Sample records for atmospheric precipitations

  1. Parameterization of ionization induced in the atmosphere by precipitating particles (United States)

    Artamonov, Anton; Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady

    We present a physical model to calculate ionization induced in the atmosphere by precipitating particles. This model is based on the Bethe-Bloch equation applied for precipitating particles such as: electrons, alpha-particles and protons. The energy range of precipitating particles is up to 5MeV and 80MeV/nuc respectively. This model provides an easy implementation with a robust realization of model calculations for a wide range of incident energies of precipitating particles. This method is limited to the upper-middle atmosphere. An ionization yield function [see, Usoskin and Kovaltsov, 2006; Usoskin, Kovaltsov, Mironova, 2010] can be also used in this model, making it possible to calculate the atmospheric ionization effect of precipitating particles for the entire atmosphere, dawn to the ground.

  2. Sampling of Atmospheric Precipitation and Deposits for Analysis of Atmospheric Pollution


    J. Namieśnik; K. Skarżyńska; Ż Polkowska


    This paper reviews techniques and equipment for collecting precipitation samples from the atmosphere (fog and cloud water) and from atmospheric deposits (dew, hoarfrost, and rime) that are suitable for the evaluation of atmospheric pollution. It discusses the storage and preparation of samples for analysis and also presents bibliographic information on the concentration ranges of inorganic and organic compounds in the precipitation and atmospheric deposit samples.

  3. Satellite Estimates of Precipitation-Induced Dissipation in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Pauluis, Olivier; Dias, Juliana


    A substantial amount of frictional dissipation in the atmosphere occurs in the microphysical shear zones surrounding falling precipitation. The dissipation rate is computed here from recently available satellite retrieval from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Missions and is found to average 1.8 watts per square meter between 30°S and 30°N. The geographical distribution of the precipitation-induced dissipation is closely tied to that of precipitation but also reveals a stronger dissipation rate for continental convection than for maritime convection. Because the precipitation-induced dissipation is of the same magnitude as the turbulent dissipation of the kinetic energy in the atmosphere, changes in the hydrological cycle could potentially have a direct impact on the amount of kinetic energy generated and dissipated by the atmospheric circulation.

  4. Isotopic composition of precipitation during different atmospheric circulation patterns (United States)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina; Vreča, Polona


    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. There are several approaches in which atmospheric circulation patterns are classified as elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM; in our approach we have applied Dzerdzeevskii classification. Two types of models of relation between ECM and isotopic composition of precipitation are proposed; first is based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values with precipitation amount weighted average (Brenčič et al., 2015) and the second new one is based on the multiple regression approach. Both approaches make possible also to estimate empirical distributions' dispersion parameters. Application of the models is illustrated on the precipitation records from Ljubljana and Portorož GNIP stations, Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Brenčič, M., Kononova, N.K., Vreča, P., 2015: Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns. Journal of Hydrology 529, 1422-1432: doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.08.040

  5. Scavenging of radon daughters by precipitation from the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Inst. of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences (Japan)


    By the continuous measurement of the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and atmosphere and the data analysis, the following results were obtained. The radon daughters concentration was almost constant in the rain and snow water in spite of the length during weather without precipitation. It has not tendency to show the high concentration of radon daughters in precipitation and snow during beginning of them. When the precipitation intensity is constant, it`s concentration does not change during precipitation and snowfall. The concentration does not depend on the amount of precipitation, but on the precipitation intensity. We did not observe a correlation between the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and that in the surface air. The atmospheric concentration was decreased by precipitation and snowfall, but that of rain and snow water did not decrease. The above results seems to show that the contribution of washout under the cloud to radon daughters in rain and snow water is small and that of rainout in the cloud is large. This result is agreement with the Jacob`s experimental results. (S.Y.)

  6. Martian Atmospheric Dust Mitigation for ISRU Intakes via Electrostatic Precipitation (United States)

    Phillips, James R., III; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Clements, Sid; Calle, Carlos I.


    This document is the presentation to be given at the 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers Earth and Space Conference to examine the concept of using electrostatic precipitation for Martian atmospheric dust mitigation of the intakes of in-situ resource utilization reactors.

  7. Characterization of extreme precipitation within atmospheric river events over California (United States)

    Jeon, S.; Prabhat; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States - and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an important role as potential causes of extreme precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in extreme precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation extremes under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076-2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981-2005). We also find that the dependence between extreme precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.

  8. Natural chlorine and fluorine in the atmosphere, water and precipitation (United States)

    Friend, James P.


    The geochemical cycles of chlorine and fluorine are surveyed and summarized as framework for the understanding of the global natural abundances of these species in the atmosphere, water, and precipitation. In the cycles the fluxes into and out of the atmosphere can be balanced within the limits of our knowledge of the natural sources and sinks. Sea salt from the ocean surfaces represent the predominant portion of the source of chlorine. It is also an important source of atmospheric fluorine, but volcanoes are likely to be more important fluorine sources. Dry deposition of sea salt returns about 85 percent of the salt released there. Precipitation removes the remainder. Most of the sea salt materials are considered to be cyclic, moving through sea spray over the oceans and either directly back to the oceans or deposited dry and in precipitation on land, whence it runs off into rivers and streams and returns to the oceans. Most of the natural chlorine in the atmosphere is in the form of particulate chloride ion with lesser amounts as gaseous inorganic chloride and methyl chloride vapor. Fluorine is emitted from volcanoes primarily as HF. It is possible that HF may be released directly form the ocean surface but this has not been confirmed by observation. HCl and most likely HF gases are released into the atmosphere by sea salt aerosols. The mechanism for the release is likely to be the provision of protons from the so-called excess sulfate and HNO3. Sea salt aerosol contains fluorine as F(-), MgF(+), CaF(+), and NaF. The concentrations of the various species of chlorine and fluorine that characterize primarily natural, unpolluted atmospheres are summarized in tables and are discussed in relation to their fluxes through the geochemical cycle.

  9. Lead in atmospheric precipitation: Analysis of atmospheric precipitation pollution monitoring data for location “Kamenički vis”, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović Aleksandar R.


    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of data collected during monitoring of lead content in atmospheric precipitation on GAW/EMEP (Global Atmosphere Watch/European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme station “Kamenicki Vis”, Serbia from 2000 to 2010 is given. Annual arithmetic mean concentrations, weighted arithmetic mean concentrations, and median of week samples are presented. Obtained data was compared with results of analysis of atmospheric precipitation collected on experimental EMEP station “Zeleno brdo“, Serbia and discussed in scope of European average levels of lead content in precipitation and air. Significant increase of average annual lead content in precipitation was observed in 2003 and 2007. Observed peaks can not be seen on average European trends thus lead to conclusion that recorded increases are characteristic for local region. In order to further discuss nature and direction of possible sources of detected lead pollution short analysis of lead emission data was performed. An effort was made to gather data from the counties that lay in directions from which dominant winds blow as well as for Serbia. For this purpose total national emissions from LRTAP (Long-range transboudary air pollution Convention emission inventory report and EMEP emission inventory were used as well as data published by relevant national authorities. According to these emission levels, majority of surrounding countries couldn’t have contributed much to the recorded increases of lead content in precipitation. However, several possible sources were revealed. In all studied countries emission levels steadily dropped during the analyzed period, whereas only for Serbia different trend was observed. Presented data leads to conclusion that recorded increase of lead content in precipitation in 2003 probably originates from trans-boundary contributions, while increases in 2007 and onwards may come from Serbia’s own emissions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke

  10. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng, E-mail: [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Jinsheng, E-mail: [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Yang [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Huan, Huan [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China)


    vapor and the physical and chemical processes occurred along the migration paths of water vapor from sources to the aimed precipitation area. Temporal change of {sup 3}H was only influenced by the nuclear testing in the early 1960s worldwide and the natural yield of {sup 3}H in the upper atmosphere intrinsically. {sup 3}H had nearly approached to the natural levels, which would bring difficulty if not invalidation to groundwater dating using {sup 3}H technique. - Highlights: • Precipitation in Beijing was analyzed for hydrochemical and isotopic composition. • The changes of hydrochemical and isotopic composition from 1979 to 2009 were analyzed. • The origins of major ions of precipitation were identified. • The LMWL was obtained based on the data of 1979, 1980, 2007, 2008, and 2009. • Temporal change of {sup 3}H in precipitation and its influencing factors were revealed.

  11. Evaluation of OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage versus Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (United States)

    Tumbusch, Mary L.


    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program, a cooperative effort supported by Federal, State, and local agencies, and Indian Tribes, was established in 1977 to study atmospheric deposition and its impact on the environment. The program's National Trends Network now includes wet-deposition networks at more than 250 sites across the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Precipitation amounts are currently measured using a Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780, which involves technology that is more than 50 years old. In 1999, a three-phase study was begun to evaluate several weighing, all-weather precipitation gages to find a possible replacement for the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. One gage that performed consistently well in phase I and II testing was the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage. Phase III of the study, discussed herein, was to determine the accuracy and comparability of the data sets collected by the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages and the existing Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780. Seven OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages were installed at six National Trends Network sites across the country for a data-collection period of approximately 18 months. The NovaLynx Model 260-2510 Standard Rain and Snow Gage also was used, as a reference, at two of the sites. Paired t-tests analysis showed no significant differences in precipitation measurements between the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 and the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gages at three of the six sites. When the false positives were removed from the precipitation-event data sets, the gages at all sites were in agreement and the paired t-tests showed the gage measurements were not significantly different. A false positive is defined as a zero response from the Belfort Universal Precipitation Gage 5-780 concurrent with a recorded response from the OTT PLUVIO Precipitation Gage.

  12. Main features associated to the precipitation in Madeira and the Atmospheric rivers in the winter seasons.


    Couto, Flavio; Salgado, Rui; Costa, Maria João


    This study presents the main features about 10-year daily accumulated precipitation analysis over the Madeira's highlands, as well as the relationships between this precipitation and the meridional water vapor transport occurring in narrow corridors, also known as atmospheric rivers (ARs). The ARs were visually identified in the total precipitable water vapor field extracted from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data, and over a domain covering the North Atlantic Ocean. When needed,...

  13. Source of atmospheric moisture and precipitation over China's major river basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongtiegang ZHAO; Jianshi ZHAO; Hongchang HU; Guangheng NI


    Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China,but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country.To explain the contradiction,this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China's major river basins.The results show that from 1980 to 2010,the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm,39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation.The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm,43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation.Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does.Particularly,for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers,oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation.Meanwhile,terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind.For the northwestern rivers,terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation.There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation,with a correlation coefficient of 0.92,among the ten major river basins in China.

  14. Source of atmospheric moisture and precipitation over China's major river basins (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtiegang; Zhao, Jianshi; Hu, Hongchang; Ni, Guangheng


    Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China, but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country. To explain the contradiction, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China's major river basins. The results show that from 1980 to 2010, the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm, 39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation. The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm, 43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation. Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does. Particularly, for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers, oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation. Meanwhile, terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind. For the northwestern rivers, terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation. There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92, among the ten major river basins in China.

  15. Downscaling atmospheric patterns to multi-site precipitation amounts in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Christensen, O.B.; Rasmussen, P.F.;


    depend on current atmospheric information. The gridded atmospheric fields are summarized through the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. SVD is applied to geopotential height and relative humidity at several pressure levels, to identify their principal spatial patterns co......A non-homogeneous hidden Markov model (NHMM) is applied for downscaling atmospheric synoptic patterns to winter multi-site daily precipitation amounts. The implemented NHMM assumes precipitation to be conditional on a hidden weather state that follows a Markov chain, whose transition probabilities...

  16. Atmospheric ionization induced by precipitating electrons: Comparison of CRAC:EPII model with parametrization model

    CERN Document Server

    Artamonov, A A; Usoskin, I G


    A new model CRAC:EPII (Cosmic Ray Atmospheric Cascade: Electron Precipitation Induced Ionization) is presented. The CRAC:EPII is based on Monte Carlo simulation of precipitating electrons propagation and interaction with matter in the Earth atmosphere. It explicitly considers energy deposit: ionization, pair production, Compton scattering, generation of Bremsstrahlung high energy photons, photo-ionization and annihilation of positrons, multiple scattering as physical processes accordingly. The propagation of precipitating electrons and their interactions with atmospheric molecules is carried out with the GEANT4 simulation tool PLANETOCOSMICS code using NRLMSISE 00 atmospheric model. The ionization yields is compared with an analytical parametrization for various energies of incident precipitating electron, using a flux of mono-energetic particles. A good agreement between the two models is achieved. Subsequently, on the basis of balloon-born measured spectra of precipitating electrons at 30.10.2002 and 07.01....

  17. Impact of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric aerosol (United States)

    Andronache, Constantin


    Aerosols have a significant impact on the dynamics and microphysics of continental mixed-phase convective clouds. High aerosol concentrations provide enhanced cloud condensation nuclei that can lead to the invigoration of convection and increase of surface rainfall. Such effects are dependent on environmental conditions and aerosol properties. Clouds are not only affected by aerosol, they also alter aerosol properties by various processes. Cloud processing of aerosol includes: convective redistribution, modification in the number and size of aerosol particles, chemical processing, new particle formation around clouds, and aerosol removal by rainfall to the surface. Among these processes, the wet removal during intense rain events, in polluted continental regions, can lead to spikes in acidic deposition into environment. In this study, we address the effects of clouds and precipitation on the aerosol distribution in cases of convective precipitation events in eastern US. We examine the effects of clouds and precipitation on various aerosol species, as well as their temporal and spatial variability.

  18. Retrieving Atmospheric Precipitable Water Vapor Using Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin


    Full Text Available Discussing of water vapor and its variation is the important issue for synoptic meteorology and meteorology. In physical Atmospheric, the moisture content of the earth atmosphere is one of the most important parameters, it is hard to represent water vapor because of its space-time variation. High-spectral resolution Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS data can be used to retrieve the small scale vertical structure of air temperature, which provided a more accurate and good initial field for the numerical forecasting and the large-scale weather analysis. This paper proposes an artificial neural network to retrieve the clear sky atmospheric radiation data from AIRS and comparing with the AIRS Level-2 standard product, and gain a good inversion results.

  19. Future changes in atmospheric circulation types and related precipitation extremes in Central Europe (United States)

    Homann, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas


    The statistical evaluation of the relationships between atmospheric circulation types and areal precipitation events took place in the context of an international project called WETRAX (Weather patterns, storm tracks and related precipitation extremes). The aim of the project was to estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions. For parts of southern Central Europe, a gridded daily precipitation set with 6km horizontal resolution has been generated for the period 1951-2006 by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG). To determine regions with similar precipitation variability, a S-mode principal component analysis has been applied. Extreme precipitation events are defined by the 95% percentile, based on regional arithmetic means of daily precipitation. Large-scale atmospheric circulation types have been derived by different statistical methods and variables using the COST733 classification software and gridded daily NCEP1 reanalysis data. To evaluate the performance of a particular circulation type classification with respect to regional precipitation extremes, multiple regression models have been derived between the circulation type frequencies as predictor variables and monthly frequencies of extreme precipitation as well as monthly rainfall amounts from these events. To estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions, multiple regression models are applied to different projected GCM predictor data. Thus, future changes in circulation type occurrence frequencies are transferred into assessments of future changes in precipitation extremes on a regional scale.

  20. Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Induced Non-Thermal Escape Fluxes from the Martian Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Lewkow, Nicholas


    The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), produced through charge exchange (CX) collisions between solar wind (SW) ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated. Subsequent induced non-thermal escape fluxes have been carried out for the Martian atmosphere. Detailed modeling of the ENA energy input and determination of connections between parameters of precipitating ENAs and resulting escape fluxes, reflection coefficients of fast atoms from the Mars atmosphere, and altitude dependent ENA energy distributions are established using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the precipitation process with accurate quantum mechanical (QM) cross sections. Detailed descriptions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules induced by ENAs have been obtained for a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for atmospheric escape and evolution. The effects of using isotropic hard sphere (HS) cross sections as compared to realistic, anisotropic quantum cross sections are examined for energy-deposition profil...

  1. Precipitation of energetic neutral atoms and induced non-thermal escape fluxes from the Martian atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)


    The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms, produced through charge exchange collisions between solar wind ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated for the Martian atmosphere. Connections between parameters of precipitating fast ions and resulting escape fluxes, altitude-dependent energy distributions of fast atoms and their coefficients of reflection from the Mars atmosphere, are established using accurate cross sections in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Distributions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules, induced by precipitating particles, have been obtained and applied for computations of the non-thermal escape fluxes. A new collisional database on accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections, required for description of the energy-momentum transfer in collisions of precipitating particles and production of non-thermal atmospheric atoms and molecules, is reported with analytic fitting equations. Three-dimensional MC simulations with accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections have been carried out to track large ensembles of energetic atoms in a time-dependent manner as they propagate into the Martian atmosphere and transfer their energy to the ambient atoms and molecules. Results of the MC simulations on the energy-deposition altitude profiles, reflection coefficients, and time-dependent atmospheric heating, obtained for the isotropic hard sphere and anisotropic quantum cross sections, are compared. Atmospheric heating rates, thermalization depths, altitude profiles of production rates, energy distributions of SH atoms and molecules, and induced escape fluxes have been determined.

  2. Chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation on the south of Ukraine (Crimea) (United States)

    Klymenko, O.; Klymenko, M.

    The data of long monitoring of volume and chemical content of atmospheric precipitation in steppe Crimea near to the large plantations of fruit orchards are given The purpose of researches was detection of acid deposits establishment of connection them dI with chemical structure for the operative tracking behind a condition of air It was established that the sum of precipitations for year was increased basically at the summer deposits The annual volume-weighted logarithmic range of dI values were 4 83-5 73 in precipitation There were more less values in a cold season than in warm one The absolute minimum was equal 3 82 For the researched period mean dI values of atmospheric precipitation in a cold season gradually raised and in warm - was reduced and has reached the minimum in 2000-2001 years It resulted in damages of fruit plants during long term rains in vegetation period The dominant anion in atmospheric precipitation was SO 4 2- which content basically determined of them acidification The important role in this process also belongs to ions NO 3 - and Cl - Mean seasons concentrations of these ions tend to increase It probably may be connected both to distant distribution of emission and with local anthropogenic activity In connection with an establishment of atmospheric precipitation acidification and also incidental and casual phenomenon there is a necessity of their composition monitoring for agricultural areas near to the large fruit plantations for big number years during whole year

  3. Effect of atmospheric precipitation on the dissolved loads of the Dongjiang River,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-ying; ZHANG Jing


    The atmospheric precipitation plays an important role in influencing the river chemistry of the Dongjiang River. The atmospheric contribution to river water is estimated by reference to Cl concentration called Clref. The Clref of 41.97 μmol/L represents the highest chloride concentration of the rainwater inputs to river water, thus sea salts are responsible for total Cl concentration of the Dongjiang River. According to the principal compositions of precipitation and river water, we propose two approaches-sea salt correction and precipitation correction in order to correct the contribution proportions of atmospheric precipitation on the solutes and to calculate chemical weathering rate. The results reflected that the atmospheric contribution ratios fluctuate from ~5% to ~20% of TDS(total dissolved solids) in the Dongjiang River. As compared with the other world watersheds, the lower dissolved ion contents and high runoff may result in the obvious influence of precipitation on river chemistry in the Dongjiang basin. The major elemental chemistry is mainly controlled by silicate weathering, with the anion HCO3- and cation Ca2+ and Na+ dominating the major compositions in this basin. The estimated chemical weathering rate of 15.78-23.48 t/(km2·a) is only 40%-60% of a global average in the Dongjiang basin. Certainly, the estimated results are still under correction gradually because the effect of human activities on the precipitation chemistry has never been quantified in detail.

  4. Precipitation in Madeira island and atmospheric rivers in the winter seasons (United States)

    Couto, Flavio T.; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria; Prior, Victor


    This study aims to analyse the distribution of the daily accumulated precipitation in the Madeira's highlands over a 10-year period, as well as the main characteristics associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) affecting the island during 10 winter seasons, and their impact in the rainfall amounts recorded near the mountain crest in the south-eastern part of the island. The period between September 2002 and November 2012 is considered for the analysis. The ARs have been identified from the total precipitable water vapour field extracted from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The AIRS observations were downloaded for a domain covering large part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The precipitable water vapour field from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis was also used aiming to support the AIRS data when there was no satellite information over the island. The daily accumulated precipitation at surface showed generally drier summers, while the highest accumulated precipitation are recorded mainly during the winter, although some significant events may occur also in autumn and spring seasons. The patterns of the precipitable water vapour field when ARs reach the island were investigated, and even if great part of the atmospheric rivers reaches the island in a dissipation stage, some rivers are heavy enough to reach the Madeira Island. In this situation, the water vapour transport could be observed in two main configurations and transporting significant water vapour amounts toward the Madeira from the tropical region. This study lead to conclude that the atmospheric rivers, when associated to high values of precipitable water vapour over the island can provide favourable conditions to the development of precipitation, sometimes associated with high amounts. However, it was also found that many cases of high to extreme accumulated precipitation at the surface were not associated to this kind of moisture transport.

  5. Changes in precipitation extremes projected by a 20-km mesh global atmospheric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kitoh


    Full Text Available High-resolution modeling is necessary to project weather and climate extremes and their future changes under global warming. A global high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model with grid size about 20 km is able to reproduce climate fields as well as regional-scale phenomena such as monsoonal rainfall, tropical and extratropical cyclones, and heavy precipitation. This 20-km mesh model is applied to project future changes in weather and climate extremes at the end of the 21st century with four different spatial patterns in sea surface temperature (SST changes: one with the mean SST changes by the 28 models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP-8.5 scenario, and the other three obtained from a cluster analysis, in which tropical SST anomalies derived from the 28 CMIP5 models were grouped. Here we focus on future changes in regional precipitation and its extremes. Various precipitation indices averaged over the Twenty-two regional land domains are calculated. Heavy precipitation indices (maximum 5-day precipitation total and maximum 1-day precipitation total increase in all regional domains, even where mean precipitation decrease (Southern Africa, South Europe/Mediterranean, Central America. South Asia is the domain of the largest extreme precipitation increase. In some domains, different SST patterns result in large precipitation changes, possibly related to changes in large-scale circulations in the tropical Pacific.

  6. Uniform amorphous lactose microspheres formed in simultaneous convective and dehydration antisolvent precipitation under atmospheric conditions. (United States)

    Mansouri, S; Fu, N; Woo, M W; Chen, X D


    A simultaneous convection-dehydration and antisolvent precipitation approach has been shown to produce uniform microsized lactose particles from aqueous droplet at atmospheric pressure. Microparticles with high uniformity having diameters of between 1.0 and 2.4 μm have been obtained. The precipitation of the microparticles is driven by a unique self-assembly mechanism that cannot be fully elucidated by supersaturation alone. Further analysis suggests that structural changes in the solvent/antisolvent mixture, due to hydrophobic hydration, could play a role in the precipitation process observed. PMID:22950653

  7. Interannual variability of the atmospheric CO2 growth rate: roles of precipitation and temperature (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Ning; Wang, Meirong


    The interannual variability (IAV) in atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) is closely connected with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. However, sensitivities of CGR to temperature and precipitation remain largely uncertain. This paper analyzed the relationship between Mauna Loa CGR and tropical land climatic elements. We find that Mauna Loa CGR lags precipitation by 4 months with a correlation coefficient of -0.63, leads temperature by 1 month (0.77), and correlates with soil moisture (-0.65) with zero lag. Additionally, precipitation and temperature are highly correlated (-0.66), with precipitation leading by 4-5 months. Regression analysis shows that sensitivities of Mauna Loa CGR to temperature and precipitation are 2.92 ± 0.20 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.46 ± 0.07 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, respectively. Unlike some recent suggestions, these empirical relationships favor neither temperature nor precipitation as the dominant factor of CGR IAV. We further analyzed seven terrestrial carbon cycle models, from the TRENDY project, to study the processes underlying CGR IAV. All models capture well the IAV of tropical land-atmosphere carbon flux (CFTA). Sensitivities of the ensemble mean CFTA to temperature and precipitation are 3.18 ± 0.11 PgC yr-1 K-1 and -0.67 ± 0.04 PgC yr-1 100 mm-1, close to Mauna Loa CGR. Importantly, the models consistently show the variability in net primary productivity (NPP) dominates CGR, rather than heterotrophic respiration. Because previous studies have proved that NPP is largely driven by precipitation in tropics, it suggests a key role of precipitation in CGR IAV despite the higher CGR correlation with temperature. Understanding the relative contribution of CO2 sensitivity to precipitation and temperature has important implications for future carbon-climate feedback using such ''emergent constraint''.

  8. Atmospheric controls on Puerto Rico precipitation using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Ramseyer, Craig A.; Mote, Thomas L.


    The growing need for local climate change scenarios has given rise to a wide range of empirical climate downscaling techniques. One of the most critical decisions in these methodologies is the selection of appropriate predictor variables for the downscaled surface predictand. A systematic approach to selecting predictor variables should be employed to ensure that the most important variables are utilized for the study site where the climate change scenarios are being developed. Tropical study areas have been far less examined than mid- and high-latitudes in the climate downscaling literature. As a result, studies analyzing optimal predictor variables for tropics are limited. The objectives of this study include developing artificial neural networks for six sites around Puerto Rico to develop nonlinear functions between 37 atmospheric predictor variables and local rainfall. The relative importance of each predictor is analyzed to determine the most important inputs in the network. Randomized ANNs are produced to determine the statistical significance of the relative importance of each predictor variable. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are shown to be the most important variables at all sites. Results show inter-site variability in u- and v-wind importance depending on the unique geographic situation of the site. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are physically linked to variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the strength and position of the North Atlantic High Pressure cell (NAHP). The changes forced by anthropogenic climate change in regional SSTs and the NAHP will impact rainfall variability in Puerto Rico.

  9. Atmospheric controls on Puerto Rico precipitation using artificial neural networks (United States)

    Ramseyer, Craig A.; Mote, Thomas L.


    The growing need for local climate change scenarios has given rise to a wide range of empirical climate downscaling techniques. One of the most critical decisions in these methodologies is the selection of appropriate predictor variables for the downscaled surface predictand. A systematic approach to selecting predictor variables should be employed to ensure that the most important variables are utilized for the study site where the climate change scenarios are being developed. Tropical study areas have been far less examined than mid- and high-latitudes in the climate downscaling literature. As a result, studies analyzing optimal predictor variables for tropics are limited. The objectives of this study include developing artificial neural networks for six sites around Puerto Rico to develop nonlinear functions between 37 atmospheric predictor variables and local rainfall. The relative importance of each predictor is analyzed to determine the most important inputs in the network. Randomized ANNs are produced to determine the statistical significance of the relative importance of each predictor variable. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are shown to be the most important variables at all sites. Results show inter-site variability in u- and v-wind importance depending on the unique geographic situation of the site. Lower tropospheric moisture and winds are physically linked to variability in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and the strength and position of the North Atlantic High Pressure cell (NAHP). The changes forced by anthropogenic climate change in regional SSTs and the NAHP will impact rainfall variability in Puerto Rico.

  10. Recent interdecadal changes in the interannual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation over northern Eurasia (United States)

    Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujinami, Hatsuki; Kanamori, Hironari; Ishige, Takaya; Oshima, Kazuhiro


    This study investigated the interannual variability and trends in precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns over northern Eurasia using long-term Precipitation REConstruction over Land and atmospheric Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data (JRA-55) from 1958 to 2012. Special emphasis was placed on the recent increase in summer (June, July and August) precipitation around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. We found interdecadal modulation in the relationships between interannual variability in summer precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns among the three major Siberian river basins (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob). The interannual variations in summer precipitation over the Ob and Lena river basins were negatively correlated from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. However, after the mid-1990s, this negative correlation became insignificant. In contrast, a significant positive correlation was apparent between the Yenisei and Lena river basins. We also found that there has been a significant increasing (positive) trend in geopotential height in the low-level troposphere since the mid-1980s over Mongolia and European Russia, resulting in an increasing trend of westerly moisture flux into the Yenisei and Lena river basins. Summer precipitation in both basins was continuously high from 2005 to 2008 under a trough that broadly extended from the Yenisei and Lena river basins, which has been a typical pattern of interannual variation since the mid-1990s. This trough increased the meridional pressure gradient between Mongolia and eastern Siberia in combination with the trend pattern. This further enhanced the eastward moisture flux towards the Lena river basin and its convergence over the basin, resulting in high summer precipitation from 2005 to 2008.

  11. Sampling of Atmospheric Aerosols by Electrostatic Precipitation for Direct Analyses. Part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, G; Matz, R; Trenin, A; Moritz, W; Hermann, Gerd; Lasnitschka, Georg; Matz, Rudolf; Trenin, Alexander; Moritz, Walter


    A novel system for aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation using graphite platforms as sample collector is presented. Employing standard platforms for commercial analytical instruments, the conception allows fast solid sampling direct element analysis with ETAAS, ETV-ICP-MS/OES, and ETACFS without any wet digestive pre-treatment. Other advantages are: highly efficient electrostatic particle collection (>99% for d = 10e-9 m - 10e-6 m), reusable sample collectors, omission of filters and chemical reagents. On this basis, an electrostatic precipitator is constructed aiming at a small, relatively uncomplicated instrument. Ten precipitators are arranged in a multi-sampling apparatus for outdoor operation, which simultaneously collect ten samples on same or different collectors for instrumental element analyses, or for microscopic investigations of the collected particles. The precipitator is tested with different model aerosols as well as with atmospheric sampling. Element analysis is carried out with the ...

  12. Sampling of Atmospheric Aerosols by Electrostatic Precipitation for Direct Analyses. Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, G; Matz, R; Trenin, A; Moritz, W; Hermann, Gerd; Lasnitschka, Georg; Matz, Rudolf; Trenin, Alexander; Moritz, Walter


    A novel system for aerosol sampling by electrostatic precipitation using graphite platforms as sample collector is presented. Employing standard platforms for commercial analytical instruments, the conception allows fast solid sampling direct element analysis with ETAAS, ETV-ICP-MS/OES, and ETACFS without any wet digestive pre-treatment. Other advantages are: highly efficient electrostatic particle collection (>99% for d = 10e-9 m - 10e-6 m), reusable sample collectors, omission of filters and chemical reagents. On this basis, an electrostatic precipitator is constructed aiming at a small, relatively uncomplicated instrument. Ten precipitators are arranged in a multi-sampling apparatus for outdoor operation, which simultaneously collect ten samples on same or different collectors for instrumental element analyses, or for microscopic investigations of the collected particles. The precipitator is tested with different model aerosols as well as with atmospheric sampling. Element analysis is carried out with the ...

  13. Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and temperature extremes in California. (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L; Horton, Daniel E; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S


    Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of extreme climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949-2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and temperature extremes in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949-2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and temperature extremes. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and extreme event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012-2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California's most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with extremely wet years.

  14. Mechanisms Controlling the Annual Cycle of Precipitation in the Tropical Atlantic Sector in an Atmospheric GCM(. (United States)

    Biasutti, M.; Battisti, D. S.; Sarachik, E. S.


    A set of AGCM experiments is used to study the annual cycle of precipitation in the region surrounding the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The experiments are designed to reveal the relative importance of insolation over land and the (uncoupled) SST on the annual cycle of precipitation over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Africa, and the tropical Americas.SST variations impact the position of the maritime ITCZ by forcing the hydrostatic adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer and changes in surface pressure and low-level convergence. The condensation heating released in the ITCZ contributes substantially to the surface circulation and the maintenance of the SST-induced ITCZ anomalies.The remote influence of SST is felt in equatorial coastal areas and the Sahel. The circulation driven by condensation heating in the maritime ITCZ extends to the coastal regions, thus communicating the SST signal onshore. Conversely, the Sahel responds to variations in SST through boundary layer processes that do not involve the maritime ITCZ. The atmospheric response to changes in subtropical SST is advected inland and forces changes in sea level pressure and low-level convergence across a large part of tropical Africa.The impact of local insolation on continental precipitation can be explained by balancing net energy input at the top of the atmospheric column with the export of energy by the divergent circulation that accompanies convection. Increased insolation reduces the stability of the atmosphere in the main continental convection centers, but not in monsoon regions.Insolation over land impacts the intensity of the maritime ITCZ via its influence on precipitation in Africa and South America. Reduced land precipitation induces the cooling of the Atlantic upper troposphere and the enhancement of convective available potential energy in the maritime ITCZ.

  15. Precipitation-climate sensitivity to initial conditions in an atmospheric general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, C., LLNL


    Atmospheric climate, in contrast to weather, is traditionally considered to be determined by boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST). To test this hypothesis, we examined annual mean precipitation from an ensemble of 20 general circulation model (GCM) simulations. Ensemble members were forced with identical 10-year series of SST and sea ice, but they began with slightly differing initial conditions. A surprisingly small proportion of the variance in the output is attributable to the effects of boundary forcing. This result-and similar evidence from smaller ensembles of other GCM simulations-implies that long-term precipitation variations are mostly unpredictable, even if SST forecasts are `perfect.`

  16. Quantifying Future Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events Based on Resolved Synoptic Atmospheric Patterns (United States)

    Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Monier, E.; Entekhabi, D.


    An important question for climate change science is possible shifts in the extremes of regional water cycle, especially changes in patterns, intensity and/or frequency of extreme precipitation events. In this study, an analogue method is developed to help detect extreme precipitation events and their potential changes under future climate regimes without relying on the highly uncertain modeled precipitation. Our approach is based on the use of composite maps to identify the distinct synoptic and large-scale atmospheric conditions that lead to extreme precipitation events at local scales. The analysis of extreme daily precipitation events, exemplified in the south-central United States, is carried out using 62-yr (1948-2010) CPC gridded station data and NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). Various aspects of the daily extremes are examined, including their historical ranking, associated common circulation features at upper and lower levels of the atmosphere, and moisture plumes. The scheme is first evaluated for the multiple climate model simulations of the 20th century from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archive to determine whether the statistical nature of modeled precipitation events (i.e. the numbers of occurrences over each season) could well correspond to that of the observed. Further, the approach will be applied to the CMIP5 multi-model projections of various climate change scenarios (i.e. Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios) in the next century to assess the potential changes in the probability of extreme precipitation events. The research results from this study should be of particular significance to help society develop adaptive strategies and prevent catastrophic losses.

  17. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope composition of precipitation and atmospheric moisture (United States)

    Araguás-Araguás, L.; Froehlich, K.; Rozanski, K.


    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen incorporated in the water molecule (18O and 2H) have become an important tool not only in Isotope Hydrology, routinely applied to study the origin and dynamics of surface and groundwaters, but also in studies related to atmospheric circulation and palaeoclimatic investigations. A proper understanding of the behaviour of these tracers in the water cycle is required for a meaningful use of these tools in any of these disciplines. Our knowledge of the vertical distribution and the factors controlling the stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in atmospheric moisture derives from a limited number of observations and vertical profiles in the atmosphere. An international programme jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and operational since 1961, has resulted in the development of a dedicated database to monitor isotope ratios in precipitation in more than 500 meteorological stations world-wide. The main features of the spatial and temporal variations of stable isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation and atmospheric moisture at the global scale are presented based on the analysis of limited data on water vapour, data obtained by the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and the few observations at high latitudes.

  18. The response of oxygen isotope ratios in precipitation to changes in global atmospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen present in water are known to undergo fractionation at phase transitions, with heavy isotopes tending to evaporate less readily and to undergo condensation more readily than lighter isotopes. The combination of fractionation processes for a given air parcel therefore produces the known relationships between precipitation amount, surface temperature and the isotopic ratio in precipitation. An additional factor in determining the isotopic ratio is the effect of changes in vapour source region and vapour path due to changes in atmospheric circulation. In order to explore the effect of changes in circulation related to El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, an atmospheric general circulation model fitted with a diagnostic module to predict the stable isotopic ratios of meteoric water (both HDO and H218O) is used to investigate the effect of warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on moisture transport and hence on isotopic ratios in precipitation. Observed isotopic ratios obtained from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) are also correlated with Troup SOI values and compared with the model results. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  19. Quantifying the relationship between atmospheric transport and the chemical composition of precipitation on Bermuda


    Moody, Jennie L.; Galloway, James N.


    In an effort to investigate the influence of different atmospheric flow patterns on thecomposition of precipitation on the island of Bermuda, a cluster analysis of atmospherictrajectories was performed to identify periods of similar transport. The cluster analysistechnique represents a relatively objective alternative to the more subjective method ofclassifying trajectories according to compass sector. Data were stratified into two broadseasons, defined as a warm (April-September) and a cool ...

  20. Atmospheric Rivers Induced Heavy Precipitation and Flooding in the Western U.S. Simulated by the WRF Regional Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun


    Twenty years of regional climate simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model for North America has been analyzed to study the influence of the atmospheric rivers and the role of the land surface on heavy precipitation and flooding in the western U.S. Compared to observations, the simulation realistically captured the 95th percentile extreme precipitation, mean precipitation intensity, as well as the mean precipitation and temperature anomalies of all the atmospheric river events between 1980-1999. Contrasting the 1986 President Day and 1997 New Year Day atmospheric river events, differences in atmospheric stability are found to have an influence on the spatial distribution of precipitation in the Coastal Range of northern California. Although both cases yield similar amounts of heavy precipitation, the 1997 case was found to produce more runoff compared to the 1986 case. Antecedent soil moisture, the ratio of snowfall to total precipitation (which depends on temperature), and existing snowpack all seem to play a role, leading to a higher runoff to precipitation ratio simulated for the 1997 case. This study underscores the importance of characterizing or simulating atmospheric rivers and the land surface conditions for predicting floods, and for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on heavy precipitation and flooding in the western U.S.

  1. Impacts of Tibetan Plateau uplift on atmospheric dynamics and associated precipitation δ18O (United States)

    Botsyun, Svetlana; Sepulchre, Pierre; Risi, Camille; Donnadieu, Yannick


    Palaeoelevation reconstructions of mountain belts have become a focus of modern science since surface elevation provides crucial information for understanding both geodynamic mechanisms of Earth's interior and the influence of mountain growth on climate. Stable oxygen isotopes palaeoaltimetry is one of the most popular techniques nowadays, and relies on the difference between δ18O of palaeo-precipitation reconstructed using the natural archives, and modern measured values for the point of interest. Our goal is to understand where and how complex climatic changes linked with the growth of mountains affect δ18O in precipitation. For this purpose, we develop a theoretical expression for the precipitation composition based on the Rayleigh distillation and the isotope-equipped atmospheric general circulation model LMDZ-iso outputs. Experiments with reduced height over the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas have been designed. Our results show that the isotopic composition of precipitation is very sensitive to climate changes related to the growth of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Specifically our simulations suggest that only 40 % of sampled sites for palaeoaltimetry depict a full topographic signal, and that uplift-related changes in relative humidity (northern region) and precipitation amount (southern region) could explain absolute deviations of up to 2.5 ‰ of the isotopic signal, thereby creating biases in palaeoelevation reconstructions.

  2. Atmospheric circulation controls on the inter-annual variability in precipitation isotope ratio in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurita


    Full Text Available This study explored the primary driver of variations of precipitation isotopes at multiple temporal scales (event, seasonal and inter-annual scales to provide a greater depth of interpretation for isotope proxy records in Japan. A one-year record of the isotopic composition of event-based precipitation at Nagoya in central Japan showed less seasonal variation, but there is large isotopic variability on a storm-to-storm basis. In the summer, southerly flows transport isotopically enriched moisture from subtropical marine regions with the result that the rainfall produced by the subtropical air, or warm rainfall, was relatively enriched in heavy isotopes in comparison with the other rainfall events. In the winter, storm tracks are the dominant driver of storm-to-storm isotopic variation, and relatively lower isotopic values occurred when northerly winds in association with extratropical cyclones passing off the south coast of Japan (Nangan cyclone brings cold precipitation. Using the historical 17 year record of monthly isotopes in precipitation at Tokyo station, we explored if the factors controlling event-scale isotopic variability can account for inter-annual isotopic variability. The relatively higher isotopes in summer precipitation were attributed to the higher contribution of the warm rainfall to the total summer precipitation. On the other hand, year-to-year variation of isotopic values in winter precipitation was negatively correlated with the relative ratio of the Nangan cyclone rainfall to the total winter precipitation. The 17 year precipitation history demonstrates that event-scale isotopic variability related to changes in meridional moisture transport is the primary driver of inter-annual isotopic variability in winter and summer precipitation. The meridional moisture transport to central Japan is likely linked to the activity of the western North Pacific subtropical high in summer and the intensity of the East Asian winter monsoon

  3. Atmospheric response to Indian Ocean Dipole forcing: changes of Southeast China winter precipitation under global warming (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Sielmann, Frank; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, Xiefei


    To investigate the relationship between autumn Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and the subsequent winter precipitation in Southeast China (SEC), observed fields of monthly precipitation, sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation are subjected to a running and a maximum correlation analysis. The results show a significant change of the relevance of IOD for the early modulation of SEC winter precipitation in the 1980s. After 1980, positive correlations suggest prolonged atmospheric responses to IOD forcing, which are linked to an abnormal moisture supply initiated in autumn and extended into the subsequent winter. Under global warming two modulating factors are relevant: (1) an increase of the static stability has been observed suppressing vertical heat and momentum transports; (2) a positive (mid-level) cloud-radiation feedback jointly with the associated latent heating (apparent moisture sink Q2) explains the prolongation of positive as well as negative SST anomalies by conserving the heating (apparent heat source Q1) in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system. During the positive IOD events in fall (after 1980) the dipole heating anomalies in the middle and lower troposphere over the tropical Indian Ocean are prolonged to winter by a positive mid-level cloud-radiative feedback with latent heat release. Subsequently, thermal adaptation leads to an anticyclonic anomaly over Eastern India overlying the anomalous cooling SST of the tropical Eastern Indian Ocean enhancing the moisture flow from the tropical Indian Ocean through the Bay of Bengal into South China, following the northwestern boundary of the anticyclonic circulation anomaly over east India, thereby favoring abundant precipitation in SEC.

  4. Atmospheric controls on the precipitation isotopes over the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, N.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Sengupta, S.; Mohan, P. M.; Datye, A.


    Isotopic analysis of precipitation over the Andaman Island, Bay of Bengal was carried out for the year 2012 and 2013 in order to study the atmospheric controls on rainwater isotopic variations. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions are typical of the tropical marine sites but show significant variations depending on the ocean-atmosphere conditions; maximum depletion was observed during the tropical cyclones. The isotopic composition of rainwater seems to be controlled by the dynamical nature of the moisture rather than the individual rain events. Precipitation isotopes undergo systematic depletions in response to the organized convection occurring over a large area and are modulated by the integrated effect of convective activities. Precipitation isotopes appear to be linked with the monsoon intraseasonal variability in addition to synoptic scale fluctuations. During the early to mid monsoon the amount effect arose primarily due to rain re-evaporation but in the later phase it was driven by moisture convergence rather than evaporation. Amount effect had distinct characteristics in these two years, which appeared to be modulated by the intraseasonal variability of monsoon. It is shown that the variable nature of amount effect limits our ability to reconstruct the past-monsoon rainfall variability on annual to sub-annual time scale. PMID:26806683

  5. Synoptic patterns of atmospheric circulation associated with intense precipitation events over the Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés


    The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric patterns associated with the occurrence of intense precipitation events (IPE) in different sub-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. Intense rainfall cases over six sub-regions were selected from a precipitation data set for the period from 1983 to 2012. The composition technique was used to characterize the prevailing atmospheric patterns for the occurrence of IPE. In the south of the Amazon, the composition fields showed a favorable configuration for the formation of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Along the coast, the intense precipitation events must be associated with mesoscale systems, such as squall lines. In the northwest, they are apparently associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and/or local convection. The results reveal the complexity of the synoptic environment associated with the formation and development of weather systems that produce heavy rainfall in the Amazon Basin. Several factors can interfere as conditions in large-scale, local conditions and thermodynamic factors.

  6. Variability of Summer Atmospheric Moisture Flux and Its Effect on Precipitation over East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ying; ZHAI ranmao; WANG Qiyi


    Using the in-situ precipitation and NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis data, we found by studies of change of moisture flux and its effect that the northward water vapor transport represented by moisture flux in East China tends to retreat southward, and the eastward water vapor transport tends to weaken with weakening of the intensity of moisture flux. The north boundary of meridional moisture flux (50 kg m-1s-1) retreats 2.8 degrees in latitude per decade during 1968-2003. The weakening of water vapor transport implies the weakening and southward retreat of East Asian monsoon, which leads to the tendency of decrease in moisture flux convergence over North China and the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and the tendency of decrease in precipitation over those regions, but on the contrary the enhanced water vapor transport convergence over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River implies the tendency of increase in precipitation to some extent. Indeed the long-term variability of precipitation in East China has a close relation with that of atmospheric moisture flux.

  7. Daily precipitation extreme events for the Iberian Peninsula and its association with Atmospheric Rivers (United States)

    Ramos, Alexandre M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Liberato, Margarida LR


    Extreme precipitation events in the Iberian Peninsula during the extended winter months have major socio-economic impacts such as floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. These events are usually associated with low pressure systems with Atlantic origin, although some extreme events in summer/autumn months can be linked to Mediterranean low pressure systems. Quite often these events are evaluated on a casuistic base and making use of data from relatively few stations. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events is presented here based on the extensive use of the most comprehensive database of daily gridded precipitation available for the Iberian Peninsula (IB02) and spanning from 1950 to 2008, with a resolution of 0.2° (approximately 16 x 22 km at latitude 40°N), for a total of 1673 pixels. This database is based on a dense network of rain gauges, combining two national data sets, 'Spain02' for peninsular Spain and Balearic islands, and 'PT02' for mainland Portugal, with a total of more than two thousand stations over Spain and four hundred stations over Portugal, all quality-controlled and homogenized. Through this objective method for ranking daily precipitation events the magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point and taking into account the daily precipitation normalised departure from climatology. Different precipitation rankings are presented considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula. Atmospheric Rivers (AR) are the water vapour (WV) core section of the broader warm conveyor belt occurring over the oceans along the warm sector of extra-tropical cyclones. They are usually W-E oriented steered by pre-frontal low level jets along the trailing cold front and subsequently feed the precipitation in the extra-tropical cyclones. They are relatively narrow regions of concentrated WV

  8. Soil Moisture-Atmosphere Feedbacks on Atmospheric Tracers: The Effects of Soil Moisture on Precipitation and Near-Surface Chemistry (United States)

    Tawfik, Ahmed B.

    The atmospheric component is described by rapid fluctuations in typical state variables, such as temperature and water vapor, on timescales of hours to days and the land component evolves on daily to yearly timescales. This dissertation examines the connection between soil moisture and atmospheric tracers under varying degrees of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling. Land-atmosphere coupling is defined over the United States using a regional climate model. A newly examined soil moisture-precipitation feedback is identified for winter months extending the previous summer feedback to colder temperature climates. This feedback is driven by the freezing and thawing of soil moisture, leading to coupled land-atmosphere conditions near the freezing line. Soil moisture can also affect the composition of the troposphere through modifying biogenic emissions of isoprene (C5H8). A novel first-order Taylor series decomposition indicates that isoprene emissions are jointly driven by temperature and soil moisture in models. These compounds are important precursors for ozone formation, an air pollutant and a short-lived forcing agent for climate. A mechanistic description of commonly observed relationships between ground-level ozone and meteorology is presented using the concept of soil moisture-temperature coupling regimes. The extent of surface drying was found to be a better predictor of ozone concentrations than temperature or humidity for the Eastern U.S. This relationship is evaluated in a coupled regional chemistry-climate model under several land-atmosphere coupling and isoprene emissions cases. The coupled chemistry-climate model can reproduce the observed soil moisture-temperature coupling pattern, yet modeled ozone is insensitive to changes in meteorology due to the balance between isoprene and the primary atmospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). Overall, this work highlights the importance of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling for previously neglected cold climate

  9. Middle atmospheric electrodynamic modification by particle precipitation at the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (United States)

    Gonzalez, W. D.; Dutra, S. L. G.; Pinto, O., Jr.


    Evidence for a localized middle atmospheric electrodynamic modification at low latitudes (southern Brazilian coast) of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA), in association with enhanced geomagnetic activity, are presented in a unified way combining recent observational efforts and related numerical studies. They involve a distortion effect in the fair weather electric field at balloon altitudes. This effect is attributed to a local intensification of energetic electron precipitation through a related middle atmospheric ionization enhancement and is elucidated by numeric simulation. From the electric field measurements and the numeric simulation, the intensification of precipitation is considered to occur in fairly narrow regions at the observed low L values (around L = 1.13) of the SAMA, with horizontal extensions of the order of a few hundred kilometers. A physical mechanism that could be responsible for this sort of intensification is suggested. Furthermore, a comparison of the phenomenon of middle atmospheric electrodynamic modification at the SAMA with a similar one at auroral latitudes, in response to enhanced solar and geomagnetic activity, is also given.

  10. Five-year record of atmospheric precipitation chemistry in urban Beijing, China (United States)

    Yang, F.; Tan, J.; Shi, Z. B.; Cai, Y.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Duan, F.; Okuda, T.; Tanaka, S.; Chen, G.


    To investigate the chemical characteristics of precipitation in the polluted urban atmosphere in Beijing and possible mechanisms influencing their variations, a total of 131 event-based precipitation samples were collected from March 2001 to August 2005. The concentrations of major ions in the samples were analyzed by using ion chromatography. Intermediate pH (6.1-7.3) was recorded in approximately two-thirds of the precipitation samples and acidic pH (4.2-5.6) in only 16% of the samples. However, the precipitation acidity was on the growth track and the process was likely being accelerated. SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Ca2+ were the most abundant ions in the precipitations, with their single volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration all above 100 μeq l-1. The two major anions and two major cations accounted for more than 80% of total anionic and cationic mass, respectively. The VWM SO42- concentration decreased by 13% compared to that during 1995-1998, much less than the 58% reduction in the annual average SO2 concentration from 1998 to 2005 in Beijing. What seems more counterintuitive is that the VWM NO3- concentration nearly doubled over the period although the annual average NO2 concentration decreased by 5% from 1998 to 2005. These results imply that the conversion of gaseous precursors to acid compounds and/or the regional transport were reinforced over the decade. The average ratio of neutralizing potential to acidifying potential (i.e. NP/AP) was as high as 1.2 but experienced an evident decline trend. This was mainly ascribed to reduced input of NH4+ and Ca2+ and increased input of NO3-. Furthermore, the equivalent mass ratio of NO3- to non-sea-salt SO42- presented an increasing trend over the study period, suggesting that the contribution of NO3- to the precipitation acidity increased in recent years. However, the mean ratio was only 0.37 ± 0.11 in the study period, which is significantly lower than those reported in some metropolitan areas in developed

  11. Central-north China precipitation as reconstructed from the Qing dynasty: Signal of the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Fan, Ke


    Based on the long-term Central-north China precipitation (CNCP) time series reconstructed from the Qing Dynasty Official Document, the relationship between CNCP and the Antarctic Atmospheric Oscillation (AAO) in June-July is examined. The analysis yields a (significant) negative correlation of -0.22. The signal of AAO in CNCP is further studied through analyses of the atmospheric general circulation variability related to AAO. It follows that AAO-related variability of convergence and convection over the tropical western Pacific can exert impact on the circulation condition and precipitation in north China (actually, the precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley as well) through atmospheric teleconnection known as the East Asia-Pacific (or Pacific-Japan) teleconnection wave pattern. There is also an AAO-connected wave train in the vorticity field at high troposphere over Eurasia, providing an anti-cyclonic circulation in central-north China favorable to the decline of precipitation in positive phase of AAO.


