research has to be divided into two different parts. To study physiological aspects of pressure on eukaryotic cells physiological pressure (pHHP; highly reversible alterations and normally does not affect cellular viability. The treatment of eukaryotic cells with non-physiological pressure (HHP; > or = 100 MPa) reveals different outcomes. Treatment with HHP or = 200 MPa. Moreover, HHP treatment with > 300 MPa leads to necrosis. Therefore, HHP plays a role for the sterilisation of human transplants, of food stuff, and pharmaceuticals. Human tumour cells subjected to HHP > 300 MPa display a necrotic phenotype along with a gelificated cytoplasm, preserve their shape, and retain their immunogenicity. These observations favour the use of HHP to produce whole cell based tumour vaccines. Further experiments revealed that the increment of pressure as well as the pressure holding time influences the cell death of tumour cells. We conclude that high hydrostatic pressure offers both, an economic, easy to apply, clean, and fast technique for the generation of vaccines, and a promising tool to study physiological aspects.

  16. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  18. Application of atmospheric pressure plasma on polyethylene for increased prosthesis adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vrekhem, S., E-mail: stijn.vanvrekhem@ugent.be [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, P. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Declercq, H. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Tongel, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185 13K12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vercruysse, C.; Cornelissen, M. [Tissue Engineering Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 6B3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-12-01

    Biopolymers are often subjected to surface modification in order to improve their surface characteristics. The goal of this study is to show the use of plasma technology to enhance the adhesion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) shoulder prostheses. Two different plasma techniques (low pressure plasma activation and atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization) are performed on UHMWPE to increase the adhesion between (1) the polymer and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and (2) the polymer and osteoblast cells. Both techniques are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). A previous paper showed that low pressure plasma activation of UHMWPE results in the incorporation of oxygen-containing functional groups, which leads to an increased surface wettability. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of methylmethacrylate (MMA) on UHMWPE results in a PMMA-like coating, which could be deposited with a high degree of control of chemical composition and layer thickness. The thin film also proved to be relatively stable upon incubation in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). This paper discusses the next stage of the study, which includes testing the adhesion of the plasma-activated and plasma-polymerized samples to bone cement through pull-out tests and testing the cell adhesion and proliferation on the samples. In order to perform the pull-out tests, all samples were cut to standard dimensions and fixed in bone cement in a reproducible way with a sample holder specially designed for this purpose. The cell adhesion and proliferation were tested by means of an MTS assay and live/dead staining after culturing MC3T3 osteoblast cells on UHMWPE samples. The results show that both plasma activation and plasma polymerization significantly improve the adhesion to bone cement and enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. In conclusion, it can be stated that the use of plasma technology can lead to an implant with improved quality and a subsequent

  19. Effect of cold atmospheric pressure He-plasma jet on DNA change and mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaopromsiri, C. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Bang Khen, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Thopan, P.; Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (CAPPJ) effect on DNA change was studied for assessment of its safety. The experiment utilized a home-developed CAPPJ using 100% helium to directly treat naked DNA plasmid pGFP (plasmid green fluorescent protein). A traversal electric field was applied to separate the plasma components and both dry and wet sample conditions were adopted to investigate various factor roles in changing DNA. Plasma species were measured by using optical emission spectroscopy. DNA topological form change was analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The plasma jet treated DNA was transferred into bacterial Escherichia coli cells for observing mutation. The results show that the He-CAPPJ could break DNA strands due to actions from charge, radicals and neutrals and potentially cause genetic modification of living cells.

  20. Effect of cold atmospheric pressure He-plasma jet on DNA change and mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaopromsiri, C.; Yu, L. D.; Sarapirom, S.; Thopan, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jet (CAPPJ) effect on DNA change was studied for assessment of its safety. The experiment utilized a home-developed CAPPJ using 100% helium to directly treat naked DNA plasmid pGFP (plasmid green fluorescent protein). A traversal electric field was applied to separate the plasma components and both dry and wet sample conditions were adopted to investigate various factor roles in changing DNA. Plasma species were measured by using optical emission spectroscopy. DNA topological form change was analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The plasma jet treated DNA was transferred into bacterial Escherichia coli cells for observing mutation. The results show that the He-CAPPJ could break DNA strands due to actions from charge, radicals and neutrals and potentially cause genetic modification of living cells.

  1. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure microplasma jet: An approach to endoscopic therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiao; Wei, Yu; Wei Chen, Long; Dong Meng, Yue; Plasma Medicine Team

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure microplasma jet generated in a long hollow core optical fiber is studied to verify the potential feasibility of endoscopic therapies. Thermal damage and electric shock to the human body were suppressed by two technical methods, i.e., the high-voltage resistant flexible tube wrapped on the optical fiber and a power resistor of 100 kΩ connected between the power supply and the copper foil electrode. Optical emission spectra analysis indicated that many kinds of active radicals like excited atomic O and OH, were generated in the microplasma jet. In addition, the applications of the microplasma jet on sterilization and lung cancer cell apoptosis were presented. After 5 min of exposures to the microplasma jet, the cell viability and the bacillus subtilis replication decreased to about 3% and zero, respectively. More investigations are needed to improve the plasma-aided endoscopic therapies.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of ammonia using a cell with a Nafion membrane and SmFe0.7Cu0.3-xNix03 (x =0-0.3) cathode at atmospheric pressure and lower temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU GaoChao; LIU RuiQuan; WANG Jin

    2009-01-01

    Samaria-doped ceria Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-d(SDC) and SmFe0.7Cu0.3-xNixO3 have been synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical synthesis of ammonia was investigated at atmospheric pressure and low temperature,using the SFCN materials as the cathode,a Nafion mem-brane as the electrolyte,nickel-doped SDC (Ni-SDC) as the anode and silver-platinum paste as the current collector. Ammonia was synthesized from 25 to 100? when the SFCN materials were used as cathode,with SmFe0.7Cu0.1Ni0.2O3 giving the highest rates of ammonia formation. The maximum rate of 90.4%.

  3. Simulation of rarefied gas flows in atmospheric pressure interfaces for mass spectrometry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Sandilya; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of the gas dynamics of the atmospheric pressure interface is very important for the development of mass spectrometry systems with high sensitivity. While the gas flows at high pressure (>1 Torr) and low pressure (pressure stage (1 to 10(-3) Torr) remains challenging. In this study, we used the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DMSC) method to develop the gas dynamic simulations for the continuous and discontinuous atmospheric pressure interfaces (API), with different focuses on the ion transfer by gas flows through a skimmer or directly from the atmospheric pressure to a vacuum stage, respectively. The impacts by the skimmer location in the continuous API and the temporal evolvement of the gas flow with a discontinuous API were characterized, which provide a solid base for the instrument design and performance improvement.

  4. The effect of atmospheric temperature and pressure on the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in Kaunas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišauskas, Ričardas; Vaičiulis, Vidmantas; Ustinavičienė, Rūta; Bernotienė, Gailutė

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of meteorological variables (atmospheric temperature and pressure) on the daily occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study used the daily values of atmospheric temperature and pressure in 2000-2007. The meteorological data were obtained from the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service for Kaunas. The relative risks of event occurrence were computed for 5°C atmospheric temperature and for 10-hPa atmospheric pressure variations by means of the Poisson regression model. RESULTS. The occurrence of AMI and atmospheric temperature showed an inverse linear relationship, while the occurrence of AMI and atmospheric pressure, a positive linear relationship. Among the youngest subjects (25-44 years old), no relationships were detected. Contrary, among the subjects aged 45-64 years and those aged 65 years and older, the occurrence of AMI significantly decreased with higher temperature (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). A decrease in atmospheric temperature by 10ºC reduced the risk of AMI by 8.7% in the age groups of 45-64 and 65 years and older and by 19% in the age group of 25 years and older. Among the first AMI cases, the risk increased by 7.5% in the age group of 45-64-year olds and by 6.4% in the age group of 25-64-year olds. The relationship between atmospheric temperature and pressure, and AMI occurrence was found to be linear but inverse. An increase in atmospheric pressure by 10 hPa resulted in an increase in risk by 4% among the subjects aged 65 years and more and by 3% among the subjects aged 25 years and more. CONCLUSIONS. Atmospheric temperature and pressure variations had the greatest effect on middle-aged and aging subjects (starting from 45 years). At younger age, the effect of such factors on the AMI risk was considerably lower.

  5. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  6. Ionization by bulk heating of electrons in capacitive radio frequency atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hemke, T; Mussenbrock, T; Derzsi, A; Donkó, Z; Dittmann, K; Meichsner, J; Schulze, J

    2012-01-01

    Electron heating and ionization dynamics in capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure microplasmas operated in helium are investigated by Particle in Cell simulations and semi-analytical modeling. A strong heating of electrons and ionization in the plasma bulk due to high bulk electric fields are observed at distinct times within the RF period. Based on the model the electric field is identified to be a drift field caused by a low electrical conductivity due to the high electron-neutral collision frequency at atmospheric pressure. Thus, the ionization is mainly caused by ohmic heating in this "Omega-mode". The phase of strongest bulk electric field and ionization is affected by the driving voltage amplitude. At high amplitudes, the plasma density is high, so that the sheath impedance is comparable to the bulk resistance. Thus, voltage and current are about 45{\\deg} out of phase and maximum ionization is observed during sheath expansion with local maxima at the sheath edges. At low driving...

  7. Controlling the nitric and nitrous oxide production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douat, Claire; Hubner, Simon; Engeln, Richard; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are non-thermal plasmas and have the ability to create reactive species. These features make it a very attractive tool for biomedical applications. In this work, we studied NO and N2O production, which are two species having biomedical properties. NO plays a role in the vascularization and in ulcer treatment, while N2O is used as anesthetic and analgesic gas. In this study, the plasma source is similar to the COST Reference Microplasma Jet (µ-APPJ). Helium is used as feed gas with small admixtures of molecular nitrogen and oxygen of below 1%. The absolute densities of NO and N2O were measured in the effluent of an atmospheric pressure RF plasma jet by means of ex-situ quantum-cascade laser absorption spectroscopy via a multi-pass cell in Herriot configuration. We will show that the species' production is dependent on several parameters such as power, flow and oxygen and nitrogen admixture. The NO and N2O densities are strongly dependent on the N2-O2 ratio. Changing this ratio allows for choosing between a NO-rich or a N2O-rich regime.

  8. Ionization instability induced striations in atmospheric pressure He/H2O RF and DC discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2017-04-01

    One-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a 1 mm gap atmospheric pressure He/2%{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} rf capacitive discharge showed standing striations in the bulk (Kawamura et al 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054009). We found that these striations were consistent with an ionization instability induced by non-local electron kinetics. We developed a theoretical instability criterion in good agreement with the numerical results which showed that discharges with larger bulk recombination rates tend to be more unstable. We also determined a critical wavelength such that shorter wavelengths are suppressed by diffusion while longer wavelengths may be restricted by the gap width. In this paper, we extend the gap size of the atmospheric pressure He/2%{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} discharges in the PIC simulations to 2 and 4 mm and drive them by either dc or rf current sources. We compare the results to the 1 mm gap rf simulations and theoretical model in Kawamura et al (2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 054009). We find that wider gap discharges tend to be more unstable as they can accommodate a wider range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the mixture of the various excited modes in the wider gaps can lead to distinctly non-sinusoidal spatial oscillations.

  9. Mars - The role of the regolith in determining atmospheric pressure and the atmosphere's response to insolation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.; Cannon, W. A.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative model for atmosphere-regolith exchange of CO2 on Mars is presented. The model, based on new laboratory measurements of CO2 adsorption on ground rock at 158, 175, 196, and 231 K for CO2 pressures from 1.0 to 80 mbar, is consistent with Viking observations, while models involving a massive residual CO2 cap and no long-term atmosphere-regolith CO2 exchange are not consistent. The model indicates: (1) the atmosphere-plus-cap system is buffered on a long-term basis by exchangeable CO2 adsorbed in the regolith; (2) if the atmosphere-plus-cap system suddenly disappeared, the system would eventually be almost completely restored by reequilibration with the regolith; (3) exchange with the adsorbed phase in the regolith has greatly restricted O-18 enrichment of the atmosphere; (4) the layered terrain primarily represents current periodic pressure increases; and (5) pressures of 100-300 nbar might have existed during the early history of the planet.

  10. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  11. Applications of tunable high energy/pressure pulsed lasers to atmospheric transmission and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.; Seals, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy C12 O2(16) lasers were improved by pulsed high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening of laser lines, permits tuning the laser 'off' atmospheric C12 O2(16) absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers, and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. The atmospheric transmission of tuned C12 O2(16) lasers compares favorably with C12 O2(18) isotope lasers and CO lasers. The advantages of tunable, high energy, high pressure pulsed lasers over tunable diode lasers and waveguide lasers, in combining high energies with a large tuning range, are evaluated for certain applications to remote sensing of atmospheric constituents and pollutants. Pulsed operation considerably increases the signal to noise ratio without seriously affecting the high spectral resolution of signal detection obtained with laser heterodyning.

  12. Sterilization effect of atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma on dental instruments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sung, Su-Jin; Huh, Jung-Bo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Chang, Brian Myung W; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2013-01-01

    .... To develop a dental sterilizer which can sterilize most materials, such as metals, rubbers, and plastics, the sterilization effect of an atmospheric pressure non-thermal air plasma device was evaluated...

  13. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Interaction with Soft Materials as Fundamental Processes in Plasma Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Kosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uchida, Giichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Molecular-structure variation of organic materials irradiated with atmospheric pressure He plasma jet have been investigated. Optical emission spectrum in the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been measured. The spectrum shows considerable emissions of He lines, and the emission of O and N radicals attributed to air. Variation in molecular structure of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet has been observed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). These results via XPS and FT-IR indicate that the PET surface irradiated with the atmospheric-pressure He plasma jet was oxidized by chemical and/or physical effect due to irradiation of active species.

  14. Ion-ion reactions for charge reduction of biopolymer at atmospheric pressure ambient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming Zhou; Jian Hua Ding; Xie Zhang; Huan Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization source (EESI) was adapted for ion-ion reaction, which was demonstrated by using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the first ion-ion reaction of biopolymers in the atmospheric pressure ambient.

  15. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  16. Adhesion improvement of fibres by continuous plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon fibres and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres were continuously treated by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure for adhesion improvement with epoxy resins. The plasma treatment improved wettability, increased the oxygen containing polar...

  17. Keratinocytes at the uppermost layer of epidermis might act as sensors of atmospheric pressure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    It has long been suggested that climate, especially atmospheric pressure change, can cause health problems ranging from migraine to myocardial infarction. Here, I hypothesize that the sensory system of epidermal keratinocytes mediates the influence of atmospheric pressure change on the human physiological condition. We previously demonstrated that even subtle changes of atmospheric pressure (5-20 hPa) induce elevation of intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes (excitation of keratinocytes). It is also established that communication occurs between epidermal keratinocytes and peripheral nerve systems. Moreover, various neurotransmitters and hormones that influence multiple systems (nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems) are generated and released from epidermal keratinocytes in response to various external stimuli. Thus, I suggest that pathophysiological phenomena induced by atmospheric pressure changes might be triggered by epidermal keratinocytes.

  18. Low-frequency sea waves generated by atmospheric convection cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M. P. C.; Battjes, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric origin of low-frequency sea waves that cause seiches in the Port of Rotterdam is investigated using hydrological and meteorological observations. These observations, combined with weather charts, show that all significant seiche events coincide with the passage of a low-pressure area and a cold front. Following these front passages, increased wind speed fluctuations occur with periods on the order of 1 hour. The records show that enhanced low-frequency wave energy at sea and the seiche events in the harbor occur more or less simultaneously with these strong wind speed fluctuations. These oscillatory wind speed changes are due to convection cells that arise in an unstable lower atmosphere in the area behind a cold front, where cold air moves over the relatively warm sea surface. It is shown that the moving system of a cold front and trailing convection cells generates forced low-frequency waves at sea that can cause seiche events inside the harbor. The occurrence of such events may be predictable operationally on the basis of a criterion for the difference in temperature between the air in the upper atmosphere and the water at the sea surface.

  19. Gene Transfection Method Using Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2013-09-01

    Gene transfection which is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells is expected to play an important role in medical treatment because the process is necessary for gene therapy and creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the conventional transfection methods have some problems, so we focus attention on promising transfection methods by atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge (AP-DBD) plasmas. AP-DBD He plasmas are irradiated to the living cell covered with genes. Preliminarily, we use fluorescent dye YOYO-1 instead of the genes and use LIVE/DEAD Stain for cell viability test, and we analyze the transfection efficiency and cell viability under the various conditions. It is clarified that the transfection efficiency is strongly dependence on the plasma irradiation time and cell viability rates is high rates (>90%) regardless of long plasma irradiation time. These results suggest that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and electric field generated by the plasma affect the gene transfection. In addition to this (the plasma irradiation time) dependency, we now investigate the effect of the plasma irradiation under the various conditions.

  20. Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Y Alkawareek

    Full Text Available Bacteria exist, in most environments, as complex, organised communities of sessile cells embedded within a matrix of self-produced, hydrated extracellular polymeric substances known as biofilms. Bacterial biofilms represent a ubiquitous and predominant cause of both chronic infections and infections associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and prostheses. Such infections typically exhibit significantly enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial, biocidal and immunological challenge. This renders them difficult, sometimes impossible, to treat using conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Effective alternative approaches for prevention and eradication of biofilm associated chronic and device-associated infections are therefore urgently required. Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas are gaining increasing attention as a potential approach for the eradication and control of bacterial infection and contamination. To date, however, the majority of studies have been conducted with reference to planktonic bacteria and rather less attention has been directed towards bacteria in the biofilm mode of growth. In this study, the activity of a kilohertz-driven atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet, operated in a helium oxygen mixture, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro biofilms was evaluated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exhibit marked susceptibility to exposure of the plasma jet effluent, following even relatively short (≈ 10's s exposure times. Manipulation of plasma operating conditions, for example, plasma operating frequency, had a significant effect on the bacterial inactivation rate. Survival curves exhibit a rapid decline in the number of surviving cells in the first 60 seconds followed by slower rate of cell number reduction. Excellent anti-biofilm activity of the plasma jet was also demonstrated by both confocal scanning laser microscopy and metabolism of the tetrazolium salt, XTT, a measure of bactericidal

  1. Atmospheric Pressure and Velocity Fluctuations Near the Auroral Electrojet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-15

    various aspects of the atmosphere’s dynamical response to auroral activity have been carried out by Blumen and Hendl (1969), Testud (1970), Francis...Geophys. Res. 80, 2839, 1975. Testud , 3., Gravity waves generated during magnetic substorms, 3. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 32, 1793, 1970. Waco, D. E., A

  2. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2016-06-01

    Ion source pressure plays a significant role in the process of ionization and the subsequent ion transmission inside a mass spectrometer. Pressurizing the ion source to a gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a relatively new approach that aims to further improve the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization sources. For example, under a super-atmospheric pressure environment, a stable electrospray can be sustained for liquid with high surface tension such as pure water, because of the suppression of electric discharge. Even for nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI), which is known to work with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity can also be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source is pressurized. A brief review on the development of super-atmospheric pressure ion sources, including high-pressure electrospray, field desorption and superheated ESI, and the strategies to interface these ion sources to a mass spectrometer will be given. Using a recent ESI prototype with an operating temperature at 220 °C under 27 atm, we also demonstrate that it is possible to achieve an online Asp-specific protein digestion analysis in which the whole processes of digestion, ionization and MS acquisition could be completed on the order of a few seconds. This method is fast, and the reaction can even be monitored on a near-real-time basis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  4. Past epochs of significantly higher pressure atmospheres on Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Binzel, R. P.; Earle, A. M.; Singer, K. N.; Young, L. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Ennico, K.; Moore, J. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Spencer, J. R.; New Horizons Geology; Geophysics; Atmospheres Teams

    2017-05-01

    Pluto is known to have undergone thousands of cycles of obliquity change and polar precession. These variations have a large and corresponding impact on the total average solar insolation reaching various places on Pluto's surface as a function of time. Such changes could produce dramatic increases in surface pressure and may explain certain features observed by New Horizons on Pluto's surface, including some that indicate the possibility of surface paleo-liquids. This paper is the first to discuss multiple lines of geomorphological evidence consistent with higher pressure epochs in Pluto's geologic past, and it also the first to provide a mechanism for potentially producing the requisite high pressure conditions needed for an environment that could support liquids on Pluto. The presence of such liquids and such conditions, if borne out by future work, would fundamentally affect our view of Pluto's past climate, volatile transport, and geological evolution. This paper motivates future, more detailed climate modeling and geologic interpretation efforts in this area.