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    Full Text Available The atmospheric precipitation, an essential meteorological element for defining the climatic potential of a region, presents through its general and local particularities a defining influence for the evolution of the other climatic parameters, conditioning the structure of the overall geographic landscape. Their quantitative parameters sets up the regional natural setting and differentiation of water resources, soil, vegetation and fauna, in the same time influencing the majority of human activities’ aspects, through the generated impact over the agriculture, transportation, construction, for tourism etc. Especially, through the evolution of the related climatic parameters (production type, quantity, duration, frequency, intensity and their spatial and temporal fluctuations, the pluviometric extremes set out the maxim manifestation of the energy gap of the hydroclimatic hazards/risks which induce unfavourable or even damaging conditions for the human activities’ progress. Hence, the production of atmospheric precipitation surpluses conditions the triggering, or reactivation of some intense erosion processes, landslides, and last but not least, floods. Just as dangerous are the adverse amounts of precipitation or their absence on longer periods, determining the appearance of droughts, aridity phenomena, which if associated with the sharp anthropic pressure over the environment, favours the expansion of desertification, with the whole process of the arising negative effects. In this context, this paper aims to perform the diagnosis of atmospheric precipitation condition in Baia Mare urban area, through its quantitative component, in multiannual condition (1971-2007, underlining through the results of the analyzed climatic data and their interpretation, the main characteristics that define it. The data bank from Baia Mare station from the National Meteorological Administration network, representative for the chosen study area, was used. Baia

  13. Electric fields, electron precipitation, and VLF radiation during a simultaneous magnetospheric substorm and atmospheric thunderstorm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A balloon payload instrumented with a double-probe electric field detector and an X ray scintillation counter was launched from Roberval, Quebec, Canada (L=4.1) at 0828 UT (0328 LT) on July 9, 1975. A magnetospheric substorm was observed locally between 0815 and 1100 UT, which produced a maximum ΔB of approx.500 nT at approx.0930 UT. A single-cell atmospheric thunderstorm developed northeast of Roberval beginning around 0925 UT which was most intense from approx.1000 to 1035 UT. Detailed study of the electrical properties of the thunderstorm, the X ray precipitation data, and VLF spheric data leads to three conclusions. First, the electrical coupling from the thunderstorm to the magnetosphere increases with frequency from dc to the VLF; for the observed storm the amplitude at the ionosphere of thunderstorm produced electric fields was not significant at frequencies below 0.1 Hz. Second, the atmospheric conductivity above the thunderstorm was observed to be about one-half the fair weather value prior to 1000 UT; decreased to about one-quarter the fair weather value at about 1000 UT; and remained depressed after the end of the thunderstorm. This result was contrary to that expected on the basis of previous work and is one which merits considerably more investigation. Third, the data show a high probability that half-hop whistlers initiated by sferics from the thunderstorm triggered energetic electron precipitation from the magnetosphere

  14. The Winter Atmospheric Circulation Patterns and their relationship with precipitation variability in Iran (United States)

    Fattahi, E.; Sedaghatkerdar, A.


    To classify the atmospheric circulation patterns over Iran the sea level pressure and 500 hpa geopotential height for December-February of 1961-2003 was retrieved from NCEP/NCAR and used as input variables. By applying the S-mode principle component analysis (PCA) on daily composite of 500 hpa we reduced the data matrix (3880*408) to 11 components. The identified components were then rotated using varimax method in order to obtain simpler structure. The ward clustering algorithm was then used to classify studied days based on time variability of PC scores. So, by applying Ward clustering on resultant PC scores we grouped all days into 8 weather types. The relationship between frequency of various weather types and precipitation variability over Iran was investigated using correlation analysis. Moreover, the occurrences of precipitation during warm, cold and neutral phases of ENSO were also linked to the identified weather types. The results reveal that the Mediterranean low, Sub-polar low, Eastern high pressure, North high pressure and East European high pressure and also the combination of Siberian and European high pressures have the highest frequencies during El Nino periods, Whereas the Siberian high pressure and central high pressure systems are more frequent in La Nina periods. Keywords: Atmospheric circulation Patterns, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, ENSO, Iran.

  15. Energetic electron precipitation into the middle atmosphere -- Constructing the loss cone fluxes from MEPED POES (United States)

    Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Sandanger, M. I.; Ødegaard, L.-K. G.; Stadsnes, J.; Aasnes, A.; Zawedde, A. E.


    The impact of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on the chemistry of the middle atmosphere (50-90 km) is still an outstanding question as accurate quantification of EEP is lacking due to instrumental challenges and insufficient pitch angle coverage of current particle detectors. The Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors (MEPED) instrument on board the NOAA/Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) and MetOp spacecraft has two sets of electron and proton telescopes pointing close to zenith (0°) and in the horizontal plane (90°). Using measurements from either the 0° or 90° telescope will underestimate or overestimate the bounce loss cone flux, respectively, as the energetic electron fluxes are often strongly anisotropic with decreasing fluxes toward the center of the loss cone. By combining the measurements from both telescopes with electron pitch angle distributions from theory of wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, a complete bounce loss cone flux is constructed for each of the electron energy channels >50 keV, >100 keV, and >300 keV. We apply a correction method to remove proton contamination in the electron counts. We also account for the relativistic (>1000 keV) electrons contaminating the proton detector at subauroral latitudes. This gives us full range coverage of electron energies that will be deposited in the middle atmosphere. Finally, we demonstrate the method's applicability on strongly anisotropic pitch angle distributions during a weak geomagnetic storm in February 2008. We compare the electron fluxes and subsequent energy deposition estimates to OH observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite substantiating that the estimated fluxes are representative for the true precipitating fluxes impacting the atmosphere.

  16. Atmospheric water vapor transport: Estimation of continental precipitation recycling and parameterization of a simple climate model. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, Peter S.


    The advective transport of atmospheric water vapor and its role in global hydrology and the water balance of continental regions are discussed and explored. The data set consists of ten years of global wind and humidity observations interpolated onto a regular grid by objective analysis. Atmospheric water vapor fluxes across the boundaries of selected continental regions are displayed graphically. The water vapor flux data are used to investigate the sources of continental precipitation. The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from surrounding areas external to the region; and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. In a separate, but related, study estimates of ocean to land water vapor transport are used to parameterize an existing simple climate model, containing both land and ocean surfaces, that is intended to mimic the dynamics of continental climates.

  17. Change of the dynamics of heavy metals concentration in atmospheric precipitation in chatkal nature reservation of the republic of uzbekistan as anthropogenic index of the atmospheric pollution (United States)

    Smirnova, T.; Tolkacheva, G.


    At present the investigation of the chemical composition of precipitation is a very actual task in the monitoring of environmental pollution. It is known that heavy metals can be the indices of the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution. The emissions from the mining enterprises, of non-ferrous metallurgy, of chemical industry, from heat-and-power production plants, from transport vehicles fare the sources of the heavy metals ingress into the atmosphere. Their emissions in atmosphere form fine-disperse aerosol fractions and afterwards they fall down together with precipitation onto the underlying surface. Heavy metals have the property of accumulation in environmental objects, which disturbs its ecological balance. One of the problems of the study of the influence of heavy metals pollution on the environment is their travel with the air masses of different origin on large distance. In this concern it is interesting to study the content of the heavy metals in atmospheric aerosols and precipitation in the background zones. Chatkal nature reservation on the territory of Tashkent province presents such background point. For the estimation of the level of atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and evaluation of the possible impact on the background level of air pollution of Chatkal nature reservation by anthropogenic sources (industrial cities of the capital province of Uzbekistan) the data analysis was carried out by the Administration of Environment Pollution Monitoring (AEPM) of hydrometeorological service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is necessary to mention that Chatkal biospheric nature reservation is situated in 100 km from Tashkent (the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan) and in 60 km from Almalyk (the biggest centre of mining-metallurgical and chemical industry of the republic). The station of the complex background monitoring of atmospheric pollution (SCBM) is situated on the territory of this nature reservation. This area is characterized by a typical

  18. Energetic electron precipitation into the middle atmosphere - Constructing the loss cone fluxes from MEPED POES

    CERN Document Server

    Tyssøy, H Nesse; Ødegaard, L -K G; Stadsnes, J; Aasnes, A; Zawedde, A E


    The impact of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) on the chemistry of the middle atmosphere (50-90 km) is still an outstanding question as accurate quantification of EEP is lacking due to instrumental challenges and insufficient pitch angle coverage of current particle detectors. The Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors (MEPED) instrument on board the NOAA/Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites(POES) and MetOp spacecraft has two sets of electron and proton telescopes pointing close to zenith ($0\\,^{\\circ}$) and in the horizontal plane ($90\\,^{\\circ}$). Using measurements from either the $0\\,^{\\circ}$ or $90\\,^{\\circ}$ telescope will underestimate or overestimate the bounce loss cone flux, respectively, as the energetic electron fluxes are often strongly anisotropic with decreasing fluxes toward the center of the loss cone. By combining the measurements from both telescopes with electron pitch angle distributions from theory of wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, a complete bounce loss ...

  19. Soil frost-induced soil moisture precipitation feedback and effects on atmospheric states (United States)

    Hagemann, Stefan; Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian


    land atmosphere feedback to precipitation over the high latitudes, which reduces the model's wet biases in precipitation and evapotranspiration during the summer. This is noteworthy as soil moisture - atmosphere feedbacks have previously not been in the research focus over the high latitudes. These results point out the importance of high latitude physical processes at the land surface for the regional climate.

  20. Energetic electron precipitation impacts on the middle atmosphere: From satellite observations to chemistry-climate modeling (United States)

    Sinnhuber, Miriam; Bender, Stefan; Burrows, John P.; Funke, Bernd; Fytterer, Tilo; Nieder, Holger; Reddmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Maik Wissing, Jan


    Precipitation of energetic particles - mainly protons from solar coronal mass ejections or electrons accelerated in auroral or geomagnetic storms - directly affects the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Nitric oxides (N, NO, NO2) and hydrogen radicals (H, OH) are formed by particle impact dissociation and ionization and subsequent ion chemistry reactions. However, the stratosphere and possibly even tropospheric weather systems can be affected indirectly by downward transport of particle-induced nitric oxides from their source regions into the stratosphere during polar winter, subsequent ozone depletion, and dynamical feedbacks with radiative (ozone) heating and cooling. This so-called "EPP indirect effect" forms one aspect of solar-climate interactions which will be recommended to include in chemistry-climate models, e.g., in the upcoming CMIP-6 experiment. We will present recent observations of mesospheric nitric oxide formation due to particle precipitation, as well as downwelling of particle induced NOy. Observations are compared to results from three 3-dimensional global chemistry-climate and chemistry-transport models of the middle atmosphere, and the subsequent ozone depletion is assessed using CCM / CTM model results.

  1. Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Precipitation in the Area of Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehbajraktarević, K.


    Full Text Available Trace metals are natural components of the environment but they have become a matter of great concern because of the continuous increase in the concentrations of these metals in our environment. Atmospheric deposition is considered a major source of toxic metals such as Hg, Cd, Pb and several others in the ecosystem. The increasing use of rainwater as an alternative household water source has led to the increased interest in the monitoring of rainwater quality. The heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Hg in samples of atmospheric precipitation was determined in order to assess possible contamination of rainwater. The samples were collected continuously during three seasons (winter, spring and summer in the period from December 2009 to June 2010. The sampling was conducted at two sites of the Sarajevo Canton: Bjelave (urban area and Ivan Sedlo (rural area. The results showed that heavy metal contents (except copper and cadmium were higher in samples from Bjelave. The results showed levels of metals in all samples as: 0.52 – 19.08 μg L-1 (Cu, 0.007 – 2.55 μg L,-1 (Ni, 0.006 – 0.26 μg L-1 (Cr, 0.02 – 3.86 μg L-1 (Cd, 0.13 – 21.59 μg L-1 (Mn and 0.02 – 4.02 μg L-1 (Hg. The mean metal concentrations were below WHO’s limits for good quality drinking water. For most investigated metals, the highest content was obtained in precipitation sampled during spring/summer.

  2. Large scale atmospheric forcing and topographic modification of precipitation rates over High Asia – a neural network based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gerlitz


    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of precipitation rates in high mountain regions is not sufficiently captured by state of the art climate reanalysis products due to their limited spatial resolution. Thus there exists a large gap between the available data sets and the demands of climate impact studies. The presented approach aims to generate spatially high resolution precipitation fields for a target area in Central Asia, covering the Tibetan Plateau, the adjacent mountain ranges and lowlands. Based on the assumption, that observed local scale precipitation amounts are triggered by varying large scale atmospheric situations and modified by local scale topographic characteristics, the statistical downscaling approach estimates local scale precipitation rates as a function of large scale atmospheric conditions, derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, and high resolution terrain parameters. Since the relationships of the predictor variables with local scale observations are rather unknown and highly non-linear, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was utilized for the development of adequate transfer functions. Different ANN-architectures were evaluated with regard to their predictive performance. The final downscaling model was used for the cellwise estimation of monthly precipitation sums, the number of rainy days and the maximum daily precipitation amount with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. The model was found to sufficiently capture the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation rates in the highly structured target area and allows a detailed analysis of the precipitation distribution. A concluding sensitivity analysis of the ANN model reveals the effect of the atmospheric and topographic predictor variables on the precipitation estimations in the climatically diverse subregions.

  3. Trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region (United States)

    Hiyama, T.; Fujinami, H.; Oshima, K.


    This study investigated trend and interannual variability of summer (June, July and August) precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region, with an emphasis on recent increase of those around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. Data used in this study are an archived precipitation data (PREC/L) and atmospheric re-analysis data (JRA-25, JRA-55). Previous studies have revealed a negative correlation in the summer atmospheric circulation pattern between the Lena and Ob river basins. However little is known about the atmospheric water cycles in the Arctic circumpolar region, including the Mackenzie river basin. Hence we compared the trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in three large North Eurasian river (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob) basins together with the Mackenzie basin. The analyzed results are as follows. 1) In the highest five-year summer precipitation in the Lena river basin during the period 1958 to 2012, the center of the cyclonic circulation shifted to the east, from the Kara and Barents Seas over the region across the Yenisei and Lena. In the years, significant cyclonic deviation was present. The deviation distribution of the height field and the atmospheric water vapor flux from the west to the Lena river basin were significantly increased, so as to form a positive deviation of summer precipitation. 2) Significant increases (positive trend) in the summer precipitation were detected from 1984 to 2011 in the Lena, Yenisei, and the Mackenzie river basins. However, summer precipitation showed significant decreases (negative trend) over Mongolia and Europe/Russia. This was because anticyclones dominated in these regions. 3) A significant enhancement of cyclonic circulation was detected from 2005 to 2008 on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean. However, anticyclones appeared over Mongolia. These probably increased the atmospheric water vapor convergence

  4. Interannual Variability of Autumn Precipitation over South China and its Relation to Atmospheric Circulation and SST Anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The interannual variability of autumn precipitation over South China and its relationship with atmospheric circulation and SST anomalies are examined using the autumn precipitation data of 160 stations in China and the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis dataset from 1951 to 2004. Results indicate a strong interannual variability of autumn precipitation over South China and its positive correlation with the autumn western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). In the flood years, the WPSH ridge line lies over the south of South China and the strengthened ridge over North Asia triggers cold air to move southward. Furthermore, there exists a significantly anomalous updraft and cyclone with the northward stream strengthened at 850 hPa and a positive anomaly center of meridional moisture transport strengthening the northward warm and humid water transport over South China. These display the reverse feature in drought years. The autumn precipitation interannual variability over South China correlates positively with SST in the western Pacific and North Pacific, whereas a negative correlation occurs in the South Indian Ocean in July. The time of the strongest lag-correlation coefficients between SST and autumn precipitation over South China is about two months, implying that the SST of the three ocean areas in July might be one of the predictors for autumn precipitation interannual variability over South China. Discussion about the linkage among July SSTs in the western Pacific, the autumn WPSH and autumn precipitation over South China suggests that SST anomalies might contribute to autumn precipitation through its close relation to the autumn WPSH.

  5. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (United States)

    Gordon, John D.


    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick

  6. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting (United States)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.


    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  7. Evaluation of Atmospheric Precipitable Water from Reanalysis Products Using Homogenized Radiosonde Observations over China (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Wang, J.; Dai, A.


    Many multi-decadal atmospheric reanalysis products are avialable now, but their consistencies and reliability are far from perfect. In this study, atmospheric precipitable water (PW) from the NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE, MERRA, JRA-55, JRA-25, ERA-Interim, ERA-40, CFSR and 20CR reanalyses is evaluated against homogenized radiosonde observations over China during 1979-2012 (1979-2001 for ERA-40). Results suggest that the PW biases in the reanalyses are within ˜20% for most of northern and eastern China, but the reanalyses underestimate the observed PW by 20%-40% over western China, and by ˜60% over the southwestern Tibetan Plateau. The newer-generation reanalyses (e.g., JRA25, JRA55, CFSR and ERA-Interim) have smaller root-mean-square error (RMSE) than the older-generation ones (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE and ERA-40). Most of the reanalyses reproduce well the observed PW climatology and interannual variations over China. However, few reanalyses capture the observed long-term PW changes, primarily because they show spurious wet biases before about 2002. This deficiency results mainly from the discontinuities contained in reanalysis RH fields in the mid-lower troposphere due to the wet bias in older radiosonde records that are assimilated into the reanalyses. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis revealed two leading modes that represent the long-term PW changes and ENSO-related interannual variations with robust spatial patterns. The reanalysis products, especially the MERRA and JRA-25, roughly capture these EOF modes, which account for over 50% of the total variance. The results show that even during the post-1979 satellite era, discontinuities in radiosonde data can still induce large spurious long-term changes in reanalysis PW and other related fields. Thus, more efforts are needed to remove spurious changes in input data for future long-term reanlayses.

  8. Electrostatic Precipitation of Dust in the Martian Atmosphere: Implications for the Utilization of Resources During Future Manned Exploration Missions (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Clements, Judson S.; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Hogue, Michael D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.


    Future human missions to Mars will require the utilization of local resources for oxygen, fuel. and water. The In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project is an active research endeavor at NASA to develop technologies that can enable cost effective ways to live off the land. The extraction of oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. composed primarily of carbon dioxide, is one of the most important goals of the Mars ISRU project. The main obstacle is the relatively large amount of dust present in the Martian atmosphere. This dust must be efficiently removed from atmospheric gas intakes for ISRU processing chambers. A common technique to achieve this removal on earth is by electrostatic precipitation, where large electrostatic fields are established in a localized region to precipitate and collect previously charged dust particles. This technique is difficult to adapt to the Martian environment, with an atmospheric pressure of about one-hundredth of the terrestrial atmosphere. At these low pressures. the corona discharges required to implant an electrostatic charge to the particles to be collected is extremely difficult to sustain and the corona easily becomes biopolar. which is unsuitable for particle charging. In this paper, we report on our successful efforts to establish a stable corona under Martian simulated conditions. We also present results on dust collecting efficiencies with an electrostatic precipitator prototype that could be effectively used on a future mission to the red planet

  9. Middle atmosphere response to the solar cycle in irradiance and ionizing particle precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Semeniuk


    Full Text Available The impact of NOx and HOx production by three types of energetic particle precipitation (EPP, aurora, solar proton events and galactic cosmic rays is examined using a chemistry climate model. Ensemble simulations forced by transient EPP derived from observations with one-year repeating sea surface temperatures and fixed chemical boundary conditions were conducted for cases with and without solar cycle in irradiance. Our model results show a wintertime polar stratosphere ozone reduction of between 3 and 10% in agreement with previous studies. EPP is found to modulate the radiative solar cycle effect in the middle atmosphere in a significant way, bringing temperature and ozone variations closer to observed patterns. The Southern Hemisphere polar vortex undergoes an intensification from solar minimum to solar maximum instead of a weakening. This changes the solar cycle variation of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, with a weakening during solar maxima compared to solar minima. In response, the tropical tropopause temperature manifests a statistically significant solar cycle variation resulting in about 4% more water vapour transported into the lower tropical stratosphere during solar maxima compared to solar minima. This has implications for surface temperature variation due to the associated change in radiative forcing.

  10. Future Changes Projections of Atmospheric Circulation and Precipitation and Temperature Patterns Over South America in Austral Summer (United States)

    Shimizu, M. H.; Cavalcanti, I. F.


    Atmospheric circulation is primarily driven by temperature gradients across the globe due to differential heating of Earth's surface which leads to a surplus of energy in the tropics and a deficit in the high latitudes. However, due to global warming, changes in atmospheric circulation are expected, which could result in modifications also in precipitation pattern. There are some evidences of changes in atmospheric circulation, such as the expansion of tropical belt and the poleward shift of large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, such as jet streams. These changes can be enhanced in a scenario with increasing greenhouse gases concentration. The objective of this study was to analyze future changes of atmospheric circulation and precipitation and temperature patterns in the austral summer over South America under Representative Pathway Concentration 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emission scenario. This evaluation was made according to model projections based on the coordinated climate change experiments defined by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Historical simulations were used to evaluate model performance in reproduce main climatic features over South America in the Austral Summer. This analysis showed that some models perform better than others, with a wide range of difference between simulations and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim data sets. In general, the models captured the main features of Austral Summer such as the northwest-southeast precipitation band associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the anticyclonic circulation at high levels related to Bolivian High. The projections from different models pointed out in general to a reduction of precipitation, however the signal was not the same over all the continent and for all models. For example, Met Office's HadGEM2-ES projection indicated a reduction of precipitation in most of

  11. A CloudSat Perspective of the Atmospheric Water Cycle and Precipitation: Recent Progress and Grand Challenges (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Im, Eastwood; Vane, Deborah


    Summary Global - mean precipitation - is controlled by Earth's energy balance and is a quantifiable consequence of the water vapor feedback. Predictability rests on the degree to which the water vapor feedback is predictable. Regional scale - to a significant extent, changes are shaped by atmospheric circulation changes but we do not know the extent to which regional scale changes are predictable. The impacts of changes to atmospheric circulation on regional scale water cycle changes can be dramatic. Process - scale - significant biases to the CHARACTER of precipitation (frequency and intensity) is related to how the precipitation process is parameterized in models. Aerosol - We still do not know the extent to which the water cycle is influenced by aerosol but anecdotal evidence is building. The character of precipitation is affected by the way aerosol influence clouds and thus affects the forcing of the climate system through the albedo effect. Observations - we still have a way to go and need to approach the problem in a more integrated way (tie clouds, aerosol and precipitation together and then link to soil moisture, etc). Globally our capabilities seriously lag behind the science and model development.

  12. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium (United States)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne


    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of

  13. Influence of Large-scale Climate Modes on Atmospheric Rivers That Drive Regional Precipitation Extremes (United States)

    Guan, B.; Molotch, N. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Neiman, P. J.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow channels of enhanced meridional water vapor transport between the tropics and extratropics that drive precipitation extremes in the west coast areas of North America and other continents. The influence of large-scale climate modes on ARs is analyzed in terms of modulation on AR frequency and AR-related snow water equivalent (SWE) anomalies, with a focus on understanding the causes of the anomalously snowy winter season of 2010/2011 in California's Sierra Nevada. Mean SWE on 1 April 2011 was ~70% above normal averaged over 100 snow sensors. AR occurrence was anomalously high during the season, with 20 AR dates from November to March and 14 dates in the month of December 2010, compared to the mean occurrence of 9 dates per season. Most of the season's ARs occurred during negative phases of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Analysis of all winter ARs in California during water years 1998-2011 indicates more ARs occur during the negative phase of AO and PNA, with the increase between positive and negative phases being ~90% for AO, and ~50% for PNA. The circulation pattern associated with concurrent negative phases of AO and PNA, characterized by cyclonic anomalies centered northwest of California, provides a favorable dynamical condition for ARs. The analysis suggests that the massive Sierra Nevada snowpack during the 2010/2011 winter season is primarily related to anomalously high frequency of ARs favored by the joint phasing of -AO and -PNA, and that a secondary contribution is from increased snow accumulation during these ARs favored by colder air temperatures associated with -AO, -PNA and La Niña. The results have implications for subseasonal-to-seasonal predictability of AR activities and related weather and water extremes.

  14. Investigation of Atmospheric Modelling Framework for Better Reconstruction on Historical Extreme Precipitation Event in PMP Estimation (United States)

    Chen, X.; Hossain, F.; Leung, L. R.


    During May 1-2, 2010, a record-breaking storm hit Nashville, and caused huge humanity and societal loss. It raises the importance of forecasting/reconstructing these types of extreme weather systems once again, in the meanwhile providing an excellent case for such atmospheric modelling studies. However, earlier studies suggest that successful reconstruction of this event depends on and is sensitive to a number of model options, making it difficult to establish a better model framework with more confidence. In this study we employed the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to investigate how this extreme precipitation event is sensitive to the model configuration, and identified options that would produce better results. We tested several combinations of modelling grid sizes together with initial/boundary conditions (IC/BC). At different grid sizes, we conducted a set of tests on various combinations of microphysics (Morrison, new Thompson and WSM5) and cumulus process (Kain-Fristch, Grell-Devenyi and Grell-Freitas) parameterization schemes. The model results were intensively evaluated under bias analysis as well as other metrics (probability of detection, bias, false alerts, HSS, ETS). The evaluation suggests that in general, simulation results benefit from finer model grids (5km). At 5km level, NCEP2 or NAM IC/BCs are more representative for the 2010 Nashville storm. There are no universally good parameterization schemes, but the WSM5 microphysics scheme, Kain-Fristch and Grell-Freitas cumulus schemes are recommended over other tested schemes. These better schemes would help to make better estimation of PMP in the region.

  15. Determining precipitable water in the atmosphere of Iran based on GPS zenith tropospheric delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Precipitable water (PW is considered as one of the most important weather parameters in meteorology. Moreover, moisture affects the propagation of the Global Positioning System’s (GPS signals. Using four different models, the current paper tries to identify the best relationship between the atmospheric error known as zenith wet delay (ZWD and PW. For that matter, based on 54,330 radiosonde profiles from 11 stations, two different models i.e. linear and quadratic have been derived for Iran. For analyzing the accuracy of these models, ZWDs of three permanent GPS stations located in the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz and Tabriz have been used. Applying the aforementioned models as well as those already developed for Europe and the U.S., PWs are derived at the position of these stations in Iran. Further, in this research, root mean square error (RMSE and bias are the measures for selecting the optimal model. Here, the bias and the RMSE (between GPS and radiosonde derived PWs for the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.44 mm and 4.42 mm, and for quadratic model 2.18 mm and 4.74 mm respectively while, the bias and the RMSE for Bevis’ linear model is 2.63 mm and 4.98 mm and for Emardson and Derk’s quadratic models are 2.80 mm and 5.08 mm respectively. As such, it is observed that the bias of the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.19 mm and 1.36 mm less than the Bevis’ and Emardson and Derk’s models. In addition, the RMSE of the proposed linear model is 0.56 and 0.66 mm less than the RMSE of the later ones. This emphasizes that the estimation of the model coefficients must be based on regional meteorological measurements.

  16. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004 (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.


    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  17. Influence of land-atmosphere feedbacks on temperature and precipitation extremes in the GLACE-CMIP5 ensemble (United States)

    Lorenz, Ruth; Argüeso, Daniel; Donat, Markus G.; Pitman, Andrew J.; Hurk, Bart; Berg, Alexis; Lawrence, David M.; Chéruy, Frédérique; Ducharne, Agnès.; Hagemann, Stefan; Meier, Arndt; Milly, P. C. D.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.


    We examine how soil moisture variability and trends affect the simulation of temperature and precipitation extremes in six global climate models using the experimental protocol of the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (GLACE-CMIP5). This protocol enables separate examinations of the influences of soil moisture variability and trends on the intensity, frequency, and duration of climate extremes by the end of the 21st century under a business-as-usual (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) emission scenario. Removing soil moisture variability significantly reduces temperature extremes over most continental surfaces, while wet precipitation extremes are enhanced in the tropics. Projected drying trends in soil moisture lead to increases in intensity, frequency, and duration of temperature extremes by the end of the 21st century. Wet precipitation extremes are decreased in the tropics with soil moisture trends in the simulations, while dry extremes are enhanced in some regions, in particular the Mediterranean and Australia. However, the ensemble results mask considerable differences in the soil moisture trends simulated by the six climate models. We find that the large differences between the models in soil moisture trends, which are related to an unknown combination of differences in atmospheric forcing (precipitation, net radiation), flux partitioning at the land surface, and how soil moisture is parameterized, imply considerable uncertainty in future changes in climate extremes.

  18. An analytical model for dispersion of material in the atmospheric planetary boundary layer in presence of precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model for the dispersion of particulates and finely divided material released into the atmosphere near the ground is presented. The possible precipitation when the particles are dense enough and large enough to have deposition velocity, is taken into consideration. The model is derived analytically in the mixing layer or Ekman boundary layer where the mixing process is a direct consequence of turbulent and convective motions generated in the boundary layer. (author)

  19. Inter-annual temperature and precipitation variations over the Litani Basin in response to atmospheric circulation patterns (United States)

    Ramadan, H. H.; Ramamurthy, A. S.; Beighley, R. E.


    This study examines the sensitivity of a mid-size basin's temperature and precipitation response to different global and regional climate circulation patterns. The implication of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Monsoon and ten other teleconnection patterns of the Northern Hemisphere are investigated. A methodology to generate a basin-scale, long-term monthly surface temperature and precipitation time series has been established using different statistical tests. The Litani River Basin is the focus of this study. It is located in Lebanon, east of the Mediterranean Basin, which is known to have diverse geophysical and environmental characteristics. It was selected to explore the influence of the diverse physical and topographical features on its hydroclimatological response to global and regional climate patterns. We also examine the opportunity of conducting related studies in areas with limited long-term measured climate and/or hydrological data. Litani's monthly precipitation and temperature data have been collected and statistically extrapolated using remotely sensed data products from satellites and as well as in situ gauges. Correlations between 13 different teleconnection indices and the basin's precipitation and temperature series are investigated. The study shows that some of the annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation variance can be partially associated with many atmospheric circulation patterns. This would give the opportunity to relate the natural climate variability with the watershed's hydroclimatology performance and thus differentiate it from other anthropogenic induced climate change outcomes.

  20. Precipitation efficiency derived from isotope ratios in water vapor distinguishes dynamical and microphysical influences on subtropical atmospheric constituents (United States)

    Bailey, A.; Nusbaumer, J.; Noone, D.


    With water vapor and clouds expected to effect significant feedbacks on climate, moisture transport through convective processes has important implications for future temperature change. The precipitation efficiency—the ratio of the rates at which precipitation and condensation form (e = P/C)—is useful for characterizing how much boundary layer moisture recycles through precipitation versus mixes into the free troposphere through cloud detrainment. Yet it is a difficult metric to constrain with traditional observational techniques. This analysis characterizes the precipitation efficiency of convection near the Big Island of Hawaii, USA, using a novel tracer: isotope ratios in water vapor. The synoptic circulation patterns associated with high and low precipitation efficiency are identified, and the importance of large-scale dynamics and local convective processes in regulating vertical distributions of atmospheric constituents important for climate is evaluated. The results suggest that high e days are correlated with plume-like transport originating from the relatively clean tropics, while low e days are associated with westerly transport, generated by a branching of the jet stream. Differences in transport pathway clearly modify background concentrations of water vapor and other trace gases measured at Mauna Loa Observatory; however, local convective processes appear to regulate aerosols there. Indeed, differences between observed and simulated diurnal cycles of particle number concentration indicate that precipitation scavenges aerosols and possibly facilitates new particle formation when e is high. As measurements of isotope ratios in water vapor expand across the subtropics, the techniques presented here can further our understanding of how synoptic weather, precipitation processes, and climate feedbacks interrelate.

  1. Atmospheric residence times from transpiration and evaporation to precipitation: An age-weighted regional evaporation tagging approach (United States)

    Wei, Jianhui; Knoche, Hans Richard; Kunstmann, Harald


    The atmospheric water residence time is a fundamental descriptor that provides information on the timescales of evaporation and precipitation. In this study, a regional climate model-based evaporation tagging algorithm is extended with an age tracer approach to calculate moisture residence times, defined as time between the original evaporation and the returning of water masses to the land surface as precipitation. Our case study addresses how long this time is for the transpired and for the direct evaporated moisture. Our study region is the Poyang Lake region in Southeast China, the largest freshwater lake in the country. We perform simulations covering the period from October 2004 to December 2005. In 2005, 11% of direct evaporated water (10% of transpired water) precipitates locally. Direct evaporated water accounts for 64% and transpired water for 36% of the total tagged moisture with a mean age of around 36 h for both. Considering precipitation, a large proportion (69%) originates from direct evaporated water with a mean atmospheric residence time of 6.6 h and a smaller amount from transpired water with a longer residence time of 10.7 h. Modulated by the East Asian monsoon, the variation of the meteorological conditions, the magnitude of the partitioned moisture, and the corresponding residence time patterns change seasonally and spatially and reveal the different fate of transpired and direct evaporated water in the atmospheric hydrological cycle. We conclude that our methodological approach has the potential to be used for addressing how timescales of the hydrological cycle changes regionally under global warming.

  2. Land-total and Ocean-total Precipitation and Evaporation from a Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Perturbed Parameter Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, Donald D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trenberth, Kevin E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    This document presents the large scale water budget statistics of a perturbed input-parameter ensemble of atmospheric model runs. The model is Version 5.1.02 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). These runs are the “C-Ensemble” described by Qian et al., “Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5” (Journal of Advances in Modeling the Earth System, 2015). As noted by Qian et al., the simulations are “AMIP type” with temperature and sea ice boundary conditions chosen to match surface observations for the five year period 2000-2004. There are 1100 ensemble members in addition to one run with default inputparameter values.

  3. Effects of precipitation on sonic anemometer measurements of turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer (United States)

    Zhang, Rongwang; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jun A.; Huang, Fei


    Effects caused by precipitation on the measurements of three-dimensional sonic anemometer are analyzed based on a field observational experiment conducted in Maoming, Guangdong Province, China. Obvious fluctuations induced by precipitation are observed for the outputs of sonic anemometer-derived temperature and wind velocity components. A technique of turbulence spectra and cospectra normalized in the framework of similarity theory is utilized to validate the measured variables and calculated fluxes. It is found that the sensitivity of sonic anemometer-derived temperature to precipitation is significant, compared with that of the wind velocity components. The spectra of wind velocity and cospectra of momentum flux resemble the standard universal shape with the slopes of the spectra and cospectra at the inertial subrange, following the -2/3 and -4/3 power law, respectively, even under the condition of heavy rain. Contaminated by precipitation, however, the spectra of temperature and cospectra of sensible heat flux do not exhibit a universal shape and have obvious frequency loss at the inertial subrange. From the physical structure and working principle of sonic anemometer, a possible explanation is proposed to describe this difference, which is found to be related to the variations of precipitation particles. Corrections for errors of sonic anemometer-derived temperature under precipitation is needed, which is still under exploration.

  4. Development of an Electrostatic Precipitator to Remove Martian Atmospheric Dust from ISRU Gas Intakes During Planetary Exploration Missions (United States)

    Clements, J. Sidney; Thompson, Samuel M.; Cox, Nathan D.; Johansen, Michael R.; Williams, Blakeley S.; Hogue, Michael D.; Lowder, M. Loraine; Calle, Carlos I.


    Manned exploration missions to Mars will need dependable in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for the production of oxygen and other commodities. One of these resources is the Martian atmosphere itself, which is composed of carbon dioxide (95.3%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%), oxygen (0.13%), carbon monoxide (0.07%), and water vapor (0.03%), as well as other trace gases. However, the Martian atmosphere also contains relatively large amounts of dust, uploaded by frequent dust devils and high Winds. To make this gas usable for oxygen extraction in specialized chambers requires the removal of most of the dust. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system is an obvious choice. But with an atmospheric pressure just one-hundredth of Earth's, electrical breakdown at low voltages makes the implementation of the electrostatic precipitator technology very challenging. Ion mobility, drag forces, dust particle charging, and migration velocity are also affected because the low gas pressure results in molecular mean free paths that are approximately one hundred times longer than those at Earth .atmospheric pressure. We report here on our efforts to develop this technology at the Kennedy Space Center, using gases with approximately the same composition as the Martian atmosphere in a vacuum chamber at 9 mbars, the atmospheric pressure on Mars. We also present I-V curves and large particle charging data for various versions of wire-cylinder and rod-cylinder geometry ESPs. Preliminary results suggest that use of an ESP for dust collection on Mars may be feasible, but further testing with Martian dust simulant is required.

  5. Observational constraints on atmospheric and oceanic cross-equatorial heat transports: revisiting the precipitation asymmetry problem in climate models (United States)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wang, Hailan; Cheng, Anning; Kato, Seiji; Fasullo, John T.; Xu, Kuan-Man; Allan, Richard P.


    Satellite based top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface radiation budget observations are combined with mass corrected vertically integrated atmospheric energy divergence and tendency from reanalysis to infer the regional distribution of the TOA, atmospheric and surface energy budget terms over the globe. Hemispheric contrasts in the energy budget terms are used to determine the radiative and combined sensible and latent heat contributions to the cross-equatorial heat transports in the atmosphere (AHTEQ) and ocean (OHTEQ). The contrast in net atmospheric radiation implies an AHTEQ from the northern hemisphere (NH) to the southern hemisphere (SH) (0.75 PW), while the hemispheric difference in sensible and latent heat implies an AHTEQ in the opposite direction (0.51 PW), resulting in a net NH to SH AHTEQ (0.24 PW). At the surface, the hemispheric contrast in the radiative component (0.95 PW) dominates, implying a 0.44 PW SH to NH OHTEQ. Coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models with excessive net downward surface radiation and surface-to-atmosphere sensible and latent heat transport in the SH relative to the NH exhibit anomalous northward AHTEQ and overestimate SH tropical precipitation. The hemispheric bias in net surface radiative flux is due to too much longwave surface radiative cooling in the NH tropics in both clear and all-sky conditions and excessive shortwave surface radiation in the SH subtropics and extratropics due to an underestimation in reflection by clouds.

  6. Diagnosing Atmospheric Influences on the Interannual 18O/16O Variations in Western U.S. Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yoshimura


    Full Text Available Many climate proxies in geological archives are dependent on the isotopic content of precipitation (δ18Op, which over sub-annual timescales has been linked to temperature, condensation height, atmospheric circulation, and post-condensation exchanges in the western U.S. However, many proxies do not resolve temporal changes finer than interannual-scales. This study explores causes of the interannual variations in δ18Op within the western U.S. Simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM revealed an amplifying influence of post-condensation exchanges (i.e., raindrop evaporation and vapor equilibration on interannual δ18Op variations throughout the western U.S. Mid-latitude and subtropical vapor tagging simulations showed that the influence of moisture advection on δ18Op was relatively strong in the Pacific Northwest, but weak over the rest of the western U.S. The vapor tags correlated well with interannual variations in the 18O/16O composition of vapor, an indication that isotopes in vapor trace atmospheric circulation. However, vertical-tagging simulations revealed a strong influence of condensation height on δ18Op in California. In the interior of the western U.S., a strong temperature effect was found only after annual mean temperatures were weighted by monthly precipitation totals. These multiple influences on δ18Op complicate interpretations of western U.S. climate proxies that are derived from isotopes in precipitation.

  7. Influence of Changing Atmospheric Circulation on Precipitation δ 18O-Temperature Relations in Canada during the Holocene (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Macdonald, Glen M.


    Postglacial precipitation δ 18O history has been reconstructed for two regions of Canada. Long-term shifts in the oxygen-isotope composition of annual precipitation (δ 18O p) in southern Ontario appear to have occurred with a consistent isotope-temperature relation throughout the past 11,500 14C yr. The modern isotope-temperature relation in central Canada near present boreal treeline evidently became established between 5000 and 4000 years ago, although the relation during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation may also have been similar to present. In the early Holocene, however, unusually high δ 18O papparently persisted, in spite of low temperature locally, probably associated with high zonal index. A rudimentary sensitivity analysis suggests that a small reduction in distillation of moisture in Pacific air masses traversing the western Cordillera, perhaps accompanied by a higher summer:winter precipitation ratio, could have been responsible for the observed effect. Equivalent isotope-temperature "anomalies" apparently occurred elsewhere in western North America in response to changing early-Holocene atmospheric circulation patterns, suggesting that a time-slice map of δ 18O pfor North America during this period might provide a useful target for testing and validation of atmospheric general circulation model simulations using isotopic water tracers.

  8. A one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system with combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong; Wu, Juan; Lu, Guihua


    Coupled hydrological and atmospheric modeling is an effective tool for providing advanced flood forecasting. However, the uncertainties in precipitation forecasts are still considerable. To address uncertainties, a one-way coupled atmospheric-hydrological modeling system, with a combination of high-resolution and ensemble precipitation forecasting, has been developed. It consists of three high-resolution single models and four sets of ensemble forecasts from the THORPEX Interactive Grande Global Ensemble database. The former provides higher forecasting accuracy, while the latter provides the range of forecasts. The combined precipitation forecasting was then implemented to drive the Chinese National Flood Forecasting System in the 2007 and 2008 Huai River flood hindcast analysis. The encouraging results demonstrated that the system can clearly give a set of forecasting hydrographs for a flood event and has a promising relative stability in discharge peaks and timing for warning purposes. It not only gives a deterministic prediction, but also generates probability forecasts. Even though the signal was not persistent until four days before the peak discharge was observed in the 2007 flood event, the visualization based on threshold exceedance provided clear and concise essential warning information at an early stage. Forecasters could better prepare for the possibility of a flood at an early stage, and then issue an actual warning if the signal strengthened. This process may provide decision support for civil protection authorities. In future studies, different weather forecasts will be assigned various weight coefficients to represent the covariance of predictors and the extremes of distributions.

  9. The role of atmospheric precipitation in introducing contaminants to the surface waters of the Fuglebekken catchment, Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kozak


    Full Text Available Although the Svalbard Archipelago is located at a high latitude, far from potential contaminant sources, it is not free from anthropogenic impact. Towards the Fuglebekken catchment, in the southern part of Spitsbergen, north of Hornsund fjord, contaminants can be transported from mainland pollution sources. In the precipitation and surface water collected in the catchment, the following elements were detected and quantified: Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn. Additionally, pH, electrical conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in those samples. The acidic reaction of precipitation waters was identified as an important factor intensifying the metal migration in this Arctic tundra environment. The air mass trajectory, surprisingly, explained the variability of only a small fraction of trace elements in precipitation water. The air mass origin area was correlated only with the concentrations of As, V and Cr. Wind directions were helpful in explaining the variability of Mn, U and Ba concentrations (east–north-easterly wind and the contents of B, As, Rb, Se, Sr and Li in precipitation (south-westerly wind, which may indicate the local geological source of those. Atmospheric deposition was found to play a key role in the transport of contaminants into the Fuglebekken catchment; however, the surface water composition was modified by its pH and TOC content.

  10. On the dynamics of the July 2010 Pakistan precipitation events and the central role of land surface - atmosphere interactions (United States)

    Martius, O.; Sodemann, H.; Joos, H.; Pfahl, S.; Winnschall, A.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; Graf, M.; Madonna, E.; Mueller, B.; Schemm, S.; Sedlacek, J.; Sprenger, M.; Wernli, H.


    In July and early August 2010 Russia was afflicted by an unprecedented heat wave and by drought conditions that lead to the death of several thousand people, forest fires, and significant losses in crop harvest. Concomitantly several severe precipitation events and ensuing floods affected Pakistan. At times more than 20% of the country was submerged, causing a humanitarian catastrophe and resulting in significant agricultural and economical losses. The two events did not occur independently and were dynamically closely linked. At upper-levels the flow over western Russia was dominated by the recurrent formation of long-lived anticyclones, so-called blocks during July and early August. Along the downstream flank of these blocks several upper-level troughs formed. These troughs were positive upper-level potential vorticity (PV) anomalies that significantly influenced the low-level wind field over Pakistan. The upper-level anomalies enforced the surface flow component perpendicular to the Himalaya mountains. The ensuing forced lifting of very moist air masses resulted in significant precipitation amounts. Compared to climatology the frequency of upper-level troughs was highly unusual. Besides the upper-level forcing, evapotranspiration and large-scale advection over land was of fundamental importance for the precipitation events. Detailed analyses of the moisture pathways from the Indian Ocean to northeastern Pakistan using trajectory analyses revealed that a substantial fraction of the moisture that was rained-out over northeastern Pakistan stemmed from the land surface. This is confirmed by model experiments where the moisture flux from the land surface into the atmosphere over Pakistan was turned off 48 hours prior to the onset of a major precipitation event. For this event the area mean precipitation over northeastern Pakistan was reduced by 60% in the experiment compared to a control simulation (this corresponds to a reduction of the area mean 48-hour

  11. Trends in persistent seasonal-scale atmospheric circulation patterns responsible for precipitation and temperature extremes in California (United States)

    Swain, D. L.; Horton, D. E.; Singh, D.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.


    Long-lived anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns are often associated with surface weather extremes. This is particularly true from a hydroclimatic perspective in regions that have well-defined "wet seasons," where atmospheric anomalies that persist on a seasonal scale can lead to drought or (conversely) increase the risk of flood. Recent evidence suggests that both natural variability and global warming may be responsible for spatially and temporally heterogeneous changes in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric conditions over the past several decades. In this investigation, we assess observed trends in cool-season (Oct-May) circulation patterns over the northeastern Pacific Ocean which have historically been associated with precipitation and temperature extremes in California. We find that the occurrence of certain extreme seasonal-scale atmospheric configurations has changed substantially over the 1948-2015 period, and also that there has been a trend towards amplification of the cool-season mean state in this region. Notably, patterns similar to the persistent anticyclone associated with the extremely warm and dry conditions experienced during the ongoing 2012-2015 California drought occur more frequently in the second half of the observed record. This finding highlights the importance of examining changes in extreme and/or persistent atmospheric circulation configurations, which may exhibit different responses to natural and anthropogenic forcings than the mean state.

  12. Interdecadal Variations of Precipitation and Temperature in China Around the Abrupt Change of Atmospheric Circulation in 1976

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunhui; WAN Qilin; LIN Ailan; GU Dejun; ZHENG Bin


    The interdecadal characteristics of rainfall and temperature in China before and after the abrupt change of the general circulation in 1976 are analyzed using the global 2.5°×2.5° monthly mean reanalysis data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction of US and the precipitation and temperature data at the 743 stations of China from the National Climate Center of China. The results show that after 1976, springtime precipitation and temperature were anomalously enhanced and reduced respectively in South China, while the reverse was true in the western Yangtze River basin. In summer, precipitation was anomalously less in South China, more in the Yangtze River basin, less again in North China and more again in Northeast China, showing a distribution pattern alternating with negative and positive anomalies ("-, +, -, +"). Meanwhile, temperature shows a distribution of warming in South China, cooling in the Yangtze and Huaihe River basins, and warming again in northern China. In autumn, precipitation tended to decrease and temperature tended to increase in most parts of the country. In winter, precipitation increased moderately in South China and warming was the trend across all parts of China. The interdecadal decline of mean temperature in spring and summer in China was mainly due to the daily maximum temperature variation, while the interdecadal increase was mainly the result of the minimum temperature change. The overall warming in autumn (winter) was mostly influenced by the minimum (maximum) temperature variation. These changes were closely related to the north-south shifts of the ascending and descending branches of the Hadley cell, the strengthening and north-south progression of the westerly jet stream, and the atmospheric stratification and water vapor transport conditions.

  13. A New Precipitation Index for the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Drought and Flooding in the Reaches of the Yangtze and Huaihe Rivers and Related Characteristics of Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Haifeng; ZHANG Qingyun


    Characteristics of the spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation anomalies in the reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River (YHR) were studied using EOF method. Four main precipitation patterns for the YHR in summer identified by the first two modes: a region-wide flood over the entire YHR (RWF); a region-wide drought over the entire YHR (RWD); a flood in the south with a drought in the northern region of the Yangtze River (FS-DN); and a drought in the south with a flood in the northern region of the Yangtze River (DS-FN). Based on the first two modes and the actual precipitation departure percentage, a new precipitation index is defined in this paper. The typical flood/drought years associated with the various rainfall patterns defined by this precipitation index are more representative and closer to reality compared to some existing precipitation indexes which just use the area-mean precipitation or the EOF time components individually.The characteristics of atmospheric circulation in summer corresponding to the four main precipitation patterns over the YHR in summer show the features of atmospheric circulation differ in different precipitation pattern years. Although the different patterns share a common main influential circulation system, such as the blocking high over northeastern Asia, the low trough of westerly flows in the mid latitudes, the West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), and the high ridge over the Tibet Plateau, the difference in location and intensity of these systems can lead to different distributions of precipitation anomalies.

  14. Sensitivity of boreal-summer circulation and precipitation to atmospheric aerosols in selected regions – Part 2: The Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Walker


    Full Text Available Aerosol perturbations over selected land regions are imposed in Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4 general circulation model (GCM to assess the influence of increasing aerosol concentrations on regional circulation patterns and precipitation in four selected regions: India, Africa, and North and South America. Part 1 of this paper addresses the responses to aerosol perturbations in India and Africa. This paper presents the same for aerosol perturbations over the Americas. GEOS-4 is forced with prescribed aerosols based on climatological data, which interact with clouds using a prognostic scheme for cloud microphysics including aerosol nucleation of water and ice cloud hydrometeors. In clear-sky conditions the aerosols interact with radiation. Thus the model includes comprehensive physics describing the aerosol direct and indirect effects on climate (hereafter ADE and AIE respectively. Each simulation is started from analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through June-July-August of each of the six years: 1982–1987 to provide a 6-ensemble set. Results are presented for the difference between simulations with double the climatological aerosol concentration and one-half the climatological aerosol concentration for three experiments: two where the ADE and AIE are applied separately and one in which both the ADE and AIE are applied. The ADE and AIE both yield reductions in net radiation at the top of the atmosphere and surface while the direct absorption of shortwave radiation contributes a net radiative heating in the atmosphere. A large net heating of the atmosphere is also apparent over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean that is attributable to the large aerosol perturbation imposed over Africa. This atmospheric warming and the depression of the surface pressure over North America contribute to a northward shift of the inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over northern South America, an increase in

  15. The key physical parameters governing frictional dissipation in a precipitating atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio; Bunyard, Peter; Li, Bai-Lian


    Precipitation generates small-scale turbulent air flows the energy of which ultimately dissipates to heat. The power of this process has previously been estimated to be around 2-4 W m-2 in the tropics: a value comparable in magnitude to the dynamic power of the global circulation. Here we suggest that this previous power estimate is approximately double the true figure. Our result reflects a revised evaluation of the mean precipitation path length Hp. We investigate the dependence of Hp on surface temperature,relative humidity,temperature lapse rate and degree of condensation in the ascending air. We find that the degree of condensation,defined as the relative change of the saturated water vapor mixing ratio in the region of condensation, is a major factor determining Hp. We estimate from theory that the mean large-scale rate of frictional dissipation associated with total precipitation in the tropics lies between 1 and 2 W m-2 and show that our estimate is supported by empirical evidence. We show that under ...

  16. Five-year record of atmospheric precipitation chemistry in urban Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yang


    Full Text Available Precipitation samples on an event basis were collected from March 2001 through August 2005 at an urban location in Beijing. Ionic species in the samples were measured with ion chromatography to understand the long-term changes in the precipitation chemistry and their causes. Most precipitation samples had an intermediate pH (6.1–7.3 and 16% were acidic. As the major ions, SO42− plus NO3, and NH4+ plus Ca2+ comprised more than 80% of anionic and cationic mass, respectively. Different from their more or less reductions of gaseous precursors, the counterintuitive features of much less than expected decrease in SO42− levels and unexpected increase in NO3 concentrations in the precipitations are likely due to the combination of enhanced conversion of gaseous precursors to acid compounds, and increased regional transport. The average ratio of neutralizing to acidifying potential (i.e. NP/AP was as high as 1.2 but it exhibited a significant decline pattern, indicative of a long-term increasing trend in the acidifying potential of the wet depositions. This is mainly ascribed to reduced input of two major alkaline agents – NH4+ and Ca2+ – over increased input of a minor alkaline agent – Mg2+ – according to the magnitudes of their neutralization factors. The equivalent mass ratio of NO3 to nss-SO42− presented an evident increasing trend with a still low mean value of 0.37 ± 0.11. This indicates that the relative contribution of NO3 to the wet deposition acidity was strengthened in recent years while the precipitation acidity in Beijing was still overwhelmingly from sulfur but not nitrogen.