  5. Modified drug release using atmospheric pressure plasma deposited siloxane coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, D. P.; Maher, S.; Law, V. J.; Ardhaoui, M.; Stallard, C.; Keenan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study evaluates the potential of atmospheric plasma polymerised coatings to modify the rate of drug release from polymeric substrates. The antibiotic rifampicin was deposited in a prototype multi-layer drug delivery system, consisting of a nebulized layer of active drug between a base layer of TEOS deposited on a plastic substrate (polystyrene) and an overlying layer of plasma polymerised PDMS. The polymerised TEOS and PDMS layers were deposited using a helium atmospheric plasma jet system. Elution of rifampicin was measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, in addition to a antimicrobial well diffusion assay with an established indicator organism. The multi-layered plasma deposited coatings significantly extended the duration of release of the rifampicin from 24 h for the uncoated polymer to 144 h for the coated polymer.

  6. Ignition during hydrogen release from high pressure into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczak, P.; Wolanski, P.

    2010-12-01

    The first investigations concerned with a problem of hydrogen jet ignition, during outflow from a high-pressure vessel were carried out nearly 40 years ago by Wolanski and Wojcicki. The research resulted from a dramatic accident in the Chorzow Chemical Plant Azoty, where the explosion of a synthesis gas made up of a mixture composed of three moles of hydrogen per mole of nitrogen, at 300°C and 30 MPa killed four people. Initial investigation had excluded potential external ignition sources and the main aim of the research was to determine the cause of ignition. Hydrogen is currently considered as a potential fuel for various vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc. Crucial safety issues are of potential concern, associated with the storage of hydrogen at a very high pressure. Indeed, the evidence obtained nearly 40 years ago shows that sudden rupture of a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank or other component can result in ignition and potentially explosion. The aim of the present research is identification of the conditions under which hydrogen ignition occurs as a result of compression and heating of the air by the shock wave generated by discharge of high-pressure hydrogen. Experiments have been conducted using a facility constructed in the Combustion Laboratory of the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. Tests under various configurations have been performed to determine critical conditions for occurrence of high-pressure hydrogen ignition. The results show that a critical pressure exists, leading to ignition, which depends mainly on the geometric configuration of the outflow system, such as tube diameter, and on the presence of obstacles.

  7. Flow Reactor Studies with Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure and Higher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Image of Discharge Reactor with Viewport Inlet Cap • Modular plasma discharge reactor can be interchanged with redesigned pressure shell to perform...Flow Reactor Studies with Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges at Atmospheric Pressure and Higher Nicholas Tsolas, Kuni Togai and Richard Yetter...Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA, 16801 Fourth Annual Review Meeting of the

  8. Vertical thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere from temperature and pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkin, V.M.; Blamon, Z.; Lipatov, A.P.; Devyatkin, S.I.; Dyachkov, A.V.; Ignatova, S.I.; Kerzhanovich, V.V.; Malyk, K.; Stadny, V.I.; Sanotskiy, Y.V.

    1986-05-01

    Accurate temperature and pressure measurements were made on the Vega-2 lander during its entire descent. The temperature and pressure at the surface were 733 K and 89.3 bar, respectively. A strong temperature inversion was found in the upper troposphere. Several layers with differing static stability were visible in the atmospheric structure.

  9. Vertical thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere from temperature and pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, V. M.; Blamon, Z.; Lipatov, A. P.; Devyatkin, S. I.; Dyachkov, A. V.; Ignatova, S. I.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Malyk, K.; Stadny, V. I.; Sanotskiy, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate temperature and pressure measurements were made on the Vega-2 lander during its entire descent. The temperature and pressure at the surface were 733 K and 89.3 bar, respectively. A strong temperature inversion was found in the upper troposphere. Several layers with differing static stability were visible in the atmospheric structure.

  10. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE-IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY .1. INSTRUMENTATION AND IONIZATION TECHNIQUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, AP

    1994-01-01

    Mass spectrometer ion sources are normally located inside a high-vacuum envelope. Such low-pressure ion sources can make use of a range of different ionization methods and are in routine use in analytical mass spectrometers. An ion source operating at atmospheric pressure is better suited, and may b

  11. Self-sustained carbon monoxide oxidation oscillations on size-selected platinum nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert; Andersen, Thomas; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2013-01-01

    High-quality mass spectrometry data of the oscillatory behavior of CO oxidation on SiO2 supported Pt-nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been acquired as a function of pressure, coverage, gas composition and nanoparticle size. The oscillations are self-sustained for several days at constant...

  12. Physico Chemical Characteristics of High Performance Polymer Modified by Low and Atmospheric Pressure Plasma1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatnagar, N.; Jha, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Gupta, G.; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron

  13. Subtarget Effect on Laser Plasma Generated by Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 Laser at Atmospheric Gas Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Kiichiro; Lie, Tjung Jie; Hedwig, Rinda; Abdulmajid, Syahrun Nur; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Kurniawan, Hendrik

    2000-05-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the dynamical process taking place in the laser plasma generated by Transversely Excited Atmospheric CO2 laser (100 mJ, 50 ns) irradiation of a soft sample at surrounding helium pressure of 1 atm. It is shown that the presence of a copper subtarget behind the soft sample is crucial in raising the gushing speed of the atoms to the level adequate for the generation of shock wave laser plasma even at atmospheric pressure. It is also found that the time profiles of spatially integrated emission intensity of the target’s atoms and gas atoms exhibit a characteristic dynamical process that consists of successive excitation and cooling stages even at such a high pressure, which is typical of shock wave laser plasma. It is therefore suggested that the generation of the laser plasma at atmospheric pressure is more likely due to the shock wave mechanism than to the widely known breakdown mechanism. Initial spectrochemical analysis of water from the blow off of a boiler system was also carried out, showing a detection limit of as low as 5 ppm for calcium.

  14. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    are allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using...

  15. The Effect of Atmospheric Pressure on Rocket Thrust -- Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    The first of a two-part question asks: Does the total thrust of a rocket depend on the surrounding pressure? The answer to this question is provided, with accompanying diagrams of rockets. The second part of the question (and answer) are provided in v20 n7, p479, Oct 1982 of this journal. (Author/JN)

  16. New pressure cell for ultrasonic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Michal; Huxley, Andrew; Kamenev, Konstantin

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic interferometry at high pressure remains a technical challenge as the small sample space requires the application of very high-frequency ultrasound. Here we present the design of a new cell developed specifically for ultrasonic measurements of single crystals at low temperatures (2K) and high pressures (5GPa). The design allows greater sample space (compared to a conventional diamond anvil cell) and simultaneous measurement of ultrasonic attenuation and velocities. Coupling the fine transducers to spherical sapphire anvils reduces background and enables different polarizations of the ultrasonic wave to be measured at the same pressure and temperature conditions. The results are used to deduce the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of a crystal. The finite element analysis of the cell together with the pressure calibration curves and test data taken on UGe2 are presented.

  17. Atmospheric pressure and temperature profiling using near IR differential absorption lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, G. K.; Dombrowski, M.; Weng, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with differential absorption lidar techniques for remotely measuring the atmospheric temperature and pressure profile, surface pressure, and cloud top pressure-height. The procedure used in determining the pressure is based on the conduction of high-resolution measurements of absorption in the wings of lines in the oxygen A band. Absorption with respect to these areas is highly pressure sensitive in connection with the mechanism of collisional line broadening. The method of temperature measurement utilizes a determination of the absorption at the center of a selected line in the oxygen A band which originates from a quantum state with high ground state energy.

  18. Research progress in the study of atmospheric pressure glow barrier discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuechen; DONG Lifang; JIA Pengying

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow barrier discharge (APGBD) can operate at high pressure, and so vacuum device is not necessary. Furthermore, the produced plasma by APGBD has moderate electron temperature and density besides good uniformity. Therefore,APGBD has extensive potential applications in industry and has been becoming a hot issue in the research of low temperature plasma. In this paper, the main problems in the study of atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated by dielectric barrier discharge, including the experimental setup, judging criterion, discharging conditions, physical mechanisms, and parameter diagnoses, are discussed, and further research prospects of APGBD are proposed.

  19. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-11

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

  20. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buchholz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the

  1. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-11-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under

  2. Inactivation of Gram-positive biofilms by low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, F.; Robert, H.; Merbahi, N.; Fontagné-Faucher, C.; Yousfi, M.; Romain, C. E.; Eichwald, O.; Rondel, C.; Gabriel, B.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to the evaluation of the efficiency of a new low-temperature plasma jet driven in ambient air by a dc-corona discharge to inactivate adherent cells and biofilms of Gram-positive bacteria. The selected microorganisms were lactic acid bacteria, a Weissella confusa strain which has the particularity to excrete a polysaccharide polymer (dextran) when sucrose is present. Both adherent cells and biofilms were treated with the low-temperature plasma jet for different exposure times. The antimicrobial efficiency of the plasma was tested against adherent cells and 48 h-old biofilms grown with or without sucrose. Bacterial survival was estimated using both colony-forming unit counts and fluorescence-based assays for bacterial cell viability. The experiments show the ability of the low-temperature plasma jet at atmospheric pressure to inactivate the bacteria. An increased resistance of bacteria embedded within biofilms is clearly observed. The resistance is also significantly higher with biofilm in the presence of sucrose, which indicates that dextran could play a protective role.

  3. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  4. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  5. The Healing Effect of Low-Temperature Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma in Pressure Ulcer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuangsuwanich, Apirag; Assadamongkol, Tananchai; Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2016-08-31

    Pressure ulcers are difficult to treat. Recent reports of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma (LTAPP) indicated its safe and effectiveness in chronic wound care management. It has been shown both in vitro and vivo studies that LTAPP not only helps facilitate wound healing but also has antimicrobial efficacy due to its composition of ion and electron, free radicals, and ultraviolet ray. We studied the beneficial effect of LTAPP specifically on pressure ulcers. In a prospective randomized study, 50 patients with pressure ulcers were divided into 2 groups: Control group received standard wound care and the study group was treated with LTAPP once every week for 8 consecutive weeks in addition to standard wound care. We found that the group treated with LTAPP had significantly better PUSH (Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing) scores and exudate amount after 1 week of treatment. There was also a reduction in bacterial load after 1 treatment regardless of the species of bacteria identified.

  6. Chain elongation of diacylphosphatidylcholine induces fully bilayer interdigitation under atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masaki; Wilk, Agnieszka; Kazama, Akira; Chodankar, Shirish; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Matsuki, Hitoshi

    2011-05-01

    The phase transitions of dibehenoylphosphatidylcholine (C22PC) bilayer membrane were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. The constructed temperature-pressure phase diagram suggests that the gel phase at low temperatures is the interdigitated gel phase. To confirm the phase state, we performed small-angle neutron scattering and fluorescence measurements using a polarity-sensitive probe Prodan for the C22PC bilayer membrane under atmospheric pressure. The peaks obtained in both measurements clearly showed the characteristic patterns of the fully interdigitated gel phase. Taking into account of previous studies on the gel phase for long-chain PC bilayers under atmospheric pressure and our studies on the pressure-induced bilayer interdigitaion of diacyl-PCs, it turned out that the interdigitation of diacyl-PC bilayer membranes occurs when the carbon number of acyl chain reaches at least 22. The present study revealed that the interdigitation of PC bilayer membranes occurs not only by weakening the attractive force of polar head groups but also by strengthening the cohesive force of acyl chains. When dominating the force of acyl chains, the interdigitation can be induced even in a diacyl-PC bilayer membrane by only hydration under atmospheric pressure.

  7. An Alternative to Annealing TiO2 Nanotubes for Morphology Preservation: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2015-03-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube layer formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is known to be excellent in biomaterial applications. However, the annealing process which is commonly performed on the TiO2 nanotubes cause defects in the nanotubular structure. The purpose of this work was to apply a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on diameter-controlled TiO2 nanotubes to mimic the effects of annealing while maintaining the tubular structure for use as biomaterial. Diameter-controlled nanotube samples fabricated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were dried and prepared under three different conditions: untreated, annealed at 450 °C for 1 h in air with a heating rate of 10 °C/min, and treated with an air-based non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for 5 minutes. The contact angle measurement was investigated to confirm the enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 nanotubes. The chemical composition of the surface was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. For the viability of the cell, the attachment of the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. We found that there are no morphological changes in the TiO2 nanotubular structure after the plasma treatment. Also, we investigated a change in the chemical composition and enhanced hydrophilicity which result in improved cell behavior. The results of this study indicated that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet results in osteoblast functionality that is comparable to annealed samples while maintaining the tubular structure of the TiO2 nanotubes. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet on nanotube surfaces may replace the annealing process following plasma electrolytic oxidation.

  8. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  9. An analysis of the errors associated with the determination of atmospheric temperature from atmospheric pressure and density data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzner, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A graph was developed for relating delta T/T, the relative uncertainty in atmospheric temperature T, to delta p/p, the relative uncertainty in the atmospheric pressure p, for situations, when T is derived from the slope of the pressure-height profile. A similar graph relates delta T/T to delta roh/rho, the relative uncertainty in the atmospheric density rho, for those cases when T is derived from the downward integration of the density-height profile. A comparison of these two graphs shows that for equal uncertainties in the respective basic parameters, p or rho, smaller uncertainties in the derived temperatures are associated with density-height rather than with pressure-height data. The value of delta T/T is seen to depend not only upon delta p or delta rho, and to a small extent upon the value of T or the related scale height H, but also upon the inverse of delta h, the height increment between successive observations of p or rho. In the case of pressure-height data, delta T/T is dominated by 1/delta h for all values of delta h; for density-height data, delta T/T is dominated by delta rho/rho for delta h smaller than about 5 km. In the case of T derived from density-height data, this inverse relationship between delta T/T and delta h applies only for large values of delta h, that is, for delta h 35 km. No limit exists in the fineness of usable height resolution of T which may be derived from densities, while a fine height resolution in pressure-height data leads to temperature with unacceptably large uncertainties.

  10. Atmospheric Refraction Predictions Based on Actual Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Calculations of atmospheric refraction are generally based on a simplified model of atmospheric density in the troposphere that assumes the temperature decreases at a constant lapse rate L from sea level up to a height {h}t≈ 11 {km}, and that afterward it remains constant. In this model, the ratio T o /L, where T o is the temperature at the observer’s location, determines the length scale in the calculations for altitudes h≤slant {h}t. But daily balloon measurements across the USA show that in some cases there is an inversion so that the air temperature actually increases from sea level up to a height {h}p≈ 1 {km}, and only after reaching a plateau with temperature {T}o\\prime at this height, it decreases at an approximately constant lapse rate. Hence, in such cases the relevant length scale for atmospheric refraction calculations in the range {h}p≤slant hatmospheric refraction based on this actual atmospheric data are compared with the results of current simplified models.

  11. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface.

  12. Cryogenic loading of argon pressure medium in diamond anvil high pressure cells with in situ pressure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, E.

    2017-06-01

    A versatile system for cryogenic loading of argon pressure medium into the sample space of a diamond anvil cell has been developed. The system has been designed such that, with suitable adaptors, a wide range of diamond anvil cell designs can be pressurized. The pressure in the cell can be monitored during pressurization using the ruby fluorescence method via optical fiber access into the loading chamber. This enables the precise and accurate setting of the loading pressure in the cell.

  13. Inactivation Process of Penicillium digitatum Spores Treated with Non-equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Mori, Takumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores treated with a non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma, the spores were observed using a fluorescent microscope and compared with those treated with ultraviolet (UV) light or moist heat. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as cell membranes in the spores treated with the plasma were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes, while the organelles were never stained in the spores treated with UV light or moist heat. Moreover, DPPP staining revealed that organelles were oxidized by plasma treatment unlike UV light or moist heat treatments. These results suggest that only plasma treatment induces a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles without a major deformation of the membranes through the penetration of reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma into the cell.

  14. On the role of helium molecules in atmospheric pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Emile; Schregel, Christian; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Despite their intrinsic simplicity, helium plasma kinetics are still not fully understood and quantitatively described. This is particularly the case at high pressures when various molecular helium species (i.e. ions, excimer(s) and Rydberg states) are formed. In this contribution, the absolute density of helium Rydberg molecules is measured for the first time by a combination of laser photo-ionization and Thomson scattering experiments. The experiments are performed on a parallel plate, nanosecond pulsed, DC discharge at 700 mbar. The results are combined with electron and helium metastable densities measurements and compared with a kinetic model of the discharge. The source of He2 molecules in the discharge and afterglow phases are identified and discussed. The present experimental data and kinetic model solve several inconsistencies between reaction paths proposed in the literature.

  15. Atmospheric pressure growth of graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyller, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Graphene, a single monolayer of sp^2-bonded carbon, is a very unique 2-dimensional electron gas system with electronic properties fundamentally different to other 2DEG systems [1]. Several production routes exist for graphene. Among them, the solid-state decomposition of hexagonal silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces [2] is particularly attractive for the development of graphene based electronics [3,4]. The first part of the presentation gives a brief summary of recent studies on the structural and electronic properties of graphene and few-layer graphene grown on SiC(0001) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The second part of the talk is devoted to recent progress in the growth of large domain graphene films on SiC(0001) in Ar atmosphere. It is shown that growth in Ar ambient leads to a significant improvement of the surface morphology and domain size as well as carrier mobility. [4pt] [1] A.H. Castro Neto, et al., Reviews of Modern Physics, in print (arXiv:0709.1163v2); and references therein. [0pt] [2] A. Charrier, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 2479. [0pt] [3] C. Berger et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 19912; C. Berger, et al., Science 312 (2006) 1191. [0pt] [4] A.K. Geim and K.S. Novoselov, Nature Mat. 6 (2007) 183.

  16. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  17. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet During Tooth Bleaching Gel Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, Vedran; Zaplotnik, Rok; Tarle, Zrinka; Milošević, Slobodan

    2015-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy was performed during atmospheric pressure plasma needle helium jet treatment of various tooth-bleaching gels. When the gel sample was inserted under the plasma plume, the intensity of all the spectral features increased approximately two times near the plasma needle tip and up to two orders of magnitude near the sample surface. The color change of the hydroxylapatite pastille treated with bleaching gels in conjunction with the atmospheric pressure plasma jet was found to be in correlation with the intensity of OH emission band (309 nm). Using argon as an additive to helium flow (2 L/min), a linear increase (up to four times) of OH intensity and, consequently, whitening (up to 10%) of the pastilles was achieved. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet activates bleaching gel, accelerates OH production, and accelerates tooth bleaching (up to six times faster).