  17. Fluoride pollution of atmospheric precipitation and its relationship with air circulation and weather patterns (Wielkopolski National Park, Poland). (United States)

    Walna, Barbara; Kurzyca, Iwona; Bednorz, Ewa; Kolendowicz, Leszek


    A 2-year study (2010-2011) of fluorides in atmospheric precipitation in the open area and in throughfall in Wielkopolski National Park (west-central Poland) showed their high concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 2 mg/l under the tree crowns. These high values indicate substantial deposition of up to 52 mg/m(2)/year. In 2011, over 51% of open area precipitation was characterized by fluoride concentration higher than 0.10 mg/l, and in throughfall such concentrations were found in more than 86% of events. In 2010, a strong connection was evident between fluoride and acid-forming ions, and in 2011, a correlation between phosphate and nitrite ions was seen. Analysis of available data on F(-) concentrations in the air did not show an unequivocal effect on F(-) concentrations in precipitation. To find reasons for and source areas of high fluoride pollution, the cases of extreme fluoride concentration in rainwater were related to atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. Weather conditions on days of extreme pollution were determined by movement of weather fronts over western Poland, or by small cyclonic centers with meteorological fronts. Macroscale air advection over the sampling site originated in the western quadrant (NW, W, and SW), particularly in the middle layers of the troposphere (2,500-5,000 m a.s.l.). Such directions indicate western Poland and Germany as possible sources of the pollution. At the same time in the lower troposphere, air inflow was frequently from the north, showing short distance transport from local emitters, and from the agglomeration of Poznań. PMID:23114919

  18. Data Assimilation of AIRS Water Vapor Profiles: Impact on Precipitation Forecasts for Atmospheric River Cases Affecting the Western of the United States (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Wick, Gary; Neiman, Paul


    Atmospheric rivers are transient, narrow regions in the atmosphere responsible for the transport of large amounts of water vapor. These phenomena can have a large impact on precipitation. In particular, they can be responsible for intense rain events on the western coast of North America during the winter season. This paper focuses on attempts to improve forecasts of heavy precipitation events in the Western US due to atmospheric rivers. Profiles of water vapor derived from from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations are combined with GFS forecasts by a three-dimensional variational data assimilation in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI). Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) forecasts initialized from the combined field are compared to forecasts initialized from the GFS forecast only for 3 test cases in the winter of 2011. Results will be presented showing the impact of the AIRS profile data on water vapor and temperature fields, and on the resultant precipitation forecasts.

  19. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  20. The Role of Atmospheric Aerosol Concentration on Deep Convective Precipitation: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen; Khain, Alexander; Matsui, Toshihisa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne


    Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds NRC [2001]." The aerosol effect on Clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect, is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. In this paper, a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with detailed spectral-bin microphysics was used to examine the effect of aerosols on three different deep convective cloud systems that developed in different geographic locations: South Florida, Oklahoma and the Central Pacific, In all three cases, rain reaches the ground earlier for the low CCN (clean) case. Rain suppression is also evident in all three cases with high CCN (dirty) case. However, this suppression only occurs during the first hour of the simulations. During the mature stages of the simulations, the effects of increasing aerosol concentration range from rain suppression in the Oklahoma case, to almost no effect in the Florida case, to rain enhancement in the Pacific case. These results show the complexity of aerosol interactions with convection. The model results suggest that evaporative cooling is a key process in determining whether high CCN reduces or enhances precipitation. Stronger evaporative cooling can produce a stronger cold pool and thus stronger low-level convergence through interactions

  1. Extreme precipitation and climate gradients in Patagonia revealed by high-resolution regional atmospheric climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Wessem, J.M.; van de Berg, W.J.; van Meijgaard, E.; van Ulft, L.H.; Schaefer, M.


    This study uses output of a high-resolution (5.5 km) regional atmospheric climate model to describe the present-day (1979–2012) climate of Patagonia, with a particular focus on the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Patagonian ice fields. Through a comparison with available in situ observations, it i

  2. Diagnosing the possible dynamics controlling Sahel precipitation in the short-range ensemble community atmospheric model hindcasts (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-heng; Lin, Yen-heng; Lo, Min-hui; Yang, Shu-chih


    The actual dynamics and physical mechanisms affecting the Sahel precipitation pattern and amplitude in the climate models remain under debate due to the inconsistent drying and rainfall variability/pattern among them. We diagnose the boreal summer rainfall pattern in the Sahel and its possible causes using short-range ensemble hindcasts based on NCAR community atmospheric model with the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (CAM-LETKF) data assimilation. The CAM-LETKF assimilation was conducted using 64 ensemble members with an assimilation cycle of 6-h. By comparing the superior and inferior groups within these 64 ensembles, we confirmed the influence of the Atlantic in the West Sahel rainfall (a robust feature in the ensembles) and a severe model bias resulting from erroneously modeled locations and magnitudes of low-level Sahara heat low (SHL) and African easterly jet (AEJ). This bias is highly related to atmospheric jet dynamics as shown in recent studies and local wave instability triggered mainly by the boundary-layer temperature gradient and amplified by land-atmosphere interactions. In particular, our results demonstrated that more accurate divergence and convergence fields resulting from improved SHL and AEJ in the superior groups enabled more accurate rainbelt patterns to be discerned, thus improving the ensemble mean model hindcast prediction by more than 25 % in precipitation and 16 % in temperature. We concluded that the use of low-resolution climate models to project future rainfall in the Sahel requires caution because the model hindcasts may quickly diverge even the same boundary conditions and forcings are applied. The model bias may easily grow up within a few months in the short-range CAM-LETKF hindcast, let along the free model centennial simulations. Unconstrained future climate model projections for the Sahel must more effectively capture the short-term key boundary-layer dynamics in the boreal summer to be credible regardless model dynamics

  3. Acid Rain Examination and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Precipitation in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeedi


    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in metropolitan cities like Tehran. Rain and snow, as natural events, may dissolve and absorb contaminants of the air and direct them onto the land or surface waters which become polluted. In the present study, precipitation samples were collected from an urbanized area of Tehran. They were analyzed for NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, pH, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Al. We demonstrate that snow samples were often more polluted and had lower pH than those from the rain, possibly as an effect of adsorption capability of snow flakes. Volume weighted average concentrations were calculated and compared with some other studies. Results revealed that Tehran's precipitations are much more polluted than those reported from other metropolitan cities. Cluster analysis revealed that studied parameters such as metals and acidity originated from the same sources, such as fuel combustion in residential and transportation sectors of Tehran.

  4. Diagnosing links between atmospheric moisture and extreme daily precipitation over the UK


    Richard P Allan; Lavers, David A.; Champion, Adrian J.


    Atmospheric moisture characteristics associated with the heaviest 1% of daily rainfall events affecting regions of the British Isles are analysed over the period 1997–2008. A blended satellite/rain-gauge data set (GPCP-1DD) and regionally averaged daily rain-gauge observations (HadUKP) are combined with the ERA Interim reanalysis. These are compared with simulations from the HadGEM2-A climate model which applied observed sea surface temperature and realistic radiative forcings. Median extreme...

  5. Atmospheric and precipitation sounding with polarimetric radio-occultations aboard PAZ LEO (United States)

    Padulles, Ramon; Cardellach, Estel; Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Rius, Antonio; de la Torre, Manuel; Turk, Joseph; Ao, Chi; Kursinski, Robert; Shreiner, Bill; Ector, Dave; Cucurull, Lidia; Wickert, Jens


    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation experiment aboard the PAZ Low Earth Orbiter (ROHP-PAZ) is a mission of opportunity: The Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) approved in 2009 a proposal to include a polarimetric Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Radio-Occultation (RO) payload on board of the Spanish Earth Observation satellite PAZ. This will be a new technique that has never been tested before, that aims to improve the knowledge of the precipitation through simultaneous thermodynamic and vertical rain profiles. The concept is similar to that used in some polarimetric weather radars: to measure the differential phase shift between the two polarimetric antennas, although here we will use the forward scattering geometry instead of the backscattering.The depolarization effect increases as the propagation line aligns with the plane of the drops' flattening (nominally perpendicular to the local gravity, i.e., parallel to the local horizon). The RO signals cross the lower troposphere tangentially, i.e., along the local horizon, which should maximize the depolarization effect. The satellite launch is scheduled for March 2015, and it will be followed by a 6-month commissioning phase period and has an expected life of 7 years, with a goal of 10 years. A sensitivity analysis have been performed, showing that we should be able to detect the 90% of all the events with along-ray averaged rain rate higher than 5 mm/h. Also, a ground field campaign has been conducted prior to the launch of the satellite. Results from the campaign also show a good correlation between phase shifts increases and heavy rain events. We will present here the status of the mission, which will have been launched few weeks before the EGU, together with some preliminary data analysis from both the actual satellite data and the prior-to-launch work.

  6. Estimating precipitation on early Mars using a radiative-convective model of the atmosphere and comparison with inferred runoff from geomorphology

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, P; Grenfell, J L; Hauber, E; Breuer, D; Jaumann, R; Rauer, H; Tirsch, D


    We compare estimates of atmospheric precipitation during the Martian Noachian-Hesperian boundary 3.8 Gyr ago as calculated in a radiative-convective column model of the atmosphere with runoff values estimated from a geomorphological analysis of dendritic valley network discharge rates. In the atmospheric model, we assume CO2-H2O-N2 atmospheres with surface pressures varying from 20 mb to 3 bar with input solar luminosity reduced to 75% the modern value. Results from the valley network analysis are of the order of a few mm d-1 liquid water precipitation (1.5-10.6 mm d-1, with a median of 3.1 mm d-1). Atmospheric model results are much lower, from about 0.001-1 mm d-1 of snowfall (depending on CO2 partial pressure). Hence, the atmospheric model predicts a significantly lower amount of precipitated water than estimated from the geomorphological analysis. Furthermore, global mean surface temperatures are below freezing, i.e. runoff is most likely not directly linked to precipitation. Therefore, our results strong...

  7. Millimeter-wave imaging radiometer for cloud, precipitation and atmospheric water vapor studies (United States)

    Racette, P. E.; Dod, L. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Adler, R. F.; Jackson, D. M.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Zacharias, D. S.


    A millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is described. The MIR is a nine-channel total power radiometer developed for atmospheric research. Three dual-pass band channels are centered about the strongly opaque 183-GHz water vapor absorption line; the frequencies are 183 +/- 1, +/- 3, and +/- 7 GHz. Another channel is located on the wing of this band at 150 GHz. These four channels have varying degrees of opacity from which the water vapor profile can be inferred. The design and salient characteristics of this instrument are discussed, together with its expected benefits.

  8. Lagged effects of the Mistral wind on heavy precipitation through ocean-atmosphere coupling in the region of Valencia (Spain) (United States)

    Berthou, Ségolène; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe; Arsouze, Thomas; Bastin, Sophie; Béranger, Karine; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy


    The region of Valencia in Spain has historically been affected by heavy precipitation events (HPEs). These HPEs are known to be modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Balearic Sea. Using an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model, we show that more than 70 % of the HPEs in the region of Valencia present a SST cooling larger than the monthly trend in the Northwestern Mediterranean before the HPEs. This is linked to the breaking of a Rossby wave preceding the HPEs: a ridge-trough pattern at mid-levels centered over western France associated with a low-level depression in the Gulf of Genoa precedes the generation of a cut-off low over southern Spain with a surface depression over the Alboran Sea in the lee of the Atlas. This latter situation is favourable to the advection of warm and moist air towards the Mediterranean Spanish coast, possibly leading to HPEs. The depression in the Gulf of Genoa generates intense northerly (Mistral) to northwesterly (Tramontane/Cierzo) winds. In most cases, these intense winds trigger entrainment at the bottom of the oceanic mixed layer which is a mechanism explaining part of the SST cooling in most cases. Our study suggests that the SST cooling due to this strong wind regime then persists until the HPEs and reduces the precipitation intensity.

  9. Seasonal Prediction of the Global Precipitation Annual Modes with the Grid-Point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhiwei; LI Jianping


    A right annual cycle is of critical importance for a model to improve its seasonal prediction skill. This work assesses the performance of the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) in retrospective prediction of the global precipitation annual modes for the 1980-2004 period. The annual modes are gauged by a three-parameter metrics: the long-term annual mean and two major modes of annual cycle (AC), namely, a solstitial mode and an equinoctial asymmetric mode. The results demonstrate that the GAMIL one-month lead prediction is basically able to capture the major patterns of the long-term annual mean as well as the first AC mode (the solstitial monsoon mode). The GAMIL has deficiencies in reproducing the second AC mode (the equinoctial asymmetric mode). The magnitude of the GAMIL prediction tends to be greater than the observed precipitation, especially in the sea areas including the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and the western North Pacific (WNP). These biases may be due to underestimation of the convective activity predicted in the tropics, especially over the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and its neighboring areas. It is suggested that a more accurate parameterization of convection in the tropics, especially in the Maritime Continent, the WPWP and its neighboring areas, may be critical for reproducing the more realistic annual modes, since the enhancement of convective activity over the WPWP and its vicinity can induce suppressed convection over the WNP, the BOB, and the South Indian Ocean where the GAMIL produces falsely vigorous convections. More efforts are needed to improve the simulation not only in monsoon seasons but also in transitional seasons when the second AC mode takes place. Selection of the one-tier or coupled atmosphere-ocean system may also reduce GAMIL seasonal prediction skill.

  10. Design of the National Trends Network for monitoring the chemistry of atmospheric precipitation (United States)

    Robertson, J.K.; Wilson, J.W.


    Long-term monitoring (10 years minimum) of the chemistry of wet deposition will be conducted at National Trends Network (NTN) sites across the United States. Precipitation samples will be collected at sites that represent broad regional characteristics. Design of the NTN considered four basic elements during construction of a model to distribute 50, 75, 100, 125 or 150 sites. The modeling oriented design was supplemented with guidance developed during the course of the site selection process. Ultimately, a network of 151 sites was proposed. The basic elements of the design are: (1) Assurance that all areas of the country are represented in the network on the basis of regional ecological properties (96 sites); (2) Placement of additional sites east of the Rocky Mountains to better define high deposition gradients (27 sites); (3) Placement of sites to assure that potentially sensitive regions are represented (15 sites); (4) Placement of sites to allow for other considerations, such as urban area effects (5 sites), intercomparison with Canada (3 sites), and apparent disparities in regional coverage (5 sites). Site selection stressed areas away from urban centers, large point sources, or ocean influences. Local factors, such as stable land ownership, nearby small emission sources (about 10 km), and close-by roads and fireplaces (about 0.5 km) were also considered. All proposed sites will be visited as part of the second phase of the study.

  11. Aerosol optical properties and precipitable water vapor column in the atmosphere of Norway. (United States)

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Frette, Øyvind; Stamnes, Jakob J; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hamre, Børge


    Between February 2012 and April 2014, we measured and analyzed direct solar radiances at a ground-based station in Bergen, Norway. We discovered that the spectral aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and precipitable water vapor column (PWVC) retrieved from these measurements have a seasonal variation with highest values in summer and lowest values in winter. The highest value of the monthly median AOT at 440 nm of about 0.16 was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.04 was measured in December. The highest value of the monthly median PWVC of about 2.0 cm was measured in July and the lowest of about 0.4 cm was measured in December. We derived Ångström exponents that were used to deduce aerosol particle size distributions. We found that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominated most of the time during the measurement period, but fine-mode aerosol particles dominated during the winter seasons. The derived Ångström exponent values suggested that aerosols containing sea salt could have been dominating at this station during the measurement period. PMID:25968219

  12. Sensitivity of precipitation to parameter values in the community atmosphere model version 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Gardar; Lucas, Donald; Qian, Yun; Swiler, Laura Painton; Wildey, Timothy Michael


    One objective of the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) program is to develop the capability to thoroughly test and understand the uncertainties in the overall climate model and its components as they are being developed. The focus on uncertainties involves sensitivity analysis: the capability to determine which input parameters have a major influence on the output responses of interest. This report presents some initial sensitivity analysis results performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In the 2011-2012 timeframe, these laboratories worked in collaboration to perform sensitivity analyses of a set of CAM5, 2° runs, where the response metrics of interest were precipitation metrics. The three labs performed their sensitivity analysis (SA) studies separately and then compared results. Overall, the results were quite consistent with each other although the methods used were different. This exercise provided a robustness check of the global sensitivity analysis metrics and identified some strongly influential parameters.

  13. Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea (INCOMPASS) (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Gs; Evans, Jonathan; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Parker, Douglas; Taylor, Chris; Bhattacharya, Bimal; Madan, Ranju; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Muddu, Sekhar; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Tripathi, Sachida


    The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, making understanding and predicting its rainfall vital for the growing population and economy. However, modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly, with significant inter-model differences pointing to errors in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. These errors persist into climate projections and many of these errors persist even when increasing resolution. At the same time, a lack of detailed observations is preventing a more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface: a process governed by the boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. The INCOMPASS project will support and develop modelling capability in Indo-UK monsoon research, including test development of a new Met Office Unified Model 100m-resolution domain over India. The first UK detachment of the FAAM research aircraft to India, in combination with an intensive ground-based observation campaign, will gather new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles to go with detailed information on the timing of monsoon rainfall. Observations will be focused on transects in the northern plains of India (covering a range of surface types from irrigated to rain-fed agriculture, and wet to dry climatic zones) and across the Western Ghats and rain shadow in southern India (including transitions from land to ocean and across orography). A pilot observational campaign is planned for summer 2015, with the main field campaign to take place during spring/summer 2016. This project will advance our ability to forecast the monsoon, through a programme of measurements and modelling that aims to capture the key surface-atmosphere feedback processes in models. The observational analysis will allow a unique and unprecedented characterization of monsoon processes that

  14. Comparative Experimental Investigation of Titan's Atmospheric Chemistry Driven by Solar EUV Radiation and Energetic Electron Precipitation (United States)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Lavvas, P.; Yelle, R. V.; Smith, M. A.


    The observations by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) clearly demonstrate the importance of complex organic chemistry in the upper atmosphere of Titan; a complex coupling of neutral and ion chemistry for organic aerosol generation induced by EUV photons and Saturn's magnetospheric charged particles. To understand the dominant energy source for aerosol formation and its formation chemistry, we comparatively investigate the chemical mechanism in N2/CH4 gas mixtures resulting from EUV-VUV synchrotron radiation (50-150 nm) and tunable mono-energetic electron beam irradiation (5 eV - 2000 eV). These excitation energy sources cover the dominant energy source available in Titan's upper atmosphere. Our previous study of the EUV-VUV photolysis of N2/CH4 gas mixtures revealed the unique role of nitrogen photoionization in the catalytic formation of complex hydrocarbons and in the major nitrogen fixation process in Titan's upper atmosphere (Imanaka and Smith, 2007, 2009, 2010). However, relative roles of ion-molecule reactions and radical/neutral reactions in such complex chemistry remain to be determined. We characterized the electron energy distribution by conducting the Langmuir probe measurements. Degradation of the primary photoelectron from N2 photoionization at 20.6 eV photons is clearly observed, and the electron density rapidly decreases down to 109-10 cm-3, which suggests the complex coupling of ion-molecular reactions and dissociative ion-electron recombination reactions for the observed development of complex organic molecules. The electron beam irradiation experiments at energy larger than 200 eV shows distinct gaseous product distribution with nitrogenated gaseous species from those with EUV irradiation products. The generation of secondary electrons and multiple inelastic collisions of fast electrons might increases the nitrogen fixation efficiency. The much less stringent spin selection rules could

  15. An observational study of the relationship between precipitating ions and ENAs emerging from the ion/atmosphere interaction region (United States)

    Mackler, David A.

    Plasmasheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low altitude (300--800 km) ion precipitation in the high latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed Low Altitude Emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly non-isotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90 degrees. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone (GEC) of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity as well as comparisons of LAE signatures with in situ ion precipitation. The LAE data is from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000--2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The in situ data is from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest non-linearity. The MLT distribution of LAEs are centered about midnight and spread with increasing activity. The Invariant Latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate that both LAE and DMSP data behave similarly to geomagnetic activity. LAEs are more spread out in latitude, possibly due to multiple charge exchange interactions, while the in situ data changes to lower latitudes dramatically with increasing flux. The bulk of the data indicates that the

  16. Carbon-specific analysis of humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosol and precipitation samples. (United States)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Handler, Markus; Neuberger, Bernhard; Klatzer, Barbara; Puxbaum, Hans


    A new approach for the carbon-specific determination of humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric aerosols is presented. The method is based on a two-step isolation procedure of HULIS and the determination of HULIS carbon with a dissolved organic carbon analyzer. In the first step, a C18 solid-phase extraction is performed to separate HULIS from inorganic and hydrophilic organic sample constituents in aqueous sample solutions. The second isolation step is conducted on a strong anion exchanger to separate HULIS from remaining carbonaceous compounds. This ion chromatographic separation step including the subsequent on-line detection of HULIS carbon was performed fully automated to avoid the risk of sample contamination and to enhance the reproducibility of the method. With a 5-mL sample volume, a limit of detection of 1.0 mg C/L was obtained; this corresponds to an absolute amount of 5 microg of HULIS carbon. The reproducibility of the method given as the relative standard deviation was 4.3% (n = 10). The method was applied for the determination of water-soluble HULIS in airborne particulate matter. PM10 concentrations at an urban site in Vienna, Austria, ranged from around 0.1 to 1.8 microg of C/m(3) (n = 49); the fraction of water-soluble HULIS in OC was 12.1 +/- 7.2% (n = 49).

  17. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei


    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  18. Toward reconciling the influence of atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases on light precipitation changes in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Ma, Po-Lun; Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.


    The attribution of the widely observed shifted precipitation extremes to different forcing agents represents a critical issue for understanding of changes in the hydrological cycle. To compare aerosol and greenhouse-gas effects on the historical trends of precipitation intensity, we performed AMIP-style NCAR/DOE CAM5 model simulations from 1950-2005 with and without anthropogenic aerosol forcings. Precipitation rates at every time step in CAM5 are used to construct precipitation probability distribution functions. By contrasting the two sets of experiments, we found that the global warming induced by the accumulating greenhouse gases is responsible for the changes in precipitation intensity at the global scale. However, regionally over the Eastern China, the drastic increase in anthropogenic aerosols primarily accounts for the observed light precipitation suppression since the 1950s. Compared with aerosol radiative effects, aerosol microphysical effect has a predominant role in determining the historical trends of precipitation intensity in Eastern China.

  19. Precipitation, atmospheric deposition, streamflow, and water-quality data from selected sites in the city of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1997-98 (United States)

    Sarver, Kathleen M.; Hazell, W.F.; Robinson, J.B.


    Precipitation data were collected at 46 precipitation sites and 3 atmospheric deposition sites, and hydrologic data were collected at 6 stream sites in the vicinity of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, from July 1997 through September 1998. Data were collected to identify the type, concentration, and amount of nonpoint- source stormwater runoff in the study area. The data collected include measurements of precipitation; streamflow; physical characteristics, such as water temperature, pH, specific conductance, biochemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and suspended-sediment concentrations; and concentrations of nutrients, metals and minor constituents, and organic compounds. These data will provide information needed for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) estimates of nonpoint-source constituent loadings to the Catawba River, and (3) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Streamflow and rainfall data have been used to provide early warnings of possible flooding.

  20. Impact of horizontal resolution on simulation of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.; Algieri, C.


    One key question regarding current climate models is whether the projection of climate extremes converges to a realistic representation as the spatial and temporal resolutions of the model are increased. Ideally the model extreme statistics should approach a fixed distribution once the resolutions are commensurate with the characteristic length and time scales of the processes governing the formation of the extreme phenomena of interest. In this study, a series of AGCM runs with idealized 'aquaplanet-steady-state' boundary conditions have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3 to investigate the effect of horizontal resolution on climate extreme simulations. The use of the aquaplanet framework highlights the roles of model physics and dynamics and removes any apparent convergence in extreme statistics due to better resolution of surface boundary conditions and other external inputs. Assessed at a same large spatial scale, the results show that the horizontal resolution and time step have strong effects on the simulations of precipitation extremes. The horizontal resolution has a much stronger impact on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Updrafts are strongly correlated with extreme precipitation at tropics at all the resolutions, while positive low-tropospheric temperature anomalies are associated with extreme precipitation at mid-latitudes.

  1. The groundwater buffering effect on heat waves and precipitation: coupled groundwater-atmosphere simulations over Europe and North America with a WRF-LEAFHYDRO system. (United States)

    Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Gómez, Breogán; Regueiro-Sanfiz, Sabela; Georgescu, Matei


    We present coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations with the WRF regional climate model and the LEAFHYDRO LSM, including groundwater dynamics. Simulations are carried out for the coupled system for the growing season (February to October) over Europe at 2.5km resolution over land and 20km over the atmosphere. Initial conditions for the land surface, groundwater and rivers are from 10 year off-line simulations, performed continuously over the same domain and period, forced by atmospheric data from the Earth2Observe FP7 project. We show that the presence of a shallow water table over portions of the European continent enhances evapotranspiration in dry periods under increasing atmospheric demand. The impact of the coupling between groundwater and the soil vegetation system on land surface fluxes results in decreases in air temperature and an increase in low level mixing ratios, which under certain convective regimes induces more precipitation. We illustrate for the heat wave of 2003 that models that do not include this groundwater buffering effect may enhance significantly the intensity of such temperature extreme cases. The effect on precipitation is mostly seen over inland areas where warm season convection is important. We show with results of additional simulations over North America, where summer convection over the interior of the continent is very relevant, that the effect of groundwater-enhanced evapotranspiration may have a sizeable impact on climate at the global scale.

  2. Spring soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the Southern Great Plains: How is it related to large-scale atmospheric conditions?

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Hua


    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) has been shown as a region of significant soil moisture-precipitation (S-P) coupling. However, how strong evapotranspiration (ET) can affect regional precipitation remains largely unclear, impeding a full grasp of the S-P feedback in that area. The current study seeks to unravel, in a spring month (April), the potential role played by large-scale atmospheric conditions in shaping S (ET)-P feedback. Our regional climate modeling experiments demonstrate that the presence of anomalous low (high) pressure and cyclonic (anticyclonic) flows at the upper/middle troposphere over the relevant areas is associated with strongest (minimum) positive S-P feedback in the SGP. Their impacts are interpreted in terms of large-scale atmospheric dynamical disturbance, including the intensity and location of synoptic eddies. Further analyses of the vertical velocity fields corroborate these interpretations. In addition, the relationship between lower tropospheric moisture conditions (including winds) and feedback composites is evaluated. Key Points The S-P feedback strength in SGP in April varies inter-annually The atmospheric dynamic features affect significantly the feedback strength composite moisture conditions are related to atmospheric circulation structure ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Asian summer monsoon precipitation recorded by stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition in the western Loess Plateau during AD1875-2003 and its linkage with ocean-atmosphere system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JingHua; SANG WenCui; Kathleen R.JOHNSON; ZHANG PingZhong; CHENG Hai; CHEN FaHu; YANG XunLin; ZHANG DeZhong; ZHOU Jing; JIA JiHong; AN ChunLei


    Based on 5 high-precision 230Th dates and 103 stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) obtained from the top 16 mm of a stalagmite collected from Wanxiang Cave,Wudu,Gansu,variation of monsoonal precipita- tion in the modern Asian Monsoon (AM) marginal zone over the past 100 years was reconstructed.Comparison of the speleothem δ18O record with instrumental precipitation data at Wudu in the past 50 years indicates a high parallelism between the two curves,suggesting that the speleothem δ18O is a good proxy for the AM strength and associated precipitation,controlled by "amount effect" of the pre-cipitation.Variation of the monsoonal precipitation during the past 100 years can be divided into three stages,increasing from AD 1875 to 1900,then decreasing from AD 1901 to 1946,and increasing again thereafter.This variation is quite similar to that of the Drought/Flooding index archived from Chinese historical documents.This speleothem-derived AM record shows a close association with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) between AD 1875 and 1977,with higher monsoonal precipitation corre-sponding to cold PDO phase and vice versa at decadal timescale.The monsoonal precipitation varia- tion is out of phase with the PDO after AD 1977,probably resulting from the decadal climate jump in the north Pacific occurring at around AD 1976/77.These results demonstrate a strong linkage between the AM and associated precipitation and the Pacific Ocean via ocean/atmosphere interaction.This rela-tionship will aid to forecast future hydrological cycle for the AM monsoon region,and to improve forecasting potential of climatic model with observation data from cave.

  4. Interannual Variability and Trends in Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extreme Indices in Finland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, 1961-2011 (United States)

    Irannezhad, Masoud; Kløve, Bjørn


    Daily temperature (minimum and maximum) and precipitation datasets applied at regular grid points (10×10 km2) throughout Finland for 1961-2011 were analyzed with the aim to evaluate variability and trends in weather extremes on both national and spatial scale of the country and their relationships with atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs). Recommending by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), the extreme indices considered for daily temperature were frost days (FD), summer days (SD) and ice days (ID); and for daily precipitation were heavy precipitation days (R10), consecutive dry days (CDD), consecutive wet days (CWD), highest 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day), simple daily intensity index (SDII) and precipitation fraction due to 95th percentile of the reference period (R95pTOT). This study used the well-known influential ACPs for Finland climate variability: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), Polar (POL), Scandinavia (SCA). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine significant historical trends in extreme indices, and the Spearman rank correlation (rho) to identify relationships between extreme indices and ACPs. For daily temperature indices, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were found in ID (-0.40±0.34 days/year) and FD (-0.45±0.27 days/year) on a national scale of Finland during 1961-2011. The AO and EA/WR were most significant ACPs affecting variations in ID and FD, with rho = -0.73 and 0.42, respectively. For the daily precipitation extreme indices on the nation-wide of country over the study period (1961-2011), significant trends were only determined in SDII (0.01±0.00 mm/wet days year) and R95pTOT (0.19±0.09 %/year). Both of these indices (SDII and R95pTOT) showed the strongest correlations with the EA/WR pattern, with rho between from -0.42 to -0.34. The EA/WR pattern was also the most influential ACP for

  5. Influence of SST from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and atmospheric circulation in the precipitation regime of basin from Brazilian SIN (United States)

    Custodio, M. D.; Ramos, C. G.; Madeira, P.; de Macedo, A. L.


    The South American climate presents tropical, subtropical and extratropical features because of its territorial extension, being influenced by a variety of dynamical systems with different spatial and temporal scales which result in different climatic regimes in their subregions. Furthermore, the precipitation regime in South America is influenced by low-frequency phenomena as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic dipole and the Madden Julian Oscilation (MJO), in other words, is directly influenced by variations of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to the importance of the precipitation for many sectors including the planning of productive activities, such as agriculture, livestock and hydropower energy, many studies about climate variations in Brazil have tried to determine and explain the mechanisms that affect the precipitation regime. However, because of complexity of the climate system, and consequently of their impacts on the global precipitation regime, its interactions are not totally understood and therefore misrepresented in numerical models used to forecast climate. The precipitation pattern over hydrographic basin which form the Brasilian National Interconnected System (Sistema Interligado Nacional-SIN) are not yet known and therefore the climate forecast of these regions still presents considerable failure that need to be corrected due to its economic importance. In this context, the purpose here is to determine the precipitation patterns on the Brazilian SIN, based on SST and circulation observed data. In a second phase a forecast climate model for these regions will be produced. In this first moment 30 years (1983 to 2012) of SST over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean were analyzed, along with wind in 850 and 200 hPa and precipitation observed data. The precipitation patterns were analyzed through statistical analyses for interannual (ENSO) and intraseasonal (MJO) anomalies for these variables over the SIN basin. Subsequently, these

  6. A Projection of Changes in Landfilling Atmospheric River Frequency and Extreme Precipitation over Western North America from the Large Ensemble CESM Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lu, Jian; Gao, Yang


    Simulations from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project are analyzed to investigate the impact of global warming on atmospheric rivers (ARs). The model has notable biases in simulating the subtropical jet position and the relationship between extreme precipitation and moisture transport. After accounting for these biases, the model projects an ensemble mean increase of 35% in the number of landfalling AR days between the last twenty years of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, the number of AR associated extreme precipitation days increases only by 28% because the moisture transport required to produce extreme precipitation also increases with warming. Internal variability introduces an uncertainty of ±8% and ±7% in the projected changes in AR days and associated extreme precipitation days. In contrast, accountings for model biases only change the projected changes by about 1%. The significantly larger mean changes compared to internal variability and to the effects of model biases highlight the robustness of AR responses to global warming.

  7. Low-frequency variations in surface atmospheric humidity, temperature, and precipitation: Inferences from reanalyses and monthly gridded observational data sets (United States)

    Simmons, A. J.; Willett, K. M.; Jones, P. D.; Thorne, P. W.; Dee, D. P.


    Evidence is presented of a reduction in relative humidity over low-latitude and midlatitude land areas over a period of about 10 years leading up to 2008, based on monthly anomalies in surface air temperature and humidity from comprehensive European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalyses (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim) and from Climatic Research Unit and Hadley Centre analyses of monthly station temperature data (CRUTEM3) and synoptic humidity observations (HadCRUH). The data sets agree well for both temperature and humidity variations for periods and places of overlap, although the average warming over land is larger for the fully sampled ERA data than for the spatially and temporally incomplete CRUTEM3 data. Near-surface specific humidity varies similarly over land and sea, suggesting that the recent reduction in relative humidity over land may be due to limited moisture supply from the oceans, where evaporation has been limited by sea surface temperatures that have not risen in concert with temperatures over land. Continental precipitation from the reanalyses is compared with a new gauge-based Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) data set, with the combined gauge and satellite products of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), and with CPC's independent gauge analysis of precipitation over land (PREC/L). The reanalyses agree best with the new GPCC and latest GPCP data sets, with ERA-Interim significantly better than ERA-40 at capturing monthly variability. Shifts over time in the differences among the precipitation data sets make it difficult to assess their longer-term variations and any link with longer-term variations in humidity.

  8. Energetic particle precipitation in ECHAM5/MESSy1 – Part 1: Downward transport of upper atmospheric NOx produced by low energy electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brühl


    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 has been extended by processes that parameterize particle precipitation. Several types of particle precipitation that directly affect NOy and HOx concentrations in the middle atmosphere are accounted for and discussed in a series of papers. In the companion paper, the ECHAM5/MESSy1 solar proton event parameterization is discussed, while in the current paper we focus on low energy electrons (LEE that produce NOx in the upper atmosphere. For the flux of LEE NOx into the top of the model domain a novel technique which can be applied to most atmospheric chemistry general circulation models has been developed and is presented here. The technique is particularly useful for models with an upper boundary between the stratopause and mesopause and therefore cannot directly incorporate upper atmospheric NOx production. The additional NOx source parametrization is based on a measure of geomagnetic activity, the Ap index, which has been shown to be a good proxy for LEE NOx interannual variations. HALOE measurements of LEE NOx that has been transported into the stratosphere are used to develop a scaling function which yields a flux of NOx that is applied to the model top. We describe the implementation of the parameterization as the submodel SPACENOX in ECHAM5/MESSy1 and discuss the results from test simulations. The NOx enhancements and associated effects on ozone are shown to be in good agreement with independent measurements. Ap index data is available for almost one century, thus the parameterization is suitable for simulations of the recent climate.

  9. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cayan, Dan; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rutledge, Steven A.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.


    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  10. Interannual variability of a precipitation gradient along the semi-arid catchment areas for the metropolitan region of Lima- Peru in relation to atmospheric circulation at the mesoscale (United States)

    Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja


    following questions. How is the interannual variability of the observed precipitation gradient related to atmospheric circulation east (Amazon basin) and west (south-east Pacific) of the study region? If those relations are quantifiable, are there any forecast potentials for the characteristics of the precipitation gradient during the raining season? The results of the study provide valuable information needed to understand the generation of rainfall in the frame of a case study for the largest metropolitan area that is located at the arid Pacific coast of Peru. This information may also be useful for local managers in order to optimise water resource management and land use strategies.

  11. Precipitation rates and atmospheric heat transport during the Cenomanian greenhouse warming in North America: Estimates from a stable isotope mass-balance model (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, L.; Grocke, D.R.


    correlate with a mean annual average heat loss of 48??W/m2 at 10??N paleolatitude (present, 8??W/m2 at 15??N). The increased precipitation flux and moisture surplus in the mid-latitudes corresponds to a mean average annual heat gain of 180??W/m2 at 50??N paleolatitude (present, 17??W/m2 at 50??N). The Cenomanian low-latitude moisture deficit is similar to that of the Albian, however the mid-latitude (40-60??N) precipitation flux values and precipitation rates are significantly higher (Albian: 2200??mm/yr at 45??N; Cenomanian: 3600??mm/yr at 45??N). Furthermore, the heat transferred to the atmosphere via latent heat of condensation was approximately 10.6?? that of the present at 50??N. The intensified hydrologic cycle of the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse warming may have played a significant role in the poleward transfer of heat and more equable global conditions. Paleoclimatological reconstructions from multiple time periods during the mid-Cretaceous will aid in a better understanding of the dynamics of the hydrologic cycle and latent heat flux during greenhouse world conditions.

  12. 降水量变化对大气污染物浓度影响分析%Analysis on Impact of Precipitation Variation on Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the air automatic monitoring station and precipitation monitoring data from 2001 to 2010 in Nantong City, conclusion shows: precipitation and sulfur dioxide annual average concentrations are highly negative linear correlation in 10 years , other temporal precipitation and atmospheric pollutants concentration distribution shows nonlinear significant negative correlation. Pollutant concentration is low under precipitation , whereas it is high. Average annual rainfall is 1083.49 mm of 2006 ~ 2010, which is 244.97 mm more than that of 2001 ~ 2005. Decline rates of average concentrations of air pollution indexes in 5 years are as follow: respirable particulate matter is 0.013 mg / m3 , sulfur dioxide is 0.009 mg / m3 , nitrogen dioxide has no change. In 10 years, maximum average quarter precipitation in summer is 467.97 mm, the corresponding atmospheric pollutants minimum values are : respirable particulate matter 0.073 mg / m3 , S02 0.026 mg / m3; minimum average quarter precipitation in winter is 137.84 mm, the corresponding atmospheric pollutants maximum values are: respirable particulate matter 0.104 mg / m3, SO2 0.034 mg / M3m3 and NO2 0.036 mg / m3.%系统分析了2001 ~ 2010年南通市城区中大气自动监测站和降水监测点位数据,得出:10年间逐年降水量与二氧化硫年均浓度呈现高度线性负相关,其它时空降水量与大气污染物浓度分布中呈现非线性显著性负相关.降水量大污染物浓度就小,反之就大.2006~2010年5年平均降水量1083.49 mm,比2001~2005年5年平均降水量多出244.97 mm,大气污染指标5年平均浓度下降幅度为:可吸入颗粒物0.013 mg/m3、二氧化硫0.009 mg/m3、二氧化氮无变化.10年的平均季度降水量夏季最大为467.97 mm,对应的夏季大气污染物最小均值为:可吸入颗粒物0.073 mg/m3、二氧化硫0.026 mg/m3; 10年平均季度降水量冬季最小为137.84 mm,对应的冬季大气污染物季最大均值

  13. Midwestern streamflow, precipitation, and atmospheric vorticity influenced by Pacific sea-surface temperatures and total solar-irradiance variations (United States)

    Perry, C.A.


    A solar effect on streamflow in the Midwestern United States is described and supported in a six-step physical connection between total solar irradiance (TSI), tropical sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), extratropical SSTs, jet-stream vorticity, surface-layer vorticity, precipitation, and streamflow. Variations in the correlations among the individual steps indicate that the solar/hydroclimatic mechanism is complex and has a time element (lag) that may not be constant. Correct phasing, supported by consistent spectral peaks between 0.092 and 0.096 cycles per year in all data sets within the mechanism is strong evidence for its existence. A significant correlation exists between total solar irradiance and the 3-year moving average of annual streamflow for Iowa (R = 0.67) and for the Mississippi River at St Louis, Missouri (R = 0.60), during the period 1950-2000. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  15. Use of Total Precipitable Water Classification of A Priori Error and Quality Control in Atmospheric Temperature and Water Vapor Sounding Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eun-Han KWON; Jun LI; Jinlong LI; B. J. SOHN; Elisabeth WEISZ


    This study investigates the use of dynamic a priori error information according to atmospheric moistness and the use of quality controls in temperature and water vapor profile retrievals from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders.Temperature and water vapor profiles are retrieved from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) radiance measurements by applying a physical iterative method using regression retrieval as the first guess. Based on the dependency of first-guess errors on the degree of atmospheric moistness,the a priori first-guess errors classified by total precipitable water (TPW) are applied in the AIRS physical retrieval procedure.Compared to the retrieval results from a fixed a priori error,boundary layer moisture retrievals appear to be improved via TPW classification of a priori first-guess errors.Six quality control (QC)tests,which check non-converged or bad retrievals,large residuals,high terrain and desert areas,and large temperature and moisture deviations from the first guess regression retrieval,are also applied in the AIRS physical retrievals.Significantly large errors are found for the retrievals rejected by these six QCs,and the retrieval errors are substantially reduced via QC over land,which suggest the usefulness and high impact of the QCs,especially over land.In conclusion,the use of dynamic a priori error information according to atmospheric moistness,and the use of appropriate QCs dealing with the geographical information and the deviation from the first-guess as well as the conventional inverse performance are suggested to improve temperature and moisture retrievals and their applications.

  16. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil. (United States)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro


    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  17. Coupled atmosphere ocean climate model simulations in the Mediterranean region: effect of a high-resolution marine model on cyclones and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanna


    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the importance of an eddy-permitting Mediterranean Sea circulation model on the simulation of atmospheric cyclones and precipitation in a climate model. This is done by analyzing results of two fully coupled GCM (general circulation models simulations, differing only for the presence/absence of an interactive marine module, at very high-resolution (~ 1/16°, for the simulation of the 3-D circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. Cyclones are tracked by applying an objective Lagrangian algorithm to the MSLP (mean sea level pressure field. On annual basis, we find a statistically significant difference in vast cyclogenesis regions (northern Adriatic, Sirte Gulf, Aegean Sea and southern Turkey and in lifetime, giving evidence of the effect of both land–sea contrast and surface heat flux intensity and spatial distribution on cyclone characteristics. Moreover, annual mean convective precipitation changes significantly in the two model climatologies as a consequence of differences in both air–sea interaction strength and frequency of cyclogenesis in the two analyzed simulations.

  18. WPA Precipitation Tabulations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly precipitation data tabulated under the Work Projects Administration (WPA), a New Deal program created to reduce unemployment during the Great Depression....

  19. Storage Gage Precipitation Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A storage gage is a precipitation gage that requires reading and maintenance only monthly or seasonal intervals. This library includes reports from such gages,...

  20. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and precipitable water content over Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-99

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Dani; R S Maheskumar; P C S Devara


    The spatial and temporal variations in aerosols and precursor gases over oceanic regions have special importance in the estimation of radiative forcing parameters and thereby in the refinement of general circulation models. Extensive observations of the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total column ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried out using the on-line, multi-band solar radiometers onboard ORV Sagar Kanya (Cruise#SK 147B) over Bay of Bengal during 11th-28th August 1999. Aerosol optical and physical properties (optical depth and angstrom parameter) have been estimated at six wavelengths covering from UV to NIR (380-1020 nm) while TCO and PWC have been determined using the UV band around 300nm and NIR band around 940 nm, respectively. Added, concurrent meteorological and satellite observations during this field phase of BOBMEX-99 have been utilized to investigate spectral-temporal variations of AOD, TCO and PWC in marine environment. The results indicate lower AODs (around 0.4 at characteristic wavelength of 500 nm) and size distributions with abundance of coarse-mode particles as compared to those aerosols of typical land origin. An interesting result that is found in the present study is the significant reduction in AOD at all wavelengths from initial to later part of observation period due to cloud-scavenging and rain-washout effects as well as signature of coastal aerosol loading. The clear-sky daytime diurnal variation of TCO shows gradual increase during post-sunrise hours, broad maximum during afternoon hours and gradual decrease during pre-sunset hours, which is considered to be due to photochemical reactions. The diurnal variation curve of PWC showed maximum (∼4cm) during morning hours and gradual decrease (∼3.5cm) towards evening hours, which are found to be greater as compared to typical values over land. Another interesting feature observed is that although the PWC values are very high, there was no proportionate

  1. Sensitivity studies using Regional Atmospheric Modeling System to analyze the impact of dust and aerosol on precipitation in the Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Jha, V.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.; Pierce, J. R.


    A modeling study is performed in the Colorado River Basin by varying the ratio of dust and aerosol pollution. The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling system (RAMS) version 6.0 is used for the analyses with the aerosol and dust pollution data being nudged from the GEOS-Chem. RAMS was modified to ingest GEOS-CHEM output data and periodically update aerosol fields. GEOS-CHEM is a chemical transport model which uses assimilated meteorological data from the NASA Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS). The aerosol data comprise a sum of hydrophobic and hydrophilic black carbon and organic aerosol, hydrophilic SOAs, hydrocarbon oxidation and inorganic aerosols (nitrate, sulfate and ammonium). In addition, a RAMS-based dust source and transport model is used. The sensitivity studies are 5 different kinds. The base study has both the dust and aerosol pollution data ON. The Case 2 has dust OFF with only the aerosol sources ON. The Case 3 has the aerosol sources ON with dust multiplied by a factor of 3. Case 4 has the aerosol sources ON with dust multiplied by a factor of 10. Case 5 and Case 6 are the simulations where dust can act only as CCN and only as IN respectively. It was found that the precipitation increases when dust is increased 3 times. However, the response is non-monotonic when dust is increased 10 times and the response depends on the environmental conditions. Dust acting as CCN acts in opposition to dust acting as IN. In general, dust acting as IN tends to enhance precipitation in wintertime orographic clouds.

  2. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe2+) in ambient atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, i.e., magnetite was attempted by using only ferrous ion (Fe2+) as a magnetite precursor, under an ambient atmosphere. The room temperature reverse co-precipitation method was used, by applying two synthesis protocols. The freshly prepared iron oxide was also immediately coated with Stöber silica (SiO2) layer, forming the coreshell structure. The phase, stoichiometry, crystallite and the particle size of the synthesized powders were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the magnetic and oxidation behaviors were studied by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the results, the bare iron oxide nanoparticles are in the stoichiometry between the magnetite and the maghemite stoichiometry, i.e., oxidation occurs. This oxidation is depending on the synthesis protocols used. With the silica coating, the oxidation can be prevented, as suggested by the fits of Mössbauer spectra and low temperature magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetite was attempted by using ferrous ion (Fe2+) in air. • The synthesized particle has a stoichiometry in between magnetite and maghemite. • Silica shell partly prevented the oxidation as suggested by magnetic and Mössbauer study

  3. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe2+) in ambient atmosphere (United States)

    Mahmed, N.; Heczko, O.; Lancok, A.; Hannula, S.-P.


    The synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, i.e., magnetite was attempted by using only ferrous ion (Fe2+) as a magnetite precursor, under an ambient atmosphere. The room temperature reverse co-precipitation method was used, by applying two synthesis protocols. The freshly prepared iron oxide was also immediately coated with Stöber silica (SiO2) layer, forming the coreshell structure. The phase, stoichiometry, crystallite and the particle size of the synthesized powders were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the magnetic and oxidation behaviors were studied by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the results, the bare iron oxide nanoparticles are in the stoichiometry between the magnetite and the maghemite stoichiometry, i.e., oxidation occurs. This oxidation is depending on the synthesis protocols used. With the silica coating, the oxidation can be prevented, as suggested by the fits of Mössbauer spectra and low temperature magnetic measurement.

  4. Variability in warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns over subtropical South America: relationships between the South Atlantic convergence zone and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Mote, Thomas L.


    Warm-season precipitation variability over subtropical South America is characterized by an inverse relationship between the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) and precipitation over the central and western La Plata basin of southeastern South America. This study extends the analysis of this "South American Seesaw" precipitation dipole to relationships between the SACZ and large, long-lived mesoscale convective systems (LLCSs) over the La Plata basin. By classifying SACZ events into distinct continental and oceanic categories and building a logistic regression model that relates LLCS activity across the region to continental and oceanic SACZ precipitation, a detailed account of spatial variability in the out-of-phase coupling between the SACZ and large-scale organized convection over the La Plata basin is provided. Enhanced precipitation in the continental SACZ is found to result in increased LLCS activity over northern, northeastern, and western sections of the La Plata basin, in association with poleward atmospheric moisture flux from the Amazon basin toward these regions, and a decrease in the probability of LLCS occurrence over the southeastern La Plata basin. Increased oceanic SACZ precipitation, however, was strongly related to reduced atmospheric moisture and decreased probability of LLCS occurrence over nearly the entire La Plata basin. These results suggest that continental SACZ activity and large-scale organized convection over the northern and eastern sections of the La Plata basin are closely tied to atmospheric moisture transport from the Amazon basin, while the warm coastal Brazil Current may also play an important role as an evaporative moisture source for LLCSs over the central and western La Plata basin.

  5. Future changes and uncertainties in Asian precipitation simulated by multiphysics and multi-sea surface temperature ensemble experiments with high-resolution Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation models (MRI-AGCMs) (United States)

    Endo, Hirokazu; Kitoh, Akio; Ose, Tomoaki; Mizuta, Ryo; Kusunoki, Shoji


    This study focuses on projecting future changes in mean and extreme precipitation in Asia, and discusses their uncertainties. Time-slice experiments using a 20-km-mesh atmospheric general circulation (AGCM) were performed both in the present-day (1979-2003) and the future (2075-2099). To assess the uncertainty of the projections, 12 ensemble projections (i.e., combination of 3 different cumulus schemes and 4 different sea surface temperature (SST) change patterns) were conducted using 60-km-mesh AGCMs. For the present-day simulations, the models successfully reproduced the pattern and amount of mean and extreme precipitation, although the model with the Arakawa-Schubert (AS) cumulus scheme underestimated the amount of extreme precipitation. For the future climate simulations, in South Asia and Southeast Asia, mean and extreme precipitation generally increase, but their changes show marked differences among the projections, suggesting some uncertainty in their changes over these regions. In East Asia, northwestern China and Bangladesh, in contrast, mean and extreme precipitation show consistent increases among the projections, suggesting their increases are reliable for this model framework. Further investigation by analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the uncertainty in the precipitation changes in South Asia and Southeast Asia are derived mainly from differences in the cumulus schemes, with an exception in the Maritime Continent where the uncertainty originates mainly from the differences in the SST pattern.

  6. Changes of Frequency of Summer Precipitation Extremes over the Yangtze River in Association with Large-scale Oceanic-atmospheric Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; YAN Zhongwei


    Changes of the frequency of precipitation extremes (the number of days with daily precipitation exceeding the 90th percentile of a daily climatology,referred to as R90N) in summer (June-August) over the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River arc analyzed based on daily observations during 1961-2007.The first singular value decomposition (SVD) mode of R90N is linked to an ENSO-like mode of the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the previous winter.Responses of different grades of precipitation events to the climatic mode are compared.It is notable that the frequency of summer precipitation extremes is significantly related with the SSTA in the Pacific,while those of light and moderate precipitation are not.It is suggested that the previously well-recognized impact of ENSO on summer rainfall along the Yangtze River is essentially due to a response in summer precipitation extremes in the region,in association with the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern.A negative relationship is found between the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and precipitation extremes over the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River.In contrast,light rainfall processes are independent from the SST and EASM variations.

  7. U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. 15 Minute Precipitation Data is digital data set DSI-3260, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This is precipitation data. The primary source...

  8. Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PREC data set is an analysis of monthly precipitation constructed on a 2.5(o)lat/lon grid over the global for the period from 1948 to the present. The land...

  9. Hourly and Daily Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Precipitation Time Series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global precipitation time series provides time series charts showing observations of daily precipitation as well as accumulated precipitation compared to normal...

  11. Numerical simulation of heavy precipitation events using mesoscale weather forecast models. Validation with radar data and diagnosis of the atmospheric moisture budget; Numerische Simulation von Starkniederschlagsereignissen mit mesoskaligen Wettervorhersagemodellen. Ueberpruefung mit Radar-Daten und Diagnose der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, C.


    Convective precipitation systems contribute substantially to the summertime rainfall maximum in the northern Alpine region. The capability of mesoscale weather forecast models in capturing such heavy precipitation events is investigated. The complementary application of so far hardly used areal radar data and conventional rain gauge observations enables a case-study-type evaluation of summertime precipitation episodes. Different rainfall episodes are simulated with the former operational model (DM, meshsize 14 km) of Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). The influence of the horizontal resolution and the parameterization of moist convection is subsequently studied with a higher resolution atmospheric model (MC2, meshsize 2 km). Diagnostic studies on the atmospheric water budget regarding the rainfall episode, which instigated the Oder-flood in summer 1997, allow an examination of the origin of the moisture and the genesis of the copious precipitation. (orig.) [German] Konvektive Niederschlagssysterne tragen im Nordalpenraum wesentlich zum sommerlichen Niederschlagsmaximum bei. Die Faehigkeit mesoskaliger Wettervorhersagemodelle, solche Starkniederschlagsereignisse zu erfassen, wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Durch den komplementaeren Gebrauch von, bisher kaum genutzten, flaechendeckenden Radardaten und konventionellen Niederschlagsmessungen des Bodenmessnetzes werden Modellergebnisse sommerlicher Niederschlagssysteme fallstudienhaft detailliert ueberprueft. Fuer verschiedene Starkniederschlagsereignisse werden dazu Modellsimulationen mit dem in den 90er Jahren operationellen Modell (DM, Maschenweite 14 km) des Deutschen Wetterdienstes (DWD) durchgefuehrt. Zur Untersuchung des Einflusses der horizontalen Maschenweite und der Niederschlagsparametrisierung werden ferner numerische Simulationen mit einem hoeher aufloesdenden Atmosphaerenmodell (MC2, Maschenweite 2 km) behandelt. Anhand diagnostischer Untersuchungen der atmosphaerischen Wasserbilanz laesst sich ausserdem die

  12. Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem (United States)

    Dochinger, Leon S.; Seliga, Thomas A.


    The First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem dealt with the potential magnitude of the global effects of acid precipitation on aquatic ecosystems, forest soils, and forest vegetation. The problem is discussed in the light of atmospheric chemistry, transport, and precipitation. (Author/BT)

  13. Future summer precipitation changes over CORDEX-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model: A comparison to the stand-alone RCM (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun


    Climate changes under the RCP8.5 scenario over the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX)-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model Flexible Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Land System (FROALS) are compared to those downscaled by the corresponding atmosphere-only regional climate model driven by a global climate system model. Changes in the mean and interannual variability of summer rainfall were discussed for the period of 2051-2070 with respect to the present-day period of 1986-2005. Followed by an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high and an intensified East Asian summer monsoon, an increase in total rainfall over north China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan but a decrease in total rainfall over southern China are observed in the FROALS projection. Homogeneous increases of extreme rainfall amounts were found over the CORDEX-East Asia domain. A predominant increase in the interannual variability was evident for both total rainfall and the extreme rainfall amount. The spatial patterns of the projected rainfall changes by FROALS were generally consistent with those from the driving global model at a broad scale due to similar projected circulation changes. In both models, the enhanced southerlies over east China increased the moisture divergences over southern China and enhanced the moisture advection over north China. However, the atmosphere-only regional climate model (RCM) exhibited responses to the underlying sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies that were too strong, which induced an anomalous cyclone over the north South China Sea, followed by increases (decreases) of total and extreme rainfall over southern China (central China). The differences of the projected changes in both rainfall and circulation between FROALS and the atmosphere-only RCM were partly affected by the differences in the projected SST changes. The results recommend the employment of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model in the

  14. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke


    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications for the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5 % with the observations. Simulated NOy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30 % higher than indicated by the observations which are likely to be related to deficiencies in the used ionization rates, though other error sources related to the models' atmospheric background state and/or transport schemes cannot be excluded. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement

  15. Building long-term and high spatio-temporal resolution precipitation and air temperature reanalyses by mixing local observations and global atmospheric reanalyses: the ANATEM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuentz


    Full Text Available Improving the understanding of past climatic or hydrologic variability has received a large attention in different fields of geosciences, such as glaciology, dendrochronology, sedimentology or hydrology. Based on different proxies, each research community produces different kind of climatic or hydrologic reanalyses, at different spatio-temporal scales and resolution. When considering climate or hydrology, numerous studies aim at characterising variability, trends or breaks using observed time-series of different regions or climate of world. However, in hydrology, these studies are usually limited to reduced temporal scale (mainly few decades, seldomly a century because they are limited to observed time-series, that suffers from a limited spatio-temporal density. This paper introduces a new model, ANATEM, based on a combination of local observations and large scale climatic informations (such as 20CR Reanalysis. This model allow to build long-term air temperature and precipitation time-series, with a high spatio-temporal resolution (daily time-step, few km2. ANATEM was tested on the air temperature and precipitation time-series of 22 watersheds situated on the Durance watershed, in the french Alps. Based on a multi-criteria and multi-scale diagnostic, the results show that ANATEM improves the performances of classical statistical models. ANATEM model have been validated on a regional level, improving spatial homogeneity of performances and on independent long-term time-series, being able to capture the regional low-frequency variabilities over more than a century (1883–2010.

  16. Chemornetric Analysis of Atmospheric Precipitation of Xinjiang Karamay%克拉玛依市大气降水化学的统计学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    运用相关分析、因子分析和聚类分析等统计学分析方法,对2009—2010年新疆克拉玛依市的大气降水化学组成和分布特征进行分析。结果表明,SO4^2-、Cl^-、Ca^2+和Na^+是降水中主要离子。降水的pH值、电导率、降水量和各离子组份均呈现明显的正偏态分布,降水样品以低离子含量的样本为主,因子分析和聚类分析2种分类方法分析降水中水溶性离子主要分为3类。SO4^2-、Cl^-、Mg^2+、F^-主要来自人为活动的贡献,K^+、Ca^2+主要来源于土壤和沙尘等地壳,H^+与其他阴、阳离子间并未表现出明显的相关关系,表明研究区域的降水酸度是所有致酸离子和各种离子综合作用的结果,而不是降水中某个单一的离子组份确定的。%The characteristics and distribution of precipitation chemistry of Karamay in the central region of xinjiang province during 2009 - 2010 was analyzed by statistical methods such as regression analysis, factor analysis and duster analysis to investigate. The results indicated SO4^2- ,Cl^- and Ca^2+ and Na^+ were the major ions in the precipitation. Skewness calculations for pH, EC and all the ions had showed a positive value that indicated a right asymmetric shape of the data distribution. Precipitation samples was low ionic in the sample of mainly, the precipitation of water soluble ion divided mainly into three categories using factor analysis and cluster analysis . SO4^2- , Cl^- ,Mg^2+ . F^- mainly came from human activity, K^+ ,Ca^2+ mainly came from the soil and dust on the earth' s crust. H + with other anion and cation had no distinct correlation. It was indicated that the precipitation' s acidity was all the ions comprehensive role as a result, instead of precipitation in a single set of the components.

  17. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High-Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke


    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in October/November 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2d Model (B2dM and Bremen 3d Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications on the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5% with the observations. Simulated oy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30% higher than indicated by the observations which can be partly attributed to an overestimation of simulated electron-induced ionization. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement additional ion chemistry (HNO3 formation via ion-ion recombination and water cluster ions into the chemical

  18. 基于大气层结和雷暴演变的闪电和降水关系%Relationship Between Lightning and Precipitation Based on Classification of Atmospheric Stratification and Development of Thunderstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷波; 郑栋; 张义军; 姚雯; 张文娟


    A total of 28 thunderstorms occurring in and around Beijing area from 2006 to 2008 are picked to in-vestigate the relationship between total lightning (observed by SAFIR3000)and convective precipitation (by radar inversion).These cases are classified according to parameters of the atmospheric stratification where they are generated and the reflectivity of radar.The quantitative results can provide a reference for the applications of lightning data on severe weather warning and precipitation estimation.The lightning forecast can also be improved by assimilating the relationship between the hydrometeors and the lightning activities to the numerical prediction models.The analysis can extend the application field of the lightning data. The results show that the average convective rain yields per flash is 1.92×107 kg·fl-1 on the whole, while the linear correlation coefficient between the total lightning frequency and convective precipitation is 0.584.Total lightning frequency (expressed by F with the time space being 6 min)can be used to calculate the amount of convective precipitation with the equation R=(2.813×108 )+(4.570×10 6 )F .A total of 28 thunderstorms are classified according to the convective available potential energy (E CAP )and lifting index I L of the atmospheric stratification where they are generated.It is explored that strong instability of at-mospheric stratification tends to be associated with smaller precipitation and more pronounced correlation between total lightning and precipitation.Of which,the classification of E CAP no less than 1600 J ·kg-1 has the correlation coefficient of 0.837,the total lightning frequency can be used to calculate the amount of convective precipitation with the equation of R=(1.620×108 )+(5.478 ×10 6 )F .While the classification of I L no less than 4 K has the correlation coefficient of 0.853,the total lightning frequency can be used to calculate the area of the amount of convective precipitation with the equation

  19. 大气降水重金属含量特征及来源分析%Characteristics and source analysis of heavy metals in atmospheric precipitation of Boyang Lake basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春华; 柯丽; 童乐; 周文斌


    Precipitation samples were collected from 8 cities and counties of Poyang Lake basin during January to December of 2010. Heavy metal ions (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Fe) in atmospheric precipitation were detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer to investigate the concentration and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in precipitation of Boyang Lake basin, the contamination source of these heavy metals were also analyzed. The results indicated that the annual mean concentration of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Fe was 9. 53, 11. 32, 33. 73, 1. 55, 9. 09, 142. 65 μg/L, respectively. Pb, Cu, Cd and Cr were major influenced by human factors, the second and the tertiary industry were the main source of these contamination. Zn and Fe in atmospheric precipitation were little affected by the human being, Zn was mainly from natural source and Fe was originated from mix source.%于2010年1月至12月采集鄱阳湖流域8个县市的大气降水样品,用原子吸收分光光度计测定大气降水中溶解态Pb、Cu、Zn、Cd、Cr、Fe等重金属离子,阐述鄱阳湖流域大气降水中重金属含量及分布特征,并分析各种重金属来源.结果表明,Pb年际平均质量浓度为9.53 μg/L,Cu为11.32 μg/L,Zn为33.73 μg/L,Cd为1.55 μg/L,Cr为9.09 μg/L,Fe为142.65 μg/L.Pb、Cu、Cd、Cr受人为因素影响较大,主要来源于第二产业和第三产业,Zn和Fe受人类影响较小,Zn主要来源为天然源,Fe来源于混合源.

  20. Analysis on the chemical characteristics of the atmospheric precipitation in Guilin%桂林岩溶区大气降水的化学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红波; 于奭; 何师意; 刘齐; 李幼玲


    2009年1月至2010年12月期间,对处于岩溶区的桂林市降水进行了连续采样测试分析.研究结果表明:(1)桂林市区降水的pH平均值为4.83,降水的电导率平均值为65 μS/cm,SO42-、NO3-和Ca2+、NH4+分别是最主要的阴阳离子.(2)桂林市降水各主要离子含量、降雨量和电导率表现出明显的季节差异,其中Ca2+、Mg2+含量在夏、冬季较高,春、秋季较低.(3)降雨量和TDS呈现出良好的负相关关系,SO42-和NO3-以及Ca2+和Mg2+之间则具有较好的正相关关系.(4)2009-2010年与1994-1995年相比,降水中的离子含量增加了1.16倍,降水的pH值有所增高,但仍在酸雨范围之内.在桂林酸雨形成中,降水的NO3-贡献明显增强.(5)通过2012年3月1-6日连续6天的降水监测,发现pH、降雨量和电导率三者呈现出良好的相关性.%Precipitation samples are collected and analyzed from January 2009 to December 2010 in the Guilin, Guangxi. The results show that (1) the pH value and the conductivity are 4. 83 and 65μS/era respectively, the major anions are SO42- and NO3- , the major cations Ca2+ and NH4+ in the rainwater samples of Guilin; (2) major ion content, rainfall and conductivity assumes obvious seasonal variations, and among them the Ca2+ concentration is higher in summer and autumn, lower in spring and winter; (3) rainfall and TDS show good negative correlation, SO42- and NO3-, and Ca2+ and Mg2+ have good positive correlation; (4) in comparing the situations in the year of 2009-2010 to 1994-1995, the ion in the precipitation has increased by 1. 16 times and pH increased to some extent, the rain still belongs to acid rain, and the contributing rate of the NO3- in the precipitation for the formation of acid rain in Guilin has obviously enhanced; (5)through continuous monitoring on rainfall of Guilin during 1 to 6 , Mar. 2012, it is found that pH, conductivity and precipitation appear good correlation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Tiberiu Epure


    Full Text Available The properties of precipitation are mainly determined by solid, liquid and gaseous substances that exist in suspended or dissolved form. These substances come from many complex interactions between the atmosphere – hydrosphere – lithosphere – biota. The analytical characterization of precipitation has been based on the analysis of several chemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chloride, fluoride and ammonium ions, total hardness, alkalinity, H2S and sulphides, COD (Mn, nitrites, phosphorous, metallic ions (total iron, copper and chromium. In this purpose were collected rainwater, ice and snow from different areas (cities Năvodari, Constanţa, Buzău and Mihail Kogălniceanu during November 2007 till February 2008. This study shows that chemical characteristics of the analyzed water samples vary from one region to another depending on the mineralogical composition of zones crossed, the contact time, temperature, weather conditions, the sampling period (day or night and the nature of sample (rain, snow, ice.

  2. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily GOES Precipitation Index (GPI) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOES Precipitation Index (GPI) is a precipitation estimation algorithm. The GPI technique estimates tropical rainfall using cloud-top temperature as the sole...

  3. Precipitation Reconstruction over Land (PREC/L) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists files of 3 resolutions of monthly averaged precipitation totals. The global analyses are defined by interpolation of gauge...

  4. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  5. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  6. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  7. The magnetic and oxidation behavior of bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) in ambient atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmed, N., E-mail: [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); School of Materials Engineering, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian UniMAP, Taman Muhibbah, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Heczko, O., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Lancok, A., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hannula, S-P., E-mail: [Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)


    The synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles, i.e., magnetite was attempted by using only ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) as a magnetite precursor, under an ambient atmosphere. The room temperature reverse co-precipitation method was used, by applying two synthesis protocols. The freshly prepared iron oxide was also immediately coated with Stöber silica (SiO{sub 2}) layer, forming the coreshell structure. The phase, stoichiometry, crystallite and the particle size of the synthesized powders were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), while the magnetic and oxidation behaviors were studied by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Based on the results, the bare iron oxide nanoparticles are in the stoichiometry between the magnetite and the maghemite stoichiometry, i.e., oxidation occurs. This oxidation is depending on the synthesis protocols used. With the silica coating, the oxidation can be prevented, as suggested by the fits of Mössbauer spectra and low temperature magnetic measurement. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetite was attempted by using ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) in air. • The synthesized particle has a stoichiometry in between magnetite and maghemite. • Silica shell partly prevented the oxidation as suggested by magnetic and Mössbauer study.

  8. Shifting covariability of North American summer monsoon precipitation with antecedent winter precipitation (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.


    Previous research has suggested that a general inverse relation exists between winter precipitation in the southwestern United states (US) and summer monsoon precipitation. In addition, it has been suggested that this inverse relation between winter precipitation and the magnitude of the southwestern US monsoon breaks down under certain climatic conditions that override the regional winter/monsoon precipitation relations. Results from this new study indicate that the winter/monsoon precipitation relations do not break down, but rather shift location through time. The strength of winter/monsoon precipitation relations, as indexed by 20-year moving correlations between winter precipitation and monsoon precipitation, decreased in Arizona after about 1970, but increased in New Mexico. The changes in these correlations appear to be related to an eastward shift in the location of monsoon precipitation in the southwestern US. This eastward shift in monsoon precipitation and the changes in correlations with winter precipitation also appear to be related to an eastward shift in July/August atmospheric circulation over the southwestern US that resulted in increased monsoon precipitation in New Mexico. Results also indicate that decreases in sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central North Pacific Ocean also may be associated with th changes in correlations between winter and monsoon precipitation. Copyright ?? 2006 Royal Meteorological Society.

  9. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko


    at higher temperature, faster than the rate of increase in the atmosphere's water-holding capacity, termed the Clausius-Clapeyron rate. Invigoration of convective precipitation (such as thunderstorms) has been favoured over a rise in stratiform precipitation (such as large-scale frontal precipitation...

  10. Heavy Precipitation Events in Lithuania (United States)

    Bukantis, A.; Rimkus, E.; Kažys, J.


    Analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania is presented in this work. Research was divided into two parts. Spatial distribution and dynamic of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania during observation period (1961-2008) is presented in the first part and climate predictions for XXI century according to outputs of CCLM model are in the second. Daily data from 17 meteorological stations were used for the analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. Research covers period from 1961 to 2008. Annual and seasonal heavy precipitation values and the recurrence of extreme daily and 3-day precipitation events were analyzed. Spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania was determined; the trends of such precipitation recurrence were identified. Also, daily and 3-day annual maxima probabilities were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. 10, 30 and 100 years return period was analyzed. Finally, atmospheric circulation processes during heavy precipitation events were described using the adapted Hess & Brezowski macrocirculation form classification Predictions of changes of heavy precipitation recurrence in Lithuania are also presented in this study. Output data of the regional climate model CCLM (COSMO - Climate Limited-area Model) for the period 1971-2100 were used. Predictions were based on A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Despite of relatively small area and quite negligible differences in altitude there are significant unevenness in spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. The mean annual number of cases when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10 mm fluctuates from 12.4 to 21.9 and from 5.3 to 10.5 when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm. The probability of maximum precipitation amount for 10 year return period appears very familiar to spatial distribution of heavy precipitation recurrence: the highest values can be expected in the western part (55-60 mm daily and 75-85 mm in 3-days

  11. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter


    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  12. Chemistry of United States precipitation. Final report on the national precipitation sampling network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, J.P. Jr.; Pate, J.B.; Basbergill, W.; Swanson, G.S.; Hill, K.C.; Lorange, E.; Lazrus, A.L.


    Atmospheric precipitation washes large quantities of particulate and gaseous materials from air, and thus provides a means of studying contamination of the atmosphere. The relationships between the concentration of constituents in air and their concentrations in precipitation are not known with quantitative certainty. However, it is believed that the concentration patterns of contaminants in precipitation reflect their patterns in air. Moreover, though analysis of precipitation water does not reveal absolute values for air contamination, it does provide a means of monitoring changes in contamination with time. The purposes of the project are: (1) to determine mean benchmark values of contaminants throughout the country; (2) to detect possible trends in these values over long periods of time; (3) to observe seasonal fluctuations and geographical distributions which may reveal the sources of these atmospheric contaminants. 48 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  13. SMEX02 Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Properties Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of observations of atmospheric parameters including spectral aerosol optical depths, precipitable water, sky radiance distributions and...

  14. Precipitation sensitivity to warming estimated from long island records (United States)

    Polson, D.; Hegerl, G. C.; Solomon, S.


    Some of the most damaging impacts of climate change are a consequence of changes to the global water cycle. Atmospheric warming causes the water cycle to intensify, increasing both atmospheric water vapor concentrations and global precipitation and enhancing existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P ‑ E). This relationship between temperature and precipitation therefore makes understanding how precipitation has changed with global temperatures in the past crucial for projecting changes with future warming. In situ observations cannot readily estimate global precipitation sensitivity to temperature (dP/dT), as land precipitation changes are affected by water limitation. Satellite observations of precipitation over ocean are only available after 1979, but studies based on them suggest a precipitation sensitivity over wet tropical (30N–30S) oceans that exceeds the Clausius–Clapeyron value. Here, we determine for the first time precipitation sensitivity using longer (1930–2005), island-based in situ observations to estimate dP/dT over islands. The records show a robust pattern of increasing precipitation in the tropics and decreasing precipitation in the subtropics, as predicted from physical arguments, and heavy precipitation shows a stronger sensitivity than mean precipitation over many islands. The pattern and magnitude of island-based dP/dT agree with climate models if masked to island locations, supporting model predictions of future changes.

  15. Precipitation of Continental Origin over South America (United States)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.


    The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.

  16. Stable Isotopic Variations in Precipitation in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study analyzes the relationships of stable isotopes in precipitation with temperature, air pressure and humidity at different altitudes, and the potential influencing mechanisms of control factors on the stable isotopes in precipitation in Southwest China. There appear marked negative correlations of the δ18O in precipitation with precipitation amount, vapor pressure and atmospheric precipitable water (PW)at the Mengzi, Simao and Tengchong stations on the synoptic timescale; the marked negative correlations between the δ18O in precipitation and the diurnal mean temperature at 400 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa and 850hPa are different from the temperature effect in middle-high-latitude inland areas. In addition, the notable positive correlation between the δ18O in precipitation and the dew-point deficit △Td at different altitudes is found at the three stations. Precipitation is not the only factor generating an amount effect. Probably,the amount effect is related to the variations of atmospheric circulation and vapor origins. On the annual timescale, the annual precipitation amount weighted-mean δ18O displays negative correlations not only with annual precipitation but also with annual mean temperature at 500 hPa. It can be deduced that, in the years with an abnormally strong summer monsoon, more warm and wet air from low-latitude oceans is transported northward along the vapor channel located in Southwest China and generates abnormally strong rainfall on the way. Meanwhile, the abnormally strong condensation process will release more condensed latent heat in the atmosphere, and this will lead to a rise of atmospheric temperature during rainfall but a decline of δ18O in the precipitation. On the other hand, in the years with an abnormally weak summer monsoon, the precipitation and the atmospheric temperature during rainfalls decrease abnormally but the δ18O in precipitation increases.

  17. Mars heavy ion precipitating flux as measured by MAVEN (United States)

    Leblanc, F.


    Mars' atmospheric escape induced by heavy planetary ions accelerated by the solar wind and reimpacting Mars' atmosphere has been suggested to occur. The sputtering of Mars' atmosphere has been even suggested to lead to a significant cumulated loss along Mars' history. Up to now, only a limited number of observations have been possible. ASPERA-3/Mars Express observed such precipitation only during extreme solar conditions events suggesting that sputtering might be not as intense as theoretically predicted. Based on MAVEN first six months of observations, we here show that precipitation of heavy ions also occur during quiet solar conditions and that the average precipitating flux during this period is significant and globally in good agreement with predictions. From these measured precipitating flux, we propose a first estimate of the atmospheric escape induced by sputtering. Up to 8.8×105 O/cm2/s was lost by Mars' atmosphere between November 2014 and April 2015.

  18. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Monthly Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC) at Spatial Resolution of 1 degree. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This global monthly precipitation analysis is called the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC). This analysis consists of two...

  1. Precipitation Frequency for Chuuk, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  2. Precipitation Frequency for Nukuoro, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  3. Precipitation Frequency for Northern Mariana Islands, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  4. Precipitation Frequency for Ohio River Basin, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Ohio River Basin and Surrounding states is based on precipitation data collected between...

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Monthly Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC) Spatial Resolution of 2.5 degree (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This global monthly precipitation analysis is called the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC). This analysis consists of two...

  6. Precipitation Frequency for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands is based on precipitation data collected between...

  7. Precipitation Frequency for Pohnpei, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  8. Precipitation Frequency for Semiarid Southwest, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Semiarid Southwest based on precipitation data collected between 1893-2000. This atlas is an...

  9. Precipitation Frequency for Guam, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  10. Precipitation Frequency for Ulithi, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  11. Precipitation Frequency for Northeastern states, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 10 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Northeastern states based on precipitation data collected between 1816-2014. This atlas...

  12. Precipitation Frequency for American Samoa, Pacific Islands - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Pacific Islands that are based on precipitation data. This atlas is a new release from the...

  13. Identifying External Influences on Global Precipitation (Invited) (United States)

    Marvel, K.; Bonfils, C.


    Changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are among the most important and least well-understood consequences of climate change. Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are thought to affect the zonal distribution of precipitation through two basic mechanisms. First, increasing temperatures will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle ('thermodynamic' changes). Second, changes in atmospheric circulation patterns will lead to poleward displacement of the storm tracks and subtropical dry zones and to a widening of the tropical belt ('dynamic' changes). We demonstrate that both these changes are occurring simultaneously in global precipitation, that this behavior cannot be explained by internal variability alone, and that external anthropogenic influences are responsible for the observed precipitation changes.

  14. Acid precipitation - Effects on forest and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overrein, L.N.; Seip, H.M.; Tollan, A.


    The Norwegian Interdisciplinary Research Programme 'Acid Precipitation - Effects on Forest and Fish' (The SNSF-project) was initiated in 1972. The main objectives of the SNSF-project have been to: (1) establish as precisely as possible the effects of acid precipitation on forest and freshwater fish, (2) investigate the effects of air pollutants on soil, vegetation and water, required to satisfy point 1. The final report summarizes the results of the entire program on the basis of some 300 SNSF reports and data presented in various international journals in the period 1972-80. Attention is given to emissions and transport, atmospheric deposits in Norway, water acidification - status and trends, chemical modifications of precipitation in contact with soil and vegetation, snow and snowmelt, land-use changes and acidification, conceptual models for water acidification, effects of acid precipitation on soil productivity and plant growth, and effects of acid water on aquatic life.

  15. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  16. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Monthly, Version 2.2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products with the two primary products being the monthly satellite-gauge and associated...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  1. MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) Daily Troposphere Temperatures and Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of two MSU tropospheric temperatures levels and precipitation which are described in detail below. The NOAA satellites contributing to this...

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Daily Precipitation Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily precipitation (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...

  3. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  4. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Pentad, Version 2.2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 2.2 Pentad product covers the period January 1979 to the present,...

  5. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.


    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  6. The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States (United States)

    Lee, Dongmin; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Huffman, George J.; Rossow, William B.; Kang, In-Sik


    We examine the daytime precipitation characteristics of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) weather states in the extended tropics (35 deg S to 35 deg N) for a 10-year period. Our main precipitation data set is the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42 data set, but Global Precipitation Climatology Project daily data are also used for comparison. We find that the most convective weather state (WS1), despite an occurrence frequency below 10%, is the most dominant state with regard to surface precipitation, producing both the largest mean precipitation rates when present and the largest percent contribution to the total precipitation of the tropical zone of our study; yet, even this weather state appears to not precipitate about half the time. WS1 exhibits a modest annual cycle of domain-average precipitation rate, but notable seasonal shifts in its geographic distribution. The precipitation rates of the other weather states tend to be stronger when occurring before or after WS1. The relative contribution of the various weather states to total precipitation is different between ocean and land, with WS1 producing more intense precipitation on average over ocean than land. The results of this study, in addition to advancing our understanding of the current state of tropical precipitation, can serve as a higher order diagnostic test on whether it is distributed realistically among different weather states in atmospheric models.

  7. Local influences on the composition of precipitation on Bermuda


    Galloway, James N.; Tokos, Joseph J.; Knap, Anthony H.; Keene, William C.


    The understanding of atmospheric biogeochemical cycles in marine areas depends heavily on the collection and analysis of precipitation samples. However, collection of marine precipitation is difficult due to constraints on sampling locations. For example, the island of Bermuda has been used to characterize the composition of precipitation over the western north Atlantic Ocean. However, Bermuda is a small, heavily populated island and the possibility exists that local processes can influence t...

  8. Trends and variability in extreme precipitation indices over Maghreb countries (United States)

    Tramblay, Y.; El Adlouni, S.; Servat, E.


    Maghreb countries are highly vulnerable to extreme hydrological events, such as floods and droughts, driven by the strong variability of precipitation. While several studies have analyzed the presence of trends in precipitation records for the Euro-Mediterranean basin, this study provides a regional assessment of trends on its southernmost shores. A database of 22 stations located in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with between 33 and 59 yr of daily precipitation records is considered. The change points and trends are analyzed for eleven climate indices, describing several features of the precipitation regime. The issue of conducting multiple hypothesis tests is addressed through the implementation of a false discovery rate procedure. The spatial and interannual variability of the precipitation indices at the different stations are analyzed and compared with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), western Mediterranean Oscillation (WEMO), Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results show a strong tendency towards a decrease of precipitation totals and wet days together with an increase in the duration of dry periods, mainly for Morocco and western Algeria. On the other hand, only a few significant trends are detected for heavy precipitation indices. The NAO and MO patterns are well correlated with precipitation indices describing precipitation amounts, the number of dry days and the length of wet and dry periods, whereas heavy precipitation indices exhibit a strong spatial variability and are only moderately correlated with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns.

  9. Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ground-Based Global Positioning System (GPS) Meteorology Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor (IPW) data set measures atmospheric water vapor using ground-based...

  10. Electrostatic Precipitation in Nearly Pure Gaseous Nitrogen (United States)

    Buhler, Charles; Calle, Carlos; Clements, Sid; Cox, Bobby; Ritz, Mindy


    Electrostatic precipitation was performed in a nearly pure gaseous nitrogen system as a possible remedy for black dust contaminant from high pressure 6000 psi lines at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The results of a prototype electrostatic precipitator that was built and tested using nitrogen gas at standard atmospheric pressures is presented. High voltage pulsed waveforms are generated using a rotating spark gap system at 30 Hz. A unique dust delivery system utilizing the Venturi effect was devised that supplies a given amount of dust per unit time for testing purposes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙晓娟; 王雪梅; 朱圣洁; 王跃思; 董汉英; 黄忠良; 陈银洁; 鲍若峪; 吴志勇


    针对2009年3月至2010年2月于鼎湖山采集的大气湿沉降进行分析,旨在了解鼎湖山森林生态系统有机酸湿沉降变化特征及其影响因素.结果表明,研究期间鼎湖山甲酸、乙酸和乙二酸的当量平均浓度分别为4.12μeq.L-1、3.39μeq.L-1、2.51μeq.L-1,分别占已测定有机酸的41.1%、33.9%和25.0%;有机酸对降水酸度的总贡献为12.3%;有机酸湿沉降通量呈现湿季(4月—9月)高干季(10月—次年3月)低的季节性变化规律,湿季有机酸湿沉降通量占全年的70.8%.甲酸、乙酸和乙二酸的浓度呈显著正相关,而有机酸与无机离子的相关性不高.利用气团轨迹后推以及天气形势分析发现陆地性降水鼎湖山有机酸浓度略高于海洋性降水,陆地性降水中甲酸、乙酸和乙二酸的当量平均浓度分别为4.47μeq.L-1、3.44μeq.L-1、2.79μeq.L-1,分别是海洋性降水的1.2、1.0和1.2倍;海洋性降水中有机酸沉降负荷大,甲酸、乙酸和乙二酸沉降通量分别是陆地性降水的1.6、1.6和2.1倍.%Precipitation samples obtained from March 2009 to February 2010 at the Dinghu Mountain station,Guangdong Province,were analyzed to study wet deposition of organic acids and their origins.The results showed that the average concentrations of formic acid,acetic acid and oxalic acid were 4.12 μeq·L-1,3.39 μeq·L-1,and 2.51 μeq·L-1,respectively,which contributed to 41.1%,33.9% and 25.0% of total orgaic acids.The contribution of orgaic acids to the total free acidity of precipitation was 12.3%.Wet deposition flux of organic acids in wet seasons was higher than dry season,and contributed to 70.8% of total annual wet-deposition amount.Correlation coefficients among formic acid,acetic acid and oxalic acid were high,while the correlation coefficients with inorganic components were low.The results from back-trajectory analysis indicated that continental precipitation was the primary factor influencing organic acids in

  12. A New Method for Near Real Time Precipitation Estimates Using a Derived Statistical Relationship between Precipitable Water Vapor and Precipitation (United States)

    Roman, J.


    The IPCC 5th Assessment found that the predicted warming of 1oC would increase the risk of extreme events such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. Weather extremes, like floods, have shown the vulnerability and susceptibility society has to these extreme weather events, through impacts such as disruption of food production, water supply, health, and damage of infrastructure. This paper examines a new way of near-real time forecasting of precipitation. A 10-year statistical climatological relationship was derived between precipitable water vapor (PWV) and precipitation by using the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder daily gridded PWV product and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission daily gridded precipitation total. Forecasting precipitation estimates in real time is dire for flood monitoring and disaster management. Near real time PWV observations from AIRS on Aqua are available through the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Service Center. In addition, PWV observations are available through direct broadcast from the NASA Suomi-NPP ATMS/CrIS instrument, the operational follow on to AIRS. The derived climatological relationship can be applied to create precipitation estimates in near real time by utilizing the direct broadcasting capabilities currently available in the CONUS region. The application of this relationship will be characterized through case-studies by using near real-time NASA AIRS Science Team v6 PWV products and ground-based SuomiNet GPS to estimate the current precipitation potential; the max amount of precipitation that can occur based on the moisture availability. Furthermore, the potential contribution of using the direct broadcasting of the NUCAPS ATMS/CrIS PWV products will be demonstrated. The analysis will highlight the advantages of applying this relationship in near-real time for flash flood monitoring and risk management. Relevance to the NWS River Forecast Centers will be discussed.

  13. Precipitable water and vapor flux between Belem and Manaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water vapor flux and precipitable water was computated over the natural Amazon forest in the stretch between Belem and Manaus for 1972. The atmospheric branch of hidrological cycle theory was applied and the most significant conclusions on an annual basis are: Atlantic Ocean water vapor contributes 52% to the regional precipitation and is significant the role played by local evapotranspiration in the precipitation in the area; there were signs of the phenomenon of water vapor recycling nearly throughout the year. Evapotranspiration contributes to 48% of the precipitations in the area studied. The real evapotranspiration estimated by this method was 1,000mm year -1

  14. Temporal variation of extreme precipitation events in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rimkus


    Full Text Available Heavy precipitation events in Lithuania for the period 1961-2008 were analysed. The spatial distribution and dynamics of precipitation extremes were investigated. Positive tendencies and in some cases statistically significant trends were determined for the whole of Lithuania. Atmospheric circulation processes were derived using Hess & Brezowski's classification of macrocirculation forms. More than one third of heavy precipitation events (37% were observed when the atmospheric circulation was zonal. The location of the central part of a cyclone (WZ weather condition subtype over Lithuania is the most common synoptic situation (27% during heavy precipitation events. Climatic projections according to outputs of the CCLM model are also presented in this research. The analysis shows that the recurrence of heavy precipitation events in the 21st century will increase significantly (by up to 22% in Lithuania.

  15. Thunderstorms and thunderstorm precipitations in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielec-Bąkowska Zuzanna


    Full Text Available This paper addresses spatial and temporal variability in the occurrence of thunderstorms and related precipitation in southern Poland between 1951 and 2010. The analysis was based on thunderstorm observations and daily precipitation totals (broken down into the few ranges from 15 meteorological stations. It was found that precipitation accompanied an overwhelming majority of thunderstorms. The most frequent range of thunderstorm precipitation totals was 0.1–10.0 mm which accounted for 60% of all values while precipitation higher than 20.0 mm accounted only for ca. 8%. During the study period, long-term change in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation within a certain range displayed no clear-cut trends. Exceptions included: 1 an increase in the number of days with thunderstorm precipitation in the lowest range of totals (0.1–10.0 mm at Katowice, Tarnów, Rzeszów and Lesko and decrease at Mt. Kasprowy Wierch, 2 an increase in the range 10.1–20.0 mm at Zakopane and 20.1–30.0 mm at Opole, 3 a decrease of the top range (more than 30.0 mm at Mt. Śnieżka. It was found that the heaviest thunderstorm precipitation events, i.e. totalling more than 30 mm, and those events that covered all or most of the study area, occurred at the time of air advection from the southern or eastern sectors and a passage of atmospheric fronts.

  16. Uncertainty Estimation of Global Precipitation Measurement through Objective Validation Strategy (United States)

    KIM, H.; Utsumi, N.; Seto, S.; Oki, T.


    Since Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has been launched in 1997 as the first satellite mission dedicated to measuring precipitation, the spatiotemporal gaps of precipitation observation have been filled significantly. On February 27th, 2014, Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) satellite has been launched as a core observatory of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), an international multi-satellite mission aiming to provide the global three hourly map of rainfall and snowfall. In addition to Ku-band, Ka-band radar is newly equipped, and their combination is expected to introduce higher precision than the precipitation measurement of TRMM/PR. In this study, the GPM level-2 orbit products are evaluated comparing to various precipitation observations which include TRMM/PR, in-situ data, and ground radar. In the preliminary validation over intercross orbits of DPR and TRMM, Ku-band measurements in both satellites shows very close spatial pattern and intensity, and the DPR is capable to capture broader range of precipitation intensity than of the TRMM. Furthermore, we suggest a validation strategy based on 'objective classification' of background atmospheric mechanisms. The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and auxiliary datasets (e.g., tropical cyclone best track) is used to objectively determine the types of precipitation. Uncertainty of abovementioned precipitation products is quantified as their relative differences and characterized for different precipitation mechanism. Also, it is discussed how the uncertainty affects the synthesis of TRMM and GPM for a long-term satellite precipitation observation records which is internally consistent.

  17. [A new precipitation distribution hydrological model and its application]. (United States)

    Zhang, Shengtang; Kang, Shaozhong; Liu, Yin


    In distribution hydrological models, precipitation is the key input data for analyzing and computing hydrological processes. Finding a way to produce distribution precipitation data is a hotspot in hydrological research. This paper presented the hypothesis that the distribution of precipitation on the earth surface is the result of the effects of atmosphere system and terrain. Moreover, the spatial distribution of natural precipitation is a group of concentric ovals on the flat earth surface, and has a definite centre with maximum precipitation not affected by terrain. Supporting by the hypothesis, this paper established a new precipitation distribution hydrological model which could simulate the spatial distribution of precipitation, and modified the terrain effect on precipitation through Newton interpolation. The position of the precipitation centre and its precipitation amount were simulated in first time, and thus, the model could have a practical value in basin storm analysis and real-time runoff forecasting. The model was tested by the precipitation data of the Xichuan river basin in the Loess Plateau, which indicated that the model had a high precision.

  18. Chemisorption And Precipitation Reactions (United States)

    The transport and bioavailability of chemical components within soils is, in part, controlled by partitioning between solids and solution. General terms used to describe these partitioning reactions include chemisorption and precipitation. Chemisorption is inclusive of the suit...

  19. Study on Indicating Functions of the Atmospheric Circulation Indices and the Sea Surface Temperature for Annual Precipitation Forecast of Hulun Buir Region%大气环流指数和海温对呼伦贝尔地区年降水预测的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海滨; 高涛


    文章对近50a(1961—2010年)内蒙古呼伦贝尔地区的年、汛期和冬春季降水量和降水距平百分率(R%)作了统计,发现年R%和冬春季R%呈上升趋势,汛期R%略呈下降趋势;通过对年R%与大气环流指数、海温的相关分析发现:前期副热带高压(副高)、北半球极涡、大西洋欧洲环流C型、西藏高原位势高度和印缅槽(南支槽)强度指数等均与年R%密切相关,当北半球极涡收缩、强度减弱,副高扩张、强度加强,西藏高原位势高度偏高,南支槽减弱时,有利于来年呼伦贝尔地区降水,否则,相反。此外,前一年夏季北印度洋海域和赤道东太平洋海域海温对呼伦贝尔地区来年降水有显著影响,这两块海区的海温和上述环流指数可考虑作为呼伦贝尔地区年降水的预测信号使用。%The annual, rain-season and winter-spring precipitation and precipitation anomaly in percentage (R%) of Hulun Buir City (Region) in Inner Mongolia, China during the past 50 years (from 1961 to 2010) were calculated in this study. From the result of the calculation, it has been found that the annual and winter-spring R% display a significant increase trend. In opposite, the rain-season R%, however, shows a slight decrease trend during the 50-year period. Besides, it has been found in outcomes of the correlation analyses between the R% and all atmospheric circulation indices that the precious subtropical high (SH), North Polar vortex (NPV), Atlantic and Europe pattern C (Pattern-C), geopotential high of the Tibetan Plateau (GH-TP) and the India-Burma trough (IBT, also called South branch trough) have close connections with the R%. That indicates when the NPV is small and weak, the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and European region exhibits the Pattern-C, the GH-TP changes to higher than normal, the IBT is weak, the SH extends to north-westward and becomes strong in the previous time

  20. Processes affecting the stable isotope composition of calcite during precipitation on the surface of stalagmites: Laboratory experiments investigating the isotope exchange between DIC in the solution layer on top of a speleothem and the CO2 of the cave atmosphere (United States)

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang; Hansen, Maximilian; Scholz, Denis


    We present a theoretical derivation of the exchange time, τex, needed to establish isotopic equilibrium between atmospheric CO2 in a cave and HCO3- dissolved in a thin water film covering the surface of a speleothem. The result is τex = τredex · [HCO3-]/ (KH · pCO2 cave) , where τredex depends on the depth, a, of the water film and on temperature. [HCO3-] is the concentration of bicarbonate, pCO2 cave the partial pressure of CO2, and KH is Henry's constant. To test the theory we prepared stagnant or flowing thin films of a NaHCO3 solution and exposed them at 20 °C to an CO2 containing atmosphere of pCO2 500, 12,500, or 25,000 ppmV and defined isotope composition. The δ13C and δ18O values of the DIC in the solution were measured as a function of the exposure time. For stagnant films with depths between 0.06 and 0.2 cm the δ13C values exhibit an exponential approach towards isotope equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 with exchange time, τex. The δ18O values first evolve towards isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2, reach a minimum value and then drift away from the isotopic equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 approaching a steady state caused by isotopic exchange of oxygen with water. The experimental findings are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions. To further investigate isotope evolution in cave analogue conditions, a water film containing 5 mmol/L of NaHCO3 with a depth of 0.013 cm flowing down an inclined borosilicate glass plate was exposed to an atmosphere with pCO2 = 500 ppmV at a temperature of 20 °C. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured as a function of flow (exposure) time, t. The isotope compositions in the DIC of the water film decrease linear in time by δDIC (t) =δDIC (0) - (δDIC (0) -δDIC (∞)) · t /τex where δDIC (0) is the initial isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the water film and δDIC (∞) its final value. From these data an exchange time τex of ca. 7000 s was obtained

  1. Localized precipitation and runoff on Mars


    Kite, Edwin S.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Rafkin, Scot; Manga, Michael; Dietrich, William E


    We use the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) to simulate lake storms on Mars, finding that intense localized precipitation will occur for lake size >=10^3 km^2. Mars has a low-density atmosphere, so deep convection can be triggered by small amounts of latent heat release. In our reference simulation, the buoyant plume lifts vapor above condensation level, forming a 20km-high optically-thick cloud. Ice grains grow to 200 microns radius and fall near (or in) the lake at mean rat...

  2. Climate Prediction Center(CPC) Monthly Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC)at Spatial Resolution of 0.5 degree. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This global monthly precipitation analysis is called the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC). This analysis consists of two...

  3. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Monthly Precipitation Reconstruction of Ocean(PRECO)at Spatial Resolution of 2.5 degree. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This global monthly precipitation analysis is called the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Precipitation Reconstruction (PREC). This analysis consists of two...

  4. Cosmogenic radionuclides in the environment: {sup 32}Si in precipitation samples from the Jungfraujoch, production cross sections of {sup 36}Cl in Argon and modeling of the atmospheric {sup 36}Cl production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 32}Si were measured in four fresh snow samples from the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (3450 m asl.) to study the feasibility of measuring this potential dating nuclide with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. This technique could reduce drastically the amount of material needed for measurements of {sup 32}Si concentrations in environmental samples in contrast to conventional radiometric detection. The measured {sup 32}Si concentrations in the snow samples were between 1.84 and 6.28 {mu}Bql{sup -1}. These values agree with other measurements of precipitation samples. The measured {sup 32}Si/Si{sub tot} ratios ranged from 2.5.10{sup -17} to 2.3.10{sup -15} and were thus below the present detection limit of about 10{sup -14}, showing that at present it is not possible to carry out AMS measurements of {sup 32}Si in precipitation samples. For the first time, experimental cross sections of the reaction {sup 40}Ar(p,X){sup 36}Cl have been determined for the proton energy range 16-590 MeV. These cross sections were measured using a gas target, a novel method which was tested successfully by irradiating nitrogen targets to confirm literature values of the N(p,X){sup 7}Be and N(p,X){sup 10}Be cross sections. In fact, good agreement was found between the obtained cross sections with those using solid targets. Production of several radionuclides in the reaction of proton with nickel were also measured. Comparison of these cross sections with literature data proved that the proton flux measurements carried out with ionization chambers were very accurate. The excitation function of the reaction {sup 40}Ar(p,X){sup 36}Cl exhibits two maxima at proton energies of 20 MeV for the (p,{alpha}n)reaction and 95 MeV for the (p,2p3n) reaction, with maximum cross sections of 105 mb and 53 mb, respectively. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. Precipitation Aggregation and the Local Environment (United States)

    Smalley, Mark

    The details of large-scale spatial structures of precipitation have only recently become apparent with the advent of high-resolution near-global observations from space-borne radars. As such, the relationships between these structures and the local environment and global climate are just beginning to emerge in the scientific community. Precipitation aggregates on a wide variety of scales, from individual boundary layer instabilities to extra-tropical cyclones. Separate aggregation states have been associated with widely varying precipitation rates and atmospheric states, motivating the inclusion of spatial information in hydrologic and climate models. This work adds to the body of knowledge surrounding large-scale precipitation aggregation and its driving factors by describing and demonstrating a new method of defining the spatial characteristics of precipitation events. The analysis relies on the high sensitivity and high resolution of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar for the identification of precipitation with near-global coverage. The method is based on the dependence of the probability of precipitation on search area, or spatial resolution. Variations in this relationship are caused by variations in the principal characteristics of event spatial patterns: the relative spacing between events, the number density of events, and the overall fraction of precipitating scenes at high resolution. Here, this relationship is modeled by a stretched exponential containing two coefficients, that are shown to depict seasonal general circulation patterns as well as local weather. NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications is then used to place those spatial characteristics in the context of the local and large-scale environment. At regional scale, precipitation event density during the Amazon wet season is shown to be dependent on zonal wind speed. On a global scale, the relative spacing of shallow oceanic precipitation depends on the

  6. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prather, K. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ralph, R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Rosenfeld, D. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel); Spackman, R. [Science and Technology Corporation (STC), Hampton, VA (United States); DeMott, P. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagos, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hughes, M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Long, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutledge, S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Waliser, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States); Wang, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the large precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. is a critical test for the ability of climate models to predict the regional water cycle, including floods and droughts. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic enhancement during landfall on the U.S. West Coast. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes.

  7. Origins of the Earth's Diffuse Auroral Precipitation (United States)

    Ni, Binbin; Thorne, Richard M.; Zhang, Xiaojia; Bortnik, Jacob; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Hu, Ze-jun; Han, Desheng; Shi, Run; Zhou, Chen; Gu, Xudong


    The Earth's diffuse auroral precipitation provides the major source of energy input into the nightside upper atmosphere and acts as an essential linkage of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Resonant wave-particle interactions play a dominant role in the scattering of injected plasma sheet electrons, leading to the diffuse auroral precipitation. We review the recent advances in understanding the origin of the diffuse aurora and in quantifying the exact roles of various magnetospheric waves in producing the global distribution of diffuse auroral precipitation and its variability with the geomagnetic activity. Combined scattering by upper-and lower-band chorus accounts for the most intense inner magnetospheric electron diffuse auroral precipitation on the nightside. Dayside chorus can be responsible for the weaker dayside electron diffuse auroral precipitation. Pulsating auroras, the dynamic auroral structures embedded in the diffuse aurora, can be mainly caused by modulation of the excitation of lower band chorus due to macroscopic density variations in the magnetosphere. Electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves are an important or even dominant cause for the nightside electron diffuse auroral precipitation beyond {˜}8Re and can also contribute to the occurrence of the pulsating aurora at high L-shells. Scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves could quite possibly be the leading candidate responsible for the ion precipitation (especially the reversed-type events of the energy-latitude dispersion) in the regions of the central plasma sheet and ring current. We conclude the review with a summary of current understanding, outstanding questions, and a number of suggestions for future research.

  8. Precipitating factors of asthma. (United States)

    Lee, T H


    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  9. Winter precipitation types and icing at the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, J.; Stewart, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences


    An understanding of the physics of winter precipitation formation mechanisms is important for the forecasting of winter storms and associated icing. Empirical techniques are generally used to account for many types of precipitation. This paper proposed a microphysics scheme able to predict liquid particles, solid particles and those with a mixture of solid and liquid particles within varying environmental conditions. A revised 1-D cloud model utilizing a double-moment microphysics scheme was presented. The basic physics of liquid and semi-liquid particles formation and their interaction with the environment were outlined. A detailed evolution of precipitation types and environmental conditions was examined using typical temperature profiles and a study of other atmospheric conditions. The double microphysics scheme predicted the total concentration and mixing of various hydrometeor categories which were divided into 2 different branches: frozen and liquid. Characteristics for the categories were presented. A comparison of temperature, moisture and precipitation profiles was presented, as well as a comparison of surface precipitation types. The relationship between sounding parameters and precipitation types was examined, and ranges of temperature and depth were outlined. The study showed that the occurrence of a particular precipitation type or combinations of types can be associated with a range of atmospheric profiles. Melting and refreezing parameters exhibited variations for the same precipitation types and their combinations were not produced within a single profile. It was concluded that profiles must be very precise to simulate certain combinations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  10. From precipitation to stream


    Peralta-Tapia, Andres


    Understanding the journey water makes from precipitation entering a catchment, traveling through soils, and the time it takes before it exits as stream water are questions of great relevance for both scientists and environmental managers. Natural stable isotopes such as δ¹⁸O and δ²H have been extensively used over the last decades to trace water through diverse catchments across the world. In this thesis I analyzed over 2500 isotope samples to create long-term time series of precipitation and...

  11. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?


    Drobinski, Philippe; Alonzo, Bastien; Bastin, Sophie; Da Silva, Nicolas; Muller, Caroline


    International audience Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C−1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been rep...

  12. Convective and stratiform precipitation trends in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (United States)

    Ruiz-Leo, A. M.; Hernández, E.; Queralt, S.; Maqueda, G.


    Eastern Iberian Peninsula is characterized by the large occurrence of convective precipitation events, which entail important economic and social damage consequences. In order to prevent and minimize its effects, a good knowledge and understanding of the meteorological processes involved are necessary to be achieved. In this regard, an algorithm for classifying convective and stratiform precipitation components has been applied to a decadal precipitation record. Dataset were provided by National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET) for the period 1998-2008. Hourly precipitation records have been analyzed. The goals of this study have been: a) to classify total precipitation into its stratiform and convective components in Levante region (located in the Eastern Spanish Coast) and b) to analyze annual and seasonal trends of such components. For determining both convective and stratiform precipitation components, a suitable exponential function has been used. After a computation process, critical precipitation intensity (so-called Rc) is obtained for each year and season of the studied period. Every precipitation episode in Levante region is classified into prevailing convective or stratiform regime according to the threshold value defined by Rc. The results obtained have been compared to Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) to verify the validity of the algorithm. First results show an annual and seasonal significant positive trend in total precipitation and stratiform component for 1998-2008 decade. Further analysis reveals that convective precipitation exhibits no significant trend. Preliminary conclusions state that the total precipitation amount in Levante Region strongly depends on the stratiform component evolution.