  18. Surface-nitriding treatment of steels using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shigeo, E-mail: s.sato@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Arai, Yuuki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yamashita, Noboru; Kojyo, Atsushi; Kodama, Kenji [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1146 (Japan); Ohtsu, Naofumi [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Okamoto, Yukio [Research Institute of Industrial Technology, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kazuaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    A rapid surface-nitriding system using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure was developed for modifying iron and steel surfaces. Since the conventional plasma nitriding technique requires a low-pressure atmosphere in the treatment chamber, the population of excited nitrogen molecules in the plasma is limited. Accordingly, several hours are required for nitriding treatment. By contrast, the developed nitriding system can use atmospheric-pressure plasma through application of the Okamoto cavity for excitation of nitrogen plasma. The high population of excited nitrogen molecules induced by the atmospheric-pressure plasma allowed the formation of a nitriding layer that was several micrometers thick within 1 min and produced an expanded austenite iron phase with a high nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit on the iron substrate. In addition, the nitriding treatment on high-chromium steel was performed by introducing a reducing gas such as NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} into the treatment chamber. While the nitriding reaction did not proceed in a simple N{sub 2} atmosphere due to surface oxidation, the surface reduction induced by the NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2} gas promoted the nitriding reaction at the surface. These nitriding phenomena characteristics of the atmospheric-pressure plasma are discussed in this paper based on the effects of the specimen temperature and plasma atmosphere on the thickness, the chemical states, and the nitride compounds of the nitrided layer as investigated by X-ray diffraction, glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Source of temperature and pressure pulsations during sessile droplet evaporation into multicomponent atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Aaron H; Sefiane, Khellil; Ward, Charles A

    2013-10-29

    During sessile droplet evaporation, studies with IR thermography and shadowgraphs have indicated temperature pulsations. We confirm those observations with microthermocouples, but microthermocouples also indicate temperature pulsations in the atmosphere of the droplet. The pressure in this atmosphere pulsated as well and was correlated with the temperature pulsations in the droplet. Also, we find that if a droplet evaporates into its own vapor, there are no temperature or pressure pulsations. The pulsations occur only if the droplet evaporates into an atmosphere with a component having a heat of solution with the droplet when it adsorbs-absorbs. None of the currently proposed mechanisms for the temperature pulsations provide an explanation for the coupling between the temperature pulsations in the droplet and the vapor-phase pressure pulsations, and for the absence of the pulsations when the system is single-component. As a mechanism for the pulsations, we propose that when a droplet is exposed to an atmosphere containing a component that has a heat of solution with the droplet, energy will be released from adsorption-absorption. This energy will cause pulsations in the evaporation flux, and these pulsations could cause the observed temperature and pressure pulsations. We examine this mechanism by showing that, if the measured temperature pulsations in a water droplet exposed to a methanol atmosphere are used as the input to a theory of evaporation kinetics (statistical rate theory), the pressure pulsations of the water vapor in the methanol atmosphere are predicted and agree with those measured with a quadrupole mass analyzer. When the inputs and outputs are reversed in the theory, we find that the temperature pulsations in the droplet are correctly predicted from the measured water vapor pulsations in the atmosphere.

  20. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jiamping,; Kawa, Stephan R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  1. Polymer Surface Treatment by Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Surface Discharge Plasma:Its Characteristics and Comparison with Low Pressure Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi KUWABARA; Shin-ichi KURODA; Hitoshi KUBOTA

    2007-01-01

    The polymer treatment with a low-temperature plasma jet generated on the atmospheric pressure surface discharge (SD) plasma is performed.The change of the surface property over time,in comparison with low pressure oxygen (O2) plasma treatment,is examined.As one compares the treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma to that by the low pressure O2 plasma of PS (polystyrene) the treatment effects were almost in complete agreement.However,when the atmospheric pressure plasma was used for PP(polypropylene),it produced remarkable hydrophilic effects.

  2. Atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of the phenicol drug family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the mass spectrometry behaviour of the veterinary drug family of phenicols, including chloramphenicol (CAP) and its related compounds thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and FF amine (FFA), was studied. Several atmospheric pressure ionization sources, electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization were compared. In all atmospheric pressure ionization sources, CAP, TAP and FF were ionized in both positive and negative modes; while for the metabolite FFA, only positive ionization was possible. In general, in positive mode, [M + H](+) dominated the mass spectrum for FFA, while the other compounds, CAP, TAP and FF, with lower proton affinity showed intense adducts with species present in the mobile phase. In negative mode, ESI and atmospheric pressure photoionization showed the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-), while atmospheric pressure chemical ionization provided the radical molecular ion by electron capture. All these ions were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry using the combined information obtained by multistage mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry in a quadrupole-Orbitrap instrument. In general, the fragmentation occurred via cyclization and losses or fragmentation of the N-(alkyl)acetamide group, and common fragmentation pathways were established for this family of compounds. A new chemical structure for the product ion at m/z 257 for CAP, on the basis of the MS(3) and MS(4) spectra is proposed. Thermally assisted ESI and selected reaction monitoring are proposed for the determination of these compounds by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, achieving instrumental detection limits down to 0.1 pg. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Plasma System for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Matthew; Staack, David

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in using plasmas for additive manufacturing, however these methods use high temperature plasmas to melt the material. We have developed a novel technique of additive manufacturing using a low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet. The jet is attached to the head of a 3D printer to allow for precise control of the plasma's location. Various methods are employed to deposit the material, including using a vaporized precursor or depositing a liquid precursor directly onto the substrate or into the plasma via a nebulizer. Various materials can be deposited including metals (copper using copper (II) acetylacetonate), polymers (PMMA using the liquid monomer), and various hydrocarbon compounds (using alcohols or a 100% methane DBD jet). The rastering pattern for the 3D printer was modified for plasma deposition, since it was originally designed for thermoplastic extrusion. The design constraints for fill pattern selection for the plasma printer are influenced by substrate heating, deposition area, and precursor consumption. Depositions onto pressure and/or temperature sensitive substrates can be easily achieved. Deposition rates range up to 0.08 cm3/hr using tris(2-methoxyethoxy)(vinyl)silane, however optimization can still be done on the system to improve the deposition rate. For example higher concentration of precursor can be combined with faster motion and higher discharge powers to increase the deposition rate without overheating the substrate.

  4. Decontamination of objects in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used for the exper......The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used...

  5. Translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Gliding arc discharges have generally been used to generate non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure. Temperature distributions of a gliding arc are of great interest both for fundamental plasma research and for practical applications. In the presented studies, translational, rotational...... and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc generated at atmospheric pressure air are investigated. Translational temperatures (about 1100 K) were measured by laser-induced Rayleigh scattering, and two-dimensional temperature imaging was performed. Rotational and vibrational temperatures (about 3600 K and 6700...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF CALCIUM ENRICHED OSMO-DEHYDRATED APPLE SLICES BY IMPREGNATION AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop calcium enriched osmo-dehydrated apple slices by impregnation at atmospheric pressure. Osmotic dehydration (OD) was carried out using 50°Bx sucrose solutions with 4% and 8% calcium lactate (CL) at atmospheric pressure for 16 hours followed ...

  7. Use of Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet for Polymer Surface Modification: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettner, Lindsey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are playing an increasingly important role in materials processing procedures. Plasma treatment is a useful tool to modify surface properties of materials, especially polymers. Plasma reacts with polymer surfaces in numerous ways thus the type of process gas and plasma conditions must be explored for chosen substrates and materials to maximize desired properties. This report discusses plasma treatments and looks further into atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and the effects of gases and plasma conditions. Following the short literature review, a general overview of the future work and research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is discussed.

  8. Spectral Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma by Means of Digital Camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛袁静; 张广秋; 刘益民; 赵志发

    2002-01-01

    A digital camera measuring system has been used successfully to measure the space fluctuation behaviors of Induced Dielectric Barrier Discharge (IDBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results showed that: (1) The uniformity of electron temperature in space depends on discharge condition and structure of web electrode. For a certain web electrode the higher the discharge voltage is, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be. For a certain discharge the finer and denser the holes on web electrode are, the more uniform distribution of electron temperature in space will be (2). Digital camera is an available equipment to measure some behaviors of the plasma working at atmospheric pressure.

  9. Relation among Summer Rainfall in South Shandong and High Pressure in South Asia and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relation among summer rainfall in south Shandong and high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation.[Method] Taking the precipitation in south Shandong along the Yellow River and Huaihe River,using the NCEP/NCAR data and summer rainfall data in south Shandong in summer from 1961 to 2005,the characteristics of high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation in drought year and flood year in summer in south Shandong Province were expounded.The mechanism of...

  10. Effect of non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment on gingival wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas have been applied in the biomedical field for the improvement of various cellular activities. In dentistry, the healing of gingival soft tissue plays an important role in health and aesthetic outcomes. While the biomedical application of plasma has been thoroughly studied in dentistry, a detailed investigation of plasma-mediated human gingival fibroblast (HGF) migration for wound healing and its underlying biological mechanism is still pending. Therefore, the aim of this study is to apply a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAAPPJ) to HGF to measure the migration and to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms involved in the migration. After the characterization of NTAAPPJ by optical emission spectroscopy, the adherent HGF was treated with NTAAPPJ or air with a different flow rate. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, migration, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK3) were investigated. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. NTAAPPJ and air treatment with a flow rate of 250-1000 standard cubic centimetres per minute (sccm) for up to 30 s did not induce significant decreases in cell viability or membrane damage. A significant increase in the migration of mitomycin C-treated HGF was observed after 30 s of NTAAPPJ treatment compared to 30 s air-only treatment, which was induced by high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). An increase in migration-related gene expression and EGFR activation was observed following NTAAPPJ treatment in an air flow rate-dependent manner. This is the first report that NTAAPPJ treatment induces an increase in HGF migration without changing cell viability or causing membrane damage. HGF migration was related to an increase in intracellular ROS, changes in the expression of three of the migration-related genes (EGFR, PAK1, and MAPK1), and EGFR activation. Therefore

  11. Using Dimers to Measure Biosignatures and Atmospheric Pressure for Terrestrial Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Amit; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earthlike planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earthlike atmospheres, and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers, and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 $\\mu$m dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bars, and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present day lev...

  12. Surface atmospheric pressure excitation of the translational mode of the inner core

    CERN Document Server

    Rosat, Séverine; Rogister, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using hourly atmospheric surface pressure field from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and from NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) models, we show that atmospheric pressure fluctuations excite the translational oscillation of the inner core, the so-called Slichter mode, to the sub-nanogal level at the Earth surface. The computation is performed using a normal-mode formalism for a spherical, self-gravitating anelastic PREM-like Earth model. We determine the statistical response in the form of power spectral densities of the degree-one spherical harmonic components of the observed pressure field. Both hypotheses of inverted and non-inverted barometer for the ocean response to pressure forcing are considered. Based on previously computed noise levels, we show that the surface excitation amplitude is below the limit of detection of the superconducting gravimeters, making the Slichter mode detection a challenging instrumental task...

  13. Prediction of Atmospheric Pressure at Ground Level using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshuman Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of Atmospheric Pressure is one important and challenging task that needs lot of attention and study for analyzing atmospheric conditions. Advent of digital computers and development of data driven artificial intelligence approaches like Artificial Neural Networks (ANN have helped in numerical prediction of pressure. However, very few works have been done till now in this area. The present study developed an ANN model based on the past observations of several meteorological parameters like temperature, humidity, air pressure and vapour pressure as an input for training the model. The novel architecture of the proposed model contains several multilayer perceptron network (MLP to realize better performance. The model is enriched by analysis of alternative hybrid model of k-means clustering and MLP. The improvement of the performance in the prediction accuracy has been demonstrated by the automatic selection of the appropriate cluster

  14. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  15. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma and bacteria: understanding the mode of action using vibrational microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschew, Konstantin; Baldus, Sabrina; Mischo, Meike; Bründermann, Erik; Awakowicz, Peter; Havenith, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma show promising antimicrobial effects, however the detailed biochemical mechanism of the bacterial inactivation is still unknown. We investigated, for the first time, plasma-treated Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria with Raman and infrared microspectroscopy. A dielectric barrier discharge was used as a plasma source. We were able to detect several plasma-induced chemical modifications, which suggest a pronounced oxidative effect on the cell envelope, cellular proteins and nucleotides as well as a generation of organic nitrates in the treated bacteria. Vibrational microspectroscopy is used as a comprehensive and a powerful tool for the analysis of plasma interactions with whole organisms such as bacteria. Analysis of reaction kinetics of chemical modifications allow a time-dependent insight into the plasma-mediated impact. Investigating possible synergistic effects between the plasma-produced components, our observations strongly indicate that the detected plasma-mediated chemical alterations can be mainly explained by the particle effect of the generated reactive species. By changing the polarity of the applied voltage pulse, and hence the propagation mechanisms of streamers, no significant effect on the spectral results could be detected. This method allows the analysis of the individual impact of each plasma constituent for particular chemical modifications. Our approach shows great potential to contribute to a better understanding of plasma-cell interactions.

  16. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of antifungal effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itooka, Koki; Takahashi, Kazuo; Izawa, Shingo

    2016-11-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) has potential to be utilized as an alternative method for sterilization in food industries without thermal damage or toxic residues. In contrast to the bactericidal effects of CAP, information regarding the efficacy of CAP against eukaryotic microorganisms is very limited. Therefore, herein we investigated the effects of CAP on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a focus on the cellular response to CAP. The CAP treatment caused oxidative stress responses including the nuclear accumulation of the oxidative stress responsive transcription factor Yap1, mitochondrial fragmentation, and enhanced intracellular oxidation. Yeast cells also induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes and formation of Hsp104 aggregates when treated with CAP, suggesting that CAP denatures proteins. As phenomena unique to eukaryotic cells, the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules and changes in the intracellular localization of Ire1 were caused by the treatment with CAP, indicating that translational repression and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were induced by the CAP treatment. These results suggest that the fungicidal effects of CAP are attributed to the multiple severe stresses.

  17. Collision-induced dissociation analysis of negative atmospheric ion adducts in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2013-05-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed on atmospheric ion adducts [M + R](-) formed between various types of organic compounds M and atmospheric negative ions R(-) [such as O2(-), HCO3(-), COO(-)(COOH), NO2(-), NO3(-), and NO3(-)(HNO3)] in negative-ion mode atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) mass spectrometry. All of the [M + R](-) adducts were fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M - H](-) and/or atmospheric ions R(-), whose intensities in the CID spectra were dependent on the proton affinities of the [M - H](-) and R(-) fragments. Precursor ions [M + R](-) for which R(-) have higher proton affinities than [M - H](-) formed [M - H](-) as the dominant product. Furthermore, the CID of the adducts with HCO3(-) and NO3(-)(HNO3) led to other product ions such as [M + HO](-) and NO3(-), respectively. The fragmentation behavior of [M + R](-) for each R(-) observed was independent of analyte type (e.g., whether the analyte was aliphatic or aromatic, or possessed certain functional groups).

  18. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer’s solution for anti-tumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer’s solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer’s lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer’s lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  19. EDITORIAL: Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas for processing and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massines, Françoise

    2005-02-01

    Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure plasmas to plasma processing for the benefits this can offer to existing and potential new processes, because they do not require expensive vacuum systems and batch processing. There have been considerable efforts to efficiently generate large volumes of homogeneous atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to develop environmentally friendly alternatives for surface treatment, thin film coating, sterilization, decontamination, etc. Many interesting questions have arisen that are related to both fundamental and applied research in this field. Many concern the generation of a large volume discharge which remains stable and uniform at atmospheric pressure. At this pressure, depending on the experimental conditions, either streamer or Townsend breakdown may occur. They respectively lead to micro-discharges or to one large radius discharge, Townsend or glow. However, the complexity arises from the formation of large radius streamers due to avalanche coupling and from the constriction of the glow discharge due to too low a current. Another difficulty is to visually distinguish many micro-discharges from one large radius discharge. Other questions relate to key chemical reactions in the plasma and at the surface. Experimental characterization and modelling also need to be developed to answer these questions. This cluster collects up-to-date research results related to the understanding of different discharges working at atmospheric pressure and the application to polymer surface activation and thin film coating. It presents different solutions for generating and sustaining diffuse discharges at atmospheric pressure. DC, low-frequency and radio-frequency excitations are considered in noble gases, nitrogen or air. Two specific methods developed to understand the transition from Townsend to streamer breakdown are also presented. They are based on the cross-correlation spectroscopy and an electrical

  20. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery– Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B. K.; Wainright, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used. PMID:22711974

  1. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery- Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H(2)) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used.

  2. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua...

  3. Sterilization of packed matter by means of low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Summary form only given. The decontamination of material in closed containers by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua...

  4. Development of atmospheric pressure CVD processes for highquality transparent conductive oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, A. de; Deelen, J. van; Poodt, P.W.G.; Mol, A.M.B. van; Spee, C.I.M.A.; Grob, F.; Kuypers, A.

    2010-01-01

    For the past decade TNO has been involved in the research and development of atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) and plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) processes for deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO), such as tin oxide and zinc oxide. It is shown that by combining precursor development, fundam

  5. Synthesis of 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine from 2-naphthol under atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Feng; Chao Zhang; Qiang Tang; Mei Ming Luo

    2009-01-01

    A practical protocol to obtain 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine was developed from 2-naphthol and 2-naphthylhydrazine under mild conditions: solvent-free, 125-130 ℃, atmospheric pressure. The convenient procedure makes the process amenable for large-scale synthesis of the versatile compound.

  6. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma synthesis of submicrometer-sized pharmaceuticals with improved physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Ambrus, R.; Szabó-Révész, P.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    A reduction in particle size is one of the strategies to enhance the dissolution behavior of low water-soluble drugs such as niflumic acid. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma crystallization is a novel technique to achieve such submicrometer particles. This technique uses a surface dielectric barrier

  7. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ready-to-eat meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röd, Sara Katrine Solhøj; Hansen, Flemming; Leipold, Frank

    Sliced ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products are susceptible to growth of the foodborne pathogenic bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) may be applicable for surface decontamination in sealed bags thus avoiding recontamination. Plasmas (Fig. 1), created in neutral...

  8. Atmospheric pressure photoionisation : An ionization method for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robb, DB; Covey, TR; Bruins, AP

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) has been successfully demonstrated to provide high sensitivity to LC-MS analysis. A vacuum-ultraviolet lamp designed for photoionization detection in gas chromatography is used as a source of 10-eV photons. The mixture of samples and solvent eluting from a

  9. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma synthesis of submicrometer-sized pharmaceuticals with improved physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radacsi, N.; Ambrus, R.; Szabó-Révész, P.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    A reduction in particle size is one of the strategies to enhance the dissolution behavior of low water-soluble drugs such as niflumic acid. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma crystallization is a novel technique to achieve such submicrometer particles. This technique uses a surface dielectric barrier

  10. Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy detection of HCO radicals in atmospheric pressure hydrocarbon flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskis, Sergey

    1995-01-01

    Formyl radical, HCO, was monitored for the first time in an atmospheric pressure premixed hydrocarbon flame. Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy based on quasi-(cw) argon-ion pumped dye laser was used. The sensitivity of the detection is ˜5×1012 cm-3 and can be improved with better flame and laser stabilization.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE-IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY .2. APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY, BIOCHEMISTRY AND GENERAL-CHEMISTRY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, AP

    1994-01-01

    Mass spectrometer ion sources are normally located inside a high-vacuum envelope. An ion source operating at atmospheric pressure is better suited, it not essential, for a growing number of applications. MS analysis of samples pyrolyzed under controlled conditions makes use of chemical ionization at

  12. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Modification on Polyimide and Adhesive Joining with Titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.; Ajeesh, G.; Ahmed, S.; Chakraborty, D.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation highlights the effect of surface modification on polyimide by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with different exposure time. Surface modification of polymer by plasma treatment essentially creates physical and chemical changes such as cross-linking and formation of free

  13. Real-Time Flavor Release from French Fries Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using both assessors (in vivo) and a mouth model system (in vitro). Several volatiles measured with APCI were identified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time, salt addition, and a

  14. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ∼50 ml/min (STP) at ∼850

  15. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion sc

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma surface modification of titanium for high temperature adhesive bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Ernst, L.J.; Bhowmik, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation surface treatment of titanium is carried out by plasma ion implantation under atmospheric pressure plasma in order to increase the adhesive bond strength. Prior to the plasma treatment, titanium surfaces were mechanically treated by sand blasting. It is observed that the contac

  17. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events...