  13. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.


    otherwise possible. These developments have taken place in parallel with the growth of an increasingly interconnected scientific environment. Scientists from different disciplines can easily interact with each other via information and materials they encounter online, and collaborate remotely without ever meeting each other in person. Likewise, these precipitation datasets are quickly and easily available via various data portals and are widely used. Within the framework of the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, these applications will become increasingly interconnected. We emphasize that precipitation observations by themselves provide an incomplete picture of the state of the atmosphere. For example, it is unlikely that a richer understanding of the global water cycle will be possible by standalone missions and algorithms, but must also involve some component of data, where model analyses of the physical state are constrained alongside multiple observations (e.g., precipitation, evaporation, radiation). The next section provides examples extracted from the many applications that use various high-resolution precipitation products. The final section summarizes the future system for global precipitation processing.

  14. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees: an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc VENTURA


    Full Text Available The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategies, and in base cation deposition due to climate-induced changes in air-mass trajectories from northern Africa. Scenario 1 assumed constant deposition of base cations at the present level plus the expected decrease in S and N deposition resulting from reduced emissions; scenario 2 (best case assumed an increase in base cation deposition plus the same decrease in S and N deposition as in scenario 1; scenario 3 (worst case assumed a decrease in base cation deposition plus no decrease in S and N deposition. The hindcast indicated that during the past 140-year period changes in lake water chemistry have been significant for a remote mountain catchment, although no substantial acidification has occurred. In this regard Lake Redó can be described as a "non-sensitive lake" maintaining a reference condition. The forecasts indicated changes that do not affect this status, but the trends, even if slight, were different between scenarios. A slight decline in the surface water ANC is predicted by Scenario 3. The N budget indicates an unusually low retention in the catchment, which may result in enhanced sensitivity to further increased N deposition. Some of the discrepancy between modelled and measured Ca2+ in lake water during 1984-98 could be explained by changes in rainfall amounts and by increased weathering rates due to increases in air temperature.

  15. Predictability of seasonal precipitation in the Nordic region


    Feddersen, Henrik


    Predictability of seasonal precipitation in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norwayand Sweden) is investigated using a nine-member ensemble of atmospheric general circulation modelsimulations with prescribed sea-surface temperature from October 1950 until March 1999. The simulationsand corresponding observations from 65 stations in the Nordic countries are used to identifylarge-scale patterns of seasonal precipitation, the predictability of which is investigated. Subsequently,...

  16. Stochastic downscaling of precipitation: From dry events to heavy rainfalls (United States)

    Vrac, M.; Naveau, P.


    Downscaling precipitation is a difficult challenge for the climate community. We propose and study a new stochastic weather typing approach to perform such a task. In addition to providing accurate small and medium precipitation, our procedure possesses built-in features that allow us to model adequately extreme precipitation distributions. First, we propose a new distribution for local precipitation via a probability mixture model of Gamma and Generalized Pareto (GP) distributions. The latter one stems from Extreme Value Theory (EVT). The performance of this mixture is tested on real and simulated data, and also compared to classical rainfall densities. Then our downscaling method, extending the recently developed nonhomogeneous stochastic weather typing approach, is presented. It can be summarized as a three-step program. First, regional weather precipitation patterns are constructed through a hierarchical ascending clustering method. Second, daily transitions among our precipitation patterns are represented by a nonhomogeneous Markov model influenced by large-scale atmospheric variables like NCEP reanalyses. Third, conditionally on these regional patterns, precipitation occurrence and intensity distributions are modeled as statistical mixtures. Precipitation amplitudes are assumed to follow our mixture of Gamma and GP densities. The proposed downscaling approach is applied to 37 weather stations in Illinois and compared to various possible parameterizations and to a direct modeling. Model selection procedures show that choosing one GP distribution shape parameter per pattern for all stations provides the best rainfall representation amongst all tested models. This work highlights the importance of EVT distributions to improve the modeling and downscaling of local extreme precipitations.

  17. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  18. Mercury in Precipitation in Indiana, January 2001-December 2003 (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.


    Mercury in precipitation was monitored during 2001 through 2003 at four locations in Indiana as part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program-Mercury Deposition Network (NADP-MDN). Monitoring stations were operated at Roush Lake near Huntington, Clifty Falls State Park near Madison, Monroe County Regional Airport near Bloomington, and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore near Porter. At these monitoring stations, precipitation amounts were measured and weekly samples were collected for analysis of total mercury and methylmercury by low-level methods. Wet deposition was computed with the total mercury and methylmercury concentrations and the precipitation amounts.

  19. Status of satellite precipitation retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kidd


    Full Text Available Satellites offer an unrivalled vantage point to observe and measure Earth system processes and parameters. Precipitation (rain and snow in particular, benefit from such observations since precipitation is spatially and temporally highly variable and with satellites overcoming some of the deficiencies of conventional gauge and radar measurements. This paper provides an overall review of quantitative precipitation estimation, covering the basis of the satellite systems used in the observation of precipitation, the dissemination and processing of this data, and the generation, availability and validation of these precipitation estimates. A selection of applications utilising these precipitation estimates are then outlined to exemplify the utility of such products.

  20. Chemical Composition and Potential Sources of Water-Soluble Compounds in Atmospheric Precipitation in Xi'an in Spring and Summer%西安市春、夏季大气降水的化学组成和来源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 沈振兴; 张琨; 王昕; 曹军骥; 张婷


    为了探索西安市大气降水的水溶性化学组分浓度水平及来源,在春季和夏季采集了西安市降水样品,测定了样品中的水溶性无机离子和溶解性有机碳(DOC)的浓度,并对其来源进行了初步探讨.结果显示:春、夏季降水样品的平均pH值分别为5.85和5.83,表明西安市春、夏季降水酸度偏高,但尚未达到酸雨范畴;S2-4、Ca2+、NH+4和NO-3是降水中最主要的无机离子,在春季它们分别占总离子数的35.8%、28.2%、18%、9.1%,在夏季占总离子数的34%、25%、19%、8%.利用相关分析和富集因子法对降水中水溶性化学组分的来源进行了解析,结果表明,西安市春、夏季降水中水溶性化学组分主要来自燃煤、机动车尾气、建筑活动和生物质燃烧等人为因素.So2-4、NO-3当量比值变化揭示了机动车的快速增长、能源结构和燃烧方式的改变使得NO-3对降水酸度的贡献有相对增大的趋势.%Atmospheric precipitation samples collected in Xi'an in spring and summer were analyzed to determine the concentration levels of water-soluble inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC).The average pH values in the precipitation were 5.85 in spring and 5.83 in summer, indicating that the precipitation samples were acidic but did not form acid rain.SO42-, Ca2+ ,NH4+, and NO3- were dominant in the water-soluble ions in the precipitation samples with the ion concentration of 35.8%, 28.2%, 18%, and 9.1% in spring and 34%, 25%, 19%, and 8% in summer, respectively.The analysis on the water-soluble components with the correlations and Enrichment factor shows that they are mainly from coal burning, vehicle exhaust emissions, construction activities, and biomass burning.In addition, The variation of SO42-/NO3- ratio confirms that the contribution of NO3- to the precipitation's acidity rises with the rapid growth of motor vehicles and the changes of energy structure and combustion methods.

  1. Localized precipitation and runoff on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Kite, Edwin S; Rafkin, Scot; Manga, Michael; Dietrich, William E


    We use the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) to simulate lake storms on Mars, finding that intense localized precipitation will occur for lake size >=10^3 km^2. Mars has a low-density atmosphere, so deep convection can be triggered by small amounts of latent heat release. In our reference simulation, the buoyant plume lifts vapor above condensation level, forming a 20km-high optically-thick cloud. Ice grains grow to 200 microns radius and fall near (or in) the lake at mean rates up to 1.5 mm/hr water equivalent (maximum rates up to 6 mm/hr water equivalent). Because atmospheric temperatures outside the surface layer are always well below 273K, supersaturation and condensation begin at low altitudes above lakes on Mars. In contrast to Earth lake-effect storms, lake storms on Mars involve continuous precipitation, and their vertical velocities and plume heights exceed those of tropical thunderstorms on Earth. Convection does not reach above the planetary boundary layer for lakes O(10^2) mbar. In...

  2. Modeling solid-state precipitation

    CERN Document Server

    Nebylov, AlexanderKozeschnik, Ernst


    Over recent decades, modeling and simulation of solid-state precipitation has attracted increased attention in academia and industry due to their important contributions in designing properties of advanced structural materials and in increasing productivity and decreasing costs for expensive alloying. In particular, precipitation of second phases is an important means for controlling the mechanical-technological properties of structural materials. However, profound physical modeling of precipitation is not a trivial task. This book introduces you to the classical methods of precipitation model

  3. Precipitation Indices Low Countries (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.


    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  4. Scientific investigations of atmospheric processes (United States)


    Research was performed in atmospheric, dynamical, and thermodynamical processes and in other disciplines necessary to accomplish the following tasks: develop procedures for combining generalized radiative transfer codes with dynamic atmospheric model codes; perform diagnostic analysis of atmospheric processes to gain a better understanding of the evolution and development of mesoscale circulation systems and their precipitation structures; and to develop algorithms and software necessary to graphically display diagnostic sets on the MSFC McIDAS and EADS to facilitate scientific study and sensor capability evaluation. Research activities during this reporting period are detailed.

  5. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. P. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Petersen, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States); Wilson, A. M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    Three Microwave Radiometers (two 3-channel and one 2-channel) were deployed in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina as part of the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), which was the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). The radiometers were used along with other instrumentation to estimate the liquid water content of low-level clouds and fog. Specifically, data from the radiometers were collected to help, with other instrumentation, to characterize fog formation, evolution, and dissipation in the region (by monitoring the liquid water path in the column) and observe the effect of that fog on the precipitation regime. Data were collected at three locations in the Southern Appalachians, specifically western North Carolina: a valley in the inner mountain region, a valley in the open mountain pass region, and a ridge in the inner region. This project contributes to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility mission by providing in situ observations designed to improve the understanding of clouds and precipitation processes in complex terrain. The end goal is to use this improved understanding of physical processes to improve remote-sensing algorithms and representations of orographic precipitation microphysics in climate and earth system models.

  6. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology. (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.


    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  7. Variation of precipitation in Langtang Valley,Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The variation of the δ 18O in precipitation and the relationship with precipitation amountat Kyangjin Base House and Yala Glacier Camp in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalayas were ana-lyzed. The variations of the δ 18O with precipitation had great scatter, and the correlations betweenthe δ18O and precipitation changed with time on the synoptic scale. On the seasonal scale, therewas marked amount effect at Kyangjin Base House. However, the δ18O-precipitation gradient wassmaller than that on the synoptic scale. Because of the maintenance of the basic equilibrium be-tween stable isotopic compositions in atmospheric vapor and precipitation, the evaporation en-richment was light during the rainy season. Therefore, the variation of stable isotopic compositionsin precipitation was independent on the sampling intervals. Simulations show that the rainfall inLangtang Valley was not the outcome of the initial condensation of ocean vapor that originatedfrom low latitudes. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation were greatly depleted due tothe strong rainout of the vapor from oceans as the vapor was raised over the Himalayas

  8. Evaluating cloud precipitation efficiency with satellite retrievals of water isotopologues (United States)

    Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.; Wood, R.


    The efficiency with which clouds precipitate is believed to influence climate by modifying cloud lifetime and, ultimately, cloud amount. Aerosols can influence this linkage by reducing the effective radii of cloud droplets and suppressing precipitation. This relationship, however, is not unidirectional. Cloud precipitation efficiency can also regulate particle concentrations, since precipitation effectively scavenges aerosols from the atmosphere. One challenge in studying how aerosols, clouds, and precipitation processes interrelate is that observational constraints are difficult to attain. This work evaluates the ability of isotope ratios in water vapor to quantify cloud precipitation efficiency across the tropical and subtropical oceans. Theory suggests isotope ratios will record the precipitation efficiency of a convective plume, since heavier isotopologues precipitate preferentially; and a recent analysis of in situ measurements from the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO, Hawaii, USA) verifies this to be the case. The challenge now lies in understanding whether satellite retrievals of isotope ratios in water vapor are sensitive enough to track precipitation efficiency globally. To answer this question, vertical profiles of the D/H ratio derived from NASA's Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are first compared with the MLO in situ measurements. A qualitative match indicates the satellite retrievals can distinguish high from low precipitation efficiency convection. To expand the analysis geographically, TES profiles between 40°S and 40°N are compared with estimates of precipitation efficiency derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and ECMWF's ERA-Interim. Retrievals are binned by lower-tropospheric humidity and by vertical velocity in order to minimize large-scale thermodynamical influences. Co-located cloud retrievals provide the context necessary to evaluate the utility of these new estimates in elucidating cloud feedbacks on climate.

  9. Status of satellite precipitation retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kidd


    Full Text Available Satellites offer an unrivalled vantage point to observe and measure Earth system processes and parameters. Precipitation (rain and snow in particular, benefit from such observations since precipitation is spatially and temporally highly variable and overcomes some of the deficiencies of conventional gauge and radar measurements. This paper provides an overall review of quantitative precipitation estimation, covering the basis of the satellite systems used in the observation of precipitation and the dissemination of this data, the processing of these measurements to generate the rainfall estimates and the availability, verification and validation of these precipitation estimates.

  10. Application and Study of Precipitation Schemes in Weather Simulation in Summer and Winter over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guoqiang; WAN Qilin; HUANG Liping; XUE Jishan; CHEN Dehui


    Through simulation of summer and winter precipitation cases in China, the cloud precipitation schemes of model were examined. Results indicate that it is discrepant between convective precipitation simulated by the Kain-Fritsch (KF) scheme and Betts-Miller (BM) scheme in summer, the former scheme is better than the latter in this case. The ambient atmosphere may be varied by different convective schemes. The air is wetter and the updraft is stronger in the KF scheme than in the BM scheme, which can induce the more grid scale precipitation in the KF scheme, i.e., the different cumulus schemes may have the different and important effect on the grid scale precipitation. However, there is almost no convective rain in winter in northern China, so the effect of cumulus precipitation on the grid scale precipitation can be disregarded.Therefore, the gird scale precipitation is primary in the winter of northern China.

  11. Analysis of tropical sea surface temperature and atmospheric circulation anomalies and their relationship with abnormal precipitation in Yunnan during rainy season%云南雨季降水异常的热带海温和大气环流异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晶; 王彰贵; 黄荣辉; 陈幸荣; 蔡怡; 黄勇勇


    Based on seven stations’ monthly precipitation data in Yunnan and the NCEP/NCAR monthly atmospheric circulation data, as well as ERSST V3b monthly sea surface temperature (SST) data, the Indian-Pacific SST mode that impacts Yunnan precipitation during rainy season was investigated using composite and correlation analysis. Of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode, which plays a more important role on Yunnan precipitation in rainy season? Finally, the physical mechanism through which Indian-Pacific SST mode impacts Yunnan precipitation in rainy season was discussed. The results are as follows. Both ENSO and IOD have influences on Yunnan precipitation in rainy season, but the IOD plays a more important role. When the western India Ocean’s SST is warmer (positive IOD), the easterly wind appears in the tropical Indian Ocean and a cyclonic anomalous circulation is in the western Indian Ocean. The warm and moist airflow in the western Indian Ocean enters the Mainland China along the west side of the Tibet Plateau, then goes around the Tibet Plateau and from the north to the south, and finally enters the Bay of Bengal, which limits the development of the trough over the Bay of Bengal. So, the water vapor transportation to Yunnan is less. Yunnan is in the water vapor flux divergence area and has less precipitation. When the tropical Indian Ocean has lower SST (negative IOD), no easterly wind is in the tropical Indian Ocean, the trough over the Bay of Bengal is strong, and the water vapor transportation to Yunnan is more; Yunnan is in the water vapor flux convergence area and has more precipitation.%利用云南地区32个站日降水量资料、NCEP/NCAR月平均大气环流资料和ERSST V3b的海表温度资料,利用合成分析、相关分析等方法,研究了影响云南雨季降水的太平洋-印度洋海温分布模态,并讨论了 ENSO 和热带印度洋偶极子(IOD)对云南雨季降水多寡影响的相对重要性

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN-CDR), Version 1 Revision 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PERSIANN Precipitation Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) is a daily quasi-global precipitation product for the period of 1982 to 2011. The data covers from 60...

  13. Climate Change Characteristics of Free Atmospheric Humidity and Its Relationship with Temperature and Precipitation in Northeast China%东北高空湿度变化特征及其与地面气温和降水的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉英; 李宇凡; 谢今范; 张红


    利用1971~2005年探空和地面观测资料,详细分析了东北地区高空比湿和相对湿度的时空变化特征,并探讨了比湿和相对湿度与地面气温、降水量的关系.结果表明:东北地区比湿空间分布主要受到水汽来源的影响,地面由东南向西北递减,高空由南向北递减;相对湿度受水汽、海拔高度和纬度的共同影响,地面和对流层下层由南向北先减后增,对流层中层由南向北递增,赤峰向通辽延伸的西南-东北向干舌地面最明显,随高度增加逐渐减弱.1971~2005年,东北地区比湿从地面到高空均为增加趋势,对流层中下层的增加趋势更加显著;相对湿度在地面呈显著减小趋势,对流层中层呈显著增加趋势.大气比湿与地面气温在年、季尺度上存在一致的显著正相关关系,大气相对湿度与地面气温在季节尺度上存在显著负相关关系;对流层中下层相对湿度与降水量相关最显著;地面气温升高对东北气候趋于干旱化起了重要作用,高空相对湿度增加有利于降水增加,气温与比湿的相互消长,影响了气候的干、湿变化.%In accordance with the data of radio sounding data and the data of surface temperature and precipita-tion in Northeast China in 1971-2005, the temporal and spatial change characteristics of free atmospheric spe-cific humidity and relative humidity as well as the relationship between humidity and surface temperature and precipitation are analyzed. The results indicate that, the spatial distribution of specific humidity is impacted by water vapor source in Northeast China, decreased from the southeast to the northwest on the ground, and de-creasing from the south to the north at upper air. The spatial distribution of relative humidity is impacted by wa-ter vapor, altitude and latitude, decreased firstly and then increased from the south to the north from the ground to lower layer of troposphere, increased from the south to the north in

  14. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset (United States)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo


    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  15. Fast and Slow Precipitation Responses to Individual Climate Forcers: A PDRMIP Multimodel Study (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Forster, P.M.; Hodnebrog, O.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Flaschner, D.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V.; Kirkevag, A.; Shindell, D.; Voulgarakis, A.


    Precipitation is expected to respond differently to various drivers of anthropogenic climate change. We present the first results from the Precipitation Driver and Response Model Intercomparison Project (PDRMIP), where nine global climate models have perturbed CO2, CH4, black carbon, sulfate, and solar insolation. We divide the resulting changes to global mean and regional precipitation into fast responses that scale with changes in atmospheric absorption and slow responses scaling with surface temperature change. While the overall features are broadly similar between models, we find significant regional intermodel variability, especially over land. Black carbon stands out as a component that may cause significant model diversity in predicted precipitation change. Processes linked to atmospheric absorption are less consistently modeled than those linked to top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing. We identify a number of land regions where the model ensemble consistently predicts that fast precipitation responses to climate perturbations dominate over the slow, temperature-driven responses.

  16. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr


    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  17. Martian Environment Electrostatic Precipitator (United States)

    McDougall, Michael Owen


    As part of the planned manned mission to Mars, NASA has noticed that shipping oxygen as a part of life support to keep the astronauts alive continuously is overly expensive, and impractical. As such, noting that the Martian atmosphere is 95.37% CO2, NASA chemists noted that one could obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The plan, as part of a larger ISRU (in-situ resource utilization) initiative, would extract water from the regolith, or the Martian soil which can be electrolyzed by solar panel produced voltage into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be used in the Sabatier reaction with carbon dioxide to produce methane and water producing a net reaction that does not lose water and outputs methane and oxygen for use as rocket fuel and breathing.

  18. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)


    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  19. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and...

  20. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (Time Enabled) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting the NWS Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) quantitative precipitation estimate mosaics...

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month precipitation outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  2. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Weekly U.S. Selected Cities Precipitation Summary (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly U.S. reported precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches (ex 100 is 1.00 inches) generated from the GTS metar(hourly) and synoptic(6-hourly)observations...

  3. Monthly Total Precipitation Observation for Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Forecast Divisions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This ASCII dataset contains monthly total precipitation for 102 Forecast Divisions within the conterminous U.S. It is derived from the monthly NCDC climate division...

  4. 72-Hour Forecast of Precipitation Amounts from the National Weather Service's National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) contains a seamless mosaic of the National Weather Service's (NWS) digital forecasts of precipitation amounts. In...

  5. 48-Hour Forecast of Precipitation Amounts from the National Weather Service's National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) contains a seamless mosaic of the National Weather Service's (NWS) digital forecasts of precipitation amounts. In...

  6. Climate Prediction Center(CPC) Monthly U.S. Precipitation and Temperature Summary (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly U.S. minimum and maximum temperatures in whole degrees Fahrenheit and reported and estimated precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches(ex 100 is 1.00...

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Monthly U.S. Selected Cities Precipitation Summary (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly U.S. reported precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches (ex 100 is 1.00 inches) generated from the GTS metar(hourly) and synoptic(6-hourly)observations...

  8. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) NCEP-Global Forecast System (GFS) Precipitation Forecast Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Forecast System (GFS) forecast precipitation data at 37.5km resolution is created at the NOAA Climate Prediction Center for the purpose of near real-time...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Evaporation Minus Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, Evaporation Minus Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. NESDIS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) ATMS Precipitation and Surface Products (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains two-dimensional precipitation and surface products from the NESDIS Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) using sensor data from the...

  12. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Evaporation Minus Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month precipitation outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly...

  14. Gridded Mean Monthly Temperature and Precipitation Data for Alaska, British Columbia, and Yukon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To aid in better understanding the temperature and precipitation data of the spatially variable climate of Alaska and Northwest Canada, this dataset was created via...

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Evaporation Minus Precipitation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Evaporation Minus Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean,, RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily U.S. Precipitation and Temperature Summary (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily U.S. minimum and maximum temperatures in whole degrees Fahrenheit and reported and estimated precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches(ex 100 is 1.00...

  17. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Weekly U.S. Precipitation and Temperature Summary (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly U.S. minimum and maximum temperatures in whole degrees Fahrenheit and reported and estimated precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches(ex 100 is 1.00...

  18. Gridded 5km GHCN-Daily Temperature and Precipitation Dataset, Version 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gridded 5km GHCN-Daily Temperature and Precipitation Dataset (nClimGrid) consists of four climate variables derived from the GHCN-D dataset: maximum...

  19. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands (United States)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.


    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  20. The influence of subsurface hydrodynamics on convective precipitation (United States)

    Rahman, A. S. M. M.; Sulis, M.; Kollet, S. J.


    The terrestrial hydrological cycle comprises complex processes in the subsurface, land surface, and atmosphere, which are connected via complex non-linear feedback mechanisms. The influence of subsurface hydrodynamics on land surface mass and energy fluxes has been the subject of previous studies. Several studies have also investigated the soil moisture-precipitation feedback, neglecting however the connection with groundwater dynamics. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of subsurface hydrodynamics on convective precipitation events via shallow soil moisture and land surface processes. A scale-consistent Terrestrial System Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP) that consists of an atmospheric model (COSMO), a land surface model (CLM), and a three-dimensional variably saturated groundwater-surface water flow model (ParFlow), is used to simulate hourly mass and energy fluxes over days with convective rainfall events over the Rur catchment, Germany. In order to isolate the effect of groundwater dynamics on convective precipitation, two different model configurations with identical initial conditions are considered. The first configuration allows the groundwater table to evolve through time, while a spatially distributed, temporally constant groundwater table is prescribed as a lower boundary condition in the second configuration. The simulation results suggest that groundwater dynamics influence land surface soil moisture, which in turn affects the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) height by modifying atmospheric thermals. It is demonstrated that because of this sensitivity of ABL height to soil moisture-temperature feedback, the onset and magnitude of convective precipitation is influenced by subsurface hydrodynamics. Thus, the results provide insight into the soil moisture-precipitation feedback including groundwater dynamics in a physically consistent manner by closing the water cycle from aquifers to the atmosphere.

  1. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Paul A


    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  2. Seasonal variations of oxygen-18 in atmospheric sulfates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, B.D.; Cunningham, P.T.; Kumar, R.


    Oxygen-isotope analyses were made on samples of aerosol sulfates, SO/sub 2/, water vapor, precipitation water, and precipitation sulfates collected over a two-year period near Chicago, Illinois, USA. The purpose of this isotopic study was to help to elucidate the mechanisms of sulfate formation in the atmosphere. Oxygen-18 enrichments in precipitation sulfates varied seasonally and in phase with the corresponding enrichments in precipitation water. The ratio of the amplitudes of the enrichment-vs-time curves indicated isotopic equilibration between SO/sub 2/ and atmospheric water prior to oxidation. Oxygen-18 enrichments in aerosol sulfates appeared to vary randomly with season, but averaged about the same as precipitation sulfates. If aerosol sulfates and precipitation sulfates were formed by the same hydrolysis-oxidation mechanism in clouds, relatively long residence times and transport distances of sulfate aerosols may have provided sufficient mixing to obscure seasonal effects such as were observed in the short-residence precipitation sulfates.

  3. Status of satellite precipitation retrievals


    Kidd, C.; V. Levizzani


    Satellites offer an unrivalled vantage point to observe and measure Earth system processes and parameters. Precipitation (rain and snow) in particular, benefit from such observations since precipitation is spatially and temporally highly variable and overcomes some of the deficiencies of conventional gauge and radar measurements. This paper provides an overall review of quantitative precipitation estimation, covering the basis of the satellite systems used in the observation of precipi...

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Precipitation Effects on the ionosphere of Mars (United States)

    Lillis, Robert; Larson, Davin; Luhmann, Janet; Lee, Christina; Jakosky, Bruce


    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are an important, if irregular, source of ionization and energy input to the Martian atmosphere. As is the case for much-studied Polar Cap precipitation events on the earth, when SEPs precipitate into the Mars atmosphere, they cause heating, ionization, excitation and dissociation, leading to altitude-dependent changes in chemistry. We present a study of the effects of SEP ionization in the Martian atmosphere using data from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission. Specifically, we will correlate altitude profiles of thermal planetary ions (O+, CO2+ and O2+) and electrons measured by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) and Langmuir Probe on the MAVEN spacecraft with fluxes of energetic protons and electrons measured by the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) detector. First, we will present case studies of this correlation, before and during SEP events to examine short-term effects of SEP ionization. We will also examine SEP ionization under different heliospheric conditions, leading to different SEP shadowing geometries and ionization rates. Second, we will present a statistical study showing the degree to which ionospheric densities are affected by the presence of energetic particles, as a function of altitude, SEP spectrum flux and solar zenith angle. This work will provide a better understanding of this important source of ionization in the Martian upper atmosphere and hence, how more frequent and more intense SEP events in Mars' past may have affected the structure of the Martian upper atmosphere and hence atmospheric escape.

  5. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.;


    Precipitation kinetics and mass transfer of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) hydrates from a reaction of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and CO2 were analyzed. The effect of CO2 flow rate and mixing intensity on precipitation was investigated under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Raman...

  6. Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, S


    At the dawn of the first discovery of exoplanets orbiting sun-like stars in the mid-1990s, few believed that observations of exoplanet atmospheres would ever be possible. After the 2002 Hubble Space Telescope detection of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere, many skeptics discounted it as a one-object, one-method success. Nevertheless, the field is now firmly established, with over two dozen exoplanet atmospheres observed today. Hot Jupiters are the type of exoplanet currently most amenable to study. Highlights include: detection of molecular spectral features; observation of day-night temperature gradients; and constraints on vertical atmospheric structure. Atmospheres of giant planets far from their host stars are also being studied with direct imaging. The ultimate exoplanet goal is to answer the enigmatic and ancient question, "Are we alone?" via detection of atmospheric biosignatures. Two exciting prospects are the immediate focus on transiting super Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarfs, and u...

  7. Study of Heavy Metals in the Atmospheric Deposition in Zanjan, Iran


    A.Sh Hasanalizadeh; M.S Sekhawatju; M.R Mehrasbi; Z Farahmand kia; Z Ramezanzadeh


    "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives : Heavy metals in dust can enter to the human body through ingestion andinhalation. They can pollute the water and soil resources via atmospheric precipitation and accumulate in the plants tissue and enter human body by water and food. The aim of this study was measurement of the heavy metals in wet and dry atmospheric precipitation and effects of pollution sources at the ground surface on the concentration of heavy metals in the atmospheric precipitations."nMa...

  8. Effective Assimilation of Global Precipitation (United States)

    Lien, G.; Kalnay, E.; Miyoshi, T.; Huffman, G. J.


    Assimilating precipitation observations by modifying the moisture and sometimes temperature profiles has been shown successful in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed precipitation, but only while the assimilation is taking place. After the forecast start, the model tends to "forget" the assimilation changes and lose their extra skill after few forecast hours. This suggests that this approach is not an efficient way to modify the potential vorticity field, since this is the variable that the model would remember. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is used to effectively change the potential vorticity field by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights. In addition to using an EnKF, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are proposed to solve the problems related to the highly non-Gaussian nature of the precipitation variable: a) transform precipitation into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution, and b) only assimilate precipitation at the location where some ensemble members have positive precipitation. The idea is first tested by the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using SPEEDY, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When the global precipitation is assimilated in addition to conventional rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium range forecasts are significantly improved as compared to only having rawinsonde observations. The improvement is much reduced when only modifying the moisture field with the same approach, which shows the importance of the error covariance between precipitation and all other model variables. The effect of precipitation assimilation is larger in the Southern Hemisphere than that in the Northern Hemisphere because the Northern Hemisphere analyses are already accurate as a result of denser rawinsonde stations. Assimilation of precipitation using a more comprehensive

  9. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken


    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  10. Atmospheric Neutrinos


    Takaaki Kajita


    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses...

  11. Articulating Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie


    This paper presents an architectural approach to designing computational interfaces by articulating the notion of atmosphere in the field of interaction design. It draws upon the concept of kinesthetic interaction and a philosophical notion on atmosphere emphasizing the importance of bodily...... experience in space, presented as middle ground experience. In the field of HCI, middle ground experiences complete the unarticulated spectrum between designing for foreground of attention or background awareness. When “Articulating Atmospheres through Middle Ground Experiences in Interaction Design...

  12. Pluto's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne CCD photometer observations of Pluto's June 9, 1988 stellar occultation have yielded an occultation lightcurve, probing two regions on the sunrise limb 2000 km apart, which reveals an upper atmosphere overlying an extinction layer with an abrupt upper boundary. The extinction layer may surround the entire planet. Attention is given to a model atmosphere whose occultation lightcurve closely duplicates observations; fits of the model to the immersion and emersion lightcurves exhibit no significant derived atmosphere-structure differences. Assuming a pure methane atmosphere, surface pressures of the order of 3 microbars are consistent with the occultation data. 43 references

  13. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  14. Photochemistry of Pluto's Atmosphere (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.


    This work include studies of two problems: (1) Modeling thermal balance, structure. and escape processes in Pluto's upper atmosphere. This study has been completed in full. A new method, of analytic solution for the equation of hydrodynamic flow from in atmosphere been developed. It was found that the ultraviolet absorption by methane which was previously ignored is even more important in Pluto's thermal balance than the extreme ultraviolet absorption by nitrogen. Two basic models of the lower atmosphere have been suggested, with a tropopause and a planetary surface at the bottom of the stellar occultation lightcurve, respectively, Vertical profiles, of temperature, density, gas velocity, and the CH4 mixing ratio have been calculated for these two models at low, mean, and high solar activity (six models). We prove that Pluto' " s atmosphere is restricted to 3060-4500 km, which makes possible a close flyby of future spacecraft. Implication for Pluto's evolution have also been discussed. and (2) Modeling of Pluto's photochemistry. Based on the results of (1), we have made some changes in the basic continuity equation and in the boundary conditions which reflect a unique can of hydrodynamic escape and therefore have not been used in modeling of other planetary atmospheres. We model photochemistry of 44 neutral and 23 ion species. This work required solution of a set of 67 second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two models have been developed. Each model consists of the vertical profiles for 67 species, their escape and precipitation rates. These models predict the chemical structure and basic chemical processes in the current atmosphere and possible implication of these processes for evolution. This study has also been completed in full.

  15. Investigation of impact of environmental changes on precipitation pattern of Pakistan. (United States)

    Ghumman, A R; Hassan, I; Khan, Q U Z; Kamal, M A


    In this paper, variability in precipitation pattern of Pakistan due to environmental and climatic changes has been studied. Maps have been generated to depict global precipitation variation. Precipitation data of 25 stations of Pakistan have been used. These data were taken from Meteorological Department, Islamabad, Pakistan. The results of two global climate models, namely Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research's third generation general circulation model and National Center for Atmospheric Research's first generation precipitation circulation model for A2 scenario have been applied to investigate the changes. It is observed that precipitation pattern will change significantly in the future. The occurrence of precipitation in all seasons for Pakistan is expected to increase with almost uniform distribution across a season. Average annual precipitation of the country will undergo an increase in the range of +57 to +71 % as compared to average of the base period.

  16. Global precipitation response to changing external forcings since 1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bichet


    Full Text Available Predicting and adapting to changes in the hydrological cycle is one of the major challenges for the twenty-first century. To better estimate how it will respond to future changes in climate forcings, it is crucial to understand how it has evolved in the past and why. In our study, we use an atmospheric global climate model with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs to investigate how changing external climate forcings have affected global land temperature and precipitation in the period 1870–2005. We show that prescribed SSTs (encapsulating other forcings are the dominant forcing driving the decadal variability of land temperature and precipitation since 1870. On top of this SSTs forcing, we also find that the atmosphere-only response to increasing aerosol emissions is a reduction in global land temperature and precipitation by up to 0.4 °C and 30 mm year−1, respectively, between about 1930 and 2000. Similarly, the atmosphere-only response to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is an increase in global land temperature and precipitation by up to 0.25 °C and 10 mm year−1, respectively, between about 1950 and 2000. Finally, our results also suggest that between about 1950 and 1970, increasing aerosol emissions had a larger impact on the hydrological cycle than increasing greenhouse gases concentrations.

  17. Effects of El Nino Modoki on winter precipitation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Woo [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki-Seon [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Typhoon Center, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hi-Ryong [Pukyong National University, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Nam-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    This study compares the impacts of El Nino Modoki and El Nino on precipitation over Korea during the boreal winters from 1954 to 2009. Precipitation in Korea tends to be equal to or greater than the normal level during an El Nino Modoki winter, whereas there is no significant change during an El Nino winter. Greater than normal precipitation during El Nino Modoki was also found over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China and much of southern Japan. The latitudes of these regions are 5-10 further north than in southern China, where precipitation increases during El Nino. The following two anomalous atmospheric circulations were found to be causes that led to different precipitation distributions over East Asia. First, an atmospheric wave train in the lower troposphere, which propagated from the central tropical Pacific (cyclonic) through the southern Philippine Sea (anticyclonic) to East Asia (cyclonic), reached the southern China and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino, whereas it reached Korea and southern Japan during El Nino Modoki. Second, an anomalous local meridional circulation, which consists of air sinking in the tropics, flowing poleward in the lower troposphere, and rising in the subtropics, developed between the southern Philippine Sea and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino. During El Nino Modoki, however, this circulation expanded further to the north and was formed between the southern Philippine Sea and regions of Korea and southern Japan. (orig.)

  18. Precipitation in the Solar System (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon


    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  19. Relations between oxygen stable isotopic ratios in precipitation and relevant meteorological factors in southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XinPing; LIU JingMiao; SUN WeiZheng; HUANG YiMin; ZHANG JianMing


    The correlations of isotopic ratios in precipitation with temperature, air pressure and humidity at different altitudes, in southwest China, are analyzed. There appear marked negative correlations for the δ18O in precipitation with precipitation amount, vapor pressure and atmospheric precipitable water(PW) at Mengzi, Simao and Tengchong stations on synoptic timescale; the marked negative correlations between the δ18O in precipitation and the diurnal mean temperature at 400 hPa,500 hPa,700 hPa and 85O hPa are different from the temperature effect in middle-high-latitude inland. Moreover, the notable positive correlation between the δ18O in precipitation and the dew-point deficit △Td at different altitudes is found at the three stations. On annual timescale, the annual precipitation amount weighted mean δ18O display the negative correlations not only with annual precipitation but also with annual mean temperature at 500 hPa. It can be deduced that, in the years with abnormally strong summer monsoon, more warm and wet air from low-latitude oceans is transported northward along the vapor channel located in southwest China and generates abnormally strong rainfall on the way. Meanwhile, the abnormally strong condensation process will release more condensed latent heat into atmosphere, and lead to the rise of atmospheric temperature during rainfall. But decline of the δ18O in precipitation. On the contrary, in the years with abnormally weak summer monsoon, the abnormally weak condensation process will release less condensed latent heat into atmosphere, and lead to the decline of atmospheric temperature during rainfall, but increase of the δ18O in precipitation.

  20. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day−1, while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day−1) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked. (letters)

  1. Changes in the seasonality of precipitation over the contiguous USA (United States)

    Pryor, S. C.; Schoof, J. T.


    Consequences of possible changes in annual total precipitation are dictated, in part, by the timing of precipitation events and changes therein. Herein, we investigated historical changes in precipitation seasonality over the US using observed station precipitation records to compute a standard seasonality index (SI) and the day of year on which certain percentiles of the annual total precipitation were achieved (percentile day of year). The mean SI from the majority of stations exhibited no difference in 1971-2000 relative to 30-year periods earlier in the century. However, analysis of the day of year on which certain percentiles of annual total precipitation were achieved indicated spatially coherent patterns of change. In some regions, the mean day of the year on which the 50th percentile of annual precipitation was achieved differed by 20-30 days between 1971-2000 and both 1911-1940 and 1941-1970. Output from the 10-Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM) simulations of 1971-2000, 2046-2065, and 2081-2100 was used to determine whether AOGCMs are capable of representing the seasonal distribution of precipitation and to examine possible future changes. Many of the AOGCMs qualitatively captured spatial patterns of seasonality during 1971-2000, but there was considerable divergence between AOGCMs in terms of future changes. In both the west and southeast, 7 of 10 AOGCMs indicated later attainment of the 50th percentile accumulation in 2047-2065, implying a possible reversal of the twentieth-century tendency toward relative increases in precipitation receipt during winter and early spring over the southeast. However, this is also a region characterized by considerable interannual variability in the percentile day of year during the historical period.

  2. Precipitation Depth-Duration-Frequency Analysis for the Nevada National Security Site and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences


    Accurate precipitation frequency data are important for Environmental Management Soils Activities on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are important for environmental assessments performed for regulatory closure of Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Sites, as well as engineering mitigation designs and post-closure monitoring strategies to assess and minimize potential contaminant migration from Soils CAU Sites. Although the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 (Bonnin et al., 2011) provides precipitation frequency data for the NNSS area, the NNSS-specific observed precipitation data were not consistent with the NOAA Atlas 14 predicted data. This is primarily due to the NOAA Atlas 14 products being produced from analyses without including the approximately 30 NNSS precipitation gage records, several of which approach or exceed 50 year of record. Therefore, a study of precipitation frequency that incorporated the NNSS precipitation gage records into the NOAA Atlas 14 dataset, was performed specifically for the NNSS to derive more accurate site-specific precipitation data products. Precipitation frequency information, such as the depth-duration-frequency (DDF) relationships, are required to generate synthetic standard design storm hydrographs and assess actual precipitation events. In this study, the actual long-term NNSS precipitation gage records, some of which are the longest gage records in southern and central Nevada, were analyzed to allow for more accurate precipitation DDF estimates to be developed for the NNSS. Gridded maps of precipitation frequency for the NNSS and surrounding areas were then produced.

  3. Encoding information into precipitation structures (United States)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan


    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  4. Solar and terrestrial noble gases in magnetospheric precipitation (United States)

    Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Stettler, W.


    Metal-foil collectors were installed on the external structure of Skylab to entrap precipitating magnetospheric particles. The foils were retrieved, and the entrapped helium, neon, and argon were isotopically analyzed in a high-resolution mass spectrometer. Solar and terrestrial helium and neon and terrestrial argon were detected. As expected, the isotopic composition of neon and argon in the high atmosphere was found to be strongly fractionated. Special techniques were used to estimate the initial particle energy of He-3. The measured He-3 flux is consistent with the assumption that precipitating solar He-3 is the major source of terrestrial He-3.

  5. Precipitation Extremes: Considerations for Anthropogenically-forced Future Changes (United States)

    Kunkel, K.; Young, J.


    The Third National Climate Assessment states that "increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events are projected for all U.S. regions". While that general statement was made with high confidence, the practical implications for decision-makers are much less clear. In particular, engineering design needs quantitative estimates of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) values for the future in order to optimize runoff control structures for future climate conditions. This can be realized by simply analyzing the precipitation data from global climate model simulations of the future. However, confidence in the resulting values suffers from the known issues with GCM simulation of precipitation. In addition, skepticism about the accuracy of climate models negatively affects potential adoption of revised values in the engineering design community. We contend that scientists need a multi-pronged approach to develop PMP/IDF values that can be defended, explained, and promoted in order to maximize societal benefits and avoid catastrophic events. This talk will discuss considerations that could/should form the basis for design values. While global-warming induced increases in atmospheric water vapor content are nearly certain and form the foundation for expected increases in extreme precipitation, they most likely will be modulated by changes in global atmospheric dynamics and the consequent effects on local weather system climatology. This can be seen currently in the unexplained regional variations in recent trends in extreme precipitation frequency and intensity. We need to be able to understand recent trends, when greenhouse gas forcing of the climate systems has been rapidly increasing, in order to produce confident projections of future extreme precipitation.

  6. Airborne Soil Organic Particles Generated by Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Henning T.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique` Y.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander


    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in the Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. These particles exist in liquid, amorphous semi-solid, or solid (glassy) phase states depending on their composition and ambient conditions5. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi- solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Here we report field evidence for airborne solid organic particles generated by a “raindrop” mechanism7 pertinent to atmosphere – land surface interactions (Fig. 1). We find that after rain events at Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA, submicron solid particles, with a composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles in number. Subsequent experiments indicate that airborne soil organic particles are ejected from the surface of soils caused by intensive rains or irrigation. Our observations suggest that formation of these particles may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events such as agricultural systems and grasslands8. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of their physico-chemical properties suggests that airborne soil organic particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation and hence, are an important type of particles.

  7. Chemical compositions of precipitation and scavenging of particles in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Min; ZHANG Jing; WU Zhijun


    Totally 23 precipitation samples were collected in Beijing from May to November in 2003. In order to investigate the chemical composition of precipitation samples, pH, conductivity, concentrations of water-soluble ions and organic acids were analyzed. The average pH of precipitations is 6.18, belonging to the neutral range; the average conductivity is 52.23 (S/cm, which indicates that precipitations in Beijing are obviously polluted; are the most abundant anions with the average concentrations of 521 and 174 μeq·L-1, respectively; the average equivalent ratio is 3.1, which decreases by about 15% compared with the result of 1994; and Ca2+ are the most abundant cations with the average concentrations of 376 and 397 μeq·L-1, respectively; formic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid are the main organic acids with the average concentrations of 4.62, 4.60 and 1.17 μeq·L-1, respectively, accounting for 2% of the overall anions. Obvious differences between concentrations before and after precipitation are also observed by SJAC (Steam Jet Aerosol Collector), which shows the removal of particles from the atmosphere by precipitation.

  8. Low-pressure systems and extreme precipitation in central India: sensitivity to temperature changes (United States)

    Sørland, Silje Lund; Sorteberg, Asgeir


    Extreme rainfall events in the central Indian region are often related to the passage of synoptic scale monsoon low-pressure systems (LPS). This study uses the surrogate climate change method on ten monsoon LPS cases connected to observed extreme rainfall events, to investigate how sensitive the precipitation and runoff are to an idealized warmer and moister atmosphere. The ten cases are simulated with three different initial and lateral boundary conditions: the unperturbed control run, and two sets of perturbed runs where the atmospheric temperature is increased uniformly throughout the atmosphere, the specific humidity increased according to Clausius Clapeyron's relation, but the large-scale flow is unchanged. The difference between the control and perturbed simulations are mainly due to the imposed warming and feedback influencing the synoptic flow. The mean precipitation change with warming in the central Indian region is 18-20 %/K, with largest changes at the end of the LPS tracks. The LPS in the warmer runs are bringing more moisture further inland that is released as precipitation. In the perturbed runs the precipitation rate is increasing at all percentiles, and there is more frequent rainfall with very heavy intensities. This leads to a shift in which category that contributes most to the total precipitation: more of the precipitation is coming from the category with very heavy intensities. The runoff changes are similar to the precipitation changes, except the response in intensity of very heavy runoff, which is around twice the change in intensity of very heavy precipitation.

  9. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP (United States)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang


    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  10. Precipitation products from the hydrology SAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mugnai


    Full Text Available The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF was established by the EUMETSAT Council on 3 July 2005, starting activity on 1 September 2005. The Italian Meteorological Service serves as Leading Entity on behalf of twelve European member countries. H-SAF products include precipitation, soil moisture and snow parameters. Some products are based only on satellite observations, while other products are based on the assimilation of satellite measurements/products into numerical models. In addition to product development and generation, H-SAF includes a product validation program and a hydrological validation program that are coordinated, respectively, by the Italian Department of Civil Protection and by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The National Center of Aeronautical Meteorology and Climatology (CNMCA of the Italian Air Force is responsible for operational product generation and dissemination. In this paper we describe the H-SAF precipitation algorithms and products, which have been developed by the Italian Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (in collaboration with the international community and by CNMCA during the Development Phase (DP, 2005–2010 and the first Continuous Development and Operations Phase (CDOP-1, 2010–2012. The precipitation products are based on passive microwave measurements obtained from radiometers onboard different sun-synchronous low-Earth-orbiting satellites (especially, the SSM/I and SSMIS radiometers onboard DMSP satellites and the AMSU-A + AMSU-B/MHS radiometer suites onboard EPS-MetOp and NOAA-POES satellites, as well as on combined infrared/passive microwave measurements in which the passive microwave precipitation estimates are used in conjunction with SEVIRI images from the geostationary MSG satellite. Moreover, the H-SAF product generation and dissemination chain and independent product validation activities are

  11. Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Barman, Travis


    The study of exoplanetary atmospheres is one of the most exciting and dynamic frontiers in astronomy. Over the past two decades ongoing surveys have revealed an astonishing diversity in the planetary masses, radii, temperatures, orbital parameters, and host stellar properties of exoplanetary systems. We are now moving into an era where we can begin to address fundamental questions concerning the diversity of exoplanetary compositions, atmospheric and interior processes, and formation histories, just as have been pursued for solar system planets over the past century. Exoplanetary atmospheres provide a direct means to address these questions via their observable spectral signatures. In the last decade, and particularly in the last five years, tremendous progress has been made in detecting atmospheric signatures of exoplanets through photometric and spectroscopic methods using a variety of space-borne and/or ground-based observational facilities. These observations are beginning to provide important constraints...

  12. Atmospheric composition (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.


    The earth's atmosphere is made up of a number of gases in different relative amounts. Near sea level and up to about 90 km, the amount of these atmospheric gases in clean, relatively dry air is practically constant. Four of these gases, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide, make up 99.99 percent by volume of the atmosphere. Two gases, ozone and water vapor, change in relative amounts, but the total amount of these two is very small compared to the amount of the other gases. The atmospheric composition shown in a table can be considered valid up to 90 km geometric altitude. Above 90 km, mainly because of molecular dissociation and diffusive separation, the composition changes.

  13. Relations between oxygen stable isotopic ratios in precipitation and relevant meteorological factors in southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The correlations of isotopic ratios in precipitation with temperature, air pressure and humidity at dif- ferent altitudes, in southwest China, are analyzed. There appear marked negative correlations for the δ 18O in precipitation with precipitation amount, vapor pressure and atmospheric precipitable water (PW) at Mengzi, Simao and Tengchong stations on synoptic timescale; the marked negative correlations between the δ 18O in precipitation and the diurnal mean temperature at 400 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa and 850 hPa are different from the temperature effect in middle-high-latitude inland. Moreover, the notable positive correlation between the δ 18O in precipitation and the dew-point deficit △Td at different altitudes is found at the three stations. On annual timescale, the annual precipitation amount weighted mean δ 18O display the negative correlations not only with annual precipitation but also with annual mean temperature at 500 hPa. It can be deduced that, in the years with abnormally strong summer monsoon, more warm and wet air from low-latitude oceans is transported northward along the vapor channel located in southwest China and generates abnormally strong rainfall on the way. Meanwhile, the ab- normally strong condensation process will release more condensed latent heat into atmosphere, and lead to the rise of atmospheric temperature during rainfall, but decline of the δ 18O in precipitation. On the contrary, in the years with abnormally weak summer monsoon, the abnormally weak condensation process will release less condensed latent heat into atmosphere, and lead to the decline of atmos- pheric temperature during rainfall, but increase of the δ 18O in precipitation.

  14. Atrial Ectopics Precipitating Atrial Fibrillation


    Johnson Francis


    Holter monitor tracing showing blocked atrial ectopics and atrial ectopic precipitating atrial fibrillation is being demonstrated. Initially it was coarse atrial fibrillation, which rapidly degenerated into fine atrial fibrillation.

  15. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation. (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.


    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  16. Effects of acid precipitation on inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, A.


    Atmospheric transport of sulfur compounds and other acidifying components has led to extensive regional acidification of water bodies in sensitive areas, both in Europe and North America. The regions affected by acidification are increasing in area at present. Lakes in these areas are now characterized by low pH, high contents of sulfate and high concentrations of several metals, notably aluminium, which is leached from the catchments under impact of acid precipitation. Acidification of inland waters has had major effects on life in rivers and lakes. Investigations have shown that all types of organisms in the freshwater ecosystem are affected by acidification, ecosystem structures are simplified, and the lakes probably become poorer in nutrients. A prominent feature of regional water acidification is the extensive loss of fish populations, caused primarily by reproductive failure. Physiological stress and fish kills are caused by toxic combinations of water acidity and high aluminium content.

  17. Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G


    We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

  18. Acid precipitation: effects on forest and fish. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overrein, L.N.; Seip, H.M.; Tollan, A.


    This interdisciplinary research program was launched in 1972 in response to concern in Scandinavian countries that acid precipitation was causing changes to the natural environment. A major hypothesis was that anthropogenic release of sulfur oxides and other pollutants may alter geobiochemical and biochemical cycles with consequences for the biota. The main research efforts were directed towards possible threats to forest and freshwater fish. Results of the entire program are summarized. Information is presented under the following section headings: emissions and transport; atmospheric deposits in Norway; water acidification - status and trends; chemical modifications of precipitation in contact with soil and vegetation; snow and snowmelt; land-use changes and acidification; effects of acid precipitation on soil productivity and plant growth; and effects of acid water on aquatic life.

  19. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong


    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  20. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl


    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  1. Atmospheric Photochemistry (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.


    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  2. Recent changes in precipitation, ITCZ convection and northern tropical circulation over North Africa (1979-2007)


    Fontaine, Bernard; Roucou, Pascal; Gaetani, Marco; Marteau, Romain


    International audience; This article focuses on some recent changes observed in the Tropics with special emphasis on the African monsoon region using high-resolution gridded precipitation from the Climatic Research Unit (period 1979-2002), outgoing longwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and atmospheric reanalyses from the Climate Prediction Center (NCEP-DOE2, period 1979-2007). The results show a rainfall increase in North Afri...

  3. Impact of Amazonian deforestation on atmospheric chemistry


    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.


    A single-column chemistry and climate model has been used to study the impact of deforestation in the Amazon Basin on atmospheric chemistry. Over deforested areas, daytime ozone deposition generally decreases strongly except when surface wetness decreases through reduced precipitation, whereas nocturnal soil deposition increases. The isoprene and soil nitric oxide emissions decrease although nitrogen oxide release to the atmosphere increases due to reduced canopy deposition. Deforestation als...

  4. Stratocumulus Precipitation and Entrainment Experiment (SPEE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Bruce [Univ. of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Ghate, Virendra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); CADeddu, Maria [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The scientific focus of this project was to examine precipitation and entrainment processes in marine stratocumulus clouds. The entrainment studies focused on characterizing cloud turbulence at cloud top using Doppler cloud radar observations. The precipitation studies focused on characterizing the precipitation and the macroscopic properties (cloud thickness, and liquid water path) of the clouds. This project will contribute to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s overall objective of providing the remote-sensing observations needed to improve the representation of key cloud processes in climate models. It will be of direct relevance to the components of ARM dealing with entrainment and precipitation processes in stratiform clouds. Further, the radar observing techniques that will be used in this study were developed using ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) facility observations under Atmospheric System Research (ASR) support. The observing systems operating automatously from a site located just north of the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) aircraft hangar in Marina, California during the period of 1 May to 4 November 2015 included: 1. Microwave radiometer: ARM Microwave Radiometer, 3-Channel (MWR3C) with channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz; supported by Dr. Maria Cadeddu. 2. Cloud Radar: CIRPAS 95 GHz Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Cloud Radar (Centroid Frequency Chirp Rate [CFCR]); operations overseen by Drs. Ghate and Albrecht. 3. Ceilometer: Vaisala CK-14; operations overseen by Drs. Ghate and Albrecht.

  5. MAP3S/RAINE precipitation chemistry network: quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The participants of the precipitation chemistry network of the Multi-State Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study/Regional Acidity of Industrial Emissions (MAP3S/RAINE) have developed procedures for maintenance of high quality output from the network operation. The documented procedures-most of which were in place before the network began sampling in 1976-include those for site selection and verification, field equipment, laboratory and data handling, and external laboratory quality testing.

  6. A Global View of Large-Scale Precipitation Variability. (United States)

    Rasmusson, Eugene M.; Arkin, Phillip A.


    Observational studies and model experiments make abundantly clear the need for a global perspective in order to understand the nature and causes of persistent regional precipitation anomalies. Rainfall in the deep tropics is particularly important as a forcing mechanism for the atmosphere's large-scale circulation and climate. Analysis of systematic space-based observations and surface marine data over the past three decades has vastly improved our understanding of tropical convective regimes and their relationship to surface conditions. The characteristics of the annual cycle of tropical convection and its relationship to sea surface temperature field and the general circulation of the tropics are reviewed. The hierarchal nature of tropical precipitation variability on time/space scales ranging from synoptic cloud clusters through the intraseasonal Madden-Julian Oscillation to multiyear El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle is discussed. Links between tropical convection and extratropical precipitation on time scales ranging from synoptic to multiyear are examined, with emphasis on conditions over the North Pacific-North American sector during winter.Precipitation variability over a number of regions bordering the Atlantic basin are related to Atlantic sector modes of SST and circulation variability. Systematic modes of Atlantic variability and their relationship to regional precipitation variability are described with emphasis on the tropics.Changes in landscape characteristics (vegetative cover, soil moisture, surface roughness), whether natural or human induced, result in changes in the surface radiation balance and the fluxes of heat and moisture. Our current understanding of the role of land surface processes in sustaining or intensifying anomalous precipitation regimes is briefly discussed. Identification of an anthropogenic trend in the presence of decadal-scale natural variations in precipitation is a formidable challenge. Three examples of large

  7. Precipitation regime and stable isotopes at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica (United States)

    Dittmann, Anna; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Powers, Jordan G.; Manning, Kevin W.; Werner, Martin; Fujita, Koji


    A unique set of 1-year precipitation and stable water isotope measurements from the Japanese Antarctic station, Dome Fuji, has been used to study the impact of the synoptic situation and the precipitation origin on the isotopic composition of precipitation on the Antarctic Plateau. The Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) archive data are used to analyse the synoptic situations that cause precipitation. These situations are investigated and divided into five categories. The most common weather situation during a precipitation event is an upper-level ridge that extends onto the Antarctic Plateau and causes strong northerly advection from the ocean. Most precipitation events are associated with an increase in temperature and wind speed, and a local maximum of δ18O. During the measurement period, 21 synoptically caused precipitation events caused 60 % of the total annual precipitation, whereas the remaining 40 % were predominantly attributed to diamond dust. By combining the synoptic analyses with 5-day back-trajectories, the moisture source regions for precipitation events were estimated. An average source region around a latitude of 55° S was found. The atmospheric conditions in the source region were used as initial conditions for running a Rayleigh-type isotopic model in order to reproduce the measured isotopic composition of fresh snow and to investigate the influence of the precipitation source region on the isotope ratios. The model represents the measured annual cycle of δ18O and the second-order isotopic parameter deuterium excess reasonably well, but yields on average too little fractionation along the transport/cooling path. While simulations with an isotopic general circulation model (GCM) (ECHAM5-wiso) for Dome Fuji are on average closer to the observations, this model cannot reproduce the annual cycle of deuterium excess. In the event-based analysis, no evidence of a correlation of the measured deuterium excess with the latitude of the

  8. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V


    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  9. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna


    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale

  10. Metal particle's precipitation behavior in direct reading ferrography precipitator tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤福; 李谋渭


    A new metal particle monitoring instrument was developed by improving the traditional direct reading ferrography. The precipitation behaviors of sub-magnetic particles, magnetic particles, and the mixture of these particles were examined with the instrument. The results show that the precipitation behavior of sub-magnetic metal particles of copper and aluminum is not random as it was believed previously. The sub-magnetic particles show a distribution in the precipitator tube, almost the same as the deposition curves as the magnetic particles have. The deposition amount of particles is increased in the oil which consists of several different kinds of particles. On the base of these experiments, a new index used for the total quantity of wear was redefined.

  11. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV) (United States)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz


    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  12. Spatiotemporal Variability and Change of the South China Spring Precipitation during 1961–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Lan Liu


    Full Text Available We analyze precipitation data from 47 meteorological stations spanning between 1961 and 2012 and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to understand spatiotemporal variability and change of spring precipitation of South China and their relations to atmospheric circulations. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis and rotated EOF (REOF are used to reveal dominant spatial structures of precipitation anomaly and Mann-Kendall testing method to determine the temporal locations of abrupt changes during the analyzed time span. We find that the first spatial mode of the spring precipitation of the South China has a domain uniform structure; the second is dominated by a spatial dipole; and the third contains six variability centers. 1980s was the decade of the largest amount of precipitation while 1960s the decade of the smallest amount of precipitation. The spring precipitation also appeared to have a decreasing trend since 2000. We also find that spring precipitation of the South China has experienced a few abrupt changes: sudden increment at 1964, sudden decrement at 2002, and sudden increment at 1995. In addition to these abrupt changes, the precipitation could also be characterized by variability of multiple temporal scales, with dominant periodicities of 4 years, 8 years, and 14 years. The South China spring precipitation is also closely tied to the atmospheric circulations: when Aleutian Low strengthens, westerly weakens, and the center of the Western Pacific subtropical high shifts southeastward in the early spring; and the South China precipitation tends to be abundant (positive anomaly. In contrast, when Ural ridge strengthens, the southern branch of the East Asian trough weakens and the Western Pacific subtropical high shifts northwestward in the early spring, the South China precipitation tends to be reduced (negative anomaly.

  13. The transient response of global-mean precipitation to increasing carbon dioxide levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient response of global-mean precipitation to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels of 1% yr-1 is investigated in 13 fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) and compared to a period of stabilization. During the period of stabilization, when carbon dioxide levels are held constant at twice their unperturbed level and the climate left to warm, precipitation increases at a rate of ∼ 2.4% per unit of global-mean surface-air-temperature change in the AOGCMs. However, when carbon dioxide levels are increasing, precipitation increases at a smaller rate of ∼ 1.5% per unit of global-mean surface-air-temperature change. This difference can be understood by decomposing the precipitation response into an increase from the response to the global surface-temperature increase (and the climate feedbacks it induces), and a fast atmospheric response to the carbon dioxide radiative forcing that acts to decrease precipitation. According to the multi-model mean, stabilizing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide would lead to a greater rate of precipitation change per unit of global surface-temperature change.

  14. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes? (United States)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert


    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  15. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (United States)

    Jackson, Gail


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  16. Deficiencies in quantitative precipitation forecasts. Sensitivity studies using the COSMO model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierer, Silke [Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss, Zurich (Switzerland); Meteotest, Bern (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Marco [Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology, MeteoSwiss, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Axel [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Avgoustoglou, Euripides [Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Hellinikon (Greece); Dumitrache, Rodica [National Meteorological Administration, Bucharest (Romania); Grazzini, Federico [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale Emilia Romagna, Bologna (Italy); Mercogliano, Paola [Italian Aerospace Research Center, Capua (Italy); Milelli, Massimo [Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale Piemonte, Torino (Italy); Starosta, Katarzyna [Inst. of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw (Poland)


    The quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) of the COSMO model, like of other models, reveals some deficiencies. The aim of this study is to investigate which physical and numerical schemes have the strongest impact on QPF and, thus, have the highest potential for improving QPF. Test cases are selected that are meant to reflect typical forecast errors in different countries. The 13 test cases fall into two main groups: overestimation of stratiform precipitation (6 cases) and underestimation of convective precipitation (5 cases). 22 sensitivity experiments predominantly regarding numerical and physical schemes are performed. The area averaged 24 h precipitation sums arc evaluated. The results show that the strongest impact on QPF is caused by changes of the initial atmospheric humidity and by using the Kain-Fritsch/Bechtold convection scheme instead of the Tiedtke scheme. Both sensitivity experiments change the area averaged precipitation in the range of 30-35%. This clearly shows that improved simulation of atmospheric water vapour is of utmost importance to achieve better precipitation forecasts. Significant changes are also caused by using the Runge-Kutta time integration scheme instead of the Leapfrog scheme, by applying a modified warm rain and snow physics scheme or a modified Tiedtke convection scheme. The fore-mentioned changes result in differences of area averaged precipitation of roughly 20%. Only for Greek lest cases, which all have a strong influence from the sea, the heat and moisture exchange between surface and atmosphere is of great importance and can cause changes of up to 20%. (orig.)

  17. AIRS total precipitable water over high latitudes (United States)

    Ye, H.; Fetzer, E. J.; Bromwich, D. H.; Fishbein, E.; Olsen, E. T.; Granger, S.; Lee, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Chen, L.


    Given the importance of atmospheric conditions over the Arctic and Antarctica to the global climate system, hydrological cycles, and cryopspheric dynamics, and the poor coverage of traditional data over these region, AIRS data will play a significant role in filling the information gaps. In this study, we examine the quality of AIRS total atmospheric precipitable water (PWV) and explore its potential applications over the Antarctica and Arctic. For Antarctica, both Level II matching files and Level III gridded products of AIRS are compared with radiosonde records at Dome C and ECMWF's analysis products during December 10, 2003 to January 26, 2004. Results will testify to the quality of AIRS moisture data over glacial surfaces. For the Arctic region, AIRS level III data are used to compare with AMSR-E data and ECMWF analysis product during September of 2004. Results will reveal the quality of AIRS data over high-latitude water, sea ice, and land surfaces. The potential of AIRS data to improve model simulation will be discussed.

  18. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander


    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth's climate, public health, air quality, and hydrological and carbon cycles. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemical composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. We suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events.

  19. Precipitation recycling as a mechanism for ecoclimatological stability through local and non-local interactions (United States)

    Dominguez, Francina

    This study is the first to analyze the mechanisms that drive precipitation recycling variability at the daily to intraseasonal timescale. A new Dynamic Precipitation Recycling model is developed which, unlike previous models, includes the moisture storage term in the equation of conservation of atmospheric moisture. As shown using scaling analysis, the moisture storage term is non-negligible at small time scales, so the new model enables us to analyze precipitation recycling variability at shorter timescales than traditional models. The daily to intraseasonal analysis enables us to uncover key relationships between recycling and the moisture and energy fluxes. In the second phase of this work, a spatiotemporal analysis of daily precipitation recycling is performed over two regions of North America: the Midwestern United States, and the North American Monsoon System (NAMS) region. These regions were chosen because they present contrasting land-atmosphere interactions. Different physical mechanisms drive precipitation recycling in each region. In the Midwestern United States, evapotranspiration is not significantly affected by soil moisture anomalies, and there is a high recycling ratio during periods of reduced total precipitation. The reason is that, during periods of drier atmospheric conditions, transpiration will continue to provide moisture to the overlying atmosphere and contribute to total rainfall. Consequently, precipitation recycling variability in not driven by changes in evapotranspiration. Precipitable water, sensible heat and moisture fluxes are the main drivers of recycling variability in the Midwest. However, the drier soil moisture conditions over the NAMS region limit evapotranspiration, which will drive recycling variability. In this region, evapotranspiration becomes an important contribution to precipitation after Monsoon onset when total precipitation and evapotranspiration are highest. The precipitation recycling process in the NAMS region

  20. Atmospheric Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Nauenberg, Michael


    Calculations of atmospheric refraction are generally based on a simplified model of atmospheric density in the troposphere which assumes that the temperature decreases at a constant lapse rate from sea level up to a height equal to eleven km, and that afterwards it remains constant. In this model, the temperature divided by the lapse rate determines the length scale in the calculations for altitudes less than this height. But daily balloon measurements across the U.S.A. reveal that in some cases the air temperature actually increases from sea level up to a height of about one km, and only after reaching a plateau, it decreases at an approximately constant lapse rate. Moreover, in three examples considered here, the temperature does not remain constant at eleven km , but continues to decreases to a minimum at about sixteen kilometers , and then increases at higher altitudes at a lower rate. Calculations of atmospheric refraction based on this atmospheric data is compared with the results of simplified models.

  1. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela


    as a spatial phenomenon, exploring a multiplicity of conditions that constitute their resonant origins – i.e. the production sites from and within they have emerged. The intention is also to argue that despite the fact that atmosphere as an aesthetic category has crystallised over the last few decades...

  2. Precipitation sample handling, analysis, and storage procedures. Research report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semonin, R.G.; Peden, M.E.; Skowron, L.M.; McGurk, F.M.


    The early and continuing research on atmospheric chemistry, particularly precipitation chemistry, necessitated the adaptation of existing methods for analysis of the complex precipitation water matrix, and the development of sample collection, handling, and storage procedures. Presently available instrumental techniques used for inorganic analysis are sufficiently refined to provide accurate determinations down to l/sup -1/ levels in most cases. Because of the low ionic concentrations (approx. 20 mg l/sup -1/) routinely encountered in precipitation samples, however, biases introduced in handling and storage procedures can become the determining factors affecting reliable data acquisition and interpretation. The procedures presented in this document were developed during the last ten years of precipitation chemistry research. In most cases they represent modified methods adapted specifically to meet the special requirements necessary for trace analysis of inorganic constituents in rainwater samples. All procedures have been rigorously evaluated to ensure that all aspects of collection, handling, and analysis are mutually compatible. Detailed methodologies are outlined from all the major ions normally encountered in precipitation samples in addition to many metals also found in trace amounts in rainwater. They include NH/sub 4/, Cd, Cl/sup -/, Pb, NO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Sr, and Zn. (JGB)

  3. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, Sergey


    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  4. Investigation of Precipitation Variations over Wet and Dry Areas from Observation and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Trammell


    Full Text Available Our observational study revealed that the precipitation increased over the wet area and decreased over the dry area during the past two decades. Here, we further investigate whether the current atmospheric models can quantitatively capture the characteristics of precipitation from the observation. The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS model is used to examine the historic simulation of the precipitation, in which the historic greenhouse gases and aerosols are included in the radiative forcing. The consistency between the historic GISS simulation and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP precipitation suggests that the model can qualitatively capture the temporal trends of precipitation over the wet and dry areas. However, the precipitation trends are weaker in the model than in the observation. The observed trends of precipitation do not appear in the control simulation with the fixed concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, which suggests that the global warming due to anthropogenic forcing can influence the temporal variations of precipitation over the wet and dry areas. Diagnostic studies of other variables from the model further suggest that enhanced rising air can increase the precipitation over the wet area.

  5. Dioxin in the atmosphere of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoee, J.; Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, Helle V.; Bossi, R.; Johansen, Elsebeth; Chrillesen, M.A.


    Occurrence and geographical distribution of dioxin was investigated in air and deposition at selected locations in Denmark, three forest sites in the background area, a city site in Copenhagen and a village site. At two sites simultaneously determination of dioxins concentrations in the ambient atmosphere and bulk precipitation were carried out during a period of three years. (au)

  6. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) 8 to 14 Day Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues 8 to 14 day probabilistic precipitation outlooks for the United States. The 8-14 day Outlook gives the confidence that a...

  7. 24-Hour Forecast of 12 Hour Probability of Precipitation from the National Weather Service's National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) contains a seamless mosaic of the National Weather Service's (NWS) digital forecasts of precipitation probabilities....

  8. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS NDFD Gridded Forecasts of 6-Hr Quantitative Precipitation Amount (inches) (Time Offsets) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-offsets map service provides maps depicting the NWS 6-hr quantitative precipitation [amount] forecasts (QPF) from the National...

  9. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan (United States)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.


    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  10. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe. (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib


    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  11. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe (United States)

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib


    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes.

  12. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  13. The characterisation of precipitated magnetites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for the preparation of magnetite by precipitation from aqueous solutions of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The magnetites have been characterised by transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy has also been used to characterise precipitated magnetites and a comparison of the spectra has been made with those obtained from nickel ferrite and hydrated ferric oxides. The hydrothermal stability of magnetite at 573 K has also been investigated. This work is relevant to corrosion processes that can occur in the water coolant circuits of nuclear reactors. (author)

  14. Retrieving pace in vegetation growth using precipitation and soil moisture (United States)

    Sohoulande Djebou, D. C.; Singh, V. P.


    The complexity of interactions between the biophysical components of the watershed increases the challenge of understanding water budget. Hence, the perspicacity of the continuum soil-vegetation-atmosphere's functionality still remains crucial for science. This study targeted the Texas Gulf watershed and evaluated the behavior of vegetation covers by coupling precipitation and soil moisture patterns. Growing season's Normalized Differential Vegetation Index NDVI for deciduous forest and grassland were used over a 23 year period as well as precipitation and soil moisture data. The role of time scales on vegetation dynamics analysis was appraised using both entropy rescaling and correlation analysis. This resulted in that soil moisture at 5 cm and 25cm are potentially more efficient to use for vegetation dynamics monitoring at finer time scale compared to precipitation. Albeit soil moisture at 5 cm and 25 cm series are highly correlated (R2>0.64), it appeared that 5 cm soil moisture series can better explain the variability of vegetation growth. A logarithmic transformation of soil moisture and precipitation data increased correlation with NDVI for the different time scales considered. Based on a monthly time scale we came out with a relationship between vegetation index and the couple soil moisture and precipitation [NDVI=a*Log(% soil moisture)+b*Log(Precipitation)+c] with R2>0.25 for each vegetation type. Further, we proposed to assess vegetation green-up using logistic regression model and transinformation entropy using the couple soil moisture and precipitation as independent variables and vegetation growth metrics (NDVI, NDVI ratio, NDVI slope) as the dependent variable. The study is still ongoing and the results will surely contribute to the knowledge in large scale vegetation monitoring. Keywords: Precipitation, soil moisture, vegetation growth, entropy Time scale, Logarithmic transformation and correlation between soil moisture and NDVI, precipitation and

  15. Impacts of Precipitation Diurnal Timing on Ecosystem Carbon Exchanges in Grasslands: A Synthesis of AmeriFlux Data (United States)

    Song, X.; Xu, X.; Tweedie, C. E.


    Drylands have been found playing an important role regulating the seasonality of global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Precipitation is a primary control of ecosystem carbon exchanges in drylands where a large proportion of the annual total rainfall arrives through a small number of episodic precipitation events. While a large number of studies use the concept of "precipitation pulses" to explore the effects of short-term precipitation events on dryland ecosystem function, few have specifically evaluated the importance of the diurnal timing of these events. The primary goal of this study was to determine how the diurnal timing of rainfall events impacts land-atmosphere net ecosystem CO2 exchanges (NEE) and ecosystem respiration in drylands. Our research leverages a substantial and existing long-term database (AmeriFlux) that describes NEE, Reco and meteorological conditions at 11 sites situated in different dryland ecosystems in South West America. All sites employ the eddy covariance technique to measure land-atmosphere the CO2 exchange rates between atmosphere and ecosystem. Data collected at these sites range from 4 to 10 years, totaling up to 73 site-years. We found that episodic precipitation events stimulate not only vegetation photosynthesis but also ecosystem respiration. Specifically, the morning precipitation events decrease photosynthesis function at daytime and increase ecosystem respiration at nighttime; the afternoon precipitation events do not stimulate ecosystem photosynthesis at daytime, while stimulate ecosystem respiration; the night precipitations suppress photosynthesis at daytime, and enhance ecosystem respiration at nighttime.

  16. Precipitation kinetics of a continuous precipitator, with application to the precipitation of ammonium polyuranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of continuous precipitation was developed which accounts for crystal nucleation, crystal growth, primary coagulation, and secondary coagulation. Population density distributions, average particle sizes, dominant particle sizes, and suspension density fractions of the crystallites, primary agglomerates, and secondary agglomerates leaving the continuous precipitator can be determined. This kinetic model was applied to the continuous precipitation of ammonium polyuranate, which consists of: (1) elementary crystals, (2) clusters or primary coagulated particles, and (3) agglomerates or secondary coagulated particles. The crystallites are thin, submicron, hexagonal platelets. The clusters had an upper size limit of about 7 μ in diameter and contained numerous small voids (less than 0.3 μm) due to the packing of the crystallites. The agglomerates had an upper size limit of about 40 μm in diameter and contained large voids (approximately 1 μm). The particle size distribution and particle structure of the ammonium polyuranate precipitate can be controlled through proper regulation of the precipitation conditions. The ratio of clusters to agglomerates can be best controlled through the uranium concentration, and the cohesiveness or internal bonding strength of the particles can be controlled with the ammonium to uranium reacting feed mole ratio. These two conditions, in conjunction with the residence time, will determine the nucleation rates, growth rates, and size distributions of the particles leaving the continuous precipitator. With proper control of these physical particle characteristics, the use of pore formers, ball-milling, and powder blending can probably be eliminated from the nuclear fuel fabrication process, substantially reducing the cost

  17. How often precipitation records break? (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Oikonomou, Maria; Floutsakou, Athina; Bessas, Nikolaos; Mamassis, Nikos


    How often precipitation records break? Are there any factors that determine the average time needed for the next maximum to occur? In order to investigate these simple questions we use several hundreds of daily precipitation records (more than 100 years long each) and we study the time intervals between each successive maximum precipitation value. We investigate if the record breaking time interval is related (a) to the autocorrelation structure, (b) to probability dry, and (c) to the tail of the marginal distribution. For the last, we first, evaluate which type of tail is better fitted by choosing among three general types of tails corresponding to the distributions Pareto, Lognormal and Weibull; and second, we assess the heaviness of the tail based on the estimated shape parameter. The performance of each tail is evaluated in terms of return period values, i.e., we compare the empirical return periods of precipitation values above a threshold with the predicted ones by each of the three types of fitted tails.

  18. Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) TRAINING MANUAL (United States)

    The manual assists engineers in using a computer program, the ESPVI 4.0W, that models all elements of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The program is a product of the Electric Power Research Institute and runs in the Windows environment. Once an ESP is accurately modeled, the...

  19. Century-long variability and trends in daily precipitation characteristics at three Finnish stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Irannezhad


    Full Text Available Long-term variations and trends in a wide range of statistics for daily precipitation characteristics in terms of intensity, frequency and duration in Finland were analysed using precipitation records during 1908–2008 from 3 meteorological stations in the south (Kaisaniemi, centre (Kajaani and north (Sodankylä. Although precipitation days in northern part were more frequent than in central and southern parts, daily precipitation intensity in the south was generally higher than those in the centre and north of the country. Annual sum of very light precipitation (0 mm < daily precipitation ≤ long-term 50th percentile of daily precipitation more than 0 mm significantly (p < 0.05 decreased over time, with the highest rate in northern Finland. These decreasing trends might be the result of significant increases in frequency of days with very light precipitation at all the stations, with the highest and lowest rates in northern and southern Finland, respectively. Ratio of annual total precipitation to number of precipitation days also declined in Finland over 1908–2008, with a decreasing north to south gradient. However, annual duration indices of daily precipitation revealed no statistically significant trends at any station. Daily precipitation characteristics showed significant relationships with various well-known atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs. In particular, the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR pattern in summer was the most influential ACP negatively associated with different daily precipitation intensity, frequency and duration indices at all three stations studied.

  20. Atmospheric deposition maps for the Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Campbell, D.H.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.


    Variability in atmospheric deposition across the Rocky Mountains is influenced by elevation, slope, aspect, and precipitation amount and by regional and local sources of air pollution. To improve estimates of deposition in mountainous regions, maps of average annual atmospheric deposition loadings of nitrate, sulfate, and acidity were developed for the Rocky Mountains by using spatial statistics. A parameter-elevation regressions on independent slopes model (PRISM) was incorporated to account for variations in precipitation amount over mountainous regions. Chemical data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network and from annual snowpack surveys conducted by the US Geological Survey and National Park Service, in cooperation with other Federal, State and local agencies. Surface concentration maps were created by ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, using a local trend and mathematical model to estimate the spatial variance. Atmospheric-deposition maps were constructed at 1-km resolution by multiplying surface concentrations from the kriged grid and estimates of precipitation amount from the PRISM model. Maps indicate an increasing spatial trend in concentration and deposition of the modeled constituents, particularly nitrate and sulfate, from north to south throughout the Rocky Mountains and identify hot-spots of atmospheric deposition that result from combined local and regional sources of air pollution. Highest nitrate (2.5-3.0kg/ha N) and sulfate (10.0-12.0kg/ha SO4) deposition is found in northern Colorado.

  1. Conditional Generation of Monthly Precipitation (United States)

    Kim, U.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.


    Monthly precipitation models can be used in basin-wide modeling to develop long-term strategies for water resources planning and management and to estimate the change of water yield due to climate change. Such precipitation models are especially important for effective management of river basins in developing countries such as the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia where the water resource utilization is limited. Many studies have been previously performed to preserve historical temporal and spatial structures when generating precipitation series. The main focus of those studies was to preserve the historical statistics. Other important factors to be considered are transition and spatial correlations. A few recent studies attempted to preserve transition as well as the statistics of historical record. These studies provided satisfactory results while showing the difficulty and complexity of computations in their methods. The conditional generation method (CGM) that can preserve both historical temporal and spatial structures is presented in this study. Because the CGM is driven from the historical conditional probabilities occurring given amounts of precipitation between two successive months or two stations, it is computationally simple and reliable, i.e., parameterization, inverse matrix, or optimum band width is not required. The CGM was applied to reproducing the precipitation pattern of the upper Blue Nile River basin in Ethiopia using monthly precipitation data of 10 stations to demonstrate its applicability. Comparing to the method of inverse transformation of cumulative distribution functions of the gamma distribution and nonparametric kernel estimator with variable band width selected from the goodness-of-fit tests, the CGM showed improved performance, especially in representing the transition characteristics. The CGM also generated the historical spatial correlations between the stations with acceptable accuracy. The results suggested that the CGM

  2. Recent Progresses in Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research in China-- Chinese National Report on Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research in China during 1999-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱金桓; 陈洪滨


    Progresses of atmospheric remote sensing research in China during 1999-2003 are summarily introduced.This research includes: (1) microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere; (2) Lidar remote sensing; (3)remote sensing of aerosol optical properties; and (4) other research related to atmospheric remote sensing,including GPS remote sensing of precipitable water vapor and radiation model development.

  3. Sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mishra


    Full Text Available The paper describes the sensitivity of the simulated precipitation to changes in convective relaxation time scale (TAU of Zhang and McFarlane (ZM cumulus parameterization, in NCAR-Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3. In the default configuration of the model, the prescribed value of TAU, a characteristic time scale with which convective available potential energy (CAPE is removed at an exponential rate by convection, is assumed to be 1 h. However, some recent observational findings suggest that, it is larger by around one order of magnitude. In order to explore the sensitivity of the model simulation to TAU, two model frameworks have been used, namely, aqua-planet and actual-planet configurations. Numerical integrations have been carried out by using different values of TAU, and its effect on simulated precipitation has been analyzed.

    The aqua-planet simulations reveal that when TAU increases, rate of deep convective precipitation (DCP decreases and this leads to an accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. Consequently, the moisture content in the lower- and mid- troposphere increases. On the other hand, the shallow convective precipitation (SCP and large-scale precipitation (LSP intensify, predominantly the SCP, and thus capping the accumulation of convective instability in the atmosphere. The total precipitation (TP remains approximately constant, but the proportion of the three components changes significantly, which in turn alters the vertical distribution of total precipitation production. The vertical structure of moist heating changes from a vertically extended profile to a bottom heavy profile, with the increase of TAU. Altitude of the maximum vertical velocity shifts from upper troposphere to lower troposphere. Similar response was seen in the actual-planet simulations. With an increase in TAU from 1 h to 8 h, there was a significant improvement in the simulation of the seasonal mean precipitation. The

  4. Study of accuracy of precipitation measurements using simulation method (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Lajos, Tamás; Morvai, Krisztián


    Hungarian Meteorological Service1 Budapest University of Technology and Economics2 Precipitation is one of the the most important meteorological parameters describing the state of the climate and to get correct information from trends, accurate measurements of precipitation is very important. The problem is that the precipitation measurements are affected by systematic errors leading to an underestimation of actual precipitation which errors vary by type of precipitaion and gauge type. It is well known that the wind speed is the most important enviromental factor that contributes to the underestimation of actual precipitation, especially for solid precipitation. To study and correct the errors of precipitation measurements there are two basic possibilities: · Use of results and conclusion of International Precipitation Measurements Intercomparisons; · To build standard reference gauges (DFIR, pit gauge) and make own investigation; In 1999 at the HMS we tried to achieve own investigation and built standard reference gauges But the cost-benefit ratio in case of snow (use of DFIR) was very bad (we had several winters without significant amount of snow, while the state of DFIR was continously falling) Due to the problem mentioned above there was need for new approximation that was the modelling made by Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Fluid Mechanics using the FLUENT 6.2 model. The ANSYS Fluent package is featured fluid dynamics solution for modelling flow and other related physical phenomena. It provides the tools needed to describe atmospheric processes, design and optimize new equipment. The CFD package includes solvers that accurately simulate behaviour of the broad range of flows that from single-phase to multi-phase. The questions we wanted to get answer to are as follows: · How do the different types of gauges deform the airflow around themselves? · Try to give quantitative estimation of wind induced error. · How does the use

  5. Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Renping; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun


    With the motivation to identify whether or not a reasonably simulated atmospheric circulation would necessarily lead to a successful reproduction of monsoon precipitation, the performances of five sets of reanalysis data (NCEP2, ERA40, JRA25, ERA-Interim and MERRA) in reproducing the climatology, interannual variation and long-term trend of global monsoon (GM) precipitation are comprehensively evaluated. In order to better understand the variability and long-term trend of GM precipitation, we also examined the major components of water budget, including evaporation, water vapor convergence and the change in local water vapor storage, based on five reanalysis datasets. The results show that all five reanalysis data reasonably reproduce the climatology of GM precipitation. The ERA-Interim (NCEP2) shows the highest (lowest) skill among the five datasets. The observed GM precipitation shows an increasing tendency during 1979-2001 along with a strong interannual variability, which is reasonably reproduced by the five sets of reanalysis data. The observed increasing trend of GM precipitation is dominated by the contribution from the North African, North American and Australian monsoons. All five data fail in reproducing the increasing tendency of North African monsoon precipitation. The wind convergence term in water budget equation dominate the GM precipitation variation, indicating a consistency between the GM precipitation and the seasonal change of prevailing wind.

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Overview and Status (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.


    (SAPHIR) on the French-Indian MeghaTropiques satellite, (4) the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-19, (5) MHS instruments on MetOp satellites launched by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), (6) the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), and (7) ATMS instruments on the NOAA-NASA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) satellites. Data from Chinese and Russian microwave radiometers may also become available through international collaboration under the auspices of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and Group on Earth Observations (GEO). The current generation of global rainfall products combines observations from a network of uncoordinated satellite missions using a variety of merging techniques. GPM will provide "next-generation" precipitation products characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation estimate (especially for light rain and cold-season solid precipitation), (2) intercalibrated microwave brightness temperatures from constellation radiometers within a consistent framework, and (3) unified precipitation retrievals from constellation radiometers using a common a priori hydrometeor database constrained by combined radar/radiometer measurements provided by the GPM Core Observatory. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals. GPM will provide a key measurement to improve understanding of global water cycle variability and freshwater availability in a changing climate. The DPR and GMI measurements will offer insights into 3-dimensional structures of hurricanes and midlatitude storms, microphysical properties of precipitating particles, and latent heat associated with precipitation processes. The GPM mission will also make data available in near realtime (within 3 hours of observations

  7. Variation and future trends in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Zhou, Xiuhua; Yang, Ping; Liu, Hua


    This study analyzed the changes in precipitation over summer and autumn across the Yunnan region of China, and undertook a composite analysis of the atmospheric circulations in the troposphere, which included an analysis of the interannual and interdecadal variations. This paper examines in detail the circulation backgrounds of the wet and dry periods in summer and autumn and their correlations with the sea surface temperature. The results indicated that the summer and autumn precipitation across Yunnan has significantly decreased over the past 50 years. Furthermore, since the beginning of the century, the summer and autumn precipitation cycle has been in a low precipitation phase. The overlap of two extremely low rain phases has caused frequent droughts in the region. In addition, the atmospheric circulation fields during these wet and dry periods are very different. These are mainly shown as a meridional wind anomaly in eastern China in the low atmosphere, as a cross-equatorial airflow anomaly, a tropical zonal wind anomaly over the Indian Ocean, and as a related South Asia High and Western Pacific Subtropical High. Further analysis suggested that the SST over the Indian Ocean and the Pacific warm pool critically affect the anomalous summer and autumn precipitation over Yunnan by impacting the monsoon circulations. Future projections for greenhouse gas warming suggest a potential anomalous circulation background between 2010 and 2020 which may result in less precipitation during the wet season or even drought events across the Yunnan region.

  8. Radiative impact of mineral dust on monsoon precipitation variability over West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhao


    Full Text Available The radiative forcing of dust and its impact on precipitation over the West Africa monsoon (WAM region is simulated using a coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model (WRF-Chem. During the monsoon season, dust is a dominant contributor to aerosol optical depth (AOD over West Africa. In the control simulation, on 24-h domain average, dust has a cooling effect (−6.11 W/m2 at the surface, a warming effect (6.94 W/m2 in the atmosphere, and a relatively small TOA forcing (0.83 W/m2. Dust modifies the surface energy budget and atmospheric diabatic heating and hence causes lower atmospheric cooling in the daytime but warming in the nighttime. As a result, atmospheric stability is increased in the daytime and reduced in the nighttime, leading to a reduction of late afternoon precipitation by up to 0.14 mm/h (25% and an increase of nocturnal and early morning precipitation by up to 0.04 mm/h (45% over the WAM region. Dust-induced reduction of diurnal precipitation variation improves the simulated diurnal cycle of precipitation when compared to measurements. However, daily precipitation is only changed by a relatively small amount (−0.17 mm/day or −4%. The dust-induced change of WAM precipitation is not sensitive to interannual monsoon variability. On the other hand, sensitivity simulations show that, from weaker to stronger absorbing dust representing the uncertainty in dust solar absorptivity, dust longwave warming effect in the nighttime surpasses its shortwave cooling effect in the daytime at the surface, leading to a less stable atmosphere associated with more convective precipitation in the nighttime. As a result, the dust-induced change of daily WAM precipitation varies from a significant reduction of −0.52 mm/day (−12%, weaker absorbing dust to a small increase of 0.03 mm/day (1%, stronger absorbing dust. This variation originates from the competition between dust impact on daytime and nighttime

  9. Quantifying Precipitation Variability on Titan Using a GCM and Implications for Observed Geomorphology (United States)

    Faulk, Sean P.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Moon, Seulgi; Lora, Juan Manuel


    Titan's zonal-mean precipitation behavior has been widely investigated using general circulation models (GCMs), but the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in Titan's active hydrologic cycle is less well understood. We conduct statistical analyses of rainfall, diagnosed from GCM simulations of Titan's atmosphere, to determine storm intensity and frequency. Intense storms of methane have been proposed to be critical for enabling mechanical erosion of Titan's surface, as indicated by observations of dendritic valley networks. Using precipitation outputs from the Titan Atmospheric Model (TAM), a GCM shown to realistically simulate many features of Titan's atmosphere, we quantify the precipitation variability within eight separate latitude bins for a variety of initial surface liquid distributions. We find that while the overall wettest regions are indeed the poles, the most intense rainfall generally occurs in the high mid-latitudes, between 45-67.5 degrees, consistent with recent geomorphological observations of alluvial fans concentrated at those latitudes. We also find that precipitation rates necessary for surface erosion, as estimated by Perron et al. (2006) J. Geophys. Res. 111, E11001, frequently occur at all latitudes, with recurrence intervals of less than one Titan year. Such analysis is crucial towards understanding the complex interaction between Titan's atmosphere and surface and defining the influence of precipitation on observed geomorphology.

  10. The sensitivity of precipitation simulations to the soot aerosol presence (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Iuliia; Ivanov, Sergiy; Mahura, Alexander; Ruban, Igor


    The role of aerosols in nonlinear feedbacks on atmospheric processes is in a focus of many researches. Particularly, the importance of black carbon particles for evolution of physical weather including precipitation formation and release is investigated by numerical modelling as well as observation networks. However, certain discrepancies between results obtained by different methods are remained. The increasing of complexity in numerical weather modelling systems leads to enlarging a volume of output data and promises to reveal new aspects in complexity of interactions and feedbacks. The Harmonie-38h1.2 model with the AROME physical package is used to study changes in precipitation life-cycle under black carbon polluted conditions. A model configuration includes a radar data assimilation procedure on a high resolution domain covering the Scandinavia region. Model results show that precipitation rate and distribution as well as other variables of atmospheric dynamics and physics over the domain are sensitive to aerosol concentrations. The attention should also be paid to numerical aspects, such as a list of observation types involved in assimilation. The use of high resolution radar information allows to include mesoscale features in initial conditions and to decrease the growth rate of a model error with the lead time.

  11. Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by man-made waves A comparison between theory and measurement (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Chang, H. C.; Helliwell, R. A.; Imhof, W. L.; Reagan, J. B.; Walt, M.


    The temporal and spectral shape and the absolute flux level of particle pulses precipitated by a VLF transmitter are examined from a theoretical point of view. A test-particle model of the gyroresonant wave-particle interaction is applied to the parameters of the observed cases for calculating the precipitation characteristics. The temporal shapes of the precipitation pulses are found to be controlled (1) by the pitch angle dependence of the particle distribution near the edge of the loss cone and (2) by the multiple interaction of the particles with the waves due to significant atmospheric backscatter.

  12. Electrodynamical Coupling of Earth's Atmosphere and Ionosphere: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh


    Full Text Available Electrical processes occurring in the atmosphere couple the atmosphere and ionosphere, because both DC and AC effects operate at the speed of light. The electrostatic and electromagnetic field changes in global electric circuit arise from thunderstorm, lightning discharges, and optical emissions in the mesosphere. The precipitation of magnetospheric electrons affects higher latitudes. The radioactive elements emitted during the earthquakes affect electron density and conductivity in the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, we have briefly reviewed our present understanding of how these events play a key role in energy transfer from the lower atmosphere to the ionosphere, which ultimately results in the Earth's atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  13. Future Projections of Precipitation Characteristics in East Asia Simulated by the MRI CGCM2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio KITOH; Masahiro HOSAKA; Yukimasa ADACHI; Kenji KAMIGUCHI


    Projected changes in precipitation characteristics around the mid-21st century and end-of-the-century are analyzed using the daily precipitation output of the 3-member ensemble Meteorological Research Institute global ocean-atmosphere coupled general circulation model (MRI-CGCM2) simulations under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios. It is found that both the frequency and intensity increase in about 40% of the globe, while both the frequency and intensity decrease in about 20% of the globe. These numbers differ only a few percent from decade to decade of the 21st century and between the A2 and B2 scenarios. Over the rest of the globe (about one third), the precipitation frequency decreases but its intensity increases, suggesting a shift of precipitation distribution toward more intense events by global warming. South China is such a region where the summertime wet-day frequency decreases but the precipitation intensity increases. This is related to increased atmospheric moisture content due to global warming and an intensified and more westwardly extended North Pacific subtropical anticyclone,which may be related with an El Ni(n)o-like mean sea surface temperature change. On the other hand, a decrease in summer precipitation is noted in North China, thus augmenting a south-to-north precipit ation contrast more in the future.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiao-hong; REN Fu-min; LIU Ai-ming; HUANG Zhi-gang; LIAO Kuo


    The results of an analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of typhoon precipitation influencing Fujian from 1960 to 2005 show that typhoon precipitation in Fujian province occurs from May to November, with the most in August. There has been a decreasing trend since 1960. Typhoon precipitation gradually decreases from the coastal region to the northwestern mainland of Fujian and the maximum typhoon precipitation occurs in the northeast and the south of Fujian. Typhoon torrential rain is one of the extreme rainfall events in Fujian. High frequencies of typhoon torrential rain occur in the coastal and southwest regions of the province. With the impact of Fujian's terrain, typhoon precipitation occurs more easily to the east of the mountains than to the west. Atmospheric circulation at 500 hPa over Asia and sea surface temperature anomalies of the equatorial eastern Pacific are analyzed, with the finding that they are closely connected with the anomaly of typhoon precipitation influencing Fujian, possibly mainly by modulating the northbound track of typhoons via changing the atmosphere circulation to lead to the anomaly of typhoon precipitation over the province

  15. Stochastic convective parameterization improving the simulation of tropical precipitation variability in the NCAR CAM5 (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Guang J.; Craig, George C.


    The Plant-Craig (PC) stochastic convective parameterization scheme is implemented into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) to couple with the Zhang-McFarlane deterministic convection scheme. To evaluate its impact on tropical precipitation simulation, two experiments are conducted: one with the standard CAM5 and the other with the stochastic scheme incorporated. Results show that the PC stochastic parameterization decreases the frequency of weak precipitation and increases the frequency of strong precipitation, resulting in better agreement with observations. The most striking improvement is in the probability distribution function (PDF) of precipitation intensity, with the well-known too-much-drizzle problem in CAM5 largely eliminated. In the global tropical belt, the precipitation intensity PDF from the simulation agrees remarkably well with that of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission observations. The stochastic scheme also yields a similar magnitude of intraseasonal variability of precipitation to observations and improves the simulation of the eastward propagating intraseasonal signals of precipitation and zonal wind.

  16. The effects of mineral dust particles, aerosol regeneration and ice nucleation parameterizations on clouds and precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Teller


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of aerosol particles on the formation of convective clouds and precipitation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea with a special emphasis on the role of mineral dust particles in these processes. We used a new detailed numerical cloud microphysics scheme that has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model in order to study aerosol-cloud interaction in 3-D configuration based on realistic meteorological data. Using a number of case studies we tested the contribution of mineral dust particles and different ice nucleation parameterizations to precipitation development. In this study we also investigated the importance of recycled (regenerated aerosols that had been released to the atmosphere following the evaporation of cloud droplets.

    The results showed that increased aerosol concentration due to the presence of mineral dust enhanced the formation of ice crystals. The dynamic evolution of the cloud system sets the time periods and regions in which heavy or light precipitation occurred in the domain. The precipitation rate, the time and duration of precipitation were affected by the aerosol properties only at small area scales (with areas of about 20 km2. Changes of the ice nucleation scheme from ice supersaturation dependent parameterization to a recent approach of aerosol concentration and temperature dependent parameterization modified the ice crystals concentrations but did not affect the total precipitation in the domain. Aerosol regeneration modified the concentration of cloud droplets at cloud base by dynamic recirculation of the aerosols but also had only a minor effect on precipitation.

    The major conclusion from this study is that the effect of mineral dust particles on clouds and total precipitation is limited by the properties of the atmospheric dynamics and the only effect of aerosol on precipitation may come from significant increase in the concentration

  17. Precipitation patterns during channel flow (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.


    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  18. Water-soluble primary amine compounds in rural continental precipitation (United States)

    Gorzelska, Krystyna; Galloway, James N.; Watterson, Karen; Keene, William C.

    Procedures for collecting, storing and analysing precipitation samples for organic nitrogen studies were developed. These procedures preserve chemical integrities of the species of interest, allow for up to 3 months storage and quantitative determination of water-soluble primary amine compounds, with the overall error at the 2 nM detection limit of less than 30%. This methodology was applied to study amino compounds in precipitation samples collected over a period of one year in central Virginia. Nitrogen concentrations of 13 amino acids and 3 aliphatic amines were summed to calculate the total amine nitrogen (TAN). The concentration of TAN ranged from below our detection level to 6658 nM, and possibly reflected a seasonal variation in the source strength of the atmospheric amines. Overall, the most commonly occurring amino compounds were methyl amine, ethyl amine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. On average, the highest overall contribution to the TAN came from arginine, asparagine, glutamine, methyl amine, serine and alanine. However, large qualitative and quantitative variations observed among samples warrant caution in interpretation and application of the averaged values. TAN in Charlottesville precipitation contributed from less than 1 to ca 10% of the ammonium nitrogen level. However, our estimates show that amino compounds may contribute significantly to reduced nitrogen budget in precipitation in remote regions.

  19. Predictibility in Nowcasting of Precipitation (United States)

    Zawadzki, I.; Sourcel, M.; Berenguer, M.


    Present short term precipitation forecasting is based on two methods: Lagrangian persistence (nowcasting) and numerical weather prediction (NWP). An improvement over these methods is obtained by the combination of the two. The obvious shortcoming of nowcasting is its severe limitation in capturing new development or dissipation of precipitation. NWP has the ability to predict both but very imprecisely. An attempt to correct model errors by post-processing leads to some improvement in the skill of NWP, but the improvement, although significative, is not very impressive. The goal of our effort is to take a step back and to describe, in a quantitative manner, a) the nature of the uncertainties affecting Lagrangian persistence and NWP forecasts, as well as to determineb) the physical causes of the uncertainties. We quantify the uncertainties in short term forecasting due to limitation of nowcasting algorithms and NWP to capture correctly some of the physical phenomena that determine the predictability of precipitation. The first factor considered is the diurnal cycle that appears as the one physically determined factors that limit the precision of short term prediction. We study the cycle in radar mosaics over US and compare this to nowcasts and model outputs. The seasonal and geographical dependence of the diurnal cycle is quantitatively evaluated.

  20. Analysis of stability parameters in relation to precipitation associated with pre-monsoon thunderstorms over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Nayak; M Mandal


    The upper air RS/RW (Radio Sonde/Radio Wind) observations at Kolkata (22.65N, 88.45E) during premonsoon season March–May, 2005–2012 is used to compute some important dynamic/thermodynamic parameters and are analysed in relation to the precipitation associated with the thunderstorms over Kolkata, India. For this purpose, the pre-monsoon thunderstorms are classified as light precipitation (LP), moderate precipitation (MP) and heavy precipitation (HP) thunderstorms based on the magnitude of associated precipitation. Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated (i*) and saturated atmosphere (i); vertical shear of horizontal wind in 0–3, 0–6 and 3–7 km atmospheric layers; energy-helicity index (EHI) and vorticity generation parameter (VGP) are considered for the analysis. The instability measured in terms of Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated atmosphere (i*) well indicate the occurrence of thunderstorms about 2 hours in advance. Moderate vertical wind shear in lower troposphere (0–3 km) and weak shear in middle troposphere (3–7 km) leads to heavy precipitation thunderstorms. The wind shear in 3–7 km atmospheric layers, EHI and VGP are good predictors of precipitation associated with thunderstorm. Lower tropospheric wind shear and Richardson number is a poor discriminator of the three classified thunderstorms.

  1. Variance and Predictability of Precipitation at Seasonal-to-Interannual Timescales (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Heiser, Mark


    A series of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, spanning a total of several thousand years, is used to assess the impact of land-surface and ocean boundary conditions on the seasonal-to-interannual variability and predictability of precipitation in a coupled modeling system. In the first half of the analysis, which focuses on precipitation variance, we show that the contributions of ocean, atmosphere, and land processes to this variance can be characterized, to first order, with a simple linear model. This allows a clean separation of the contributions, from which we find: (1) land and ocean processes have essentially different domains of influence, i.e., the amplification of precipitation variance by land-atmosphere feedback is most important outside of the regions (mainly in the tropics) that are most affected by sea surface temperatures; and (2) the strength of land-atmosphere feedback in a given region is largely controlled by the relative availability of energy and water there. In the second half of the analysis, the potential for seasonal-to-interannual predictability of precipitation is quantified under the assumption that all relevant surface boundary conditions (in the ocean and on land) are known perfectly into the future. We find that the chaotic nature of the atmospheric circulation imposes fundamental limits on predictability in many extratropical regions. Associated with this result is an indication that soil moisture initialization or assimilation in a seasonal-to-interannual forecasting system would be beneficial mainly in transition zones between dry and humid regions.

  2. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  3. Control of particle precipitation by energy transfer from solar wind (United States)

    Bremer, J.; Gernandt, H.


    The energy transfer function (epsilon), introduced by Perreault and Akasofu (1978), appears to be well suited for the description of the long-term control of the particle precipitation by interplanetary parameters. An investigation was conducted with the objective to test this control in more detail. This investigation included the calculation of hourly epsilon values on the basis of satellite-measured solar wind and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) data. The results were compared with corresponding geomagnetic and ionospheric data. The ionospheric data had been obtained by three GDR (German Democratic Republic) teams during the 21st, 22nd, and 23rd Soviet Antarctic Expeditions in the time period from 1976 to 1979. It was found that, in high latitudes, the properties of the solar wind exercise a pronounced degree of control on the precipitation of energetic particles into the atmosphere, taking into account a time delay of about one hour due to the occurrence of magnetospheric storage processes.

  4. Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeele, W.V.


    I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.

  5. Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments


    Lien, Guo-Yuan; Kalnay, Eugenia; Miyoshi, Takemasa


    Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes i...

  6. Photoinduced tellurium precipitation in CdTe (United States)

    Sugai, Shunji


    Tellurium precipitation in CdTe is found to be induced by photoirradiation with energy higher than the energy gap at 240 W/sq cm. It is suggested that this photoinduced precipitation is related with the strong electron-phonon interactions, possibly self-trapped excitons. This irreducible tellurium precipitation may cause a serious problem for the life of semiconductor devices.

  7. An Algorithm for Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor over Land Based on Passive Microwave Satellite Data


    Fang-Cheng Zhou; Xiaoning Song; Pei Leng; Hua Wu; Bo-Hui Tang


    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is one of the most variable components of the atmosphere in both space and time. In this study, a passive microwave-based retrieval algorithm for PWV over land without land surface temperature (LST) data was developed. To build the algorithm, two assumptions exist: (1) land surface emissivities (LSE) at two adjacent frequencies are equal and (2) there are simple parameterizations that relate transmittance, atmospheric effective radiating temperature, and PWV. Er...

  8. Needs to Update Probable Maximum Precipitation for Critical Infrastructure (United States)

    Pathak, C. S.; England, J. F.


    Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is theoretically the greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration that is physically possible over a given size storm area at a particular geographical location at a certain time of the year. It is used to develop inflow flood hydrographs, known as Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), as design standard for high-risk flood-hazard structures, such as dams and nuclear power plants. PMP estimation methodology was developed in the 1930s and 40s when many dams were constructed in the US. The procedures to estimate PMP were later standardized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1973 and revised in 1986.In the US, PMP estimates were published in a series of Hydrometeorological Reports (e.g., HMR55A, HMR57, and HMR58/59) by the National Weather Service since 1950s. In these reports, storm data up to 1980s were used to establish the current PMP estimates. Since that time, we have acquired additional meteorological data for 30 to 40 years, including newly available radar and satellite based precipitation data. These data sets are expected to have improved data quality and availability in both time and space. In addition, significant numbers of extreme storms have occurred and selected numbers of these events were even close to or exceeding the current PMP estimates, in some cases. In the last 50 years, climate science has progressed and scientists have better and improved understanding of atmospheric physics of extreme storms. However, applied research in estimation of PMP has been lagging behind. Alternative methods, such as atmospheric numerical modeling, should be investigated for estimating PMP and associated uncertainties. It would be highly desirable if regional atmospheric numerical models could be utilized in the estimation of PMP and their uncertainties, in addition to methods used to originally develop PMP index maps in the existing hydrometeorological reports.