  18. Comparison of the sensitivity of mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure ionization techniques in the analysis of porphyrinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Paweł; Lewtak, Jan P; Gryko, Daniel T; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2013-10-01

    The porphyrinoids chemistry is greatly dependent on the data obtained in mass spectrometry. For this reason, it is essential to determine the range of applicability of mass spectrometry ionization methods. In this study, the sensitivity of three different atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization, was tested for several porphyrinods and their metallocomplexes. Electrospray ionization method was shown to be the best ionization technique because of its high sensitivity for derivatives of cyanocobalamin, free-base corroles and porphyrins. In the case of metallocorroles and metalloporphyrins, atmospheric pressure photoionization with dopant proved to be the most sensitive ionization method. It was also shown that for relatively acidic compounds, particularly for corroles, the negative ion mode provides better sensitivity than the positive ion mode. The results supply a lot of relevant information on the methodology of porphyrinoids analysis carried out by mass spectrometry. The information can be useful in designing future MS or liquid chromatography-MS experiments.

  19. DNA strand scission induced by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptasińska, Sylwia; Bahnev, Blagovest; Stypczyńska, Agnieszka; Bowden, Mark; Mason, Nigel J; Braithwaite, Nicholas St J

    2010-07-28

    The DNA molecule is observed to be very susceptible to short-term exposures to an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The DNA damage induced by plasma-generated species, i.e. excited atoms, charged particles, electrons and UV light is determined.

  20. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glass fibre composite for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, H.; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Glass-fibre-reinforced polyester composite plates were treated with an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. Synthetic air was used as the treatment gas. The water contact angle dropped markedly from 84 to 22° after a 2-s treatment, and decreased to 0° when the composite plates were...

  1. Polysilicon Prepared from SIC14 by Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma%Polysilicon Prepared from SIC14 by Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小松; 王楠; 杨晋华; 王友年; 朱爱民

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure was explored for the preparation of polysilicon from SiCl4. The power supply sources of positive pulse and alternating current (8 kHz and 100 kHz) were compared for polysilicon preparation. The samples prepared by using the 100 kHz power source were crystalline silicon. The effects of H2 and SiCl4 volume fractions were investigated. The optical emission spectra showed that silicon species played an important role in polysilicon deposition

  2. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Hill, C.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S.; Lavrentieva, Nina N.

    2017-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H216O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H2- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number J up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300-2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for J ‧ J ″ -dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution (Δ ν ˜ = 0.01cm-1) pressure broadened cross sections for a fixed range of temperatures and pressures between 300 and 2000 K and 0.001-10 bar. An interpolation procedure which can be used to determine cross sections at intermediate temperature and pressure is described. Pressure broadening parameters and cross sections are presented in new ExoMol format.

  3. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  4. Surface-initiated graft polymerization on multiwalled carbon nanotubes pretreated by corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Fang, Zhengping; Song, Ping'an; Peng, Mao

    2010-03-01

    Surface-initiated graft polymerization on multi-walled carbon nanotubes pretreated with a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure was explored. The mechanism of the corona-discharge-induced graft polymerization is discussed. The results indicate that MWCNTs were encapsulated by poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), demonstrating the formation of PGMA-grafted MWCNTs (PGMA-g-MWCNTs), with a grafting ratio of about 22 wt%. The solubility of PGMA-g-MWCNTs in ethanol was dramatically improved compared to pristine MWCNTs, which could contribute to fabricating high-performance polymer/MWCNTs nanocomposites in the future. Compared with most plasma processes, which operate at low pressures, corona discharge has the merit of working at atmospheric pressure.

  5. Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Weng, Chi Y.

    1989-01-01

    The first high accuracy remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile have been made. The measurements were made with a differential absorption lidar system that utilizes tunable alexandrite lasers. The absorption in the trough between two lines in the oxygen A-band near 760 nm was used for probing the atmosphere. Measurements of the two-dimensional structure of the pressure field were made in the troposphere from an aircraft looking down. Also, measurements of the one-dimensional structure were made from the ground looking up. Typical pressure accuracies for the aircraft measurements were 1.5-2 mbar with a 30-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average (20 s), which corresponds to a 2-km horizontal resolution. Typical accuracies for the upward viewing ground based measurements were 2.0 mbar for a 30-m resolution and a 100-shot average.

  6. Gas permeation barriers deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Lukas, E-mail: lhoffmann@uni-wuppertal.de; Theirich, Detlef; Hasselmann, Tim; Räupke, André; Schlamm, Daniel; Riedl, Thomas, E-mail: t.riedl@uni-wuppertal.de [Institute of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    This paper reports on aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin film gas permeation barriers fabricated by atmospheric pressure atomic layer deposition (APPALD) using trimethylaluminum and an Ar/O{sub 2} plasma at moderate temperatures of 80 °C in a flow reactor. The authors demonstrate the ALD growth characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on silicon and indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the APPALD-grown layers (refractive index, density, etc.) are compared to that deposited by conventional thermal ALD at low pressures. The films films deposited at atmospheric pressure show water vapor transmission rates as low as 5 × 10{sup −5} gm{sup −2}d{sup −1}.

  7. Estimation of turgor pressure through comparison between single plant cell and pressurized shell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Smet, P.; Gauquelin, E.; Chastrette, N.; Boudaoud, A.; Asnacios, A.

    2017-10-01

    While plant growth is well known to rely on turgor pressure, it is challenging to quantify the contribution of turgor pressure to plant cell rheology. Here we used a custom-made micro-rheometer to quantify the viscoelastic behavior of isolated plant cells while varying their internal turgor pressure. To get insight into how plant cells adapt their internal pressure to the osmolarity of their medium, we compared the mechanical behavior of single plant cells to that of a simple, passive, pressurized shell: a soccer ball. While both systems exhibited the same qualitative behavior, a simple mechanical model allowed us to quantify turgor pressure regulation at the single cell scale.

  8. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  9. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Induces Transcriptional Changes in Ex Vivo Human Corneas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Rosani

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP might be considered a novel tool for tissue disinfection in medicine since the active chemical species produced by low plasma doses, generated by ionizing helium gas in air, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS that kill microorganisms without substantially affecting human cells.In this study, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in human corneas exposed for 2 minutes (min to APCP and tested if the antioxidant n-acetyl l-cysteine (NAC was able to inhibit or prevent damage and cell death.Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analyses of corneal tissues collected at 6 hours (h post-APCP treatment demonstrated no morphological tissue changes, but a transient increased expression of OGG1 glycosylase that returned to control levels in 24 h. Transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real time PCR performed on different corneas revealed in the treated corneas many differentially expressed genes: namely, 256 and 304 genes showing expression changes greater than ± 2 folds in the absence and presence of NAC, respectively. At 6 h post-treatment, the most over-expressed gene categories suggested an active or enhanced cell functioning, with only a minority of genes specifically concerning oxidative DNA damage and repair showing slight over-expression values (<2 folds. Moreover, time-related expression analysis of eight genes up-regulated in the APCP-treated corneas overall demonstrated the return to control expression levels after 24 h.These findings of transient oxidative stress accompanied by wide-range transcriptome adjustments support the further development of APCP as an ocular disinfectant.

  10. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles mediated by atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet against dermatophyte fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouf, Salama A; El-Adly, Amira A; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-10-01

    In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC(50) and MIC(100) values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to 16 and from 15 to 32 μg ml(- 1), respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC(50) and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23 μg ml(- 1), respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP was more efficacious in healing and suppressing disease symptoms of skin as compared with the application of AgNPs alone. The recovery from the infection reached 91.7 % in the case of Microsporum canis-inoculated guinea pigs treated with 13 μg ml(- 1) AgNPs combined with APACP treatment delivered for 2  min. The emission spectra indicated that the efficacy of APACP was mainly due to generation of NO radicals and excited nitrogen molecules. These reactive species interact and block the activity of the fungal spores in vitro and in the skin lesions of the guinea pigs. The results achieved are promising compared with fluconazole as reference antifungal drug.

  11. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  12. Surface treatment of a titanium implant using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Young; Tang, Tianyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2015-09-01

    During the last two decades, atmospheric pressure plasmas(APP) are widely used in diverse fields of biomedical applications, reduction of pollutants, and surface treatment of materials. Applications of APP to titanium surface of dental implants is steadily increasing as it renders surfaces wettability and modifies the oxide layer of titanium that hinders the interaction with cells and proteins. In this study, we have treated the titanium surfaces of screw-shaped implant samples using a plasma jet which is composed of a ceramic coaxial tube of dielectrics, a stainless steel inner electrode, and a coper tube outer electrode. The plasma ignition occurred with Ar gas flow between two coaxial metal electrodes and a sinusoidal bias voltage of 3 kV with a frequency of 20 kHz. Titanium materials used in this study are screw-shaped implants of which diameter and length are 5 mm and 13 mm, respectively. Samples were mounted at a distance of 5 mm below the plasma source, and the plasma treatment time was set to 3 min. The wettability of titanium surface was measured by the moving speed of water on its surface, which is enhanced by plasma treatment. The surface roughness was also measured by atomic force microscopy. The optimal condition for wettability change is discussed.

  13. Absolute production rate measurements of nitric oxide by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipa, A V; Bindemann, T; Foest, R; Kindel, E; Roepcke, J; Weltmann, K-D [Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung and Technologie e.V. (INP), Felix-Hausdorff Strasse 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: foest@inp-greifswald.de

    2008-10-07

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been applied to measure the absolute production rate of NO molecules in the gas phase of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operating at rf (13.56 MHz) in argon with small (up to 1%) admixtures of air. The resulting NO production rates were found to be in the range (0.1-80) x 10{sup -3} sccm or (0.05-35) x 10{sup 18} molecules s{sup -1} depending on the experimental conditions. Maximum rates were obtained at 0.2% air. For TDLAS measurements the APPJ was arranged inside an astigmatic multi-pass cell of Herriott type with 100 m absorption length. The insertion into a closed volume differs slightly from the normal, open operation with the jet propagating freely into air. Therefore, the measuring results are compared with optical emission of the open jet to verify equivalent experimental conditions. The dependence of the optical emission of NO (237 nm) on power and gas mixture has been measured. The similar shape of the dependence of absorption and emission signals gives evidence that the comparability of experimental conditions is sufficiently satisfied. It is concluded that the NO production rate of the APPJ in ambient air can be characterized using TDLAS and provides reliable results in spite of differing experimental conditions due to the set-up.

  14. Dual effects of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on skin wound healing of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Min; Shi, Xing-Min; Cai, Jing-Fen; Chen, Si-Le; Li, Ping; Yao, Cong-Wei; Chang, Zheng-Shi; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Cold plasma has become an attractive tool for promoting wound healing and treating skin diseases. This article presents an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) generated in argon gas through dielectric barrier discharge, which was applied to superficial skin wounds in BALB/c mice. The mice (n = 50) were assigned randomly into five groups (named A, B, C, D, E) with 10 animals in each group. Natural wound healing was compared with stimulated wound healing treated daily with APPJ for different time spans (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 seconds) on 14 consecutive days. APPJ emission spectra, morphological changes in animal wounds, and tissue histological parameters were analyzed. Statistical results revealed that wound size changed over the duration of the experimental period and there was a significant interaction between experimental day and group. Differences between group C and other groups at day 7 were statistically significant (p plasma could inactivate bacteria around the wound, activate fibroblast proliferation in wound tissue, and eventually promote wound healing. Whereas, over doses of plasma suppressed wound healing due to causing cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. Both positive and negative effects may be related to the existence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in APPJ.

  15. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the foodborne pathogens attached to commercial food containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Yong, Hae In; Alahakoon, Amali U; Park, Sanghoo; Park, Jooyoung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with numerous infections and problems in the health care and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilm formation on collagen casing (CC), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which are widely used food container materials. The samples were treated separately with the APP jet at a 50-W input power for 5 and 10 min, and nitrogen (6 l per minute) gas combined with oxygen (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) was used to produce the APP. The APP jet reduced the number of bacterial cells in a time-dependent manner. All pathogens attached to CC, PP, and PET were reduced by 3-4 log CFU/cm(2) by the 10-min APP treatment. The developed APP jet was effectively reduced biofilms on CC, PP, and PET.

  16. Response of the endophytic diazotroph Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on solid media to changes in atmospheric partial O(2) pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, B; Vessey, J K

    2001-10-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is an N(2)-fixing endophyte isolated from sugarcane. G. diazotrophicus was grown on solid medium at atmospheric partial O(2) pressures (pO(2)) of 10, 20, and 30 kPa for 5 to 6 days. Using a flowthrough gas exchange system, nitrogenase activity and respiration rate were then measured at a range of atmospheric pO(2) (5 to 60 kPa). Nitrogenase activity was measured by H(2) evolution in N(2)-O(2) and in Ar-O(2), and respiration rate was measured by CO(2) evolution in N(2)-O(2). To validate the use of H(2) production as an assay for nitrogenase activity, a non-N(2)-fixing (Nif(-)) mutant of G. diazotrophicus was tested and found to have a low rate of uptake hydrogenase (Hup(+)) activity (0.016 +/- 0.009 micromol of H(2) 10(10) cells(-1) h(-1)) when incubated in an atmosphere enriched in H(2). However, Hup(+) activity was not detectable under the normal assay conditions used in our experiments. G. diazotrophicus fixed nitrogen at all atmospheric pO(2) tested. However, when the assay atmospheric pO(2) was below the level at which the colonies had been grown, nitrogenase activity was decreased. Optimal atmospheric pO(2) for nitrogenase activity was 0 to 20 kPa above the pO(2) at which the bacteria had been grown. As atmospheric pO(2) was increased in 10-kPa steps to the highest levels (40 to 60 kPa), nitrogenase activity decreased in a stepwise manner. Despite the decrease in nitrogenase activity as atmospheric pO(2) was increased, respiration rate increased marginally. A large single-step increase in atmospheric pO(2) from 20 to 60 kPa caused a rapid 84% decrease in nitrogenase activity. However, upon returning to 20 kPa of O(2), 80% of nitrogenase activity was recovered within 10 min, indicating a "switch-off/switch-on" O(2) protection mechanism of nitrogenase activity. Our study demonstrates that colonies of G. diazotrophicus can fix N(2) at a wide range of atmospheric pO(2) and can adapt to maintain nitrogenase activity in response to

  17. Characterizations of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Erdinc

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets (APLTPJs) driven by short pulses have recently received great attention because of their potential in biomedical and environmental applications. This potential is due to their user-friendly features, such as low temperature, low risk of arcing, operation at atmospheric pressure, easy handheld operation, and low concentration of ozone generation. Recent experimental observations indicate that an ionization wave exists and propagates along the plasma jet. The plasma jet created by this ionization wave is not a continuous medium but rather consists of a bullet-like-structure known as "Plasma Bullet". More interestingly, these plasma bullets actually have a donut-shaped makeup. The nature of the plasma bullet is especially interesting because it propagates in the ambient air at supersonic velocities without any externally applied electric field. In this dissertation, experimental insights are reported regarding the physical and chemical characteristics of the APLTPJs. The dynamics of the plasma bullet are investigated by means of a high-speed ICCD camera. A plasma bullet propagation model based on the streamer theory is confirmed with adequate explanations. It is also found that a secondary discharge, ignited by the charge accumulation on the dielectric electrode surfaces at the end of the applied voltage, interrupts the plasma bullet propagation due to an opposing current along the ionization channel. The reason for this interesting phenomenon is explained in detail. The plasma bullet comes to an end when the helium mole fraction along the ionization channel, or applied voltage, or both, are less than some critical values. The presence of an inert gas channel in the surrounding air, such as helium or argon, has a critical role in plasma bullet formation and propagation. For this reason, a fluid dynamics study is employed by a commercially available simulation software, COMSOL, based on finite element method. Spatio

  18. Pulmonary and heart diseases with inhalation of atmospheric pressure plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Murata, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Kondo, Akane; Mori, Akira

    2012-10-01

    We examined blood pressure in the abdominal aorta of mini pig under plasma inhalation of atmospheric pressure plasma flow. The coaxial atmospheric pressure plasma source has a tungsten wire inside a glass capillary, that is surrounded by a grounded tubular electrode. Plasma was generated under the following conditions; applied voltage: 8 kVpp, frequency: 3 kHz, and helium (He) gas flow rate: 1 L/min. On the other hand, sphygmomanometry of a blood vessel proceeded using a device comprising a disposable force transducer, and a bedside monitor for simultaneous electrocardiography and signal pressure measurements. We directly measured Nitric oxide (NO) using a catheter-type NO sensor placed in the coronary sinus through an angiography catheter from the abdomen. Blood pressure decreased from 110/65 to 90/40 mm Hg in the animals in vivo under plasma inhalation. The NO concentration in the abdominal aorta like the blood pressure, reached a maximum value at about 40 s and then gradually decreased.

  19. Atmospheric pressure as a natural climate regulator for a terrestrial planet with a biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, King-Fai; Pahlevan, Kaveh; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Yung, Yuk L

    2009-06-16

    Lovelock and Whitfield suggested in 1982 that, as the luminosity of the Sun increases over its life cycle, biologically enhanced silicate weathering is able to reduce the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) so that the Earth's surface temperature is maintained within an inhabitable range. As this process continues, however, between 100 and 900 million years (Ma) from now the CO(2) concentration will reach levels too low for C(3) and C(4) photosynthesis, signaling the end of the solar-powered biosphere. Here, we show that atmospheric pressure is another factor that adjusts the global temperature by broadening infrared absorption lines of greenhouse gases. A simple model including the reduction of atmospheric pressure suggests that the life span of the biosphere can be extended at least 2.3 Ga into the future, more than doubling previous estimates. This has important implications for seeking extraterrestrial life in the Universe. Space observations in the infrared region could test the hypothesis that atmospheric pressure regulates the surface temperature on extrasolar planets.

  20. Direct probe atmospheric pressure photoionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening of flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we develop fast screening methods for flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste based on direct probe (DP) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high-resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. DP-APPI is reported for the first time in this study, and DP-APCI that has been scarcely exploited is optimized for comparison. DP-APPI was more selective than DP-APCI and also more sensitive for the most hydrophobic compounds. No sample treatment was necessary, and only a minimal amount of sample (few milligrams) was used for analysis that was performed within a few minutes. Both methods were applied to the analysis of plastic products, electronic waste, and car interiors. Polybrominated diphenylethers, new brominated flame retardants, and organophosphorus flame retardants were present in most of the samples. The combination of DP with HR mass spectra and data processing based on mass accuracy and isotopic patterns allowed the unambiguous identification of chemicals at low levels of about 0.025 % (w/w). Under untargeted screening, resorcinol bis(biphenylphosphate) and bisphenol A bis(bisphenylphosphate) were identified in many of the consumer products of which literature data are still very limited.

  1. LC-MS analysis of estradiol in human serum and endometrial tissue: Comparison of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Desai, Reena; Harwood, D Tim; Handelsman, David J; Poutanen, Matti; Auriola, Seppo

    2013-09-01

    Accurate measurement of estradiol (E2) is important in clinical diagnostics and research. High sensitivity methods are critical for specimens with E2 concentrations at low picomolar levels, such as serum of men, postmenopausal women and children. Achieving the required assay performance with LC-MS is challenging due to the non-polar structure and low proton affinity of E2. Previous studies suggest that ionization has a major role for the performance of E2 measurement, but comparisons of different ionization techniques for the analysis of clinical samples are not available. In this study, female serum and endometrium tissue samples were used to compare electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) in both polarities. APPI was found to have the most potential for E2 analysis, with a quantification limit of 1 fmol on-column. APCI and ESI could be employed in negative polarity, although being slightly less sensitive than APPI. In the presence of biological background, ESI was found to be highly susceptible to ion suppression, while APCI and APPI were largely unaffected by the sample matrix. Irrespective of the ionization technique, background interferences were observed when using the multiple reaction monitoring transitions commonly employed for E2 (m/z 271 > 159; m/z 255 > 145). These unidentified interferences were most severe in serum samples, varied in intensity between ionization techniques and required efficient chromatographic separation in order to achieve specificity for E2.

  2. Simulation of atmospheric pressure microplasma in Ar on the basis of heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masanori; Yagisawa, Takashi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Makabe, Toshiaki

    2011-10-01

    In a decade, atmospheric pressure microplasmas have been applied to wide range of fields based on the characteristics of high plasma density. The underlying mechanism for sustaining a stable glow discharge, however, is not well understood. In this study, the microplasma characteristics at atmospheric pressure are numerically investigated, particularly focusing on a heat transfer in the whole system. We consider a capacitively coupled plasma with the characteristic size of several hundred micrometers, driven by radio frequency (13.56 MHz) in a cylindrical reactor under atmospheric pressure of pure Ar. A plasma fluid model is coupled with a neutral gas dynamics model including the temperature and flow in gas phase. A wall heating caused by energetic ions and metastables coming from the plasma is also incorporated in the model. Under a constant gas pressure, the local depletion of a neutral gas density occurs due to a gas heating, simply shown by ideal gas law. The influence of the local gas density on the structure of the microplasma will be mainly discussed in a periodic steady state.

  3. The initial responses of hot liquid water released under low atmospheric pressures: Experimental insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargery, Alistair Simon; Lane, Stephen J.; Barrett, Alexander; Wilson, Lionel; Gilbert, Jennie S.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to simulate the shallow ascent and surface release of water and brines under low atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure was treated as an independent variable and water temperature and vapor pressure were examined as a function of total pressure variation down to low pressures. The physical and thermal responses of water to reducing pressure were monitored with pressure transducers, temperature sensors and visible imaging. Data were obtained for pure water and for solutions with dissolved NaCl or CO 2. The experiments showed the pressure conditions under which the water remained liquid, underwent a rapid phase change to the gas state by boiling, and then solidified because of removal of latent heat. Liquid water is removed from phase equilibrium by decompression. Solid, liquid and gaseous water are present simultaneously, and not at the 611 Pa triple point, because dynamic interactions between the phases maintain unstable temperature gradients. After phase changes stop, the system reverts to equilibrium with its surroundings. Surface and shallow subsurface pressure conditions were simulated for Mars and the icy satellites of the outer Solar System. Freezing by evaporation in the absence of wind on Mars is shown to be unlikely for pure water at pressures greater than c. 670 Pa, and for saline solutions at pressures greater than c. 610 Pa. The physical nature of ice that forms depends on the salt content. Ice formed from saline water at pressures less than c. 610 Pa could be similar to terrestrial sea ice. Ice formed from pure water at pressures less than c. 100 Pa develops a low thermal conductivity and a 'honeycomb' structure created by sublimation. This ice could have a density as low as c. 450 kg m -3 and a thermal conductivity as low as 1.6 W m -1 K -1, and is highly reflective, more akin to snow than the clear ice from which it grew. The physical properties of ice formed from either pure or saline water at low pressures will

  4. An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters 90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are interbedded with river deposits, and so the atmospheric state they record corresponds to an era when Mars was substantially wetter than the present, probably >3.7 Ga. An important caveat is that our technique cannot exclude atmospheric collapse-reinflation cycles on timescales much shorter than the sedimentary basin-filling time, so it sets an upper limit on the density of a thick

  5. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  6. Characteristics of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge with dielectric electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S., E-mail: shussain@uos.edu.pk, E-mail: shussainuos@yahoo.com; Qazi, H. I. A.; Badar, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15

    An experimental investigation to characterize the properties and highlight the benefits of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge (rf DBD) with dielectric electrodes fabricated by anodizing aluminium substrate is presented. The current-voltage characteristics and millisecond images are used to distinguish the α and γ modes. This atmospheric rf DBD is observed to retain the discharge volume without constriction in γ mode. Optical emission spectroscopy demonstrates that the large discharge current leads to more abundant reactive species in this plasma source.

  7. A novel approach to scanning electron microscopy at ambient atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ominami, Yusuke; Kawanishi, Shinsuke; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Ito, Sukehiro

    2015-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for observing samples at ambient atmospheric pressure is introduced in this study. An additional specimen chamber with a small window is inserted in the main specimen chamber, and the window is separated with a thin membrane or diaphragm allowing electron beam propagation. Close proximity of the sample to the membrane enables the detection of back-scattered electrons sufficient for imaging. In addition to the empirical imaging data, a probability analysis of the un-scattered fraction of the incident electron beam further supports the feasibility of atmospheric SEM imaging over a controlled membrane-sample distance.

  8. Could Nano-Structured Materials Enable the Improved Pressure Vessels for Deep Atmospheric Probes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, D.; Fuentes, A.; Bienstock, B.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the use of Nano-Structured Materials to enable pressure vessel structures for deep atmospheric probes is shown. The topics include: 1) High Temperature/Pressure in Key X-Environments; 2) The Case for Use of Nano-Structured Materials Pressure Vessel Design; 3) Carbon based Nanomaterials; 4) Nanotube production & purification; 5) Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes; 6) CNT-composites: Example (Polymer); 7) Effect of Loading sequence on Composite with 8% by volume; 8) Models for Particulate Reinforced Composites; 9) Fullerene/Ti Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 10) Fullerene/Epoxy Composite for High Strength-Insulating Layer; 11) Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composites; 12) Tensile Strength for Discontinuous Fiber Composite; 13) Ti + SWNT Composites: Thermal/Mechanical; 14) Ti + SWNT Composites: Tensile Strength; and 15) Nano-structured Shell for Pressure Vessels.

  9. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma functionalized dental implant for enhancement of bacterial resistance and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jeong, Won-Seok; Seo, Seog-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2017-03-01

    Even though roughened titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys have been clinically used as dental implant, they encourage bacterial adhesion, leading to failure of the initial stability. Here, the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) functionalized Ti and Ti alloy were investigated to promote cellular activities but inhibit the initial attachment of the adherent pioneer bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis, without topographical changes. After the produced radicals from NTAPPJ were characterized, bacterial adhesion to specimens was assessed by PrestoBlue assay and live-dead staining with or without the NTAPPJ functionalizing. After the surface was characterized using optical profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle analysis, the ions released from the specimens were investigated. In vitro initial cell attachment (4h or 24h) with adhesion images and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, 14 days) measurements were performed using rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The initial bacterial adhesion to the Ti and Ti alloy was significantly inhibited after NTAPPJ functionalizing (padhesion-resistance effect was induced by carbon cleaning, which was dependent on the working gas used on the Ti specimens (nitrogen>ammonia and air, padhesion with well-developed vinculin localization and consequent ALP activity at 14days to the NTAPPJ-functionalized specimens were superior to the non-treated specimens. For the promising success of dental implants, NTAPPJ functionalizing is suggested as a novel surface modification technique; this technique can help ensure the success of integration between the dental implants and bone tissues with less concern of inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its applications for disinfection and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Sarani, Abdollah; Gonzales, Xavier F

    2013-01-01

    In this work an atmospheric pressure non-thermal resistive barrier (RB) plasma jet was constructed, characterized and was applied for biomedical applications. The RB plasma source can operate in both DC (battery) as well as in standard 60/50 Hz low frequency AC excitation, and it functions effectively in both direct and indirect plasma exposure configurations. The characteristics of the RB plasma jet such as electrical properties, plasma gas temperature and nitric oxides concentration were determined using voltage-current characterization, optical emission spectroscopy and gas analyzer diagnostic techniques. Plasma discharge power of 26.33 W was calculated from voltage-current characterization. An optical emission spectroscopy was applied and the gas temperature which is equivalent to the nitrogen rotational (Trot) temperatures was measured. The concentrations of the reactive oxygen species at different spatial distances from the tip of the plasma jet were measured and the ppm concentration of NO is at the preferred level for a wide range of standard biomedical treatment applications. The ppm values of nitric oxides after the cooling unit are observed to be of the same order of magnitude as compared to plasma jet. The portable RB plasma source was tested to be very effective for decontamination and disinfection of a wide range of foodborne and opportunistic nosocomial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus and the preliminary results are presented. The effects of indirect exposure of the portable RBP source on monocytic leukemia cancer cells (THP-1) were also tested and the results demonstrate that a preference for apoptosis in plasma treated THP-1 cells under particular plasma parameters and dosage levels.

  11. Effect of ambient pressure and radiation reabsorption of atmosphere on the flame spreading over thermally thin combustibles in microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文峰; 胡文瑞

    2003-01-01

    For the flame spread over thermally thin combustibles in an atmosphere, if the atmosphere cannot emit and absorb the thermal radiation (e.g. for atmosphere of O2-N2), the conductive heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface dominates the flame spread at lower ambient atmosphere. As the ambient pressure increases, the flame spread rate increases, and the radiant heat transfer from the flame to the fuel surface gradually becomes the dominant driving force for the flame spread. In contrast, if the atmosphere is able to emit and absorb the thermal radiation (e.g. for atmosphere of O2-CO2), at lower pressure, the heat transfer from flame to the fuel surface is enhanced by the radiation reabsorption of the atmosphere at the leading edge of the flame, and both conduction and thermal radiation play important roles in the mechanism of flame spread. With the increase in ambient pressure, the oxygen diffuses more quickly from ambient atmosphere into the flame, the chemical reaction in the flame is enhanced, and the flame spread rate increases. When the ambient pressure is greater than a critical value, the thermal radiation from the flame to the solid surface is hampered by the radiation reabsorption of ambient atmosphere with the further increase in ambient pressure. As a result, with the increase in ambient pressure, the flame spread rate decreases and the heat conduction gradually dominates the flame spread over the fuel surface.

  12. Mechanisms of a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy involving atmospheric pressure plasma-mediated apoptosis and DNA strand break formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed for a variety of biomedical applications due to its chemically reactive components. Recently, the plasma has emerged as a promising novel cancer therapy based on its ability to selectively ablate cancer cells while leaving normal cells essentially unaffected. The therapeutic effect of plasma is attributed to intracellular generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) leading to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and to activation of the DNA damage checkpoint signaling pathway via severe DNA strand break formation. However, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for appropriate activation of these physiological events and which pathway is more crucial for plasma-mediated cytotoxicity have not been clarified. Understanding the molecular link between ROS/RNS-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage-involved chromosome instability is critical for the development of more efficacious therapeutic strategies for selective killing of diverse cancer cells.

  13. High frequency glow discharges at atmospheric pressure with micro-structured electrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars-Hibbe, L.; Sichler, P.; Schrader, C.; Lucas, N.; Gericke, K.-H.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2005-02-01

    Micro-structured electrode (MSE) arrays allow the generation of large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. The electrode widths, thicknesses and distances in the micrometre range are realized by means of modern micro-machining and galvanic techniques. The electrode distance, the gap width d, is small enough to generate sufficiently high electric field strengths to ignite gas discharges by applying only moderate radio frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) voltages (80-390 V in Ne, He, Ar, N2 and air). The non-thermal plasma system is characterized by a special probe measuring the electric parameters. We tested MSE arrays with d = 70, 25 and 15 µm. The MSE driven plasmas show a different behaviour from conventional RF discharge plasmas. Due to the very small electrode gap width we can describe the behaviour of the charged particles in the RF field of our system with the dc Townsend breakdown theory, depending on the pressure range and gas. With decreasing pressure, the gas discharges, especially in Ne and He, are increasingly dominated by field electron emission. With the MSE arrays as plasma sources several applications were developed and successfully tested, e.g. decomposition of waste gases and sterilization of food packaging materials at atmospheric pressure.

  14. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L C; Ninomiya, S; Hiraoka, K

    2016-06-01

    Pressure is a key parameter for an ionization source. In this Special Feature article, Lee Chuin Chen and colleagues review super-atmospheric pressure ionization MS with electrospray, corona-discharge-based chemical ionization, and field desorption. They routinely run their mass spectrometer with ion source pressures ranging from several to several tens of atmospheres. A number of strategies have been used to preserve the high vacuum of the instrument while working with a high-pressure (HP) ion source. A recent prototype uses a booster pump with variable pumping speed added to the first pumping stage of the mass spectrometer to regulate a constant vacuum pressure. Further, a new HP-ESI source allowing rapid (a few seconds) online protein digestion MS is also reported. Dr. Lee Chuin Chen is Associate Professor in the Department of Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Yamanashi (Yamanashi, Japan). His main research interest is the development of novel mass spectrometric methods for in-situ medical diagnosis.

  15. RANDOM ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AT THE FREE SURFACE AND MICROSEISMS IN DEEP OCEAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A general stochastic model of the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface was proposed, in which the pressure variation was represented by a spectral decomposition through a random process of orthogonal increments. From the basic equations of ideal and incompressible fluid a set of perturbation equations up to second order had been derived and solved. The pressure variation in the flow field had been calculated using the explicit solutions obtained, and which demonstrated a clear relation between the atmospheric pressure and the one at the bottom of deep ocean. It can be seen that there is a part of the pressure variation which is not attenuating with the depth. The result had been compared with those of Longuet-Higgins and Kadota et al. and all previous results are contained in the solution given in this artice. The restriction on the previous works with regard to the probability law has been removed, and all conclusions are deduced without specific assumptions. The flexibility of the proposed model allows for further generalization and extension in the physical aspects and statistical treatment.

  16. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  17. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopic Study on Reaction between Self-Assembled Monolayers and Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is becoming increasingly adopted in bioapplications such as plasma medicine and agriculture. This study investigates the interaction between plasma and molecules in living tissues, focusing on plasma-protein interactions. To this end, the reaction of air-pressure air plasma with NH2-terminated self-assembled monolayer is investigated by infrared spectroscopy in multiple internal reflection geometry. The atmospheric-pressure plasma decomposed the NH2 components, the characteristic units of proteins. The decomposition is attributed to water clusters generated in the plasma, indicating that protein decomposition by plasma requires humid air.

  18. Enhancement in Surface Atmospheric Pressure Variability Associated with a Major Geomagnetic Storm

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M; Athale, S U; Tinmaker, M I R

    1998-01-01

    Observational studies indicate that there is a close association between geomagnetic storm and meteorological parameters. Geomagnetic field lines follow closely the isobars of surface pressure . A Physical mechanism linking upper atmospheric geomagnetic storm disturbances with tropospheric weather has been proposed by the author and her group where it is postulated that vertical mixing by turbulent eddy fluctuations results in the net transport upward of positive charges originating from lower levels accompanied simultaneously by downward flow of negative charges from higher levels. The present study reports enhancement of high frequency (<15 days period) fluctuations in daily surface pressure during March 1989 in association with major geomagnetic storm (Ap index = 246) on 13 march 1989.

  19. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Leipold, Frank; Morgen, P.; Bardenshtein, A.; Krebs, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonicirradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around 30 kHz with the sound pressure level of approximately 155 dB were introduced vertically to the GFRP surface through a cylindrical waveguide. The polar component of the surface energy was almost unch...

  20. Experimental characterization of an argon laminar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois-Bertrand, Emilie; De Izarra, Charles, E-mail: charles.de_izarra@univ-orleans.fr [Groupe de Recherche sur l' Energetique des Milieux Ionises, UMR6606 Universite d' Orleans - CNRS, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, rue Gaston Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES Cedex (France)

    2011-10-19

    This paper deals with a dc laminar pure argon plasma jet operating at atmospheric pressure in ambient air that was experimentally studied in order to obtain temperature and velocity. Plasma jet temperature was evaluated by optical emission spectroscopy and the plasma jet velocity was determined by various methods using a pressure sensor. It is shown that the maximum plasma jet temperature is 15 000 K and the maximum plasma jet velocity is 250 m s{sup -1} at the plasma jet centre. Finally, a study of the ambient air amount entrained into the plasma jet is presented.

  1. Atmospheric Pressure non-thermal plasmas for surface treatment of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Feng; Wen, Chun-Hsiang; Wei, Hsiao-Kuan; Kou, Chwung-Shan

    2006-10-01

    Interest has grown over the past few years in applying atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasmas to surface treatment. In this work, we used an asymmetric glow dielectric-barrier discharge (GDBD), at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen, to improve the surface hydrophilicity of three kinds of polymer films, biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), polyimide (PI), and triacetyl cellulose (TAC). This set-up consists of two asymmetric electrodes covered by dielectrics. And to prevent the filamentary discharge occur, the frequency, gas flow rate and uniformity of gas flow distribution should be carefully controlled. The discharge performance is monitored through an oscilloscope, which is connected to a high voltage probe and a current monitor. The physical and chemical properties of polymer surfaces before and after GDBD treatment were analyzed via water contact angle (CA) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques.

  2. Plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, A.; Leipold, F.; Kusano, Y.

    2005-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in Ar/NH3 (0.1 - 10%) mixtures with a parallel plate electrode geometry was studied. The plasma was investigated by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the UV spectral range. Discharge current and voltage were measured as well. UV...... absorption spectroscopy was also employed for the detection of stable products in the exhaust gas. To clarify the different processes for ammonia decomposition, N-2(2 - 10%) was added to the plasma. Modeling of the chemical kinetics in an Ar/NH3 plasma was performed as well. The dominant stable products...... of an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH3 DBD are H-2, N-2 and N2H4. The hydrazine (N2H4) concentration in the plasma and in the exhaust gases at various ammonia concentrations and different discharge powers was measured. Thermal N2H4 decomposition into NH2 radicals may be used for NOx reduction processes....

  3. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  4. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TOURISTS AND TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN THE PRAHOVA CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAVRIŞ LOREDANA-ELENA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the climate literature it is known that the atmospheric temperature directly and permanently acts on the all organisms and all geographical environment components, influencing the wellness of the weather sensitive persons and implicitly the wellness of tourists in this region. In the same time, its evolution is a good indicator in shaping the short and medium term meteorological forecast, considering that the region chosen for research is a very tripper one, especially during the winter season when the atmospheric pressure variation trend is much more pronounced. Within this framework, the present paper tries to develop a climatic diagnosis on the reference climate parameters (annual and monthly average pressure values, seasonal values, minimum and maximum absolute values and their emergence probability but also the non-periodic variability based on data recorded during 1961-2007 at Câmpina, Sinaia 1500, Predeal, Omu Peak and Braşov weather stations.

  5. Application of atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry to cover gas analysis in fast reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Harano, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes to apply atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry to on-line real-time monitoring gas analysis in fast reactors. The experimental results have shown that the quantitative analysis of the low ppt level can be achieved for all isotopes of krypton and xenon contained in argon except for the species, sup 7 sup 8 Kr, sup 8 sup 0 Kr, sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Xe and sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 Xe that suffer interference by cluster ions. The excellent sensitivity is attributed to an ion concentration effect in an atmospheric pressure ionization process driven by the difference in ionization potential between argon and krypton or xenon. The detection limits (3 sigma) are estimated to be 20 ppt for sup 8 sup 4 Kr and 2.3 ppt for sup 1 sup 3 sup 2 Xe in the present condition.

  6. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Sawada, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-cho, Kanzawa-city, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Insitute for Fusion Science, Toki-city, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  7. Synergistic effects of atmospheric pressure plasma-emitted components on DNA oligomers: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edengeiser, Eugen; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bründermann, Erik; Schneider, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have become of increasing importance in sterilization processes especially with the growing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria. Albeit the potential for technological application is obvious, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation. X-jet technology separates plasma-generated reactive particles and photons, thus allowing the investigation of their individual and joint effects on DNA. Raman spectroscopy shows that particles and photons cause different modifications in DNA single and double strands. The treatment with the combination of particles and photons does not only result in cumulative, but in synergistic effects. Profilometry confirms that etching is a minor contributor to the observed DNA damage in vitro. Schematics of DNA oligomer treatment with cold atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  8. Discharge Characteristics in Atmospheric Pressure Glow Surface Discharge in Helium Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-Chen; WANG Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atmospheric pressure glow discharge is observed for the first time in a surface discharge generator in flowing helium. Electrical and optical methods are used to measure the characteristics of atmospheric pressure glow discharge for different voltages. The results show that discharge current waveforms are asymmetric for the different polarities of the applied voltage. A continuous discharge profile with a width of several microseconds appears for per half cycle of the applied voltage when the voltage is increased to a certain value. The short-pulsed discharge and the continuous current would result from the Townsend breakdown and glow discharge mechanisms respectively. The properties of surface discharge in stagnant helium are completely different from that in flowing helium.

  9. Gas Diffusion Barriers Prepared by Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Enhanced ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Theirich, Detlef; Pack, Sven; Kocak, Firat; Schlamm, Daniel; Hasselmann, Tim; Fahl, Henry; Räupke, André; Gargouri, Hassan; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we report on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gas permeation barriers prepared by spatial ALD (SALD) at atmospheric pressure. We compare the growth characteristics and layer properties using trimethylaluminum (TMA) in combination with an Ar/O2 remote atmospheric pressure plasma for different substrate velocities and different temperatures. The resulting Al2O3 films show ultralow water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) on the order of 10(-6) gm(-2)d(-1). In notable contrast, plasma based layers already show good barrier properties at low deposition temperatures (75 °C), while water based processes require a growth temperature above 100 °C to achieve equally low WVTRs. The activation energy for the water permeation mechanism was determined to be 62 kJ/mol.

  10. Electrical and optical properties of Ar/NH3 atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zheng-Shi; Yao, Cong-Wei; Chen, Si-Le; Zhang, Guan-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by the Penning effect, we obtain a glow-like plasma jet by mixing ammonia (NH3) into argon (Ar) gas under atmospheric pressure. The basic electrical and optical properties of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) are investigated. It can be seen that the discharge mode transforms from filamentary to glow-like when a little ammonia is added into the pure argon. The electrical and optical analyses contribute to the explanation of this phenomenon. The discharge mode, power, and current density are analyzed to understand the electrical behavior of the APPJ. Meanwhile, the discharge images, APPJ's length, and the components of plasma are also obtained to express its optical characteristics. Finally, we diagnose several parameters, such as gas temperature, electron temperature, and density, as well as the density number of metastable argon atoms of Ar/NH3 APPJ to help judge the usability in its applications.

  11. Spatially resolved simulation of a radio frequency driven micro atmospheric pressure plasma jet and its effluent

    CERN Document Server

    Hemke, Torben; Gebhardt, Markus; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency driven plasma jets are frequently employed as efficient plasma sources for surface modification and other processes at atmospheric pressure. The \\textit{radio-frequency driven micro-scaled atmospheric pressure plasma jet} ($\\mu$APPJ) is a particular variant of that concept whose geometry allows direct optical access. In this work, the characteristics of a $\\mu$APPJ operated with a helium-oxygen mixture and its interaction with a helium environment are studied by numerical simulation. The density and temperature of the electrons, as well as the concentration of all reactive species are studied both in the jet itself and in its effluent. It is found that the effluent is essentially free of charge carriers but contains a substantial amount of activated oxygen (O, O$_3$ and O$_2(^1\\Delta)$).

  12. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  13. Effect of Pressure Broadening on Molecular Absorption Cross Sections in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Hedges, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution, and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross sections. We use H$_2$O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low resolution spectra (R$\\lesssim$100) for re...

  14. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Emma J; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S; Lavrentieva, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H$_2{}^{16}$O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H$_2$- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number $J$ up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300 - 2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for $J$\\p $J$\\pp-dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution ($\\Delta \\tilde{\

  15. REFERENCE ON THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES: DENSITY AND VISCOSITY OF WATER FOR ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Yusibani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A reference on thermophysical properties, density and viscosity, for water at atmospheric pressure has been developed in MS Excel (as a macros. Patterson’s density equations and Kestin’s viscosity equations have been chosen as a basic equation in the VBA programming as a user-defined function. These results have been compared with REFPROF as a wellknow standart reference

  16. Collaborative Research: Atmospheric Pressure Microplasma Chemistry-Photon Synergies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Combining the effects of low temperature, atmospheric pressure microplasmas and microplasma photon sources shows greatly expanded range of applications of each of them. The plasma sources create active chemical species and these can be activated further by addition of photons and associated photochemistry. There are many ways to combine the effects of plasma chemistry and photochemistry, especially if there are multiple phases present. The project combines construction of appropriate test experimental systems, various spectroscopic diagnostics and mathematical modeling.

  17. Behavior of ZnO-coated alumina dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Meng; Tao, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    A complete investigation of the discharge behavior of dielectric barrier discharge device using ZnO-coated dielectric layer in atmospheric pressure is made. Highly conductive ZnO film was deposited on the dielectric surface. Discharge characteristic of the dielectric barrier discharge are examined in different aspects. Experimental result shows that discharge uniformity is improved definitely in the case of ZnO-coated dielectric barrier discharge. And relevant theoretical models and explanation are presented to describing its discharge physics.

  18. Modeling of asymmetric pulsed phenomena in dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha Yan [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang Huijuan [School of Mathematics and Physics, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003 (China); Wang Xiaofei [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Asymmetric current pulses in dielectric-barrier atmospheric-pressure glow discharges are investigated by a self-consistent, one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the glow mode and Townsend mode can coexist in the asymmetric discharge even though the gas gap is rather large. The reason for this phenomenon is that the residual space charge plays the role of anode and reduces the gap width, resulting in the formation of a Townsend discharge.

  19. An Experimental Petrological Study of Gabbro in Chintan, Taipei County, at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wei Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A gab bro from Chintan, Sindian, was subjected to experiments at atmospheric pressure to study the fractional crystallization of the gabbroic melt. The range of experimental temperatures was from 1120 to 1262°C, and the durations were from about 16 to 150 hours. The mineral phases and the glass compositions in the quenching products were analyzed with the SEM-EDS.

  20. Ionic wind generation by a wire-cylinder-plate corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Colas, Dorian,; Ferret, Antoine; Pai, David,; Lacoste, Deanna,; Laux, C.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A wire-cylinder-plate electrode configuration is presented to generate ionic wind with a dc corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. The objective of the work is to maximize the power supplied to the flow in order to increase acceleration while avoiding breakdown. Thus, the proposed experimental setup addresses the problem of decoupling the mechanism of ion generation from that of ion acceleration. Using a wire-plate configuration as a reference, we have focuse...

  1. TiOxNy coatings grown by atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Francis; Duminica, Florin-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Titanium oxynitride coatings were deposited on various substrates by an original atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process using titanium tetra-iso-propoxide as titanium and oxygen precursors and hydrazine as a nitrogen source. The films composition was monitored by controlling the N2H4 mole fraction in the initial reactive gas phase. The variation of the N content in the films results in significant changes in morphological, structur...

  2. Physical features of atmospheric pressure microdischarge system with vortex gas flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prysiazhnevych Iryna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The parameters for microdischarges of plasma medicine in air and argon vortex flows at atmospheric pressure for different shapes of electrodes (outlet nozzle and axis electrode diameters ratio set have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of the designed systems have been analyzed, the parameters of the generated jets plasma have been investigated by means of the optical emission spectroscopy, and the form of plasma jets has been studied by using video camera.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of HMX decomposition and application of results. [at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutle, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The decomposition of cyclotramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) in the solid and liquid phase was studied by isothermal and nonisothermal heating at atmospheric pressure. Decomposition rates of solid HMX changed with sample size and gaseous environment. Kinetic parameters were obtained from weight loss measurements in the temperature range 229 C - 269 C. These tests also yielded highly porous solid residues. Qualitative aspects of solid and liquid phase decomposition of HMX with additives were also investigated in isothermal and nonisothermal tests.

  4. Simulation of low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Lorant, Christophe; Descamps, Pierre; De Wilde, Juray; 1st BeLux workshop on “Coating, Materials, surfaces and Interfaces

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactors is challenging due to the coupling of the fluid dynamics, the chemical reactions and the electric field and the stiffness of the resulting mathematical system. The model equations and the rigorous model reduction to reduce the stiffness are addressed in this paper. Considering pure nitrogen plasma, simulations with two configurations are discussed.

  5. Characterization of an atmospheric pressure air plasma source for polymer surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujun; Tang, Jiansheng

    2013-10-01

    An atmospheric pressure air plasma source was generated through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It was used to modify polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) surfaces with very high throughput. An equivalent circuit model was used to calculate the peak average electron density. The emission spectrum from the plasma was taken and the main peaks in the spectrum were identified. The ozone density in the down plasma region was estimated by Absorption Spectroscopy. NSF and ARC-ODU

  6. Gas-temperature-dependent generation of cryoplasma jet under atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Yuri; Choi, Jai Hyuk; Tomai, Takaaki; Terashima, Kazuo

    2008-09-01

    Plasma with a gas temperature below room temperature is not yet fully understood although it is expected to be an attractive tool for applications to material processing. In the present work, gas-temperature-dependent generation of a cryoplasma jet was studied. So far, we have generated a helium cryoplasma jet (296-5K) under atmospheric pressure. At gas temperatures below 20K, the helium excimer, He2, was observed clearly from by optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Self-Organized Filaments in Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-Fang; LI Xue-Chen; YINZeng-Qian; QIAN Sheng-Fa; OUYANG Ji-Ting; WANG Long

    2001-01-01

    The self-organized filament pattern created by dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure is investigated experimentally. The density and dimension of filament are analysed quantitatively. The experimental results show that the distance between neighbouring filaments decreases with the increased applied voltage or with the decreased width of the gas gap. Also, the diameter of the filament decreases with the increased applied voltages or with the decreased width of the gas gap.

  8. Concentric-Ring Patterns in a Helium Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Wan-Li; WANG De-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    We perform the theoretical simulation of the concentric-ring patterns between two parallel electrodes covered with thin dielectric layers within the scope of a two-dimensional diffusion-drift model at atmospheric pressure. The time evolution of the discharge patterns is studied and the concentric-ring patterns with different radii shift alternately. The spatial-temporal evolution of electron density in a cycle at different time scales is performed.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Cleaning Shown to Remove Organic Contaminants at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and filed for a patent on a method to produce atomic oxygen at atmospheric pressure by using a direct current arc in a gas flow mixture of oxygen and helium. A prototype device has been tested for its ability to remove various soot residues from surfaces exposed to fire, and various varnishes such as acrylic and egg white.

  10. Characterization of a Dielectric Barrier Plasma Gun Discharging at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-Qiu; GE Yuan-Jing; ZHANG Yue-Fei; CHEN Guang-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We develop a plasma gun based on dielectric barrier discharge and working at atmospheric pressure. A theoretical model to predict the gun discharge voltage is built, which is in agreement with the experimental results. After investigating the characterization of discharging gun and utilizing it for polymerization, we find that the gun can be used as a source to generate a stable uniform plasma for different plasma-processing technologies.

  11. Properties of Atmospheric Pressure Ar Plasma Jet Depending on Treated Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Ricci Castro, Alonso H.; Kostov, Konstantin G.

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet operated in argon was utilized to modify surfaces of glass, acrylic, and PTFE dielectrics. This paper describes the influence of the dielectric substrate on operation and properties of plasma. Two modes of operation (each of those have two patterns) were described. The transition from one mode to another, values of the dissipated power, and spreading of plasma over the dielectric surfaces strongly depended on the substrate material. Additionally, three methods of plasma spreading estimation were presented and discussed.

  12. Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge Treatment on Polymerization of Acrylic Fabric and Its Printing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M El-Zeer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic fibers have been treated by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD plasma in open air to enhance surface antistatic properties. The treated surfaces are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transition Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM. Plasma treatment of acrylic fabric has been found to increase the surface roughness, modify the nature and density of surface functionalities, and drastically improve the wettability and antistatic ability of acrylic fibers.

  13. Using dimers to measure biosignatures and atmospheric pressure for terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Claire, Mark; Crisp, Dave

    2014-02-01

    We present a new method to probe atmospheric pressure on Earth-like planets using (O2-O2) dimers in the near-infrared. We also show that dimer features could be the most readily detectable biosignatures for Earth-like atmospheres and may even be detectable in transit transmission with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The absorption by dimers changes more rapidly with pressure and density than that of monomers and can therefore provide additional information about atmospheric pressures. By comparing the absorption strengths of rotational and vibrational features to the absorption strengths of dimer features, we show that in some cases it may be possible to estimate the pressure at the reflecting surface of a planet. This method is demonstrated by using the O2 A band and the 1.06 μm dimer feature, either in transmission or reflected spectra. It works best for planets around M dwarfs with atmospheric pressures between 0.1 and 10 bar and for O2 volume mixing ratios above 50% of Earth's present-day level. Furthermore, unlike observations of Rayleigh scattering, this method can be used at wavelengths longer than 0.6 μm and is therefore potentially applicable, although challenging, to near-term planet characterization missions such as JWST. We also performed detectability studies for JWST transit transmission spectroscopy and found that the 1.06 and 1.27 μm dimer features could be detectable (SNR>3) for an Earth analogue orbiting an M5V star at a distance of 5 pc. The detection of these features could provide a constraint on the atmospheric pressure of an exoplanet and serve as biosignatures for oxygenic photosynthesis. We calculated the required signal-to-noise ratios to detect and characterize O2 monomer and dimer features in direct imaging-reflected spectra and found that signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 at a spectral resolving power of R=100 would be required.

  14. Atmospheric pressure MALDI for the noninvasive characterization of carbonaceous ink from Renaissance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Marzia; Rapisarda, Alessandro; D'Agata, Roberta; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    The analytical methods that are usually applied to determine the compositions of inks from ancient manuscripts usually focus on inorganic components, as in the case of iron gall ink. In this work, we describe the use of atmospheric pressure/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (AP/MALDI-MS) as a spatially resolved analytical technique for the study of the organic carbonaceous components of inks used in handwritten parts of ancient books for the first time. Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (L-PAH) were identified in situ in the ink of XVII century handwritten documents. We prove that it is possible to apply MALDI-MS as a suitable microdestructive diagnostic tool for analyzing samples in air at atmospheric pressure, thus simplifying investigations of the organic components of artistic and archaeological objects. The interpretation of the experimental MS results was supported by independent Raman spectroscopic investigations. Graphical abstract Atmospheric pressure/MALDI mass spectrometry detects in situ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the carbonaceous ink of XVII century manuscripts.

  15. Power dissipated in a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet measured by miniaturized electrical probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Judith; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets are used in bio-medicine, because they generate reactive species at a low gas temperature. Knowledge and control of plasma parameters is required for stable and reliable operation. Therefore, measuring dissipated power in these plasmas is necessary. However, this is challenging because the delivered sender power is often orders of magnitudes higher than the power dissipated in the discharge itself. To measure this dissipated power, we built miniaturized electrical probes directly attached to the jet device. We observed that the dissipated power is a more comprehensive parameter than the common parameter voltage: For example, gas temperature and emission line intensities rose exponentially with increasing voltage but linearly with increasing power. Our analyses further revealed that a substantial proportion of the dissipated power is transformed into heat. In conclusion, miniaturized electrical probes give a fundamental insight into the energy balance of atmospheric pressure plasmas. In the future, these probes can also be adapted to different types of atmospheric pressure plasmas. This work was supported by DFG within the frameworks of the Package Project PAK 816.

  16. Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma as an Antibacterial Agent Against Enterococcus Faecalis in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingguang; Yang, Ping; Lu, Xinpei; Xiong, Zilan; Ye, Tao; Xiong, Qing; Sun, Ziyong

    2011-02-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a microorganism that can survive extreme challenges in obturated root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma plume against E. faecalis in vitro. A non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet device which could generate a cold plasma plume carrying a peak current of 300 mA was used. The antibacterial efficacy of this device against E. faecalis and its biofilm under different conditions was detected. The antibacterial efficacy of the plasma against E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was also evaluated. After plasma treatment, the average diameter of inhibition zone on S. aureus and E. faecalis was 2.62±0.26 cm and 1.06±0.30 cm, respectively (P faecalis biofilm (P faecalis were observed after treatment for 2 min. It is concluded that the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma could serve as an effective adjunct to standard endodontic microbial treatment.

  17. Sampling of ions at atmospheric pressure: ion transmission and ion energy studied by simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Simon; Hübner, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Mass spectrometry of ions from atmospheric pressure plasmas is a challenging diagnostic method that has been applied to a large variety of cold plasma sources in the past. However, absolute densities can usually not be obtained, moreover, the process of sampling of ions and neutrals from such a plasma inherently influences the measured composition. These issues are studied in this contribution by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Different numerical domains are sequentially coupled to calculate the ion transmission from the source to the mass analyzer. It is found that the energy of the sampled ions created by a radio-frequency microplasma operated in a He-N2 mixture at atmospheric pressure is of the order of 0.1 eV and that it depends linearly on the ion mass in good agreement with the expectation for seeded particles accelerated in a supersonic expansion. Moreover, the measured ion energy distribution from an afterglow of an atmospheric pressure plasma can be reproduced on basis of the particle trajectories in the sampling system. Eventually, an estimation of the absolute flux of ions to the detector is deduced.

  18. Numerical Simulations of an atmospheric pressure discharge using a two dimensional fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad M.; Turner, Miles M.

    2008-10-01

    We present numerical simulations of a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge using a two-dimensional fluid model with symmetric boundary conditions in pure helium and He-N2 gases at atmospheric pressure. The periodic stationary pattern of electrons and molecular helium ions density is shown at different times during one breakdown pulse for the pure helium gas. The temporal behavior of the helium metastables and excimers species density is examined and their influences on the discharge characteristics are exhibited for an APD. The atmospheric pressure discharge modes (APGD and APTD) are affected with small N2 impurities and the discharge mode structures are described under different operating conditions. The uniform and filamentary behavior of the discharge is controlled with the variable relative permittivity of the dielectric barrier material. The influence of nitrogen impurities plays a major role for the production of the filaments in the after glow phase of He-N2 discharge and the filaments are clearly observed with the increased recombination coefficient of nitrogen ions. The creation and annihilation mechanism of filaments is described with the production and destruction of nitrogen ions at different applied voltages and driving frequencies for a complete cycle. The results of the fluid model are validated by comparison with the experimental atmospheric pressure discharge results in He-N2 plasma discharge.

  19. THE CONCEPT OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERGRADUATE GEOGRAPHY STUDENTS: A PHENOMENOGRAPHIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret TUNA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this study is to determine the geography and geography education students’ perceptions of "atmospheric pressure" by the method of phenomenographic analysis. Total of 150 undergraduate geography students in Marmara University Faculty of Education and Faculty of Arts and Science were included in the study in the academic year 2011-2012. Of 150 students, 103 were male (68.67% and 47 were female (31.33%. Of these students, 57 were studying in the department of geography (38% and 93 (62% were geography education.In the study, a semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. In order to analyze the data, followings stages were conducted respectively: (1 coding and classification, (2 the creation of leading categories, (3 the creation of description categories and (4 creation of description map. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was revealed that the students described atmospheric pressure in eight different categories and six different ways. Among the categories, the metaphor of "atmospheric pressure is the air force that is exerted on the earth" hasthe highest number of metaphors with total of 42 records (28%.

  20. An Experimental Study on Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge in Different Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 詹如娟; 等

    2002-01-01

    Usually,the electrical breakdown of dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) at atmospheric pressure leads to a filamentary non-homogeneous discharge,However,it is also possible to obtain a diffuse DBD in homogeneous form,called atmospheric pressure glow discharge(APGD).We obtained a uniform APGD in helium and in the mixture of argon with alcohol,and studied the electrical characteristics of helium APGD.It if found that the relationship between discharge current and source frequency is different depending on the difference in gas gap when the applied voltage is kept constant.The discharge current shows an increasing trend with the increased frequency when gas gap is 0.8cm ,but the discharge current tends to decrease with the increased frequency when the gas gap increases.The discharge current always increases with the increased applied voltage when the source frequency is kept constant.We also observed a glow-like discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure.

  1. [Investigation on the gas temperature of a plasma jet at atmospheric pressure by emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-chen; Yuan, Ning; Jia, Peng-ying; Niu, Dong-ying

    2010-11-01

    A plasma jet of a dielectric barrier discharge in coaxial electrode was used to produce plasma plume in atmospheric pressure argon. Spatially and temporally resolved measurement was carried out by photomultiplier tubes. The light emission signals both from the dielectric barrier discharge and from the plasma plume were analyzed. Furthermore, emission spectrum from the plasma plume was collected by high-resolution optical spectrometer. The emission spectra of OH (A 2sigma + --> X2 II, 307.7-308.9 nm) and the first negative band of N2+ (B2 sigma u+ --> X2 IIg+, 390-391.6 nm) were used to estimate the rotational temperature of the plasma plume by fitting the experimental spectra to the simulated spectra. The rotational temperature obtained is about 443 K by fitting the emission spectrum from the OH, and that from the first negative band of N2+ is about 450 K. The rotational temperatures obtained by the two method are consistent within 5% error band. The gas temperature of the plasma plume at atmospheric pressure was obtained because rotational temperature equals to gas temperature approximately in gas discharge at atmospheric pressure. Results show that gas temperature increases with increasing the applied voltage.

  2. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  3. Development of superhydrophobic surface on glass substrate by multi-step atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Duksun [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Se Youn, E-mail: symoon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Quantum system Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    Superhydrophobic surface was prepared on a glass by helium based CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} atmospheric pressure plasmas, and its water wettability was investigated by a water droplet contact angle method. The water droplet spread over on the untreated glasses that showed the initial hydrophilic property of the glass surface. Then, the static contact angles became about 85° and 98° after a single step CH{sub 4} plasma treatment and a single step C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment, respectively. The contact angle was remarkably increased to 152°, indicating a superhydrophobic property, after a sequential multi-step CH{sub 4} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma treatment. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the field emission scanning electron microscope measurements, it was found that the physical morphologies and the chemical compositions were depending on the substrate materials, which were important factors for the superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • Development of rapid and simple method for superhydrophobic surface • Effects of atmospheric pressure plasma for superhydrophobic surface preparation • Observation of chemical and physical surface modification by atmospheric pressure plasma • Effects of substrate properties for plasma–surface interaction.

  4. Studies of Pressure-Broadening of Alkali Atom Resonance Lines for Modeling Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kate; Babb, J.; Yoshino, K.

    2004-01-01

    In L-dwarfs and T-dwarfs the resonance lines of sodium and potassium are so profoundly pressure-broadened that their wings extend several hundred nanometers from line center. With accurate knowledge of the line profiles as a function of temperature and pressure: such lines can prove to be valuable diagnostics of the atmospheres of such objects. We have initiated a joint program of theoretical and experimental research to study the line-broadening of alkali atom resonance lines due to collisions with species such as helium and molecular hydrogen. Although potassium and sodium are the alkali species of most interest in the atmospheres of cool brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets, some of our theoretical focus this year has involved the calculation of pressure-broadening of lithium resonance lines by He, as a test of a newly developed suite of computer codes. In addition, theoretical calculations have been carried out to determine the leading long range van der Waals coefficients for the interactions of ground and excited alkali metal atoms with helium atoms, to within a probable error of 2%. Such data is important in determining the behavior of the resonance line profiles in the far wings. Important progress has been made on the experimental aspects of the program since the arrival of a postdoctoral fellow in September. A new absorption cell has been designed, which incorporates a number of technical improvements over the previous cell, including a larger cell diameter to enhance the signal, and fittings which allow for easier cleaning, thereby significantly reducing the instrument down-time.

  5. Effects of background fluid on the efficiency of inactivating yeast with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hyo Ryu

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH· produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media.

  6. Effects of background fluid on the efficiency of inactivating yeast with non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young-Hyo; Kim, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jin-Young; Shim, Gun-Bo; Uhm, Han-Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2013-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure has been actively applied to sterilization. However, its efficiency for inactivating microorganisms often varies depending on microbial species and environments surrounding the microorganisms. We investigated the influence of environmental factors (surrounding media) on the efficiency of microbial inactivation by plasma using an eukaryotic model microbe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to elucidate the mechanisms for differential efficiency of sterilization by plasma. Yeast cells treated with plasma in water showed the most severe damage in viability and cell morphology as well as damage to membrane lipids, and genomic DNA. Cells in saline were less damaged compared to those in water, and those in YPD (Yeast extract, Peptone, Dextrose) were least impaired. HOG1 mitogen activated protein kinase was activated in cells exposed to plasma in water and saline. Inactivation of yeast cells in water and saline was due to the acidification of the solutions by plasma, but higher survival of yeast cells treated in saline may have resulted from the additional effect related to salt strength. Levels of hydroxyl radical (OH·) produced by plasma were the highest in water and the lowest in YPD. This may have resulted in differential inactivation of yeast cells in water, saline, and YPD by plasma. Taken together, our data suggest that the surrounding media (environment) can crucially affect the outcomes of yeast cell plasma treatment because plasma modulates vital properties of media, and the toxic nature of plasma can also be altered by the surrounding media.

  7. Delayed effects of cold atmospheric plasma on vascular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Eva; Roks, Anton J. M.; Deelmm, Leo E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the long-term behaviour of vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle) after exposure to a cold atmospheric plasma source. The cells were treated through a gas-permeable membrane, in order to simulate intravenous treatment with a gas plasma-filled catheter. Such indirect treatment

  8. Delayed effects of cold atmospheric plasma on vascular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, Eva; Roks, Anton J. M.; Deelmm, Leo E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the long-term behaviour of vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle) after exposure to a cold atmospheric plasma source. The cells were treated through a gas-permeable membrane, in order to simulate intravenous treatment with a gas plasma-filled catheter. Such indirect treatment

  9. Meteorology in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: an institutional study and a meta-analysis of published studies reporting atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, H; Watanabe, T; Mizuno, Y; Kawai, N; Umemoto, T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether weather factors including atmospheric pressure are associated with the occurrence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). We investigated our institutional experiences of RAAA in more than 150 patients during 8 years. Further, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies reporting the influence of atmospheric pressure on RAAA. We retrospectively evaluated 152 patients who underwent surgery for RAAA (including ruptured iliac arterial aneurysm) at our institute between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2013. Daily regional meteorological data (in the nearest weather station located 3.5 km from the hospital) were obtained online from Japan Meteorological Agency. To identify comparative studies of mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA versus that on the day without RAAA, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through January 2014 using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). Mean sea level atmospheric pressure, delta mean atmospheric pressure (difference between mean sea level atmospheric pressure on the day and that on the previous day), and sunshine duration on the day with RAAA were significantly lower than those on the day without RAAA: 1012.43±7.44 versus 1013.71±6.49 hPa, P=0.039, -1.18±5.15 versus 0.05±5.62 hPa, P=0.005; and 4.76±3.76 versus 5.47±3.88 h, P=0.026; respectively. A pooled analysis of 8 studies (including our institutional study) demonstrated that mean atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA was significantly lower than that on the day without RAAA: standardized mean difference, -0.09; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04; P=0.0009. Atmospheric pressure on the day with RAAA appears lower than that on the day without RAAA. Atmospheric pressure may be associated with the occurrence of RAAA.

  10. Solvated electrons at the atmospheric pressure plasma-water anodic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Lieberman, M. A.; Graves, D. B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model of a dc discharge in argon at atmospheric pressure coupled with a fluid model of an aqueous electrolyte acting as anode to the plasma. The coupled models reveal the structure of the plasma-electrolyte interface and near-surface region, with a special emphasis on solvated or hydrated electrons. Results from the coupled models are in generally good agreement with the experimental results of Rumbach et al (2016 Nat. Commun. 6 7248). Electrons injected from the plasma into the water are solvated, then lost by reaction with water within about 10-20 nm from the surface. The major reaction products are OH- and H2. The solvated electron density profile is controlled by the injected electron current density and subsequent reactions with water, and is relatively independent of the external plasma electric field and the salt concentration in the aqueous electrolyte. Simulations of the effects of added scavenger compounds (H2O2, \\text{NO}2- , \\text{NO}2- and H+) on near-surface solvated electron density generally match the experimental results. The generation of near-surface OH- following electron-water decomposition in the presence of bulk acid creates a highly basic region (pH ~ 11) very near the surface. In the presence of bulk solution acidity, pH can vary from a very acidic pH 2 away from the surface to a very basic pH 11 over a distance of ~200 nm. High near-surface gradients in aqueous solution properties could strongly affect plasma-liquid applications and challenge theoretical understanding of this complex region.

  11. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; LIU ZhenMei; XU ZhiKang; YAO Ke

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure (argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens (IOL). Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved. The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect. The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material (LMWOM) was proved on the plasma treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment. The plasma-treated lOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly. The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the lOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs. The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment. We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  12. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure(argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens(IOL).Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM),atomic force microscopy(AFM) and water contact angle(WCA) measurements.The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells(LECs) in vitro.After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved.The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect.The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material(LMWOM) was proved on the plasma-treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment.The plasma-treated IOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly.The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the IOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs.The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment.We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification(ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  13. THE HABITABLE ZONE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Silva, Laura [INAF-Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Trieste (Italy); Provenzale, Antonello [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate-CNR, Torino (Italy); Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio, E-mail: vladilo@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-10

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a one-dimensional energy balance model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p = 1/3 to 3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is low and varies with a; at high pressure, the habitability is high and relatively constant inside the HZ. We interpret these results in terms of the pressure dependence of the greenhouse effect, the efficiency of horizontal heat transport, and the extent of the liquid water temperature range. Within the limits discussed in the paper, the results can be extended to planets in eccentric orbits around non-solar-type stars. The main characteristics of the pressure-dependent HZ are modestly affected by variations of planetary properties, particularly at high pressure.

  14. An improved film evaporation correlation for saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzada, Muhammad Wakil

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents an investigation of heat transfer correlation in a falling-film evaporator working with saline water at sub-atmospheric pressures. The experiments are conducted at different salinity levels ranging from 15000 to 90000 ppm, and the pressures were maintained between 0.92 to 2.81 kPa (corresponds to saturation temperatures of 5.9 – 23 0C). The effect of salinity, saturation pressures and chilled water temperatures on the heat transfer coefficient are accounted in the modified film evaporation correlations. The results are fitted to the Han & Fletcher\\'s and Chun & Seban\\'s falling-film correlations which are used in desalination industry. We modify the said correlations by adding salinity and saturation temperature corrections with respective indices to give a better agreement to our measured data.

  15. The dynamic properties of shock-waves formed during laser ablation at sub-atmospheric pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, D.; Coutts, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann (STN) theory has been shown to accurately describe the dynamic properties of shock-waves generated during pulsed-laser ablation of solid aluminium targets at visible wavelengths (510/578 nm) with 40 ns pulses with energies up to 3.5 mJ. A ballistic pendulum is used to measure the integrated recoil pressure in various inert atmospheres (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, CO2, SF6) with pressures of 10-2 - 103 mbar. This recoil momentum is found to scale linearly with the background gas pressure P1 and with the square root of the molecular weight M1. More interestingly, the scaling with the ratio of heat capacities γ is verified to be a monotonically increasing function dependent on the form factor of the shock-wave. The validity of a modified STN theory which accounts for the piston mass is assessed.

  16. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  17. Temperature diagnostics of a non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan

    2013-09-01

    The study reflects the concept of the temperature as a physical quantity resulting from the second thermodynamic law. The reliability of different approaches of the temperature diagnostics of open non-equilibrium systems is discussed using examples of low temperature atmospheric pressure discharges. The focus of this work is a miniaturized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet for local surface treatment at ambient atmosphere. The micro-discharge is driven with a capacitively coupled radio frequency electric field at 27.12 MHz and fed with argon at rates of about 1 slm through the capillary with an inner diameter of 4 mm. The discharge consists of several contracted filaments with diameter around 300 μm which are rotating azimuthally in the capillary in a self-organized manner. While the measured temperatures of the filament core exceed 700 K, the heat impact on a target below the plasma jet remains limited leading to target temperatures below 400 K. Different kinds of temperatures and energy transport processes are proposed and experimentally investigated. Nevertheless, a reliable and detailed temperature diagnostics is a challenge. We report on a novel diagnostics approach for the spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the gas temperature based on the optical properties of the plasma. Laser Schlieren Deflectometry is adapted to explore temperature profiles of filaments and their behaviour. In parallel, the method demonstrates a fundamental Fermat's principle of minimal energy. Information acquired with this method plays an important role for the optimization of local thin film deposition and surface functionalization by means of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The work was supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB-TR 24.

  18. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  19. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  20. Qualification of Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Sensors for the Cryomagnet Bayonet Heat Exchangers of the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, T.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Jeanmonod, N.

    2006-04-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be cooled at 1.9 K by distributed cooling loops working with saturated two-phase superfluid helium flowing in 107 m long bayonet heat exchangers located in each magnet cold-mass cell. The temperature of the magnets could be difficult to control because of the large dynamic heat load variations. Therefore, it is foreseen to measure the heat exchangers pressure to feed the regulation loops with the corresponding saturation temperature. The required uncertainty of the sub-atmospheric saturation pressure measurement shall be of the same order of the one associated to the magnet thermometers, in pressure it translates as ±5 Pa at 1.6 kPa. The transducers shall be radiation hard as they will endure, in the worst case, doses up to 10 kGy and 1015 neutronsṡcm-2 over 10 years. The sensors under evaluation were installed underground in the dump section of the SPS accelerator with a radiation environment close to the one expected for the LHC. The monitoring equipment was installed in a remote radiation protected area. This paper presents the results of the radiation qualification campaign with emphasis on the reliability and accuracy of the pressure sensors under the test conditions.

  1. An atmospheric-pressure cold plasma leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Liang, Y. D.; Zhang, Q.; Tian, Y.; Su, B.; Zhang, J.; Fang, J.

    2013-07-01

    A non-thermal plasma is known to induce apoptosis of various cells but the mechanism is not yet clear. A eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas used to investigate the cellular and biochemical regulations of cell apoptosis and cell cycle after an atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment. More importantly, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) was first involved in monitoring the process of plasma-induced apoptosis in this study. We analysed the cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry and observed the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ concentration, cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) as well as nuclear DNA morphology via fluorescence staining assay. All experimental results indicated that plasma-generated ROS leads to the accumulation of intracellular ROS and Ca2+ that ultimately contribute to apoptosis associated with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through depolarization of Δψm and fragmenting nuclear DNA. This work provides a novel insight into the physical and biological mechanism of apoptosis induced by a plasma which could benefit for promoting the development of plasmas applied to cancer therapy.

  2. Protective effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on oxidative stress-induced neuronal injuries: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Qiao, Yajun; Ouyang, Jiting; Jia, Mei; Li, Jiaxin; Yuan, Fang

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) can produce biological active species for biomedical applications. This work proves direct evidence of the protective effects of APPJ against oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells, a commonly used cell model for the study of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, were treated with APPJ for different durations. Then, cells were exposed to 200 µM H2O2 for 24 h and cell viability was measured using a CCK-8 kit. Changes in cell apoptosis were further confirmed by calcein-AM fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Extracellular NO production was detected using the Griess method. The results showed that APPJ protected SH-SY5Y from H2O2-induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, extracellular NO production was significantly increased with the APPJ treatment. The results show in vitro that APPJ treatment could protect SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative stress by reducing cell apoptosis, which might be related to the reactive nitrogen species induced by the APPJ treatment. Our results indicate that the APPJ may have therapeutic potential as a novel ‘NO donor drug’ in neuroprotection and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia; Duarte, Simone; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  4. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Delben

    Full Text Available Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1 the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2 the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release, viability test (MTT assay and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression. All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus

  5. Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O, and adsorbed H2O. The spectral character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micron, 2.2 micron, 2.7 micron, 3 micron, and 6 microns are reported here in spectra measured under a Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stronger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micron feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3-micron band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micron band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma CVD as a tool to functionalise wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spange, Sebastian; Pfuch, Andreas; Wiegand, Cornelia; Beier, Oliver; Hipler, Uta C; Grünler, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this investigation was the preparation of an antibacterial layer system for additional modification of wound dressings with atmospheric plasma. Furthermore, the modified wound dressings were checked on there bactericidal and cytotoxic activity. The layer system was applied by using a novel atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique on a variety of textile substrates which are suitable as wound dressing materials. The layer system composed of silicon dioxide with in situ generated embedded silver nanoparticles. The bactericidal activity of the produced wound dressings was investigated against different bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae while the cytotoxic potential of the coated wound dressings was verified using human keratinocytes. Even at low concentrations of silver precursor a strong antibacterial effect was observed in direct contact with S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, extractions produced from the coated textiles showed a good antibacterial effect. By means of optimised coating parameters a therapeutic window for those wound dressings could be identified. Consequently, the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition technique promise an effective and low cost modification of wound dressing materials.

  7. Etching of polymers, proteins and bacterial spores by atmospheric pressure DBD plasma in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzminova, A.; Kretková, T.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Prukner, V.; Doležalová, E.; Šimek, M.; Biederman, H.

    2017-04-01

    Many studies proved that non-equilibrium discharges generated at atmospheric pressure are highly effective for the bio-decontamination of surfaces of various materials. One of the key processes that leads to a desired result is plasma etching and thus the evaluation of etching rates of organic materials is of high importance. However, the comparison of reported results is rather difficult if impossible as different authors use diverse sources of atmospheric plasma that are operated at significantly different operational parameters. Therefore, we report here on the systematic study of the etching of nine different common polymers that mimic the different structures of more complicated biological systems, bovine serum albumin (BSA) selected as the model protein and spores of Bacillus subtilis taken as a representative of highly resistant micro-organisms. The treatment of these materials was performed by means of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sustained in open air at constant conditions. All tested polymers, BSA and spores, were readily etched by DBD plasma. However, the measured etching rates were found to be dependent on the chemical structure of treated materials, namely on the presence of oxygen in the structure of polymers.

  8. Photons and particles emitted from cold atmospheric-pressure plasma inactivate bacteria and biomolecules independently and synergistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Edengeiser, Eugen; Jarzina, Fabian; Brinckmann, Steffen; Steinborn, Elena; Havenith, Martina; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E

    2013-12-06

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various reactive particles, such as accelerated ions and radicals, that modify biomolecules; however, a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie plasma-based disinfection has been lacking. Here, we investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma, including the separate, additive and synergistic effects of plasma-generated (V)UV photons and particles at the cellular and molecular levels. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that plasma-emitted particles cause physical damage to the cell envelope, whereas UV radiation does not. The lethal effects of the plasma effluent exceed the zone of physical damage. We demonstrate that both plasma-generated particles and (V)UV photons modify DNA nucleobases. The particles also induce breaks in the DNA backbone. The plasma effluent, and particularly the plasma-generated particles, also rapidly inactivate proteins in the cellular milieu. Thus, in addition to physical damage to the cellular envelope, modifications to DNA and proteins contribute to the bactericidal properties of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma.

  9. Standing striations due to ionization instability in atmospheric pressure He/H2O radio frequency capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a narrow gap atmospheric pressure He/2%{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} radio frequency capacitive discharge showed standing striations in the bulk plasma region while previously conducted PIC simulations of a narrow gap atmospheric pressure He/0.1%{{\\text{N}}2} discharges [1] showed no such instabilities. We successively modified the base He/{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} chemistry to make it more similar to the He/{{\\text{N}}2} chemistry in order to determine the cause of the striations. Setting the e-{{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} scattering, attachment, vibrational and rotational excitation rates to zero did not suppress the striations. However, a systematic reduction of the e-ion recombination cross section resulted in a transition to a stable state with no striations. The results are interpreted in terms of a model in which the balance between bulk direct ionization and bulk recombination loss determines the bulk plasma equilibrium. Perturbing the equilibrium, we find that the striations are consistent with an ionization instability induced by non-local electron kinetics that form a spatially-varying high energy tail of the electron energy distribution, causing the ionization rate coefficient to decrease with increasing electron temperature T e and root-mean-square electric field E in the instability regime.

  10. Dynamics of phenotypic reversibility of bacterial cells with oscillating hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Sudip; Kumar, Pradeep

    Bacterial cells encounter and respond to physiochemical fluctuations. The response depends on the extent and type of the stresses applied. The response of bacterial cells to the fluctuating stress is relatively unknown. Here, we have studied the response of wild type Escherichia coli (E. coli) under fluctuating hydrostatic pressures ranging from 1 atm to 500 atm. High pressure acts as a stress to E. coli since these bacteria are adapted to grow optimally at atmospheric pressure. Cell division of E. coli is inhibited at high pressures resulting in increase in the length of the cells. Cell-length is reversible in nature and bacterial cells revert back to normal size on a time scale that is proportional to the strength and time of continuous pressure applied upon relaxing the high pressure condition. We have studied the dynamics of cellular reversibility of E. coli under the conditions in which continuous pressure is applied and subsequently relaxed over different time scales. We have quantified the dynamics of cellular reversibility with different relaxation times. Furthermore, we propose a model to describe the reversibility of the bacterial cell with the relaxation time. Our theoretical model fits well to the experimental data. We further

  11. The habitable zone of Earth-like planets with different levels of atmospheric pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Silva, Laura; Provenzale, Antonello; Ferri, Gaia; Ragazzini, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    As a contribution to the study of the habitability of extrasolar planets, we implemented a 1-D Energy Balance Model (EBM), the simplest seasonal model of planetary climate, with new prescriptions for most physical quantities. Here we apply our EBM to investigate the surface habitability of planets with an Earth-like atmospheric composition but different levels of surface pressure. The habitability, defined as the mean fraction of the planet's surface on which liquid water could exist, is estimated from the pressure-dependent liquid water temperature range, taking into account seasonal and latitudinal variations of surface temperature. By running several thousands of EBM simulations we generated a map of the habitable zone (HZ) in the plane of the orbital semi-major axis, a, and surface pressure, p, for planets in circular orbits around a Sun-like star. As pressure increases, the HZ becomes broader, with an increase of 0.25 AU in its radial extent from p=1/3 bar to p=3 bar. At low pressure, the habitability is...

  12. Variations in atmospheric pressure as a source of errors in polychromatic X-ray experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Matjushin, A M

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the atmospheric pressure on the accuracy of energy diffractometry (ED), X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) using a semiconductor Si(Li) detector, polychromatic diffractometry without the energy dispersion (PDWED) using a coordinate detector has been considered. It is shown that in the interval of pressures 710-810 mm Hg, errors in the determination of interplanar spaces can reach 2% for PDWED, which is caused by the displacement of the maximum of spectral distribution due to changes in absorption by air gaps of the device, and by changes in the quantum efficiency of the coordinate detector. In the ED and XRF methods, changes in the spectrum lead to errors in the determination of relative intensities of diffraction and fluorescence peaks, respectively. The changes in integral intensity are about 1% and can be neglected in the majority of experiments. The curves of the displacement of the spectral distribution maximum and spectral changes were calculated as a function of the atmospheric pressure...

  13. Treatment of polycarbonate by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, K. G.; Hamia, Y. A. A.; Mota, R. P.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Nascente, P. A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Generally most plastic materials are intrinsically hydrophobic, low surface energy materials, and thus do not adhere well to other substances. Surface treatment of polymers by discharge plasmas is of great and increasing industrial application because it can uniformly modify the surface of sample without changing the material bulk properties and is environmentally friendly. The plasma processes that can be conducted under ambient pressure and temperature conditions have attracted special attention because of their easy implementation in industrial processing. Present work deals with surface modification of polycarbonate (PC) by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure. The treatment was performed in a parallel plate reactor driven by a 60Hz power supply. The DBD plasmas at atmospheric pressure were generated in air and nitrogen. Material characterization was carried out by contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy of the polymer surface was calculated from contact angle data by Owens-Wendt method using distilled water and diiodomethane as test liquids. The plasma-induced chemical modifications are associated with incorporation of polar oxygen and nitrogen containing groups on the polymer surface. Due to these surface modifications the DBD-treated polymers become more hydrophilic. Aging behavior of the treated samples revealed that the polymer surfaces were prone to hydrophobic recovery although they did not completely recover their original wetting properties.

  14. Microplasma discharge vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Joshua M; Gann, Reuben N; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H(2) gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV.

  15. [Spatial distribution of electrons with high energy in atmospheric pressure glow discharge excited by DC voltage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-qiang; Jia, Peng-ying; Liu, Tie

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow discharge excited by a DC voltage was realized in a 6 mm air gap by using a needle-water electrode discharge device. The atompheric pressure glow discharge has characteristic regions such as a cathode fall, a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, a positive column and an anode glow. The discharge is a normal glow through analyzing its voltage-current curve. The emission intensity of 337.1 nm spectral line from the second positive system of N2 was investigated because it can indicate the electron density with high energy. Results show that the maxima of high energy electrons appears in the vicinity of the needle tip, and it almost remains constant at other locations. The density of high energy electrons decreases with increasing the voltage. Similarly, it decreases with increasing the value of the ballast resistor. Oxygen atom is important for the sterilization and disinfection. The distribution of oxygen atom was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the oxygen distribution is similar with the distribution of high energy electrons. These results are important for the application of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in environmental protection and biological treatment.

  16. Grid-pattern formation of extracellular matrix on silicon by low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jets for neural network biochip fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Ayumi, E-mail: ando@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Uno, Hidetaka; Urisu, Tsuneo [FIRST Research Center for Innovative Nanobiodevice, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8603 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Grid patterns of extracellular matrices (ECMs) have been formed on silicon (Si) substrates with the use of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) jets with metal stencil masks and neuron model cells have been successfully cultured on the patterned ECMs. Arrangement of living neuron cells on a microelectronics chip in a desired pattern is one of the major challenges for the fabrication of neuron-cell biochips. The APP-based technique presented in this study offers a cost-effective solution to this problem by providing a simple patterning method of ECMs, which act as biological interfaces between living cells and non-biological materials such as Si.

  17. Constraints on early Mars atmospheric pressure inferred from small ancient craters

    CERN Document Server

    Kite, Edwin S; Lucas, Antoine; Aharonson, Oded

    2013-01-01

    The single most important control on long-term climate change on Mars is thought to be decay of the CO2-dominated atmosphere, but direct constraints on paleoatmospheric pressure P are lacking. Of particular interest is the climate that allowed rivers to flow early in Mars history, which was affected by P via direct and indirect greenhouse effects. The size of craters embedded within ancient layered sediments is a proxy for P: the smaller the minimum-sized craters that form, the thinner the past atmosphere. Here we use high-resolution orthophotos and Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) to identify ancient craters among the river deposits of Aeolis, and compare their sizes to models of atmospheric filtering of impactors by thicker atmospheres. The best fit is P <= 760+/-70 mbar, rising to P <= 1640+/-180 mbar if rimmed circular mesas are excluded. Surveys tend to undercount smaller craters, so these fits are upper limits. Our work assumes target properties appropriate for desert alluvium: if sediment developed ...

  18. Utilizing the micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body for the tumor treatment application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Shahriar; Piroozmand, Somayeh; Soleimani, Neda; Jalali Faharani, Neda; Ghomi, Hamidreza; Fotovat Eskandari, Hoda; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Mirpour, Sahar; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Nikkhah, Maryam

    2016-07-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micron sized non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma inside the animal body on breast cancer tumor. The μ-plasma jet consists of micron sized hollow tube in which pure helium gas is ionized by high voltage (4 kV) and high frequency (6 kHz). The efficiency of the plasma treatment in killing cancer cells was first investigated by cell viability measurements of treated 4T1 cells using flow cytometry and cell cycle analysis. For exploration of the in vivo effects of the plasma treatment, the BALB/c mice inoculated by 4T1 cell lines were exposed subcutaneously to plasma for 3 minutes. In addition, H&E staining, TUNEL and Western blotting assays were performed in order to observed the effects of the non-thermal plasma on the tumor cells. The results showed that the efficiency of the plasma in suppression of the tumor growth is comparable to that of a typical chemotherapy drug. Moreover, the results indicated that the plasma induces apoptosis in the tumor tissue and increases the ratio of the apoptotic to anti-apoptotic protein expression. We believe that these findings presented herein may extend our knowledge of the mechanisms by which the plasma exerts its promising anti-cancer effects.

  19. Pressure and Humidity Measurements at the MSL Landing Site Supported by Modeling of the Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Paton, M.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpaa, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Haukka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity Rover landed safely on the Martian surface at the Gale crater on 6th August 2012. Among the MSL scientific objectives are investigations of the Martian environment that will be addressed by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) instrument. It will investigate habitability conditions at the Martian surface by performing a versatile set of environmental measurements including accurate observations of pressure and humidity of the Martian atmosphere. This paper describes the instrumental implementation of the MSL pressure and humidity measurement devices and briefly analyzes the atmospheric conditions at the Gale crater by modeling efforts using an atmospheric modeling tools. MSL humidity and pressure devices are based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Humidity observations make use of Vaisala Humicap® relative humidity sensor heads and Vaisala Barocap® sensor heads are used for pressure observations. Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors heads are mounted in a close proximity of Humicap® and Barocap® sensor heads to enable accurate temperature measurements needed for interpretation of Humicap® and Barocap® readings. The sensor heads are capacitive. The pressure and humidity devices are lightweight and are based on a low-power transducer controlled by a dedicated ASIC. The transducer is designed to measure small capacitances in order of a few pF with resolution in order of 0.1fF (femtoFarad). The transducer design has a good spaceflight heritage, as it has been used in several previous missions, for example Mars mission Phoenix as well as the Cassini Huygens mission. The humidity device has overall dimensions of 40 x 25 x 55 mm. It weighs18 g, and consumes 15 mW of power. It includes 3 Humicap® sensor heads and 1 Thermocap®. The transducer electronics and the sensor heads are placed on a single multi-layer PCB protected by a metallic Faraday cage. The Humidity device has measurement range

  20. An atmospheric pressure plasma source driven by a train of monopolar high voltage pulses superimposed to a dc voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Stoican, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An atmospheric pressure plasma source supplied by an electrical circuit consisting of two voltage sources in parallel connection is reported. One of them is a low-power self-oscillating flyback converter which produces negative voltage pulses with an amplitude of several kilovolts. The high voltage pulses are necessary to ignite an electrical discharge between the electrodes at atmospheric pressure. An additional dc source delivering several hundreds of volts at a few hund...

  1. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  2. Preconditioning of the YSZ-NiO Fuel Cell Anode in Hydrogenous Atmospheres Containing Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyliv, Bogdan; Podhurska, Viktoriya; Ostash, Orest

    2017-04-01

    The YSZ-NiO ceramics for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) anode have been investigated. A series of specimens were singly reduced in a hydrogenous atmosphere (Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture) at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa or subjected to `reduction in the mixture-oxidation in air' (redox) cycling at 600 °C. The YSZ-Ni cermets formed in both treatment conditions were then aged in `water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture' atmosphere at 600 °C under the pressure of 0.15 MPa. Additionally, the behaviour of the as-received material in this atmosphere was studied. It was revealed that small amount of water vapor in Ar-5 vol% H2 mixture (water vapor pressure below 0.03 MPa) does not affect the reduction of the nickel phase in the YSZ-NiO ceramics, but causes some changes in the YSZ-Ni cermet structure. In particular, nanopore growth in tiny Ni particles takes place. At higher concentration of water vapor in the mixture (water vapor pressure above 0.03-0.05 MPa), converse changes in the kinetics of reduction occur. The best physical and mechanical properties were revealed for the material treated by redox cycling after holding at 600 °C in water depleted gas mixture. The dual effect of water vapor on nickel-zirconia anode behaviour is discussed basing on scanning electron microscopy analysis data, material electrical conductivity, and strength.

  3. Surface modification of polyester film by glow discharge tunnel at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang-yu; WANG Shou-guo; YE Tian-chun; JING Guang-yin; YU Da-peng

    2004-01-01

    A large-area improved dielectric barrier glow discharge tunnel has been developed for modifying the surface of polyester film at atmospheric pressure with argon and oxygen gas mixtures. The electrical properties of the glow discharge tunnel were studied by simultaneous measurement of the voltage and current. In addition, the effect of the glow discharge tunnel treatment on the surface of polyester film were studied. The resultant modifications of the surface properties of the treated samples were investigated through scanning probe microscopy and contact angle measurement.

  4. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S., E-mail: cswong@um.edu.my [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50 Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  5. Titanium Alloy Surface Modification by a Spatio-Temporal Atmospheric Pressure DBD Afterglow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.PANOUSIS; F.CLEMENT; J.F.LOISEAU; N.SPYROU; B.HELD1; J.LARRIEU; F.GUERTON

    2007-01-01

    The experimental work reported here is devoted to the study of the modifications inflicted on the surface of titanium alloy specimens by an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) reactor in both spatial and temporal afterglow conditions.A commercially available (AcXys Technologies) modified reactor system was used for the surface treatment of the TiA6V4 titanium alloy that is widely used in the aeronautical industry.Wettability surface characterisation and XPS analyses are performed to give a macroscopic and microscopic insight to the surface modifications.Best operating conditions,at constant input energy,were obtained for a duty cycle equal to 10%.

  6. Theoretical Computation for Non-Equilibrium Air Plasma Electrical Conductivity at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; GUO Wen-Kang; XU Ping; LIANG Rong-Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on the Chapman-Enskog theory, we calculate the electrical conductivity of non-equilibrium air plasma in the two-temperature model. We consider different degrees of non-equilibrium, which is defined by the ratio of electronic temperature to heavy particles temperature. The method of computing the composition of air plasma is demonstrated. After calculating the electrical conductivity from electron temperature 1000 K to 15000K, the present result is compared with Murphy's study [Plasma Chem. Plasma Process 15 (1994) 279] for equilibrium case. All the calculation is completed at atmospheric pressure. The present results may have potential applications in numerical calculation of non-equilibrium air plasma.

  7. Plasma Disinfection and the Deterioration of Surgical Tools at Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaba, Siti Khadijah; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Tsuji, Masao; Shimizu, Naohiro; Imanishi, Yuichirou

    The purpose of this paper is to present and compare disinfection effect of plasma by means of Atmospheric Pressure Glow plasma and streamer discharge. Geobacillus stearothermophilus was used as biological indicator for disinfection process. The effect of blades after irradiated in plasma was also studied by SEM analysis. It was found that the disinfection process was effective when the cylindrical configuration was applied. Carbon steel blade was also found to be deteriorated after immersed in plasma irradiation. Results indicate that disinfection can be achieved and at the same time deteriorations of the tools were observed.

  8. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duten, X.; Redolfi, M.; Aggadi, N.; Vega, A.; Hassouni, K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  9. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 1015 cm-3. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  10. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50-Hz dielectric barrier discharge at peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of around...... approximately from 20 mJ m-2 up to 80 mJ m-2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates....

  11. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency...... approximately from 20 up to 80 mJm2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates....

  12. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  13. Bacterial inactivation using atmospheric pressure single pin electrode microplasma jet with a ground ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Bae, S. H.; Leem, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial inactivation experiment was performed using atmospheric pressure microplasma jets driven by radio-frequency wave of 13.56 MHz and by low frequency wave of several kilohertz. With addition of a ground ring electrode, the discharge current, the optical emission intensities from reactive radicals, and the sterilization efficiency were enhanced significantly. When oxygen gas was added to helium at the flow rate of 5 SCCM, the sterilization efficiency was enhanced. From the survival curve of Escherichia coli, the primary role in the inactivation was played by reactive species with minor aid from heat, UV photons, charged particles, and electric fields.

  14. Genetic effects of radio-frequency, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges with helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Li, He-Ping; Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Sen; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Sun, Wen-Ting; Xing, Xin-Hui; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2008-06-01

    Due to low gas temperatures and high densities of active species, atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGDs) would have potential applications in the fields of plasma-based sterilization, gene mutation, etc. In this letter, the genetic effects of helium radio-frequency APGD plasmas with the plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide as the treated biomaterials are presented. The experimental results show that it is the chemically active species, instead of heat, ultraviolet radiation, intense electric field, and/or charged particles, that break the double chains of the plasmid DNA. The genetic effects depend on the plasma operating parameters, e.g., power input, helium flow rate, processing distance, time, etc.

  15. Spatial and temporal evolutions of ozone in a nanosecond pulse corona discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duten, X; Redolfi, M; Aggadi, N; Vega, A; Hassouni, K, E-mail: duten@lspm.cnrs.fr [LSPM-CNRS UPR 3407, Universite Paris Nord, 90 Avenue J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2011-10-19

    This paper deals with the experimental determination of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the ozone concentration in an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma, working in the nanosecond regime. We observed that ozone was produced in the localized region of the streamer. The ozone transport requires a characteristic time well above the millisecond. The numerical modelling of the streamer expansion confirms that the hydrodynamic expansion of the filamentary discharge region during the streamer propagation does not lead to a significant transport of atomic oxygen and ozone. It appears therefore that only diffusional transport can take place, which requires a characteristic time of the order of 50 ms.

  16. A Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fluidized Bed and Its Application in Mutation of Plant Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Liang; WANG Zhen-Quan; HAN Er-Li; FU Ya-Bo; YANG Si-Ze; FAN Song-Hua; LI Chun-Ling; GU Wei-Chao; FENG Wen-Ran; ZHANG Gu-Ling; WANG Jiu-Li; Latif K.; ZHANG Shu-Gen

    2005-01-01

    @@ An atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed (APPFB) is designed to generate plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with one liquid electrode. In the APPFB system, the physical properties of DBD discharge and its application in plant-seed mutating are studied fundamentally. The results show that the generated plasma is a typical glow discharge free from filament and arc plasma, and the macro-temperature of the plasma fluidized bed is nearly at room temperature. There are no obvious changes in the pimientos when their seeds are treated by APPFB, but great changes are found for coxcombs.

  17. Cyanuric Acid-Based Organocatalyst for Utilization of Carbon Dioxide at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Daeun; Kim, Seoksun; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2017-03-22

    A organocatalytic system based on economical and readily available cyanuric acid has been developed for the synthesis of 2-oxazolidinones and quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones from propargylamines and 2-aminobenzonitriles under atmospheric pressure carbon dioxide. Notably, a low concentration of carbon dioxide in air was directly converted into 2-oxazolidinone in excellent yields without an external base. Through mechanistic investigation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy, cyanuric acid was demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for carbon dioxide fixation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthesis of PPy-like Nanocrystallines by Oriented Plasma Polymerization at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xin-sheng; GUO Ying; XU Jin-zhou; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric polypyrrole-like (PPy-like) nanocrystallines were fast synthesized through oriented plasma polymerization at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The effects of discharge power on the nanocrystalline morphology were investigated. Larger power tends to produce longer nanocrystallines. 3 mm long nanowires were produced at the largest power in our experiment. TEM image and the sharp electronic diffraction spots in SAD suggest that the nanoparticles have a single crystal phase. The chemical structure of the nanocrystalline has been studied through FTIR, EDX etc. This novel polymerization method could have great applications in fabricating functional polymeric nanocrystallines.

  19. Synthesis of Crystalline Carbon Nitride Thin Films by Pulsed Arc Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Changyong; MA Zhibin

    2007-01-01

    The preparation of crystalline C3N4 films was investigated using pulsed arc discharge from mixed methanol and ammonia water at atmospheric pressure.The X-ray diffraction(XRD)patterns of the films prepared at a substrate temperature of 450℃ suggested that the film was composed of α-C3N4 and β-C3N4 crystallites.Raman spectra exhibited distinct peaks which are in good agreement with those predicted theoretically for C3N4 crystallites.

  20. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure Estimation Methods for Use in Simulating the Dynamic of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Komkoua Mbienda

    2013-01-01

    Lee and Kesler (LK, and Ambrose-Walton (AW methods for estimating vapor pressures ( are tested against experimental data for a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. required to determine gas-particle partitioning of such organic compounds is used as a parameter for simulating the dynamic of atmospheric aerosols. Here, we use the structure-property relationships of VOC to estimate . The accuracy of each of the aforementioned methods is also assessed for each class of compounds (hydrocarbons, monofunctionalized, difunctionalized, and tri- and more functionalized volatile organic species. It is found that the best method for each VOC depends on its functionality.