  9. Identifying Precipitation Types Using Dual-Polarization-Based Radar and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Data (United States)

    Seo, B. C.; Bradley, A.; Krajewski, W. F.


    The recent upgrade of dual-polarization with NEXRAD radars has assisted in improving the characterization of microphysical processes in precipitation and thus has enabled precipitation estimation based on the identified precipitation types. While this polarimetric capability promises the potential for the enhanced accuracy in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), recent studies show that the polarimetric estimates are still affected by uncertainties arising from the radar beam geometry/sampling space associated with the vertical variability of precipitation. The authors, first of all, focus on evaluating the NEXRAD hydrometeor classification product using ground reference data (e.g., ASOS) that provide simple categories of the observed precipitation types (e.g., rain, snow, and freezing rain). They also investigate classification uncertainty features caused by the variability of precipitation between the ground and the altitudes where radar samples. Since this variability is closely related to the atmospheric conditions (e.g., temperature) at near surface, useful information (e.g., critical thickness and temperature profile) that is not available in radar observations is retrieved from the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data such as Rapid Refresh (RAP)/High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR). The NWP retrieved information and polarimetric radar data are used together to improve the accuracy of precipitation type identification at near surface. The authors highlight major improvements and discuss limitations in the real-time application.

  10. Hybrid approach in statistical bias correction of projected precipitation for the frequency analysis of extreme events (United States)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Hanbeen; Heo, Jun-Haeng


    A general circulation model (GCM) can be applied to project future climate factors, such as precipitation and atmospheric temperature, to study hydrological and environmental climate change. Although many improvements in GCMs have been proposed recently, projected climate data are still required to be corrected for the biases in generating data before applying the model to practical applications. In this study, a new hybrid process was proposed, and its ability to perform bias correction for the prediction of annual precipitation and annual daily maxima, was tested. The hybrid process in this study was based on quantile mapping with the gamma and generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions and a spline technique to correct the bias of projected daily precipitation. The observed and projected daily precipitation values from the selected stations were analyzed using three bias correction methods, namely, linear scaling, quantile mapping, and hybrid methods. The performances of these methods were analyzed to find the optimal method for prediction of annual precipitation and annual daily maxima. The linear scaling method yielded the best results for estimating the annual average precipitation, while the hybrid method was optimal for predicting the variation in annual precipitation. The hybrid method described the statistical characteristics of the annual maximum series (AMS) similarly to the observed data. In addition, this method demonstrated the lowest root mean squared error (RMSE) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2) for predicting the quantiles of the AMS for the extreme value analysis of precipitation.

  11. Projected Precipitation Changes within the Great Lakes Region: A Multi-scale Analysis of Precipitation Intensity and Seasonality (United States)

    Basile, S.; Steiner, A. L.; Brown, D.; Bryan, A. M.


    The Great Lakes region supports a diverse network of agriculture, transportation and tourism centered on some of the largest freshwater bodies of water in the world. Precipitation affects these sectors as concerns about precipitation timing and intensity can affect the agricultural growing season, runoff, and subsequent water quality. Here, we examine precipitation projections for mid-century (2041-2065) within the Great Lakes basin (GLB) and two sub-regions using three climate model ensembles of varying resolutions to constrain and compare associated precipitation uncertainties. These include: 1. atmosphere-ocean models from the CMIP5 global simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (12 members, resolution ranging from ~1 to ~3 degrees), 2. dynamically downscaled regional climate models from NARCCAP with the SRES A2 scenario (4 members at ~0.5 degree resolution (50 km)), and 3. high resolution (~0.25 degree resolution (25 km)) regional climate model simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (RegCM (hereafter RCM3(HiRes)), 2 members). For the entire GLB, all three ensembles captured the intensity of historical events well, but with a bias in the high intensity precipitation events as compared to observed intensity, with fewer overprediction events by the NARCCAP and RCM3(HiRes) ensembles. Daily probability density functions from three model ensembles reveal consistent increases in high precipitation event probabilities for all seasons, even after accounting for wet model biases during the observation period (1980-1999). Comparing all three ensembles to the historical period for the GLB, both CMIP5 and NARCCAP ensembles capture the annual seasonal cycle with a wet bias in the winter and spring, while the RCM3(HiRes) ensemble shows a dry bias for all seasons except winter. For the Lake Michigan and Western Lake Erie basin sub-regions, the spring and winter biases remain present across ensembles, however the RCM3(HiRes) summer dry bias is reduced. Overall, the three climate

  12. Struvite Precipitation and Biological Dissolutions.


    Ezquerro, Ander


    Struvite is a salt that is formed out of  Mg2+,NH4+ and PO43- and it crystallizes in form of MgNH4PO4.6H2O. Struvite‟s (magnesium ammonium phosphate or MAP) precipitation has recently been regarded as an interesting technique to remove phosphate and ammonium from waste water. The high elimination rates and the possibility of recycling the struvite as a direct slow release fertilizer make this process feasible and appealing. However, the costs due to the raw chemicals needed are drawbacks that...

  13. Radiation Induced Precipitation in Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foils of iron have been neutron-irradiated in the Swedish re- search reactor R2 to integrated doses in the range 1017 - 1019 nvt (> 1 MeV) and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Features have been observed having diffraction contrast similar to that of the prismatic dislocation loops formed in f.c.c. metals by the collapse of point-defect clusters. The features have been shown to be due to precipitation of impurities at radiation damage centres in the iron matrix


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常钢; 李丽平; 周晋红


      Based on the 1960—2011 monthly precipitation data of 65 meteorological stations in Shanxi province, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and NOAA monthly sea surface temperature(SST) data, the harmonic analysis, SVD method, Monte Carlo statistical test, EOF method and composite analysis method are used to study the interdecadal variation of summer precipitation in Shanxi and its relationship with the general circulation and the SST abnormalities in Indian Ocean. Results show that summer precipitation of Shanxi has a decreasing trend in the recent 52 years, and it presents a significant interdecadal variation characteristic that more precipitation happened from the early 1960's to early 1980's while less precipitation occurred from the mid-1980's to 2011. The spatial distributions of summer precipitation in Shanxi include consistent type (more or less precipitation in entire Shanxi) and north-south type(more precipitation in north(south), less precipitation in south(north)). There has significant negative correlation between summer rainfall of Shanxi and SST of key area in India ocean, when the SST is anomaly higher in last autumn and winter, this summer precipitation of Shanxi decreases, and vice versa. Before 1982, the SST was lower, the northeast cold vortex and the trough at 500 hPa over Ural Mountains and northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were deeper and more active, and the west Pacific subtropical high was weaker and locates more easterly, and the synchronous low-latitude westerly winds and the mid-latitude 850 hPa-southwest wind unusually strengthened and the vortex over Lake Baikal was active. After 1982, the SST was higher, from Lake Baikal to northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau are controlled by high pressure, and the intensity of the 500 hPa western Pacific subtropical high was stronger and located more western. The 850 hPa mid-latitude southwest wind was unusually weaker.%  利用山西省65个气象站1960—2011年逐月降水资料、NCEP/NCAR再分析资

  15. Climatology of Vb-cyclones, physical mechanisms and their impact on extreme precipitation over Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Messmer


    Full Text Available Cyclones, which develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward are a major source of extreme weather and known to be responsible for heavy precipitation over Central Europe and the Alps. As the relevant processes triggering these so-called Vb-events and their impact on extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood, this study focusses on gaining insight into the dynamics of past events. For this, a cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979–2013 to identify prominent Vb-situations. Precipitation in the ERA-Interim and the E-OBS datasets is used to evaluate case-to-case precipitation amounts and to assess consistency between the two datasets. Both datasets exhibit high variability in precipitation amounts among different Vb-events. While only 23 % of all Vb-events are associated with extreme precipitation, around 15 % of all extreme precipitation days (99 percentile over the Alpine region are induced by Vb-events, although Vb-cyclones are rare events (2.3 per year. To obtain a better understanding of the variability within Vb-events, the analysis of the 10 heaviest and lowest precipitation Vb-events reveals noticeable differences in the state of the atmosphere. These differences are most pronounced in the geopotential height and potential vorticity field, indicating a much stronger cyclone for heavy precipitation events. The related differences in wind direction are responsible for the moisture transport around the Alps and the orographical lifting along the Alps. These effects are the main reasons for a disastrous outcome of Vb-events, and consequently are absent in the Vb-events associated with low precipitation. Hence, our results point out that heavy precipitation related to Vb-events is mainly related to large-scale dynamics rather than to thermodynamic processes.

  16. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects (United States)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun


    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  17. Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — First is the monitoring product for the period 2007 to present, based on quality-controlled data from 7,000 stations. The second is the Full Data Product (V7)for...

  18. Homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate which was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75 degrees C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature

  19. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.


    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  20. The Contribution of Extreme Precipitation to the Total Precipitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-Qi


    Using daily precipitation data from weather stations in China, the variations in the contribution of extreme precipitation to the total precipitation are analyzed. It is found that extreme precipitation accounts for approximately one third of the total precipitation based on the overall mean for China. Over the past half century, extreme precipitation has played a dominant role in the year-to-year variability of the total precipitation. On the decadal time scale, the extreme precipitation makes different contributions to the wetting and drying regions of China. The wetting trends of particular regions are mainly attributed to increases in extreme precipitation; in contrast, the drying trends of other regions are mainly due to decreases in non-extreme precipitation.

  1. Estimating Tropical Cyclone Precipitation from Station Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fumin; WANG Yongmei; WANG Xiaoling; LI Weijing


    In this paper, an objective technique for estimating the tropical cyclone (TC) precipitation from station observations is proposed. Based on a comparison between the Original Objective Method (OOM) and the Expert Subjective Method (ESM), the Objective Synoptic Analysis Technique (OSAT) for partitioning TC precipitation was developed by analyzing the western North Pacific (WNP) TC historical track and the daily precipitation datasets. Being an objective way of the ESM, OSAT overcomes the main problems in OOM,by changing two fixed parameters in OOM, the thresholds for the distance of the absolute TC precipitation (D0) and the TC size (D1), into variable parameters.Case verification for OSAT was also carried out by applying CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique) daily precipitation measurements, which is NOAA's combined satellite precipitation measurement system. This indicates that OSAT is capable of distinguishing simultaneous TC precipitation rain-belts from those associated with different TCs or with middle-latitude weather systems.

  2. Heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavrakis


    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to investigate the possible temporal correlation between heavy precipitation episodes and cosmic rays' activity, on various time scales. Cosmic rays measurements are sparse and cover less extended periods than those of precipitation. Precipitation is largely influenced by local climatic and even physiographic conditions, while cosmic rays' distribution is far more uniform over an area. Thus, in an effort to cover a larger range of climatic characteristics, each cosmic rays station was correlated with several nearby precipitation stations. Selected statistical methods were employed for the data processing. The analysis was preformed on annual, seasonal, monthly and daily basis whenever possible. Wet and dry regions and/or seasons seem to present a different response of precipitation to cosmic rays variations. Also Forbush decreases in most cases will not lead to heavy precipitation, yet this might be sensitive to precipitable water availability.

  3. Short period forecasting of catchment-scale precipitation. Part I: the role of Numerical Weather Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Pedder


    Full Text Available A deterministic forecast of surface precipitation involves solving a time-dependent moisture balance equation satisfying conservation of total water substance. A realistic solution needs to take into account feedback between atmospheric dynamics and the diabatic sources of heat energy associated with phase changes, as well as complex microphysical processes controlling the conversion between cloud water (or ice and precipitation. Such processes are taken into account either explicitly or via physical parameterisation schemes in many operational numerical weather prediction models; these can therefore generate precipitation forecasts which are fully consistent with the predicted evolution of the atmospheric state as measured by observations of temperature, wind, pressure and humidity. This paper reviews briefly the atmospheric moisture balance equation and how it may be solved in practice. Solutions are obtained using the Meteorological Office Mesoscale version of its operational Unified Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model; they verify predicted precipitation rates against catchment-scale values based on observations collected during an Intensive Observation Period (IOP of HYREX. Results highlight some limitations of an operational NWP forecast in providing adequate time and space resolution, and its sensitivity to initial conditions. The large-scale model forecast can, nevertheless, provide important information about the moist dynamical environment which could be incorporated usefully into a higher resolution, ‘storm-resolving’ prediction scheme. Keywords: Precipitation forecasting; moisture budget; numerical weather prediction

  4. Remote sensing of precipitable water over the oceans from Nimbus-7 microwave measurements (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Change, H. D.; Chang, A. T. C.


    Global maps of precipitable water over derived from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data reveal salient features associated with ocean currents and the large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. Nimbus-7 SMMR brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmospheric over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T sub 21 -T sub 18), both in the horizontal and vertical polarization, is found to be essentially a function of the precipitable water in the atmosphere. An equation, based on the physical consideration of the radiative transfer in the microwave region, is developed to relate the precipitable water to (T sub 21 - T sub 18). It shows that the signal (T sub 21- T sub 18) does not suffer severely from the noise introduced by variations in the sea surface temperature, surface winds, and liquid water content in non rain clouds. The rms deviation between the estimated precipitable water from SMMR data and that given by the closely coincident ship radiosondes is about 0.25 g/ sq cm

  5. Radiative feedbacks on global precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative kernel technique is employed to quantify twenty-first century changes to the tropospheric energy budget in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models in order to better understand changes in global-mean precipitation. The strongest feedbacks on the tropospheric radiative cooling are found to be associated with increases in temperature and water vapor, with the water vapor feedback offsetting a significant portion (∼39%) of the increase in radiative cooling due to higher temperatures. Cloud and surface sensible heat flux feedbacks, though not as large in magnitude as the temperature and water vapor feedbacks, are important contributors to the intermodel difference in the global precipitation response to warming, or hydrological sensitivity. The direct effects of radiative forcing agents on the tropospheric energy budget are also important. Rising CO2 levels reduce tropospheric radiative cooling and hence limit the increase in global rainfall. Additionally, in some of the models, further reductions in radiative cooling occur due to increases in absorbing aerosol, suggesting that differences in aerosol forcing can explain part of the difference in hydrological sensitivity between models.

  6. Hemispheric Assymeries in Auroral Precipitation (United States)

    Mende, S. B.


    It is widely accepted that the space weather related electrodynamic forcing of the geospace environment acts through the high geomagnetic latitude regions. At high latitudes inter-hemispheric asymmetries are largely due to the differences in solar illumination, the direction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field components and to a lesser extent, due to differences between the two hemispheric internal fields. So far most research regarding interhemispheric differences concentrated on learning about the basic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms. It has been well established that sunlit conditions affect the energy flux of auroral precipitation resulting from the reduction in the mean energy of the auroral electrons in the sunlit summer hemisphere. This can be explained by the partial shorting out of the particle accelerating fields by the sunlight induced conductivity. It has also been found that sunlit conditions reduce the particle fluxes and therefore the associated field aligned currents. Unless the precipitation-induced conductivities overwhelm the sunlit component of conductivity, this would imply that the magnetospheric current generator responds to the ionospheric load in a highly non-linear manner. Interhemispheric currents may also play an important role that has not been fully explored. Interhemispheric asymmetries in substorm morphology have been explored critically because conjugacy implies that substorms have a common source at equatorial latitudes. In some cases the lack of conjugacy of substorms could be explained by considering the magnitude and direction of the IMF.

  7. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.


    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  8. Metallic elements and isotope of Pb in wet precipitation in urban area, South America (United States)

    Migliavacca, Daniela Montanari; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Gervasoni, Fernanda; Conceição, Rommulo Vieira; Raya Rodriguez, Maria Teresa


    The atmosphere of urban areas has been the subject of many studies to show the atmospheric pollution in large urban centers. By quantifying wet precipitation through the analysis of metallic elements (ICP/AES) and Pb isotopes, the wet precipitation of the Metropolitan Area of the Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, was characterized. The samples were collected between July 2005 and December 2007. Zn, Fe and Mn showed the highest concentration in studied sites. Sapucaia do Sul showed the highest average for Zn, due to influence by the steel plant located near the sampling site. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions from vehicular activity and steel plants in wet precipitation and suspended particulate matter in the MAPA was identified by the isotopic signatures of 208Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/207Pb. Moreover the analyses of the metallic elements allowed also to identify the contribution of other anthropic sources, such as steel plants and oil refinery.

  9. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [University of North Dakota


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (ARM AAF) counter-flow spectrometer and impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX). The field campaign took place during May and June of 2014 over North Carolina and its coastal waters as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, which is a civilian version of the Air Force’s U2-S reconnaissance platform. The ACE program funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the Atmospheric System Research program sponsored by DOE.

  10. Temporal variation of stable isotopes in precipitation at Bangkok, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Some studies discussed spatial and temporal variability of the stable isotope composition of precipitation in the Asia Pacific region. However, the relationship between isotope signature of precipitation and climate is not well understood, because the long-term isotopic data in precipitation is limited. The purpose of this study is to understand the observed by the IAEA/GNIP network. (author) period and, on the other precipitation mechanism in Monsoon Asia region in response with El Nino/Southern Oscillation. The monthly averaged stable isotopes (Oxygen-18, Deuterium) in precipitation and meteorological data for the period of 1968 to 1995 at Bangkok (13.73 deg N, 100.5 deg E), which are provided by the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation. The vertically integrated precipitable water and moisture flux datasets in NCEP/NCAR global atmospheric reanalysis with 2.5 deg. x 2.5 deg. resolution are used to determine the circulation anomalies for the period of 1979 to 1995. To consider the influence of El Nino/Southern Oscillation to precipitation in Bangkok, correlations between oxygen-18 of precipitation and SST in Nino-3 region (that is ENSO index) are considered for each month. The positive correlations with statistically 95% significant level are found only May and October, which is onset and offset period of Asian Monsoon in Thailand. The correlation coefficient is 0.39 for May and 0.62 for October. The isotopic low-phase years in May are 1981, 86, 88 and 91, and isotopic high-phase years are 1979, 80, 83, 87, 92, 94 and 95. Also, the isotopic low-phase year in October are 1988, 90 and 95, and isotopic high-phase years are 1979, 80, 82, 91 and 94. The large-scale circulation fields are considered to elucidate the cause the variations of stable isotopes in precipitation and its relation to ENSO. Composite mean of precipitable water (PW) and moisture flux (UQ, VQ) anomalies for isotopic low and high phases in May and October are considered. An

  11. Observations and Modeling of Tropical Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Laraia, Anne


    This thesis is a comprised of three different projects within the topic of tropical atmospheric dynamics. First, I analyze observations of thermal radiation from Saturn's atmosphere and from them, determine the latitudinal distribution of ammonia vapor near the 1.5-bar pressure level. The most prominent feature of the observations is the high brightness temperature of Saturn's subtropical latitudes on either side of the equator. After comparing the observations to a microwave radiative transfer model, I find that these subtropical bands require very low ammonia relative humidity below the ammonia cloud layer in order to achieve the high brightness temperatures observed. We suggest that these bright subtropical bands represent dry zones created by a meridionally overturning circulation. Second, I use a dry atmospheric general circulation model to study equatorial superrotation in terrestrial atmospheres. A wide range of atmospheres are simulated by varying three parameters: the pole-equator radiative equilibrium temperature contrast, the convective lapse rate, and the planetary rotation rate. A scaling theory is developed that establishes conditions under which superrotation occurs in terrestrial atmospheres. The scaling arguments show that superrotation is favored when the off-equatorial baroclinicity and planetary rotation rates are low. Similarly, superrotation is favored when the convective heating strengthens, which may account for the superrotation seen in extreme global-warming simulations. Third, I use a moist slab-ocean general circulation model to study the impact of a zonally-symmetric continent on the distribution of monsoonal precipitation. I show that adding a hemispheric asymmetry in surface heat capacity is sufficient to cause symmetry breaking in both the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation. This spatial symmetry breaking can be understood from a large-scale energetic perspective, while the temporal symmetry breaking requires

  12. Land use change suppresses precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Junkermann


    Full Text Available A feedback loop between regional scale deforestation and climate change was investigated in an experiment using novel, small size airborne platforms and instrument setups. Experiments were performed in a worldwide unique natural laboratory in Western Australia, characterized by two adjacent homogeneous observation areas with distinctly different land use characteristics. Conversion of several ten thousand square km of forests into agricultural land began more than a century ago. Changes in albedo and surface roughness and the water budget of soil and the planetary boundary layer evolved over decades. Besides different meteorology we found a significant up to now overseen source of aerosol over the agriculture. The enhanced number of cloud condensation nuclei is coupled through the hydrological groundwater cycle with deforestation. Modification of surface properties and aerosol number concentrations are key factors for the observed reduction of precipitation. The results document the importance of aerosol indirect effects on climate due to nanometer size biogenic aerosol and human impact on aerosol sources.

  13. The influence of large-scale climate phenomena on precipitation in the Ordos Basin, China (United States)

    Zhong, Yu; Lei, Liyuan; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong; Zou, Chris; Zhan, Hongbin


    Large-scale atmospheric circulations significantly affect regional precipitation patterns. However, it is not well known whether and how these phenomena affect regional precipitation distribution in northern China. This paper reported the individual and coupled effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian summer monsoon (ISM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on annual precipitation for the Ordos Basin, an arid and semi-arid basin, currently with major industries of coal, fossil oil, natural gas, and halite in north central China. Our results showed that ENSO and ISM exerted substantial impact on annual precipitation while the impact of PDO and AMO was relatively limited. There were 24 and 15 out of 33 stations showing significant differences (p planning and disaster management for the Ordos Basin.

  14. The influence of large-scale climate phenomena on precipitation in the Ordos Basin, China (United States)

    Zhong, Yu; Lei, Liyuan; Liu, Youcun; Hao, Yonghong; Zou, Chris; Zhan, Hongbin


    Large-scale atmospheric circulations significantly affect regional precipitation patterns. However, it is not well known whether and how these phenomena affect regional precipitation distribution in northern China. This paper reported the individual and coupled effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian summer monsoon (ISM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) on annual precipitation for the Ordos Basin, an arid and semi-arid basin, currently with major industries of coal, fossil oil, natural gas, and halite in north central China. Our results showed that ENSO and ISM exerted substantial impact on annual precipitation while the impact of PDO and AMO was relatively limited. There were 24 and 15 out of 33 stations showing significant differences (p Land) in the center of the basin were less affected by these large-scale climatic phenomena. An improved understanding of such relationships would be helpful in water resource planning and disaster management for the Ordos Basin.

  15. Springtime precipitation effects on the abundance of fluorescent biological aerosol particles and HULIS in Beijing (United States)

    Yue, Siyao; Ren, Hong; Fan, Songyun; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing


    Bioaerosols and humic-like substances (HULIS) are important components of atmospheric aerosols, which can affect regional climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and some of which can damage human health. Up to date, release of bioaerosols and HULIS initiated by precipitation is still poorly understood. Here we present different release processes for bioaerosols, non-bioaerosols and HULIS during a precipitation event in Beijing, China. Large fungal-spore-like aerosols were emitted at the onset and later weak stage of precipitation, the number concentration of which increased by more than two folds, while the number concentration of bacteria-like particles doubled when the precipitation strengthened. Besides, a good correlation between protein-like substances that were measured simultaneously by on-line and off-line fluorescence techniques consolidated their applications to measure bioaerosols. Furthermore, our EEM results suggest that the relative contribution of water-soluble HULIS to microbial materials was enhanced gradually by the rain event.

  16. Marcasite precipitation from hydrothermal solutions (United States)

    Murowchick, James B.; Barnes, H. L.


    Pyrite and marcasite were precipitated by both slow addition of aqueous Fe2+ and SiO32- to an H2S solution and by mixing aqueous Fe2+ and Na2S4 solutions at 75°C. H2S2 or HS2- and H2S4 or HS4- were formed in the S2O32- and Na2S4 experiments, respectively. Marcasite formed at pH dependent precipitation of pyrite and marcasite may be caused by electrostatic interactions between polysulfide species and pyrite or marcasite growth surfaces: the protonated ends of H2S2 and HS2 are repelled from pyrite growth sites but not from marcasite growth sites. The negative ions HS2 and S22- are strongly attracted to the positive pyrite growth sites. Masking of 1πg* electrons in the S2 group by the protons makes HS2 and H2S2 isoelectronic with AsS2- and As22-, respectively (TOSSELLet al., 1981). Thus, the loellingitederivative structure (marcasite) results when both ends of the polysulfide are protonated. Marcasite occurs abundantly only for conditions below pH 5 and where H2S2 was formed near the site of deposition by either partial oxidation of aqueous H2S by O2 or by the reaction of higher oxidation state sulfur species that are reactive with H2S at the conditions of formation e.g., S2O32- but not SO42-. The temperature of formation of natural marcasite may be as high as 240°C (HANNINGTON and SCOTT, 1985), but preservation on a multimillion-year scale seems to require post-depositional temperatures of below about 160°C (RISING, 1973; MCKIBBEN and ELDERS, 1985).

  17. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger


    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  18. CMORPH 8 Km: A Method that Produces Global Precipitation Estimates from Passive Microwave and Infrared Data at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A new technique is presented in which half-hourly global precipitation estimates derived from passive microwave satellite scans are propagated by motion vectors...

  19. Prediction of winter precipitation over northwest India using ocean heat fluxes (United States)

    Nageswararao, M. M.; Mohanty, U. C.; Osuri, Krishna K.; Ramakrishna, S. S. V. S.


    The winter precipitation (December-February) over northwest India (NWI) is highly variable in terms of time and space. The maximum precipitation occurs over the Himalaya region and decreases towards south of NWI. The winter precipitation is important for water resources and agriculture sectors over the region and for the economy of the country. It is an exigent task to the scientific community to provide a seasonal outlook for the regional scale precipitation. The oceanic heat fluxes are known to have a strong linkage with the ocean and atmosphere. Henceforth, in this study, we obtained the relationship of NWI winter precipitation with total downward ocean heat fluxes at the global ocean surface, 15 regions with significant correlations are identified from August to November at 90 % confidence level. These strong relations encourage developing an empirical model for predicting winter precipitation over NWI. The multiple linear regression (MLR) and principal component regression (PCR) models are developed and evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. The developed regression models are able to predict the winter precipitation patterns over NWI with significant (99 % confidence level) index of agreement and correlations. Moreover, these models capture the signals of extremes, but could not reach the peaks (excess and deficit) of the observations. PCR performs better than MLR for predicting winter precipitation over NWI. Therefore, the total downward ocean heat fluxes at surface from August to November are having a significant impact on seasonal winter precipitation over the NWI. It concludes that these interrelationships are more useful for the development of empirical models and feasible to predict the winter precipitation over NWI with sufficient lead-time (in advance) for various risk management sectors.

  20. The impact of extreme precipitation on plant growth and water relations (United States)

    Zeppel, M.; Lehmann, C.; Lewis, J. D.; Medlyn, B. E.


    Background The global hydrological cycle is predicted to become more intense, or extreme in future climates, with both larger precipitation events and longer times between events. The resulting wide fluctuations in soil water content (long droughts followed by flooding) may dramatically affect terrestrial ecosystems. Although effects of drought are well studied, tree responses to changed timing of precipitation are mostly unknown. Further, in future extreme precipitation is likely to occur in conjunction with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations [CO2]. We tested the impact of extreme precipitation and elevated [CO2] on plant growth and water relations. Methods/results Ten Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus tetradonta saplings were grown in glasshouses, with ambient (380 p.p.m.) and elevated (600 p.p.m.) [CO2] and subject to ambient (1L weekly) and extreme (2L fortnightly) watering conditions (four treatments). We tested whether: (1) plants would show differential water stress and growth under extreme precipitation compared with ambient water treatments; and (2) plants would show differential water stress and growth responses under elevated compared with ambient [CO2] treatments. We found that the extreme precipitation, compared to ambient precipitation, lead to more water stressed plants, with more negative leaf water potential and lower stomatal conductance in both species. Further, plants experiencing extreme precipitation had a higher proportion of root volume at depth within the Eucalyptus. In contrast, the root depth of Acacia was similar across all treatments. Leaf area was smaller in extreme precipitation compared with ambient for Acacias, whereas leaf area was comparable across watering treatments in Eucalypts. Elevated CO2 had no impact on leaf water potential, stomatal conductance during the day or proportion of root depth. The Acacia, from tropical dry forest ecosystems, showed more signs of water stress (more negative leaf water potential and lower

  1. A study of the relationship between cloud-to-ground lightning and precipitation in the convective weather system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, the correlation between cloud-to-ground (CG lightning and precipitation has been studied by making use of the data from weather radar, meteorological soundings, and a lightning location system that includes three direction finders about 40 km apart from each other in the Pingliang area of east Gansu province in P. R. China. We have studied the convective systems that developed during two cold front processes passing over the observation area, and found that the CG lightning can be an important factor in the precipitation estimation. The regression equation between the average precipitation intensity (R and the number of CG lightning flashes (L in the main precipitation period is R = 1.69 ln (L - 0.27, and the correlation coefficient r is 0.86. The CG lightning flash rate can be used as an indicator of the formation and development of the convective weather system. Another more exhaustive precipitation estimation method has been developed by analyzing the temporal and spatial distributions of the precipitation relative to the location of the CG lightning flashes. Precipitation calculated from the CG lightning flashes is very useful, especially in regions with inadequate radar cover.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity; lightning; precipitation

  2. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle


    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the replacement of tropical rainforest for pasture and agriculture and the replacement of agricultural areas for pasture, scrubland, and deciduous forest.

  3. Variation of precipitation in Langtang Valley,Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xinping


    [1]Araguas-Araguas ,L Froehlich K Rozanski JK Stable isotoe composition over aSla Journal of Gepohpsicrch ,1998,103(28):721-742[2]Dansgaard W Stabnle isotopes in precipitation Tellus ,1994,16(4):436-468[3]Fricke H C O,Neil J R Thje correlation between O/O ratios of meroric water anbd surfacr temperature ,its use in inverstigating terrestiral cleimate chang over geologic time Earch and Planetary Science Letters ,1999,170:181-196[4]Rozanski ,K Araguas L Gonfiantini R R ealtion between long-term trensd of ocuyen -18 isotope compsition of pre-ciptayion and climate Scinese ,1992,258:981-985[5]Jouzel, J., Froehlich, K., Schotterer, U, Deuterium and oxyen-18 in present-day precipitation: data and modeling, Journal of Hydrological Sciences, 1997, 42(5): 747-763.[6]Zhang, X. P., Shi, Y. F., Yao, T. D., Variational features of precipitation δ 18O in Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Science in China. Set. B, 1995,38(7): 854-864.[7]Dansgaard, W., The abundance of 18O in atmospheric water and water vapor, Tellus, 1953,5(4): 461-469.[8]Jouzel. J., Isotopes in cloud: multiphase and multistage condensation process, in Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry (2), Amsterdam-Oxford-New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1986, 61-112.[9]Jouzel, J., Russell, G. L., Suozzo, R. J. et al., Simulations of HDO and H218O atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS general circulation model: the seasonal cycle for present-day conditions, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1987,92( 14):739-760.[10]Zhang, X. P., Variation of dδ 18O/dT in precipitation in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Chinese Geographical Science, 1997,7: 339-346.[11]Siegenthaler, U., Oeschger, H., Correlation of 18O in precipitation with temperature and altitude, Nature, 1980, 285:314319.[12]Rozanski, K, Johnson, S. J., Schotterer, U. et al., Reconstruction of past climates from stable isotope records of palaeo-precipitation preserved in continental archives, Journal of

  4. Consequences of more extreme precipitation regimes for terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Briske, David [Texas A& M University; Classen, Aimee T [ORNL; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Reichstein, Markus [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Smith, Melinda D [Yale University; Smith, Stanley D [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Bell, Jesse E [University of Oklahoma; Fay, Philip [ORNL; Heisler, Jana A [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Leavitt, Steven W [unknown; Sherry, Rebecca [University of Oklahoma; Smith, Ben [unknown; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Norby, Richard J [ORNL


    Amplification of the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of global warming, is forecast to be manifest not only by alterations in total annual precipitation, but also through more extreme precipitation regimes characterized by larger rainfall events and more severe intervening drought periods. Based on past studies and theory, we present a conceptual framework for predicting the consequences of this projected change in intra-annual rainfall patterns for terrestrial ecosystems arrayed along a broad gradient in water availability. More extreme rainfall regimes are predicted to increase the occurrence of periodic soil water stress in mesic ecosystems due to prolonged dry periods between rainfall events. In contrast, xeric ecosystems may exhibit the opposite response because a shift to a greater proportion of rainfall delivered in large precipitation events will result in reduced proportional evaporative losses per storm event and greater soil water storage, alleviating soil water stress for longer periods of time. Hydric ecosystems may experience reduced periods of anoxia if intervals between rainfall events increase. This contingent effect of the overall soil water balance on ecosystem responses will likely cascade through all hierarchical levels of ecological processes and interact in ways currently unknown with related global change drivers such as elevated atmospheric temperatures and CO2 concentrations. Thus, multi-factor comparative experiments and systems modeling approaches are needed to more fully understand and forecast the potential ecological consequences of this underappreciated aspect of climate change.

  5. Experimental study of diffuse auroral precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First chapter is devoted to low energy electron precipitation in the evening sector of the auroral magnetosphere, during quiet and disturbed magnetic periods. Four subjects are studied in detail: the latitude distribution of the varied auroral forms and their relations to external magnetosphere; the time coefficients related to precipitations, the form and the dynamic of the diffuse precipitation equatorial frontier; the precipitation effect on the ionosphere concentration. The last part of the chapter shows that the plasma convection in the magnetosphere, associated to wave-particle interactions near the equatorial accounts for the principal characteristics of the evening sector diffuse electronic precipitations. The second chapter deals with subauroral precipitations of low energy ions, after the magnetospheric substorms, in the high latitude regions of the morning sector

  6. Estimating Global Precipitation for Science and Application (United States)

    Huffman, George J.


    Over the past two decades there has been vigorous development in the satellite assets and the algorithms necessary to estimate precipitation around the globe. In particular the highly successful joint NASAJAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, also joint between NASA and JAXA, have driven these issues. At the same time, the long-running Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) continues to extend a stable, climate-oriented view of global precipitation. This talk will provide an overview of these projects and the wider international community of precipitation datasets, sketch plans for next-generation products, and provide some examples of the best use for the different products. One key lesson learned is that different data sets are needed to address the variety of issues that need precipitation data, including detailed 3-D views of hurricanes, flash flood forecasting, drought analysis, and global change.

  7. Long-term regional precipitation disparity in northwestern China and its driving forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Lee


    Full Text Available Subject to the unique physical setting of northwestern China (NW China, precipitation in the region is characterized by salient regional differences. Yet, the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China still remains insufficiently-explored. In the present study, we base on historical documentation to reconstruct the precipitation indices of two macro regions in NW China between AD580–1979 to address the following issues: (1 determine the multi-decadal to centennial regional precipitation disparity in NW China, a topic which has not been systematically examined in previous paleo-climate/paleo-environment studies; and (2 find the major driving forces behind it. Wavelet analysis, which is ideal for analyzing non-stationary systems, is applied. Our results show that there is significant regional discrepancy of precipitation change in NW China over extended period. Although there is significant association between the regional precipitation disparity in NW China and various modes of atmospheric circulation, the association is characterized by a regime shift during the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Most importantly, the low-frequency cycle of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation is found to be the most prominent pacemaker of regional precipitation disparity in NW China at the multi-decadal to centennial timescales. Our findings help to demonstrate which atmospheric circulation is primarily responsible for the long-term regional precipitation disparity in NW China, which may have important implications for water resource management in NW China in the near future.

  8. The impact of energetic electron precipitation on mesospheric hydroxyl during a year of solar minimum (United States)

    Zawedde, Annet Eva; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Hibbins, Robert; Espy, Patrick J.; Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Sandanger, Marit Irene; Stadsnes, Johan


    In 2008 a sequence of geomagnetic storms occurred triggered by high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes. Improved estimates of precipitating fluxes of energetic electrons are derived from measurements on board the NOAA/POES 18 satellite using a new analysis technique. These fluxes are used to quantify the direct impact of energetic electron precipitation (EEP) during solar minimum on middle atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) measured from the Aura satellite. During winter, localized longitudinal density enhancements in the OH are observed over northern Russia and North America at corrected geomagnetic latitudes poleward of 55°. Although the northern Russia OH enhancement is closely associated with increased EEP at these longitudes, the strength and location of the North America enhancement appear to be unrelated to EEP. This OH density enhancement is likely due to vertical motion induced by atmospheric wave dynamics that transports air rich in atomic oxygen and atomic hydrogen downward into the middle atmosphere, where it plays a role in the formation of OH. In the Southern Hemisphere, localized enhancements of the OH density over West Antarctica can be explained by a combination of enhanced EEP due to the local minimum in Earth's magnetic field strength and atmospheric dynamics. Our findings suggest that even during solar minimum, there is substantial EEP-driven OH production. However, to quantify this effect, a detailed knowledge of where and when the precipitation occurs is required in the context of the background atmospheric dynamics.

  9. Sputtering at Mars: MAVEN observations of precipitating and escaping oxygen during nominal and extreme conditions (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Leblanc, Francois; Modolo, Ronan; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Hara, Takuya; Halekas, Jasper; Dong, Yaxue; Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David; Connerney, Jack; Eparvier, Frank; Lillis, Robert J.; Jakosky, Bruce


    Sputtering is believed to be one of the dominant escape mechanisms during the early epochs of our solar system when the solar activity and EUV intensities were much higher than the present day. Mars lacks a global dynamo magnetic field, which creates a scenario where the solar wind directly interacts with the upper atmosphere and newly created ions can be picked up and swept away by the background convection electric field. These pick-up ions can directly escape or precipitate back into the atmosphere and induce atmospheric sputtering of neutrals.The MAVEN spacecraft has observed the Mars upper atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetic topology and interactions with the Sun and solar wind during numerous Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) impacts spanning from March 2015 to June 2016. ICMEs are associated with enhanced solar wind velocities, densities and magnetic field strength, and often drive heavy ion precipitation at much higher rates than during nominal conditions. Thus, ICMEs provide a unique environment for observing sputtering. We will compare MAVEN observations of heavy ion precipitation during nominal conditions as well as during ICMEs. Additionally, we will present global MHD and test particle simulations of the ICMEs in order to calculate sputtering escape rates for oxygen. Finally, we will use the observed and modeled sputtering escape rates to provide an initial estimate of the total sputtered atmospheric escape from Mars over billions of years.

  10. Modelling monthly precipitation with circulation weather types for a dense network of stations over Iberia (United States)

    Cortesi, N.; Trigo, R. M.; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, J. C.; Ramos, A. M.


    Precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) is highly variable and shows large spatial contrasts between wet mountainous regions to the north, and dry regions in the inland plains and southern areas. In this work, we modelled the relationship between atmospheric circulation weather types (WTs) and monthly precipitation for the wet half of the year (October to May) using a 10 km grid derived from a high-density dataset for the IP (3030 precipitation series, overall mean density one station each 200 km2). We detected two spatial gradients in the relationship between WTs and precipitation. The percentage of monthly precipitation explained by WTs varies from northwest (higher variance explained) to southeast (lower variance explained). Additionally, in the IP the number of WTs that contribute significantly to monthly precipitation increase systematically from east to west. Generally speaking, the model performance is better to the west than to the east where the WTs approach produce the less accurate results. We applied the WTs modelling approach to reconstruct the long-term precipitation time series for three major stations of Iberia (Lisbon, Madrid, Valencia).

  11. The link between convective organization and extreme precipitation in a warming climate (United States)

    Pendergrass, Angeline


    The rate of increase of extreme precipitation in response to global warming varies dramatically across simulations of warming with different climate models, particularly over the tropical oceans, for reasons that have yet to be established. Here, we propose one possible mechanism: changing organization of convection with climate. Recently, self-organization of convection has been studied in global radiative-convective equilibrium climate model simulations. We analyze a set of 20 simulations forced by fixed SSTs at 2 degree increments from 287 to 307 K with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). In these simulations, a transition from unorganized to organized convection occurs at just over 300 K. Precipitation extremes increase steadily with warming before and after the transition from unorganized to organized states, but at the transition the change in extreme precipitation is much larger. We develop a metric for convective organization in conjunction with the characteristics of extreme precipitation events (defined as events with precipitation over a percentile threshold of daily rainfall accumulation): the number of events, their area, their lifetime, and their mean rainfall, and use this to explore the connection between extreme precipitation and organization. We also apply this metric to CMIP5 simulations to evaluate whether our mechanism has bearing on the range of tropical ocean extreme precipitation response across this set of comprehensive climate models.

  12. A global ETCCDI based precipitation climatology from satellite and rain gauge measurements (United States)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas


    The project framework MiKlip ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen") is focused onto the development of an operational forecast system for decadal climate predictions. The objective of the "Daily Precipitation Analysis for the validation of Global medium-range Climate predictions Operationalized" (DAPAGLOCO) project, is the development and operationalization of a global precipitation dataset for forecast validation of the MPI-ESM experiments used in MiKlip. The dataset is a combination of rain gauge measurement data over land and satellite-based precipitation retrievals over ocean. Over land, gauge data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used. Over ocean, retrievals from the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) dataset are used as data source. The currently available dataset consists of 21 years of data (1988-2008) and has a spatial resolution of 1°. So far, the MiKlip forecast validation is based upon the Expert Team on Climate Change and Detection Indices (ETCCDI). These indices focus on precipitation extrema in terms of spell durations, percentiles, averaged precipitation amounts and further more. The application of these indices on the DAPAGLOCO dataset in its current state delivers insight into the global distribution of precipitation characteristics and extreme events. The resulting global patterns of these characteristics and extrema are the main objective of the presentation.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Grušaitė


    Full Text Available Analysis is based on a 36-year record (1971–2006 of daily precipitation at 17 meteorological stations throughout Lithuania. The obtained data was used to investigate the spatial properties of the precipitation fields of monthly decadals (10-days. The average, minimum and maximum correlation coefficients of decadals were estimated. A spatial correlation of precipitation was created among all meteorological stations in Lithuania.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Lithuania


    Viktorija Grušaitė


    Analysis is based on a 36-year record (1971–2006) of daily precipitation at 17 meteorological stations throughout Lithuania. The obtained data was used to investigate the spatial properties of the precipitation fields of monthly decadals (10-days). The average, minimum and maximum correlation coefficients of decadals were estimated. A spatial correlation of precipitation was created among all meteorological stations in Lithuania.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Improved Electronic Control for Electrostatic Precipitators (United States)

    Johnston, D. F.


    Electrostatic precipitators remove particulate matter from smoke created by burning refuse. Smoke exposed to electrostatic field, and particles become electrically charged and migrate to electrically charged collecting surfaces. New microprocessor-based electronic control maintains precipitator power at maximum particulate-collection level. Control automatically senses changes in smoke composition due to variations in fuel or combustion and adjusts precipitator voltage and current accordingly. Also, sensitive yet stable fault detection provided.

  16. Observation of solid precipitation using satellite gravity (United States)

    Seo, K.; Waliser, D. E.; Ryu, D.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.


    Understanding hydrological processes in the arctic region and their variation are emerging and important issues in the association with global climate changes. Solid precipitation is particularly important because it plays a major role in controlling the winter hydrological cycle and spring discharge. Nevertheless, observations of winter snowfall in high latitudes is challenging due to sharply decreasing numbers of precipitation gauges and gauge measurement biases. In addition, conventional satellite methods that work well in low-latitudes are unsuitable for the high latitude conditions. In this study, we present a new method of estimating winter snowfall in the arctic region with GRACE time varying gravity measurements. In northern high latitudes, it is very cold in winter, and thus solid precipitation accumulates with very limited melting and evapotranspiration. Therefore, observed gravity increments during winter mainly result from solid precipitation. We estimate amount of solid precipitation during winter (DJF) from four major arctic basins, Mackenzie, Lena, Yenisei and Ob. New estimates using satellite gravity are compared to global satellite and reanalysis precipitation products , which are GPCP, CMAP, NCEP/NCAR, ECMWF and JCDAS. GRACE-based estimates of snowfall are very close to those of CMAP, ECMWF and JCDAS. We extend the methodology to examine spatial distribution of solid precipitation in the pan-arctic land areas, which shows a good agreement with JCDAS. This new measurement of solid precipitation can provide an altogether new form of observations for hydrological cycle research studies, model and precipitation product evaluation and data assimilation efforts.

  17. [Characteristics of Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Their Moisture Sources in Mengzi Region, Southern Yunnan]. (United States)

    Li, Guang; Zhang, Xin-ping; Xu, You-peng; Song, Song; Wang, Yue-feng; Ji, Xiao-min; Xiang, Jie; Yang, Jie


    The δD and δ¹⁸O values in precpitation have disciplinary variations, and they have close connections with meteorological parameters and moisture sources. Based on the continuously collected precipitation samples in Mengzi from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011, the reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), and the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory for 4.8 (HYSPLIT_4.8) model, we analyzed the variations of δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation at synoptic scale in Mengzi, and the relations between δ¹⁸O in precipitation and air temperature, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and amount, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and wind speed, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and moisture sources. The results showed that the variations of δD and δ¹⁸O values in precipitation exhibited remarkable seasonal variability. The stable isotopic values in precipitation were higher during dry season than those during wet season. The relations between δ¹⁸O in precipitation and air temperature, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and amount indicated significant negative correlations. However, it exhibited significant positive correlation between precipitation δ¹⁸O and wind speed at different pressure levels (300 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa, and 800 hPa), and this result indicated that the wind speed was an important influencing factor for the variations of precipitation δ¹⁸O. With the increasing rainfall levels, the intercept and slope of meteoric water line also increased, and this phenomenon suggested that there was a secondary evaporation effect under sub-cloud in stable isotopes of precipitation. The backward trajectory model showed that the main moisture sources during dry season came from the westerly and the inland. However, during wet season, the remote ocean vapor was the main moisture source in Mengzi, and the δ¹⁸O values in

  18. The new record of daily precipitation in Lisbon since 1864: diagnosis and impacts of an exceptional precipitation episode (United States)

    Fragoso, M.; Trigo, R. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Valente, M. A.


    On 18 February 2008 the city of Lisbon had its rainiest day on record, i.e. since the establishment of the D. Luís Observatory in 1853 (continuous observations of meteorological variables are only available since 1864). Fortunately a Portuguese funded project (SIGN) allowed to digitize all the data between 1864 and 1941, allowing a proper comparison with previous extreme events and also to compute more significant return periods. We can now state that a new absolute maximum of daily precipitation at this station occurred last 18 February, when 118.4 mm were registered, surpassing the previous maximum of 110.7 mm (observed on 5 December 1876). Interestingly, these record breaking characteristics were confined to the city of Lisbon, not being observed in rural and suburban neighborhoods, where the anterior maxima recorded in 26 November 1967 or 18 November 1983 were not achieved. In fact, this extreme event was relatively uncharacteristic when compared with typical extreme precipitation events in southern Portugal (Fragoso and Tildes Gomes, 2008). These extreme episodes tend to occur preferably in fall (late September until early December) and covering a wider area. In this work we present an extensive analysis of the large-scale and synoptic atmospheric circulation environment leading to this extreme rainstorm as well as the consequences, namely floods and landslides that produced relevant socio-economic impacts (including 4 casualties). This will be achieved through the characterization of the extreme precipitation episode, describing its temporal structure and the geographic incidence of the event and also assessing statistically the exceptionality of the daily rainfall. The study of the atmospheric context of the episode will be performed with Satellite and radar data, complemented by several large-scale fields obtained from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalyses dataset, including sea level pressure, 500 hPa Geopotential height, precipitation rate, CAPE index. FRAGOSO, M

  19. New progress of research on water cycle in atmosphere in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    New progresses are introduced briefly about the water cycle study on atmosphere of China made in recent years. The introduction includes eight aspects as follows: 1) precipitation characteristics, 2) stability of climatic system, 3) precipitation sensitive region, 4) regional evaporation and evapotranspiration, 5) water surface evaporation, 6) vegetation transpiration, 7) cloud physics, and 8) vapor source.

  20. Water Vapour Content of the Atmosphere in Relation to Surface Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar


    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between precipitate water vapour in the atmosphere & surface humidity has been investigated. By introducing the concept of a lapse parameter alpha, a method has been devised for estimation of precipitable water vapour. Results have been compared for six Indian Stations for which upper air data were available.

  1. On the Annual Cycle of Central South-West Asia precipitation in GCMs: an Analysis of AMIP Simulation Results (United States)

    Malik, K. M.; Taylor, P.; Szeto, K.


    This study evaluates simulations of precipitation patterns over the Central South-West Asia region (25-40N and 45-75E) by using results from the Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP). Annual and monthly spatial precipitation fields produced by a subset of 13 currently available AMIP model experiments are evaluated for the region and compared with GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre) monthly precipitation data for the period of 1979-2001. GPCC precipitation data are available with 0.5 degree resolution and correlate with observational precipitation data with a correlation factor of 0.953. The models show large variations in their ability to capture the seasonal precipitation, although spatial correlations indicate that some of the models simulate the pattern of GPCC precipitation fields fairly well. Some models cannot capture the convective precipitation in the region that occurs during spring (March-April) and fall (Sept-Oct). Relative to the GPCC data most of the models predicted well in winter whereas some models cannot adequately capture the summer (monsoon) precipitation which enters the domain from east. On the spatial scales of the selected region, there is little consistent evidence that points to any specific feature as an indicator of model performance. None of the obvious candidates such as horizontal resolution, convective closure schemes, or land surface schemes are reliable discriminators of a models ability to simulate precipitation accurately. Horizontal resolution effects are apparent in the inter-mountain region, where high resolution models do better that low resolution models. However, there is not enough evidence to produce reliable simulation on this basis. Correlation coefficients of observed precipitation with model output can be improved by using ensemble averaged precipitation from several models.

  2. Optical Signatures of Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (Invited) (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Bortnik, J.; Lehtinen, N. G.


    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from an intense lightning discharge propagates primarily in the waveguide formed between the Earth and the ionosphere, but a fraction of its energy leaks through the ionosphere and propagates as whistler-mode waves in the inner magnetosphere. In the equatorial region, these whistlers cause pitch-angle and energy scattering of trapped energetic electrons, which may be scattered into the loss cone. On their subsequent bounce, these electrons will precipitate in the upper atmosphere, causing new ionization and optical emissions. The resulting ionization increase has been measured for decades as lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) events, but the optical signature has never been studied. We present model calculations to predict the intensity of these optical emissions in a number of bands and lines, including the 5577 Å and 6300 Å lines of Oxygen, and the N2 1P and N2+ 1N band systems of Nitrogen. This modeling effort involves a four-step procedure: first, the lightning impulse is ray-traced through the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and calculations of the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial region result in estimates of the precipitated flux of electrons. Next, a Monte Carlo simulation of this flux is used to determine altitude profiles of deposited energy. Third, this deposited energy is converted to altitude profiles of ionization and optical emissions; and finally, line-of-sight integration to ground- or space-based observers yields estimates of observable brightness. We find that the predicted emissions may reach as high as ~50 R in the green 5577 Å line for a 100 kA cloud-to-ground discharge, and should be observable with photometric instruments. We compare these results to those of VLF transmitter-induced precipitation, which is orders of magnitude weaker, but has the advantage of being a controllable experiment. We further investigate the effect of latitude, lightning peak current, and radiation belt and

  3. Temporal variability in a stochastic precipitation field simulator (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur


    The space-time statistics of short-term precipitation is studied for two cities in northern Europe, and related to radiosonde observations. The motivation is to construct the temporally varying parameters needed to drive a stochastic short-term precipitation generator. Moments, intermittency, semivariograms, temporal covariance and advection parameters need to be characterised in order to produce realistic scenario simulations for extreme value estimation at different scales. It is hoped that the temporal variability in these parameters can be related to radiosonde data. Hourly values from 46 precipitation stations within a 100*130 km2 region around Copenhagen during the period 1979-2012 is analysed. Bi-daily radiosonde profiles are present from 1969 to 2006. These soundings (vertical profiles of temperature, dew point and wind vector) describe the atmospheric moisture content and convective potential of the current weather situation. Preliminary analysis show that some of the indices extracted from the 12h radiosonde data show good temporal autocorrelation, supporting interpolation to match the 1-hour precipitation data. The precipitation data show a rapidly decreasing temporal autocorrelation function (typically below 0.5 above approx. 12 km), indicating that there is a high variance fraction below scales that the station network is able to reveal. The second data set consists of 7.5-minute C-band radar data from Trondheim, available from June 2013 to October 2015. During the 2014 and 2015 summer seasons, around 25 tipping-bucket precipitation gauges within a 15*20 km area supply observations with temporal resolution down to minute-scale. Nearby radiosonde data are available bi-daily from 1963 to 2015. These data will be explored to provide insight in high-frequency spatial and temporal variability not detectable from the long-term Copenhagen data set. The analysis is a part of the EU-7FP project "Pearl" (, Greve case study), the Norwegian

  4. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; XiuPing; WU; GuoXiong; ZHAO; BingKe; YU; YuBin; YANG; GuiMing


    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  5. Intrastorm Isotopic Variation in Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones (United States)

    Faiia, A. M.; Vishnevskiy, M.; Feng, X.; Posmentier, E. S.


    Variation of stable isotopes in precipitation has been used to understand the earth’s climate for many decades. Typically, these measurements are made on monthly or even annual accumulations of precipitation. Large intrastorm variation in isotopic ratio was observed during the very early days of isotopic research (Epstein, 1954), and the focus of a limited number of studies (e.g. Gedzelman and Lawrence, 1982; Lawrence et al, 1998; Coplen et al, 2008; Rao et al, 2008; Barras and Simmonds, 2009), but the mechanisms controlling this variation are not well characterized. Measuring isotopic variation on intrastorm timescales will allow for a better understanding of atmospheric and hydrologic processes occurring on the comparable scale both spatially and temporally. As an annual record of precipitation is made up of individual storms, it is important to understand what controls the variation. Although there is a correlation between temperature and isotopic ratios over yearly timescales at mid- to high-latitudes, that relationship is weak or breaks down on smaller timescales. Several studies have observed links between synoptic frontal systems and changes in the isotopic ratio of precipitation on daily or whole event timescales (Lawrence et al 1982; Gedzelman et al, 1997; Trebel et al 2005; Pang et al, 2006; Zhang et al, 2007; Price et al, 2008). This work intended to build on earlier understanding of within storm isotopic variations by extending both sampling and conceptual analysis to a larger number of storms collected over a nearly two-year period. Precipitation samples were collected in Hanover, NH every 0.16 inch of rain. Extremely large changes in the isotopic ratio are seen within the span of several hours. Variation within storms is as large as the seasonal variation observed. We have examined the frontal systems present during the storms to understand the causes of these isotopic shifts. Our analysis has shown that storms with the largest isotopic changes are

  6. Influence of sea ice cover on high latitude precipitation: Inferences from precipitation isotope measurements and a 2D model (United States)

    Posmentier, E. S.; Faiia, A.; Feng, X.; Michel, F. A.


    The most widely cited climate feedback in the Arctic region is ice cover. Warming climate reduces the sea ice extent, which causes a lower surface albedo, resulting in more absorbed insolation and further warming - a positive feedback. Conversely, warming is also likely to result in increased Arctic evaporation and precipitation, leading to increased snow cover and a higher Arctic terrestrial albedo, which would cause cooling - a negative feedback. The balance between these feedbacks must be understood and quantified in order to predict climate response to influences such as increased greenhouse gases. Here, we use measurements of high latitude precipitation isotopes and a 2D model to investigate interannual variability in the contributions of subtropical and Arctic vapor sources to Arctic precipitation. In a previous study, we used isotopic ratios alone to investigate the sources of moisture to the Arctic. We found significant positive relationships between ice area and the d-excess of precipitation on both interannual and seasonal timescales, an expected result under the assumption that sea ice prevents evaporation from the sea surface and consequently reduces the contribution of Arctic moisture with low d-excess values to Arctic precipitation. In this work, we go a step further with an attempt to estimate the influence of sea ice cover on Arctic evaporation using a 2D model and constraining it with high latitude isotopic measurements. The 2D model is a vertical-meridional mass conservation model for H2O, HDO, and H218O with prescribed atmospheric circulation and temperatures. For each isotope, the rates of surface evaporation, sublimation, precipitation, and reevaporation of falling hydrometeors are calculated, and values of the humidity and isotopic concentrations of both vapor and hydrometeors are computed interdependently with the four process rates.. The model fractionation associated with the four processes is based primarily on the work of Jouzel and

  7. Predictability of horizontal water vapor transport relative to precipitation: Enhancing situational awareness for forecasting western U.S. extreme precipitation and flooding (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Waliser, Duane E.; Ralph, F. Martin; Dettinger, Michael D.


    The western United States is vulnerable to socioeconomic disruption due to extreme winter precipitation and floods. Traditionally, forecasts of precipitation and river discharge provide the basis for preparations. Herein we show that earlier event awareness may be possible through use of horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) forecasts. Applying the potential predictability concept to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global ensemble reforecasts, across 31 winters, IVT is found to be more predictable than precipitation. IVT ensemble forecasts with the smallest spreads (least forecast uncertainty) are associated with initiation states with anomalously high geopotential heights south of Alaska, a setup conducive for anticyclonic conditions and weak IVT into the western United States. IVT ensemble forecasts with the greatest spreads (most forecast uncertainty) have initiation states with anomalously low geopotential heights south of Alaska and correspond to atmospheric rivers. The greater IVT predictability could provide warnings of impending storminess with additional lead times for hydrometeorological applications.

  8. Predictability of horizontal water vapor transport relative to precipitation: Enhancing situational awareness for forecasting western U.S. extreme precipitation and flooding (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Waliser, Duane E.; Ralph, F. Martin; Dettinger, Michael


    The western United States is vulnerable to socioeconomic disruption due to extreme winter precipitation and floods. Traditionally, forecasts of precipitation and river discharge provide the basis for preparations. Herein we show that earlier event awareness may be possible through use of horizontal water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) forecasts. Applying the potential predictability concept to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction global ensemble reforecasts, across 31 winters, IVT is found to be more predictable than precipitation. IVT ensemble forecasts with the smallest spreads (least forecast uncertainty) are associated with initiation states with anomalously high geopotential heights south of Alaska, a setup conducive for anticyclonic conditions and weak IVT into the western United States. IVT ensemble forecasts with the greatest spreads (most forecast uncertainty) have initiation states with anomalously low geopotential heights south of Alaska and correspond to atmospheric rivers. The greater IVT predictability could provide warnings of impending storminess with additional lead times for hydrometeorological applications.

  9. Mean Annual Precipitation in West-Central Nevada using the Precipitation-Zone Method (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains 1971-2000 mean annual precipitation estimates for west-central Nevada. This is a raster data set developed using the precipitation-zone...

  10. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation (United States)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne


    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  11. Integrated Precipitable Water Vapour Measurements At Polish Polar Station Hornsund From GPS Observations Verified By Aerological Techniques


    Kruczyk Michał; Liwosz Tomasz


    We present results of the comparison of integrated precipitable water measurements from GPS solution and aerological techniques: CIMEL-318 sun-photometer and radiosoundings (RAOB). Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) - important meteorological parameter is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions by known procedure for GPS station at Polish Polar Station, Hornsund (Svalbard). The relation between 2 m temperature and the mean temperature of atmosphere above, used to convert from wet part of tro...

  12. Geostationary Satellite Observation of Precipitable Water Vapor Using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) based Reconstruction Technique over Eastern China


    Man Sing Wong; Xiaomeng Jin; Zhizhao Liu; Janet Elizabeth Nichol; Shirong Ye; Peng Jiang; Pak Wai Chan


    Water vapor, as one of the most important greenhouse gases, is crucial for both climate and atmospheric studies. Considering the high spatial and temporal variations of water vapor, a timely and accurate retrieval of precipitable water vapor (PWV) is urgently needed, but has long been constrained by data availability. Our study derived the vertically integrated precipitable water vapor over eastern China using Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) data, which is in geostationary orbit ...

  13. Precipitated silica as flow regulator. (United States)

    Müller, Anne-Kathrin; Ruppel, Joanna; Drexel, Claus-Peter; Zimmermann, Ingfried


    Flow regulators are added to solid pharmaceutical formulations to improve the flow properties of the powder mixtures. The primary particles of the flow regulators exist in the form of huge agglomerates which are broken down into smaller aggregates during the blending process. These smaller aggregates adsorb at the surface of the solid's grains and thus diminish attractive Van-der-Waals-forces by increasing the roughness of the host's surface. In most cases amorphous silica is used as flow additive but material properties like particle size or bond strength influence the desagglomeration tendency of the agglomerates and thus the flow regulating potency of each silica. For some silica types we will show that the differences in their flow regulating potency are due to the rate and extent by which they are able to cover the surface of the host particles. Binary powder mixtures consisting of a pharmaceutical excipient and an added flow regulator were blended in a Turbula mixer for a defined period of time. As pharmaceutical excipient corn starch was used. The flow regulators were represented by a selection of amorphous silicon dioxide types like a commercial fumed silica and various types of SIPERNAT precipitated silica provided by Evonik-Degussa GmbH, Hanau, Germany. Flowability parameters of the mixtures were characterized by means of a tensile strength tester. The reduction of tensile strength with the blending time can be correlated with an increase in fragmentation of the flow regulator. PMID:18595668

  14. A Atmospheric Dispersion Model for the Sudbury, Ontario, Area. (United States)

    Huhn, Frank Jones


    A mathematical model was developed and tested to predict the relationship between sulphur oxide and trace metal emissions from smelters in the Sudbury, Ontario area, and atmospheric, precipitation, lake water and sediment chemistry. The model consists of atmospheric and lake chemistry portions. The atmospheric model is a Gaussian crosswind concentration distribution modification to a box model with a uniform vertical concentration gradient limited by a mixing height. In the near-field Briggs' plume rise and vertical dispersion terms are utilized. Oxidation, wet and dry deposition mechanisms are included to account for the gas, liquid and solid phases separately. Important improvements over existing models include (1) near- and far-field conditions treated in a single model; (2) direct linkage of crosswind dispersion to hourly meteorological observations; (3) utilization of maximum to minimum range of input parameters to realistically model the range of outputs; (4) direct linkage of the atmospheric model to a lake model. Precipitation chemistry as calculated by the atmospheric model is related to lake water and sediment chemistry utilizing a mass balance approach and assuming a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR) model to describe lake circulation. All inputs are atmospheric, modified by hydrology, soil chemistry and sedimentation. Model results were tested by comparison with existing atmospheric and precipitation chemistry measurements, supplemented with analyses of lake water and sediment chemistry collected in a field program. Eight pollutant species were selected for modeling: sulphur dioxide, sulphate ion, hydrogen ion, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and iron. The model effectively predicts precipitation chemistry within 150 km of Sudbury, with an average prediction to measurement ratio of 90 percent. Atmospheric concentrations are effectively predicted within 80 km, with an average prediction to measurement ratio of 81 percent. Lake chemistry predictions are

  15. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data


    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna


    We utilise ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions point...

  16. Impacts of extreme precipitation and seasonal changes in precipitation on plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. B. Zeppel


    Full Text Available The hydrological cycle is predicted to become more intense in future climates, with both larger precipitation events and longer times between events. Redistribution of precipitation may occur both within and across seasons, and the resulting wide fluctuations in soil water content may dramatically affect plants. Though these responses remain poorly understood, recent research in this emerging field suggests the effects of redistributed precipitation may differ from predictions based on previous drought studies. We review available studies on both extreme precipitation (redistribution within seasons and seasonal changes in precipitation (redistribution across seasons on grasslands and forests. Extreme precipitation differentially affected Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP, depending on whether extreme precipitation led to increased or decreased soil water content (SWC, which differed based on the current precipitation at the site. Specifically, studies to date reported that extreme precipitation decreased ANPP in mesic sites, but, conversely, increased ANPP in xeric sites, suggesting that plant available water is a key factor driving responses to extreme precipitation. Similarly, the effects of seasonal changes in precipitation on ANPP, phenology, and leaf and fruit development varied with the effect on SWC. Reductions in spring or summer generally had negative effects on plants, associated with reduced SWC, while subsequent reductions in autumn or winter had little effect on SWC or plants. Similarly, increased summer precipitation had a more dramatic impact on plants than winter increases in precipitation. The patterns of response suggest xeric biomes may respond positively to extreme precipitation, while comparatively mesic biomes may be more likely to be negatively affected. And, seasonal changes in precipitation during warm or dry seasons may have larger effects than changes during cool or wet seasons. Accordingly, responses to

  17. Forecasting and nowcasting process: A case study analysis of severe precipitation event in Athens, Greece (United States)

    Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Avgoustoglou, Euripides; Gofa, Flora; Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Kamberakis, Nikolaos


    An early warning process is the result of interplay between the forecasting and nowcasting interactions. Therefore, (1) an accurate measurement and prediction of the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall over an area and (2) the efficient and appropriate description of the catchment properties are important issues in atmospheric hazards (severe precipitation, flood, flash flood, etc.). In this paper, a forecasting and nowcasting analysis is presented, regarding a severe precipitation event that took place on September 21, 2015 in Athens, Greece. The severe precipitation caused a flash flood event at the suburbs of Athens, with significant impacts to the local society. Quantitative precipitation forecasts from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and from the COSMO.GR atmospheric model, including ensemble forecast of precipitation and probabilistic approaches are analyzed as tools in forecasting process. Satellite remote sensing data close and six hours prior to flash flood are presented, accompanied with radar products from Hellenic National Meteorological Service, illustrating the ability to depict the convection process.

  18. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tost


    Full Text Available The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (<10%, regional effects on O3 can reach ~20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  19. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld


    Full Text Available The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (3 can reach ≈20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  20. The biomass burning aerosol influence on precipitation over the Central Amazon: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Understanding the aerosol influence on clouds and precipitation is an important key to reduce uncertainties in simulations of climate change scenarios with regards to deforestation fires. Here, we associate rainfall characteristics obtained by an S-Band radar in the Amazon with in situ measurements of biomass burning aerosols for the entire year of 2009. The most important results were obtained during the dry semester (July–December. The results indicate that the aerosol influence on precipitating systems is modulated by the atmospheric instability degree. For stable atmospheres, the higher the aerosol concentration, the lower the precipitation over the region. On the other hand, for unstable cases, higher concentrations of particulate material are associated with more precipitation, elevated presence of ice and larger rain cells, which suggests an association with long lived systems. The results presented were statistically significant. However, due to the limitation imposed by the dataset used, some important features such as wet scavenging and droplet size distribution need further clarification. Regional climate model simulations in addition with new field campaigns could aggregate information to the aerosol/precipitation relationship.

  1. Equilibrium Model of Precipitation in Microalloyed Steels (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Thomas, Brian G.; O'Malley, Ron


    The formation of precipitates during thermal processing of microalloyed steels greatly influences their mechanical properties. Precipitation behavior varies with steel composition and temperature history and can lead to beneficial grain refinement or detrimental transverse surface cracks. This work presents an efficient computational model of equilibrium precipitation of oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides in steels, based on satisfying solubility limits including Wagner interaction between elements, mutual solubility between precipitates, and mass conservation of alloying elements. The model predicts the compositions and amounts of stable precipitates for multicomponent microalloyed steels in liquid, ferrite, and austenite phases at any temperature. The model is first validated by comparing with analytical solutions of simple cases, predictions using the commercial package JMat-PRO, and previous experimental observations. Then it is applied to track the evolution of precipitate amounts during continuous casting of two commercial steels (1004 LCAK and 1006Nb HSLA) at two different casting speeds. This model is easy to modify to incorporate other precipitates, or new thermodynamic data, and is a useful tool for equilibrium precipitation analysis.

  2. The trends of global tritium precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trends of global tritium precipitation from 1953 to 1979 were estimated based on the tritium data published in seven volumes of Environmental Isotope Data by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Tritium precipitation samples were collected from 342 stations in the world and tritium concentrations were measured by IAEA and 27 laboratories. Due to repeated atomospheric nuclear explosions, tritium precipitations showed maximum peak in 1963. After the agreement of the Partial Test Ban Treaty in 1964, they have gradually decreased until now showing seasonal variations. To obtain clear trends of tritium precipitations, seasonal and irregular factors were eliminated from the original time-series data using a code developed by the Japanese Economic Planning Agency. Results of analyses were as follows; a) Peak concentrations and precipitations of tritium were observed every year around the period of late spring to summer. b) The maximum annual tritium concentration and precipitation were observed in 1963 for northern hemisphere stations. c) A latitude effect was observed in the northern hemisphere. The maximum concentrations and precipitations were seen at the latitude of approximately 50 deg N. d) Continental stations always showed higher tritium concentrations and precipitations than comparable maritime stations. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-mei; REN Fu-min; LI Wei-jing; WANG Xiao-ling


    The spatio-temporal characteristics of typhoon precipitation over China are analyzed in this study. The results show that typhoon precipitation covers most of central-eastern China. Typhoon precipitation gradually decreases from the southeastern coastal regions to the northwestern mainland. The maximum annual typhoon precipitation exceeds 700 mm in central-eastern Taiwan and part of Hainan, while the minimum annual typhoon precipitation occurs in parts of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Sichuan, with values less than 10 mm. Generally, typhoons produce precipitation over China during April - December with a peak in August. The annual typhoon precipitation time series for observation stations are examined for long-term trends. The results show that decreasing trends exist in most of the stations from 1957 to 2004 and are statistically significant in parts of Taiwan, Hainan, coastal Southeast China and southern Northeast China. The anomaly of typhoon precipitation mainly results from that of the general circulation over Asia and the Walker Cell circulation over the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. Typhoon torrential rain is one of the extreme rainfall events in the southeastern coastal regions and parts of central mainland. In these regions, torrential rains are mostly caused by typhoons.

  4. Study of asphaltene precipitation by Calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Plantier, Frédéric; Bessières, David;


    of experiments showed that weak forces determine precipitation. Indeed, isothermal titration calorimetry could not detect any clear signal although this technique can detect low-energy transitions such as liquid-liquid equilibrium and rnicellization. The second series of tests proved that precipitation caused...

  5. Exploring the causes of rare extreme precipitation events (United States)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried


    -scale/long-term and regional/seasonal preconditioning that combine with specific local/short-term event conditions. In this initial study, we primarily examine precipitation records of daily to sub-hourly (10min) resolution of the ZAMG (National Weather Service of Austria) meteorological station network over the climate-sensitive southern Alpine region for the extended summer season (MJJAS). Precipitation events exceeding the 98th percentile threshold of commonly accepted PDFs are seen as to be potential REEs and are subject to deeper analysis to test our working hypothesis. For each event, the preconditioning is evaluated making use of extended climate and weather data (atmospheric analyses, synoptic observations), complemented by available extreme event reports from ZAMG. This approach overcomes limits of data-sparse statistics by systematically exploring the processes and uncertainties of REEs on a per-event basis. We find that identifying specific patterns of REE preconditioning and actual event conditions helps to understand extreme precipitation uncertainties and delivers also valuable information for evaluating climate model simulations.

  6. Oxygen-18 concentrations in recent precipitation and ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Tian, L.; Yao, T.; Schuster, P. F.; White, J. W. C.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Pendall, E.; Pu, J.; Yu, W.


    A detailed study of the climatic significance of δ18O in precipitation was completed on a 1500 km southwest-northeast transect of the Tibetan Plateau in central Asia. Precipitation samples were collected at four meteorological stations for up to 9 years. This study shows that the gradual impact of monsoon precipitation affects the spatial variation of δ18O-T relationship along the transect. Strong monsoon activity in the southern Tibetan Plateau results in high precipitation rates and more depleted heavy isotopes. This depletion mechanism is described as a precipitation "amount effect" and results in a poor δ18O-T relationship at both seasonal and annual scales. In the middle of the Tibetan Plateau, the effects of the monsoon are diminished but continue to cause a reduced correlation of δ18O and temperature at the annual scale. At the monthly scale, however, a significant δ18O-T relationship does exist. To the north of the Tibetan Plateau beyond the extent of the effects of monsoon precipitation, δ18O in precipitation shows a strong temperature dependence. δ18O records from two shallow ice cores and historic air temperature data were compared to verify the modern δ18O-T relationship. δ18O in Dunde ice core was positively correlated with air temperature from a nearby meteorological station in the north of the plateau. The δ18O variation in an ice core from the southern Plateau, however, was inversely correlated with precipitation amount at a nearby meteorological station and also the accumulation record in the ice core. The long-term variation of δ18O in the ice core record in the monsoon regions of the southern Tibetan Plateau suggest past monsoon seasons were probably more expansive. It is still unclear, however, how changes in large-scale atmosphere circulation might influence summer monsoon precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape? (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.


    Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation extremes and temperature in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation extreme with temperature, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low temperatures (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high temperatures (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling temperature (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with temperature. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation extremes.

  8. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain


    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  9. Classification of land-sea shifts in tropical precipitation using temperature and moisture change (United States)

    Lambert, Hugo; Ferraro, Angus; Chadwick, Robin


    Changes in tropical precipitation under climate change are dominated by shifts in precipitating features. Previous work has shown that meridional change is driven primiarily by the hemispheric contrast of surface temperature change and radiative forcing. What drives zonal changes is less clear, but important to understand because large shifts of precipitation onto and away from land have the potential to cause large changes in water availability. We present a simple compositing scheme based on earlier mean field theory that places climatological precipitation amounts into bins determined by surface temperature and humidity. When temperature and humidity change under climate change, shifts in precipitation are predicted as the location of the warmest and moistest regions changes. The prediction is successful in representing changes in the CMIP5 model mean and large aspects of changes in most of the individual CMIP5 models. Once the shifts are accounted for, we can more easily see how the result of well-known "thermodynamic" and "dynamic" changes in the atmosphere lead to the "rich-get-richer" paradigm wherein the most heavily precipitating bins increase their precipitation the most in a warmer climate. We emphasise that our method is a classification and not a prognostic theory: it shows us the extent to which temperature, moisture and precipitation change are linked. However, it is important not only because it demonstrates that these variables may represent a coupled problem, but also intriguingly, because there is a small group of models for which the method has no skill at all. This suggests that very different processes dominate shifts in precipitation there, giving a focus for future research.

  10. Influence of mid-latitude circulation on upper Indus basin precipitation: the explicit role of irrigation (United States)

    Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Saeed, Sajjad; Jacob, Daniela


    Since much of the flow of the Indus River originates in the Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains, an understanding of weather characteristics leading to precipitation over the region is essential for water resources management. This study examines the influence of upper level mid-latitude circulation on the summer precipitation over upper Indus basin (UIB). Using reanalysis data, a geopotential height index (GH) is defined at 200 hPa over central Asia, which has a significant correlation with the precipitation over UIB. GH has also shown significant correlation with the heat low (over Iran and Afghanistan and adjoining Pakistan), easterly shear of zonal winds (associated with central Asian high) and evapotranspiration (over UIB). It is argued that the geopotential height index has the potential to serve as a precursor for the precipitation over UIB. In order to assess the influence of irrigation on precipitation over UIB, a simplified irrigation scheme has been developed and applied to the regional climate model REMO. It has been shown that both versions of REMO (with and without irrigation) show significant correlations of GH with easterly wind shear and heat low. However contrary to reanalysis and the REMO version with irrigation, the REMO version without irrigation does not show any correlation between GH index and evapotranspiration as well as between geopotential height and precipitation over UIB, which is further confirmed by the quantitative analysis of extreme precipitation events over UIB. It is concluded that although atmospheric moisture over coastal Arabian sea region, triggered by wind shear and advected northward due to heat low, also contribute to the UIB precipitation. However for the availability of necessary moisture for precipitation over UIB, the major role is played by the evapotranspiration of water from irrigation. From the results it may also be inferred that the representation of irrigated water in climate models is unavoidable for

  11. Climate dynamics: a network-based approach for the analysis of global precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Scarsoglio

    Full Text Available Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological variables for defining the climate dynamics, but the spatial patterns of precipitation have not been fully investigated yet. The complex network theory, which provides a robust tool to investigate the statistical interdependence of many interacting elements, is used here to analyze the spatial dynamics of annual precipitation over seventy years (1941-2010. The precipitation network is built associating a node to a geographical region, which has a temporal distribution of precipitation, and identifying possible links among nodes through the correlation function. The precipitation network reveals significant spatial variability with barely connected regions, as Eastern China and Japan, and highly connected regions, such as the African Sahel, Eastern Australia and, to a lesser extent, Northern Europe. Sahel and Eastern Australia are remarkably dry regions, where low amounts of rainfall are uniformly distributed on continental scales and small-scale extreme events are rare. As a consequence, the precipitation gradient is low, making these regions well connected on a large spatial scale. On the contrary, the Asiatic South-East is often reached by extreme events such as monsoons, tropical cyclones and heat waves, which can all contribute to reduce the correlation to the short-range scale only. Some patterns emerging between mid-latitude and tropical regions suggest a possible impact of the propagation of planetary waves on precipitation at a global scale. Other links can be qualitatively associated to the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. To analyze the sensitivity of the network to the physical closeness of the nodes, short-term connections are broken. The African Sahel, Eastern Australia and Northern Europe regions again appear as the supernodes of the network, confirming furthermore their long-range connection structure. Almost all North-American and Asian nodes vanish, revealing that

  12. Climate dynamics: a network-based approach for the analysis of global precipitation. (United States)

    Scarsoglio, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    Precipitation is one of the most important meteorological variables for defining the climate dynamics, but the spatial patterns of precipitation have not been fully investigated yet. The complex network theory, which provides a robust tool to investigate the statistical interdependence of many interacting elements, is used here to analyze the spatial dynamics of annual precipitation over seventy years (1941-2010). The precipitation network is built associating a node to a geographical region, which has a temporal distribution of precipitation, and identifying possible links among nodes through the correlation function. The precipitation network reveals significant spatial variability with barely connected regions, as Eastern China and Japan, and highly connected regions, such as the African Sahel, Eastern Australia and, to a lesser extent, Northern Europe. Sahel and Eastern Australia are remarkably dry regions, where low amounts of rainfall are uniformly distributed on continental scales and small-scale extreme events are rare. As a consequence, the precipitation gradient is low, making these regions well connected on a large spatial scale. On the contrary, the Asiatic South-East is often reached by extreme events such as monsoons, tropical cyclones and heat waves, which can all contribute to reduce the correlation to the short-range scale only. Some patterns emerging between mid-latitude and tropical regions suggest a possible impact of the propagation of planetary waves on precipitation at a global scale. Other links can be qualitatively associated to the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. To analyze the sensitivity of the network to the physical closeness of the nodes, short-term connections are broken. The African Sahel, Eastern Australia and Northern Europe regions again appear as the supernodes of the network, confirming furthermore their long-range connection structure. Almost all North-American and Asian nodes vanish, revealing that extreme events can

  13. Optimising predictor domains for spatially coherent precipitation downscaling (United States)

    Radanovics, S.; Vidal, J.-P.; Sauquet, E.; Ben Daoud, A.; Bontron, G.


    Relationships between local precipitation (predictands) and large-scale circulation (predictors) are used for statistical downscaling purposes in various contexts, from medium-term forecasting to climate change impact studies. For hydrological purposes like flood forecasting, the downscaled precipitation spatial fields have furthermore to be coherent over possibly large basins. This thus first requires to know what predictor domain can be associated to the precipitation over each part of the studied basin. This study addresses this issue by identifying the optimum predictor domains over the whole of France, for a specific downscaling method based on a analogue approach and developed by Ben Daoud et al. (2011). The downscaling method used here is based on analogies on different variables: temperature, relative humidity, vertical velocity and geopotentials. The optimum predictor domain has been found to consist of the nearest grid cell for all variables except geopotentials (Ben Daoud et al., 2011). Moreover, geopotential domains have been found to be sensitive to the target location by Obled et al. (2002), and the present study thus focuses on optimizing the domains of this specific predictor over France. The predictor domains for geopotential at 500 hPa and 1000 hPa are optimised for 608 climatologically homogeneous zones in France using the ERA-40 reanalysis data for the large-scale predictors and local precipitation from the Safran near-surface atmospheric reanalysis (Vidal et al., 2010). The similarity of geopotential fields is measured by the Teweles and Wobus shape criterion. The predictive skill of different predictor domains for the different regions is tested with the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) for the 25 best analogue days found with the statistical downscaling method. Rectangular predictor domains of different sizes, shapes and locations are tested, and the one that leads to the smallest CRPS for the zone in question is retained. The

  14. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.


    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  15. Uncertainties in the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing and their impacts on regional and global hydrological simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decharme, B. [CETP-IPSL-CNRS, Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Douville, H. [Meteo-France, CNRM/GMGEC/UDC, Toulouse (France)


    The Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP) is an international initiative aimed at producing global data sets of soil wetness and energy and water fluxes by driving land surface models with state-of-the-art 1 by 1 atmospheric forcing and land surface parameters. It also provides a unique opportunity to develop and test land surface parameterizations at the global scale, using multi-year off-line simulations that are not affected by the systematic errors found in atmospheric models. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of the 10-year GSWP-2 atmospheric forcing remain questionable. A first comparison using the high-resolution Rhone-AGGregation (Rhone-AGG) database reveals that the baseline GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is drastically overestimated over the Rhone river basin. Hydrological simulations driven with each dataset and using the ISBA land surface model and the MODCOU river routing model are also compared. The simulated river discharges are validated against a dense network of river gauges and are generally less realistic when using the GSWP-2 instead of the Rhone-AGG precipitation forcing. Secondly, the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is compared with three alternative data sets (GPCP-2, CRU-2, CMAP) at the global scale. Moreover, the results of a global sensitivity study to the precipitation forcing conducted with six land surface models are shown. The TRIP river routing model is used to convert daily runoff from all models into river discharges, which are compared at 80 gauging stations distributed over the globe. In agreement with the regional evaluation, the results reveal that the baseline GSWP-2 precipitation forcing is generally overestimated over the mid and high latitudes, which implies systematic errors in the simulated discharges. This study reveals that the empirical wind corrections applied to the GSWP-2 precipitation forcing are exaggerated, whereas the GPCP satellite adjustments seem to be useful for simulating realistic annual mean river

  16. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbois, M. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique); Desalmand, F. (ed.) (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique)


    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: (1) Paleoclimatology, (2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, (3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, (4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, (5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  17. Global precipitations and climate change. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop reviewed the present status of knowledge concerning the past and present evolution of the distribution of precipitations at global scale, related to climate evolution at different time scales. This review was intended to assess the availability and quality of data which could help, through validation and initialization of model studies, to improve our understanding of the processes determining these precipitation changes. On another hand, the modelling specialists presented their actual use of precipitation data. Exchanges of views between the modelling and observing communities were thus made possible, leading to a set of recommendations for future studies. Sessions were then devoted to specific themes: 1) Paleoclimatology, 2) data collection, history and statistics, programmes, 3) methodologies and accuracy of large scale estimation of precipitation from conventional data, 4) estimation of precipitation from satellite data, 5) modelling studies. (orig.)

  18. Improving high-resolution quantitative precipitation estimation via fusion of multiple radar-based precipitation products (United States)

    Rafieeinasab, Arezoo; Norouzi, Amir; Seo, Dong-Jun; Nelson, Brian


    For monitoring and prediction of water-related hazards in urban areas such as flash flooding, high-resolution hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is necessary. Because of large sensitivity and scale dependence of rainfall-runoff models to errors in quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE), it is very important that the accuracy of QPE be improved in high-resolution hydrologic modeling to the greatest extent possible. With the availability of multiple radar-based precipitation products in many areas, one may now consider fusing them to produce more accurate high-resolution QPE for a wide spectrum of applications. In this work, we formulate and comparatively evaluate four relatively simple procedures for such fusion based on Fisher estimation and its conditional bias-penalized variant: Direct Estimation (DE), Bias Correction (BC), Reduced-Dimension Bias Correction (RBC) and Simple Estimation (SE). They are applied to fuse the Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) and radar-only Next Generation QPE (Q2) products at the 15-min 1-km resolution (Experiment 1), and the MPE and Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) QPE products at the 15-min 500-m resolution (Experiment 2). The resulting fused estimates are evaluated using the 15-min rain gauge observations from the City of Grand Prairie in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex (DFW) in north Texas. The main criterion used for evaluation is that the fused QPE improves over the ingredient QPEs at their native spatial resolutions, and that, at the higher resolution, the fused QPE improves not only over the ingredient higher-resolution QPE but also over the ingredient lower-resolution QPE trivially disaggregated using the ingredient high-resolution QPE. All four procedures assume that the ingredient QPEs are unbiased, which is not likely to hold true in reality even if real-time bias correction is in operation. To test robustness under more realistic conditions, the fusion procedures were evaluated with and

  19. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland (United States)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta


    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  20. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.


    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  1. Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices (United States)

    Deissler, R. G.


    The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.

  2. Probabilistic Precipitation Estimation with a Satellite Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer


    Full Text Available Satellite-based precipitation products have been shown to represent precipitation well over Nepal at monthly resolution, compared to ground-based stations. Here, we extend our analysis to the daily and subdaily timescales, which are relevant for mapping the hazards caused by storms as well as drought. We compared the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA 3B42RT product with individual stations and with the gridded APHRODITE product to evaluate its ability to retrieve different precipitation intensities. We find that 3B42RT, which is freely available in near real time, has reasonable correspondence with ground-based precipitation products on a daily timescale; rank correlation coefficients approach 0.6, almost as high as the retrospectively calibrated TMPA 3B42 product. We also find that higher-quality ground and satellite precipitation observations improve the correspondence between the two on the daily timescale, suggesting opportunities for improvement in satellite-based monitoring technology. Correlation of 3B42RT and 3B42 with station observations is lower on subdaily timescales, although the mean diurnal cycle of precipitation is roughly correct. We develop a probabilistic precipitation monitoring methodology that uses previous observations (climatology as well as 3B42RT as input to generate daily precipitation accumulation probability distributions at each 0.25° x 0.25° grid cell in Nepal and surrounding areas. We quantify the information gain associated with using 3B42RT in the probabilistic model instead of relying only on climatology and show that the quantitative precipitation estimates produced by this model are well calibrated compared to APHRODITE.

  3. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  4. Atmospheric dynamics of Earth-like tidally locked aquaplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Merlis, Timothy M


    We present simulations of atmospheres of Earth-like aquaplanets that are tidally locked to their star, that is, planets whose orbital period is equal to the rotation period about their spin axis, so that one side always faces the star and the other side is always dark. As extreme cases illustrating the effects of slow and rapid rotation, we consider planets with rotation periods equal to one current Earth year and one current Earth day. The dynamics responsible for the surface climate (e.g., winds, temperature, precipitation) and the general circulation of the atmosphere are discussed in light of existing theories of atmospheric circulations. For example, as expected from the increasing importance of Coriolis accelerations relative to inertial accelerations as the rotation rate increases, the winds are approximately isotropic and divergent at leading order in the slowly rotating atmosphere but are predominantly zonal and rotational in the rapidly rotating atmosphere. Free-atmospheric horizontal temperature va...

  5. Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations (United States)

    Poulsen, Christopher J.; Tabor, Clay; White, Joseph D.


    The percentage of oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere varied between 10% and 35% throughout the Phanerozoic. These changes have been linked to the evolution, radiation, and size of animals but have not been considered to affect climate. We conducted simulations showing that modulation of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), as a result of its contribution to atmospheric mass and density, influences the optical depth of the atmosphere. Under low pO2 and a reduced-density atmosphere, shortwave scattering by air molecules and clouds is less frequent, leading to a substantial increase in surface shortwave forcing. Through feedbacks involving latent heat fluxes to the atmosphere and marine stratus clouds, surface shortwave forcing drives increases in atmospheric water vapor and global precipitation, enhances greenhouse forcing, and raises global surface temperature. Our results implicate pO2 as an important factor in climate forcing throughout geologic time.

  6. Localized Detection of Frozen Precipitation Events and the Rain/Snow Transition (United States)

    Strachan, S.


    Frozen precipitation in the mid-latitudes and semi-arid environments frequently serves a crucial role in the annual water budget. Often occurring along elevational gradients, the rain/snow transition (or, "snow line") in mountain systems determines the amount of water which enters the system slowly during melt phases as opposed to rain which immediately infiltrates or runs off to lower elevations. This in turn influences the location and composition of ecological communities such as conifer forests, as well as timing and nature of the entire mountain block annual hydrologic cycle. Characterization of the rain/snow transition is becoming a priority in mountainous semi-arid regions, as increasing human populations and repeated drought episodes combine to create water shortages. Atmospheric conditions (temperature and relative humidity) which signal the rain/snow transition have been described, but variability within the conditions window can create error in estimating true areal cover of frozen versus liquid precipitation. In populated, flood-prone regions, radar installations specifically tuned to the detection of the "bright band" transition elevation can be deployed; however these cannot be permanently installed at remote, solar-power-dependent climate stations or with fine geographical scale. Characterization of current trends in rain/snow transition can be made using automated weather stations placed along the elevational gradient fielding sensors for high-frequency (e.g. 1-10 minute) measurement of air temperature, relative humidity, liquid precipitation, and precipitation mass. Visual validation of precipitation modes detected through automated means is performed using time-series records from digital cameras placed at each station. Refinements of geographically-explicit relationships of atmospheric conditions to precipitation mode can be made over time, as well as detection of seasonally-anomalous but eco-hydrologically-significant frozen precipitation events

  7. Assessing the diurnal cycle of precipitation in a multi-scale climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Pritchard


    Full Text Available A promising result that has emerged from the new Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF approach to atmospheric modeling is a global improvement in the daily timing of peak precipitation over the continents, which is suggestive of improved moist dynamics at diurnal timescales overall. We scrutinize the simulated seasonal composite diurnal cycle of precipitation in an MMF developed by the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP using a comprehensive suite of diurnal cycle diagnostics including traditional harmonic analysis, and non-traditional diagnostics such as the broadness of the peak precipitation in the mean summer day, reduced dimension transect analysis, and animations of the full spatial and temporal variability of the composite mean summer day. Precipitation in the MMF is evaluated against multi-satellite merged satellite data and a control simulation with a climate model that employs conventional cloud and boundary layer parameterizations. Our analysis highlights several improved features of the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the multi-scale climate model: It is less sinusoidal over the most energetic diurnal rainfall regimes, more horizontally inhomogeneous within continents and oceans, and more faithful to observed structural transitions in the composite diurnal cycle chronology straddling coastlines than the conventional climate model. A regional focus on North America links a seasonal summer dry bias over the continental United States in the CMMAP MMF at T42 resolution to its inability to capture diurnally propagating precipitation signals associated with organized convection in the lee of the Rockies. The chronology of precipitation events elsewhere in the vicinity of North America is improved in the MMF, especially over sea breeze circulation regions along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as over the entirety of the Gulf Stream. Comparison of the convective heating and moistening

  8. Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Shin, Sang-Ik; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Qinyu


    Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies was estimated from ensemble simulations of two atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with an array of idealized SST anomaly patch prescriptions. Consistent sensitivity patterns were obtained in both models. Sensitivity of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation to cooling in the East Pacific was much weaker than to that of the same magnitude in the local Indian-western Pacific, over which a meridional pattern of warm north and cold south was most instrumental in increasing ISM precipitation. This indicates that the strength of the ENSO-ISM relationship is due to the large-amplitude East Pacific SST anomaly rather than its sensitivity value. Sensitivity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), represented by the Yangtze-Huai River Valley (YHRV, also known as the meiyu-baiu front) precipitation, is non-uniform across the Indian Ocean basin. YHRV precipitation was most sensitive to warm SST anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, whereas the southern Indian Ocean had the opposite effect. This implies that the strengthened EASM in the post-Niño year is attributable mainly to warming of the northern Indian Ocean. The corresponding physical links between these SST anomaly patterns and ASM precipitation were also discussed. The relevance of sensitivity maps was justified by the high correlation between sensitivity-map-based reconstructed time series using observed SST anomaly patterns and actual precipitation series derived from ensemble-mean atmospheric GCM runs with time-varying global SST prescriptions during the same period. The correlation results indicated that sensitivity maps derived from patch experiments were far superior to those based on regression methods.

  9. Deposição do enxofre atmosférico no solo pelas precipitações pluviais e respostas de culturas à adubação sulfatada em sistema plantio direto Soil sulphur atmospheric depositions by pluvial precipitations and crops responses to sulfated fertilization in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dias Osório Filho


    Full Text Available Entre vários fatores que podem mascarar a ocorrência de respostas das plantas ao enxofre, destaca-se a deposição atmosférica via água da chuva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a quantidade de sulfato presente na água das chuvas e as respostas de diferentes culturas à adubação sulfatada. Foi utilizado um experimento instalado a campo, em 2002, sobre um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico, em sistema plantio direto, num esquema bifatorial com quatro doses de sulfato e duas sucessões de culturas. No período de julho de 2002 a dezembro de 2003, foram realizados três cultivos, aplicando-se as doses de 0, 15, 30 e 60kg de S-SO4-2 ha-1 no primeiro cultivo, 1/3 dessas doses no segundo cultivo e no terceiro não foi aplicado S-SO4-2. A partir de maio de 2004, foi avaliado mais um ciclo de três cultivos (aveia preta/feijoeiro/trigo e aveia preta/soja/canola, para os quais as doses de S-SO4-2 foram reaplicadas antes da implantação das culturas, exceto a da aveia preta. Durante o período de setembro de 2004 a novembro de 2005, quantificou-se o aporte de enxofre via água das chuvas. Somente o feijoeiro respondeu à aplicação de sulfato. A ausência de resposta das demais culturas pode estar relacionada com a deposição atmosférica pela água da chuva, cujo valor determinado foi de 3,2kg de enxofre ha-1 ano-1, e com a mineralização dos resíduos culturais, que devem ter sido suficientes para atender a demanda das plantas.Some factors, such as atmospheric sulphur deposition by rain, may mask the crops response to fertilizers containing sulphur. This experiment was carried out to study (a crop yields response to sulphur, and (b sulphur deposition by rain. An experiment was installed in 2002 Winter, and cultivated to three crops sequences until December 2003, with sulfate rate of 0, 15, 30, and 60kg ha-1 for the first crop, 1/3 rates for the second crop and nil on the third. From May 2004 to October 2005, it was cultivated two

  10. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  11. The 850 hPa relative vorticity centres of action for winter precipitation in the Greek area (United States)

    Bartzokas, A.; Lolis, C. J.; Metaxas, D. A.


    In this work, the relationship between atmospheric circulation over Europe and precipitation in Greece is studied during high winter (January-February). Specifically, the 850 hPa relative vorticity centres, affecting or related to precipitation in the various areas of Greece, are defined and the corresponding temporal variability of both parameters is examined. Factor analysis is first applied on both fields, in order to reduce the dimensionality of the original data sets. Canonical correlation analysis is then applied on the factor analysis results, in order to interrelate the two parameters. It is found that: (i) precipitation over western and northern Greece, the eastern Aegean islands and the western Turkish coasts is mainly controlled by vorticity over Italy and the Gulf of Genoa; (ii) southern Aegean Sea and Crete precipitation is controlled by relative vorticity west of Crete; and (iii) eastern mainland areas precipitation is significantly affected by a vorticity seesaw between Tunisia and the northern Aegean. The temporal variations of precipitation and relative vorticity parameters over the above areas show a precipitation reduction over most Greek stations, combined with enhanced anticyclonic activity over almost the whole Mediterranean during the late 1980s and the early 1990s, a period characterized by high North Atlantic oscillation index values. Finally, cluster analysis is applied on the factor scores time series of precipitation, in order to classify the winter precipitation anomaly patterns into objectively defined clusters. Six main precipitation patterns were revealed and the corresponding relative vorticity mean anomaly regimes over southern Europe indicate the atmospheric circulation characteristics causing these specific patterns.

  12. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G


    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

  13. Polarimetric methods for remote sensing of the atmosphere: estimation of the dropsize distribution of precipitation and estimation of the rainrate in different polarization bases; Polarimetrische Methoden der Fernerkundung der Atmosphaere: Bestimmung der Tropfengroessedichteverteilung von Niederschlag und Bestimmung der Regenerate bei der Wahl unterschiedlicher Polarisationsbasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, K.


    This study reports on the potential of polarimetric information for the estimation of the dropsize distribution (DSD) of rain and for the estimation of rainrates. It discusses the data of several precipitation events recorded with the DLR weather radar in three different polarization bases (linear HV, linear {+-}45 , left/right circular) and compares the results for DSD and the rainrate estimated in these bases. This study gives an overview of different DSD functions and methods for rainrate estimation and provides furthermore the theoretical background for the representation of polarization states of plane waves and the theory of transforming the scattering properties of raindrops into other polarization bases. Detailed simulation and sensitivity studies enable the estimation of the influence of measurement errors on the results of the inverse scattering problem. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist es, das Potential zu untersuchen, das sich aus der Verwendung polarimetrischer Information fuer die Bestimmung der Tropfengroessedichteverteilung (DSD) von Regen und der Regenrate ergibt. Die Besonderheit liegt dabei auf dem Vergleich der Ergebnisse unterschiedlicher Polarisationsbasen. Es werden Daten unterschiedlicher Niederschlagssituation - aufgenommen mit dem DLR-Wetterradar in drei unterschiedlichen Polarisationsbasen (linear HV, linear {+-}45 , links/rechts zirkular) - diskutiert und die ermittelten DSDs und Regenraten der jeweiligen Polarisationsbasen miteinander verglichen. Die Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber verschiedene Ansaetze fuer die DSD und Methoden der Regenratenbestimmung und liefert darueber hinaus den theoretischen Hintergrund fuer die Repraesentation von Polarisationszustaenden ebener Wellen und fuer die Transformation der Streueigenschaft von Regentropfen in andere Polarisationsbasen. Detaillierte Simulationen und 'sensitivity studies' ermoeglichen die Abschaetzung des Einflusses von Messfehlern auf die Ergebnisse des inversen

  14. Decrease of atmospheric neutron counts observed during thunderstorms. (United States)

    Alekseenko, V; Arneodo, F; Bruno, G; Di Giovanni, A; Fulgione, W; Gromushkin, D; Shchegolev, O; Stenkin, Yu; Stepanov, V; Sulakov, V; Yashin, I


    We report here, in brief, some results of the observation and analysis of sporadic variations of atmospheric thermal neutron flux during thunderstorms. The results obtained with unshielded scintillation neutron detectors show a prominent flux decrease correlated with meteorological precipitations after a long dry period. No observations of neutron production during thunderstorms were reported during the three-year period of data recording. PMID:25860750

  15. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Project (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir; Carlisle, Candace


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GP!v1) mission is an international cooperative effort to advance the understanding of the physics of the Earth's water and energy cycle. Accurate and timely knowledge of global precipitation is essential for understanding the weather/climate/ecological system, for improving our ability to manage freshwater resources, and for predicting high-impact natural hazard events including floods, droughts, extreme weather events, and landslides. The GPM Core Observatory will be a reference standard to uniformly calibrate data from a constellation of spacecraft with passive microwave sensors. GPM is being developed under a partnership between the United States (US) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA). NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD is developing the Core Observatory, two GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) instruments, Ground Validation System and Precipitation Processing System for the GPM mission. JAXA will provide a Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) for installation on the Core satellite and launch services for the Core Observatory. The second GMI instrument will be flown on a partner-provided spacecraft. Other US agencies and international partners contribute to the GPM mission by providing precipitation measurements obtained from their own spacecraft and/or providing ground-based precipitation measurements to support ground validation activities. The Precipitation Processing System will provide standard data products for the mission.

  16. Delaying precipitation and lightning by air pollution over the Pearl River Delta. Part I: Observational analyses (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Lee, Seoung Soo; Wang, Fu; Li, Zhanqing; Zhai, Panmao; Liu, Huan; Lv, Weitao; Yao, Wen; Li, Xiaowen


    The radiative and microphysical effects of aerosols can affect the development of convective clouds. The objective of this study is to reveal if the overall aerosol effects have any discernible impact on the diurnal variations in precipitation and lightning by means of both observational analysis and modeling. As the first part of two companion studies, this paper is concerned with analyzing hourly PM10, precipitation, and lightning data collected during the summers of 2008-2012 in the Pearl River Delta region. Daily PM10 data were categorized as clean, medium, or polluted so that any differences in the diurnal variations in precipitation and lightning could be examined. Heavy precipitation and lightning were found to occur more frequently later in the day under polluted conditions than under clean conditions. Analyses of the diurnal variations in several meteorological factors such as air temperature, vertical velocity, and wind speed were also performed. They suggest that the influence of aerosol radiative and microphysical effects serve to suppress and enhance convective activities, respectively. Under heavy pollution conditions, the reduction in solar radiation reaching the surface delays the occurrence of strong convection and postpones heavy precipitation to late in the day when the aerosol invigoration effect more likely comes into play. Although the effect of aerosol particles can be discernible on the heavy precipitation through the daytime, the influence of concurrent atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics cannot be ruled out.

  17. A quantitative assessment of precipitation associated with the ITCZ in the CMIP5 GCM simulations (United States)

    Stanfield, Ryan E.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Su, Hui; Donner, Leo; Rotstayn, Leon; Wu, Tongwen; Cole, Jason; Shindo, Eiki


    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report, the broad-scale features of precipitation as simulated by Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are in modest agreement with observations, however, large systematic errors are found in the Tropics. In this study, a new algorithm has been developed to define the North Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) through several metrics, including: the centerline position of the ITCZ, the width of the ITCZ, and the magnitude of precipitation along the defined ITCZ. These metrics provide a quantitative analysis of precipitation associated with the ITCZ over the equatorial northern Pacific. Results from 29 CMIP5 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) Global Circulation Model (GCM) runs are compared with Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations. Similarities and differences between the GCM simulations and observations are analyzed with the intent of quantifying magnitude-, location-, and width-based biases within the GCMs. Comparisons show that most of the GCMs tend to simulate a stronger, wider ITCZ shifted slightly northward compared to the ITCZ in GPCP and TRMM observations. Comparisons of CMIP and AMIP simulated precipitation using like-models were found to be nearly equally distributed, with roughly half of GCMs showing an increase (decrease) in precipitation when coupled (decoupled) from their respective ocean model. Further study is warranted to understand these differences.

  18. Long Term Ground Based Precipitation Data Analysis in California's 7 Climate Divisions: Spatial and Temporal Variability (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; El-Askary, H. M.; Rakovski, C.; Allai, M.


    California is an area of diverse topography and has what many scientists call a Mediterranean climate. Various precipitation patterns exist due to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which can cause abnormal precipitation or droughts. As temperature increases mainly due to the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere, it is rapidly changing the climate of not only California but the world. An increase in temperature is leading to droughts in certain areas as other areas are experiencing heavy rainfall/flooding. Droughts in return are providing a foundation for fires harming the ecosystem and nearby population. Various natural hazards can be induced due to the coupling effects from inconsistent precipitation patterns and vice versa. Using wavelets and ARIMA modeling, we were able to identify anomalies of high precipitation and droughts within California's 7 climate divisions using NOAA's hourly precipitation data from rain gauges and compared the results with modeled data, SOI, PDO, and AMO. The identification of anomalies can be used to compare and correct remote sensing measurements of precipitation and droughts.

  19. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO3-SO4-Br-CO3-SiO2-CO2-O2-H2O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the

  20. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner


    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment